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2, 2012

**Area targeting exercises
**

Problem 1. Area targets for heat exchangers in series or parallel The analysis presented in the notes for enthalpy interval assumes splitting of a stream with the larger flowing heat capacity and running the two heat exchangers in parallel. They could of course be run in series – exchange between streams 1 and 2 initially, and then between streams 1 and 4. Draw the temperature-enthalpy diagrams, and calculate the required areas using both the LMTD and ε-NTU methods. Does this give larger or smaller required areas? Alternatively, could we exchange between streams 1 and 4 first, and then 1 and 2? Stream 1 2 4 Initial temperature (°C) 30 150 150 Final temperature (°C) 140 95 95 Heat duty (kW) 22000 8250 13750 Flowing heat capacity 200 150 250

If all of Stream 1 first exchanges heat with Stream 2, then with Stream 4, the heat transferred initially would be 8250 kW and the intermediate temperature would be found as follows: 8250 Tint = = 200 × (Tint − 30 ) 71.25°C

Checking that this agrees with the required heat transfer of 13750 kW in the second heat exchanger: Q = 200 × (140 − 71.25) = 13750 kW

The temperature-enthalpy diagrams below show the hot and cold stream conditions in the two heat exchangers:

160°C

T

120°C

Th1 = 150°C

160°C

Ch =

15 0

k

W/K

T

120°C

Ch

Th2 = 95°C

/K 0 kW = 25

Th1 = 150°C Tc2 = 140°C

Th2 = 95°C 80°C Tc2 = 71.25°C 40°C 80°C

/K 0 kW = 20 C

c

Tc1 = 71.25°C 40°C

Tc1 = 30°C 0°C 0°C

C

W/K 200 k c=

8250 kW

13750 kW

75 1 − 0.Area targeting by the LMTD method – in heat exchanger 1: ∆Tlm = ∆Th − ∆Tc ∆T ln h ∆T c = 78.75 = 15.896 = 307 m 2 A2 = = = 2523 m 2 Total area = 2830 m2.75 − 65 78.375 and 0.75 ln 65 = 71.f.896°C U for the two heat exchangers was calculated in the notes as 0.75 10 ln 23.7675 × 150 = 0.375 = 0.655 13750 0.4583 NTU = = A1 = 1 − εC * 1 ln 1 − C* 1 − ε U 1 A1 Cmin 0. c. leading to A1 = Q1 U 1∆Tlm1 Q2 U 2 ∆Tlm 2 = 8250 0. respectively.7675 307 m 2 as above! .3429 kW m–2 K–1.) Area targeting by the ε-NTU method – for heat exchanger 1: ε = (Th1 − Th 2 ) (Th1 − Tc1 ) ∆Tmin = ∆Tmax = (150 − 95) (150 − 30) = = 0.75 1 1 − 0.3429 × 15.25 − 30 150 − 95 0.4583 C* = 71.75 Checking: C* = Cmin Cmax = 150 200 = 0.4583 × 0. 749 + 1365 = 2114 m2 previously.655°C and in HE2: ∆Tlm = ∆Th − ∆Tc ∆T ln h ∆T c = 10 − 23.375 × 71.75 ln = 1 − 0. but in the second much smaller. So operating the heat exchangers in series rather than in parallel would require larger heat exchangers – why? (Because the temperature driving forces in the first heat exchanger are larger.

75°C T 120°C Th1 = 150°C 15 0 K Ch = 200 kW/ Cc = Th2 = 95°C Tc1 = 98.8 ln 1 − 0. Of course. we could try to exchange heat between Streams 1 and 4 first. Then.25 0 .75°C Tc2 = 71.25) (150 − 71. because the intermediate temperature of 98. in (close enough) agreement with the LMTD method.8 NTU = A2 = 1 − εC * 1 ln 1 − C* 1 − ε 4. Note too that an NTU of 4.8730 = 4.8730 Cmin Cmax 200 250 C* = 150 − 95 140 − 71. From this it becomes evident that this arrangement would not be possible.8 and ε of 0.25°C /K kW 80°C 80°C 40°C Tc1 = 30°C 0°C C K kW/ 200 c= 40°C 0°C 13750 kW 8250 kW . then between Streams 1 and 2. Note that the larger area for HE2 arises from the larger heating duty and the much smaller temperature driving forces.3244 = U 2 A2 Cmin 2522 m 2 again.75°C is now too high to allow Stream 2 to be cooled to 95°C.75°C Checking that this agrees with the required heat transfer of 8250 kW in the second heat exchanger: Q = 200 × (140 − 98.8730. 160°C T 120°C Th1 = 150°C 160°C Ch Th2 = 95°C /K 0 kW = 25 Tc2 = 98.75) = 8250 kW The temperature-enthalpy diagrams below show the hot and cold stream conditions in the two heat exchangers. Looking at the Heggs chart.3244 × 200 = 0.3 is large and probably not economic.For HE2: ε = (Tc 2 − Tc1 ) (Th1 − Tc1 ) ∆Tmin = ∆Tmax = (140 − 71. for a C* of 0.3429 = 1 1 − 0.8 = = = 0 .8730 × 0. only a countercurrent (1) or cross-flow design (3) could achieve the required heat transfer. the heat transferred initially would be 13750 kW and the intermediate temperature would be: 13750 = Tint = 200 × (Tint − 30 ) 98.8 1 − 0.25) = = 0.

