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Name: ORJI, Joseph U Question 1

Process Design and Simulation Coursework 2012

I.D: 7636116

The PSRV fluid package was chosen to set up the process model of the separation process in Hysys because it is a modified version of Peng-Robinson which is better able to cope with slightly polar hydrocarbons like acetone [1]. Air and Acetone were selected as feed components to be separated. The model is as seen in Figure 1. The composition of the Vent Gas consisting of 0.8 and 0.2 mole fractions of air and acetone respectively were set [2]. The temperature, pressure and molar flow rate of the Vent Gas were also specified as well as the acetone condensing temperature. [2] A pressure drop of zero across the evaporator (acetone condenser) was assumed and specified. The material and energy balance of the whole

Figure 1: Hysys Simulation of Separation Process

separation process as seen in Table 1 was automatically computed by Hysys. Material Balance assumes mass in=mass out and can be represented mathematically as where xi is the composition of the streams A,B,C and A, B, C are the molar flows of the vent gas, the vapour and recovered liquid respectively. 0.8*50= (41.23*0.9699) + (8.769*0.013) 40=40 (Air) 0.2*50= (41.23*0.0301) + (8.77*0.9987) 10=10 (Acetone) The cooling duty across the evaporator is the difference between the heat flow in the cooled vent gas and the vent gas which is 403845 kJ/h.

Question 2 Refrigerant Condenser



Figure 2: Simplified Refrigeration Cycle Model


we assumed no pressure drop in both heat exchangers. the temperature leaving the refrigerant condenser should be 30˚C in order to maintain the minimum approach temperature of 5˚C as well.47 kW) to give 153. we thus obtain the sizes of the refrigerant condenser and evaporator to be 11. The pressure in and out of the compressor (as seen in Table 2) in the refrigeration cycle was calculated using Antoine Equation for propylene provided [2]: where P is in kPa. ηad=adiabatic efficiency (0. 2 .3. therefore the temperature of the refrigerant (propene) entering the evaporator should be -25˚C in order to maintain a minimum approach temperature of 5˚C. P is in kPa.85 m2 having calculated the duties previously as 112. Using the data provided in Table 3 and combining both equations above. The operating cost of the cooling water condenser per year was calculated using the economic data provided [4] as 153. The temperature of the refrigerant (propylene) leaving the reciprocating compressor was then estimated from [2] : ( ) where T is in K. C=229. Ideal work and actual work of the compressor are 24.32 m2 and 6.67 kW respectively. U is the overall heat transfer coefficient.6) (Assumed by rule of thumb).441 ( ) where H and C represents hot and cold streams respectively exchanging heat in counter-current flow. Thus Tout leaving the compressor is 92 ˚C (same as Tin into the Refrigerant condenser in the refrigeration cycle). T is in ˚C. Thus. The operating cost of the compressor per year was calculated using economic data 41.67 kW.40. Cooling water supply temperature and return temperature of 25˚C and 30˚C respectively exchanges heat with the refrigerant at the refrigerant condenser. and γ≈1. B=1614. A is the area and ∆Tlm is the log mean temperature difference across the heat exchanger.67 kW* Question 3 The size (area) of a heat exchanger can be calculated from Q=UA ∆Tlm where Q is the energy duty.47 kW respectively.88 kW and 41.2 kW and 153.4. As such. Enthalpy graph [4] * = £18. A=13.2 kW see Table 1). TH= absolute temperature at which heat is rejected (303 K).2 kW) and the actual work of the compressor (41. The temperature leaving the evaporator remains the same as that entering since the refrigerant only undergoes a phase change from saturated liquid to saturated vapour.860 [2] provided as  Cooling water condenser: The power of the condenser was calculated by adding the evaporator duty (112.The pressure drop across the evaporator and the refrigerant condenser was assumed to be zero. ∆Tlm =[ ] [4] Figure 3: Log mean temperature vs. TC= absolute temperature at which heat is taken (248 K).  Compressor: The compression work and hence the operating cost of the compressor can be calculated from the results presented in both tables 1 & 2 using the equations [3]: Wideal= ( ) and Wactual= where QC= cooling duty (112. Since.47kW* * = £29. The target temperature of the vent gas feed is -20. the pressure in and out of the exchangers can thus be deduced as well as seen in Table 2.