To find the others. Table 2. However. Then. then perform the energy balance across each interval. determine the average heat transfer coefficient and the area targets for each interval using both the LMTD and the e-NTU methods. This 750 kW is recovered from streams 1 and 2. Figure 2. use the Heggs chart to identify suitable heat exchanger designs for each interval. Cold 5. which are separated into five enthalpy intervals. Balanced composite curve for a four stream problem with only cold utility. Hot 2. Area targeting and identification of feasible heat exchanger designs Table 2. insert the stream data as illustrated below for streams 1 and 2.1 shows the balanced composite curves. hence the inlet hot stream temperature for enthalpy interval 1 is 70 + 750 15 = 120°C .8 1. Note that each enthalpy interval occurs at a change in slope for one of the two curves.6 0. Cold 4. . For example.Problem 2. the first kink in the cold composite curve occurs at a temperature of 40°C (the cooling water outlet temperature) and an accumulated duty of 750 kW (650 from the cooling water plus the 100 kW to bring stream 3 from 20 to 40°C). the corresponding temperature of the other stream must be found by interpolation.5 Film heat transfer coefficient –2 –1 (kW m K ) 0.5 1. Hot 3.1. This temperature is shown on the template below.1.4 0. Using the attached template.1 below presents stream data for a heat recovery network that requires only cold utility. Stream and hot and cold utility data. which have a combined heat capacity of 15 kW K–1 and come out at 70°C. at which point the temperature is easily determined (as it is the inlet or outlet temperature of one of the streams). Cooling water (C) 350 300 250 Temperature T ( C) o 200 150 100 50 0 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 Enthalpy H (kW) Figure 2. Stream Number and Type Supply temperature (°C) 340 180 20 100 20 Target temperature (°C) 70 70 220 260 40 Required heat transfer duty (kW) 1350 1100 1000 800 650 Heat Capacity Flowrate –1 (kW K ) 5 10 5 5 32.0 1. Steam (H) 6.

k Qi .772 2.12 76.6667 0.80 61.5 1 0.3.28 28.Template for calculating hot and cold stream duties in enthalpy intervals.9 Any except 10b Any except 10b .8571 0. h = 1.783 5 5 10 5 15 8.4a.4380 80. two cold and two utility streams.6 0. h = 0.5 750 750 750 250 250 375 375 400 1200 650 325 650 812.5 2.079 1.3380 0.75 0.8 260 220 160 100 4 CP = 32.3333 0.85 57. h = 0.4 40 20 3 C Total: 800 Total: 650 Enthalpy interval k Q ∑ hi i =1 i I ∑h j =1 J Qj j J Q Q ∑ hi + ∑ h j i =1 i j =1 j I Qk (kW) Uave (kW m–2 K–1) ∆Tlm (K) Area (m2) ε C* NTU Cmin (kW K–1) Area (m2) Heggs chart options 400 1200 650 325 812.79 61.5 200 600 600 300 750 Total: 2450 0.53 18. 7b?.3.2791 0.00 43.k hi Q j .k Qi .5 250 1125 1125 750 900 650 3325 1775 1075 1712.3077 0.7a.k hi Q j .83 Total Area: 2 192 m 0.3333 0.4 0.83 8. for two hot.k Q j .5 2 CP = 10.5 h=1 Total: - 200 600 200 100 250 Total: 1350 400 200 500 Total: 1100 300 300 300 100 Total: 1000 200 300 300 650 - 400 1200 400 200 500 250 125 312.12 76.5 250 1125 1125 750 900 CP = 5.9 1.k Qi .k hi H 1 2 3 4 C H 1 2 3 4 C Q ∑ hi i =1 i I ∑h j =1 J Qj j 340 300 180 140 120 70 1 CP = 5.6 CP = 5.83 Total Area: 2 192 m Any 1.7a.63 26. h = 0. k Hot stream temperature (°C) H 1 2 3 4 C Cold stream temperature (°C) Qi .k Q j .1805 0.4a.k Q j .63 26.k hi Qi .52 18.040 0.71 63.5 0.k hi Qi .k hi Q j .

The Heggs Chart: Asymptotic values of the maximum thermal effectiveness as NTU → ∞.Figure 5. for different heat exchanger types. .

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