6240[7]. the cost of the evaporator was estimated to be £ 11. The cost of the evaporator was estimated using the power law since its area falls outside the boundary available which allows a cost of a similar equipment to be obtained if the size and cost of the other is known. The installed costs annualized and annualized capital costs were estimated to be £109.000W0. Vapour Revenue= 41. the cost of the compressor was estimated to be £ 198.000/year 3 . Cost of heat exchangers Since the size (area) of the refrigerant condenser falls within the bounds in Table 4 [6].093.23 Liquid Revenue =8.531 assuming a power n.45 where 30<W<450 kW. 2011) was calculated using the provided relation [2] 11.230 using the cost relation at corresponding parameters as seen in Table 4.163 using the relation ACCR=[ ] [13] where i and n are the interest rate (10%) and project life (10 years) provided [2].264 respectively by multiplying their respective costs by the annual capital charge ratio (ACCR). Question 4 The total revenue is the sum of the vapour and liquid product revenue. The Power law states =( ) [8] n Thus.47 kW. [1597. The total capital cost of investment was estimated using the [12] approach by Hand. 1958.CAPITAL INVESTMENT The cost relation Cequipment =a +b S [5] was used to determine the equipment cost by substituting the parameters found in Table 4 for the corresponding relevant equipment. Installed costs annualized and updated The 2007 capital cost estimates were updated to 2011 using the Marshall and Swift index below.59 [9] (typical for heat exchangers). *( ) [10] as seen in Table 5 The cost of installation can be obtained by multiplying the updated capital cost by Hand’s installation factors [11] typical for each of the equipment. its cost was calculated using the cost relation to be £ 15. Cost of Compressor The cost of the compressor (£.000+35.336 and £155. Cost of Separator The separator was estimated to cost £ 20.77 * *49990 *8000 * *8000 = £ 57.3 (Index in 2007)]. C= ∑ where factors fi is in the range 2-4.508. The mass of the carbon steel separator provided is approximately 2500kg [2]. The vapour and liquid revenue per year were calculated using the economic data plan provided [2] and the molar flows recovered.7 (Index in 4th quarter 2011) and 1373.504 using the conversion rate of $ 1 = £ 0. of 0.710/year = £ 3. Using the calculated compressor work of 41. The ACCR was calculated to be 0.

964 668.057 2.017.33 D 5 -20 153.0 18.967 685.565.5 8.662 811.71 17.871 0.907.783 748.149 0.2 23.102 628.49 112.7 123.333 1.435 3.529 0.300/year Therefore the annual profit is £2. Question 5 Table 6: Analysis of the economic performance for four other options Options Minimum Approach Temperature ˚C Acetone condensing temperature ˚C Refrigerant Condenser Q kW LMTD ˚C A(m2) Evaporator Q kW LMTD ˚C A(m2) Actual Compressor Work(kW) Total Operating Cost (£/y) Total Capital cost (£/y) Total annualised cost (£/y) Total Revenue (£/y) Profit (£/y) Payback Period (years) Discussion of results: In selecting which option was preferable. Raw Material Cost: 50 *331800 * *8000 = £ 464.520/year where 331800 kJ/kmol is the lower heating value (LHV) of the vent gas available in Hysys.6 57.093.302 658.710 2.33 E 7 0 91.12 21.13 13.562/year Payback period [15] = = =0.897.9 41.0 17.0 5.565.5 48.300 956.5 9.261 3.39 .where 49990 kJ/kmol is the lower heating value (LHV) of the vapour product available in Hysys.0 31.32 C 2 -30 174.180.9 23.2 36.897.901.565.5 9.449 0.76 96.853 3.10 14.180 2.879 610.562 3.4 6. 4 A 2 -10 120.511.149/year (taxes are ignored) The Total annualized cost (TAC) [13] = Fixed costs + Variable costs=Raw Material cost+ annualized capital cost + TOC Therefore the TAC is £668.9 19.5 44. The total operating cost (TOC) of the compressor and cooling water condenser (already calculated in Q2) = £48.710/year.540/year as calculated in Table 5.129 919.32 B 2 -20 148.1 50.3 9.5 21.0 24. it is important to consider the economic capital-energy trade-off of one option over the other.185 3. The annual profit/economic potential [14] =Total Revenue-Raw material cost-total operating costs-annualized capital cost.6 11.551. Therefore the total revenue is £ 3.2 73.2 15. Similarly the cost of the raw material was evaluated using the economic data plan [2] provided and the molar flow of the vent gas (raw material).912 0.57 14.7 22.781.1 13.2 17.33 years (4 months) The total capital cost is £952.709 1.710 2.3 112.

The vapour fraction of Streams 1&5 were assumed and specified to be zero while Stream 3 was assumed and set at exactly 1. The molar flow in stream 1 was initially set at 1 kmol/hr. The price of acetone needs to remain high to favour Option C. Option A gives a balance in terms of payback period and total annualized cost and as such is the best option. this invariably affects the total annualized cost as it tends to increase.  The payback period increases as minimum approach temperature decreases. The model of the process as seen in Figure 4 is a refrigeration cycle thus. Question 6 Figure 4: Hysys Simulation of the Refrigeration System The PSRV fluid package was used to set up the process model of the refrigeration process in Hysys for the same reason as in Question 1.12 kW (see table 6). Variable (Molar flow). The areas of the heat exchangers are proportional to their duties. Hysys automatically computed all the remaining stream information.At a constant minimum approach temperature of 2˚C. the temperature difference could be as a result of the assumption γ≈1. The polytrophic (isentropic) efficiency of the compressor was set at 75% [2]. However. Streams 1&5 are equal. The simulation was done using Option E as the case study as seen in Table 6. Hysys automatically scaled up the molar flow to match the cooling duty. The temperatures of Stream 1&5 were set at 32˚C in order to maintain a minimum approach temperature of 7˚C. Option C gives the highest annualized cost and economic potential. Economic Evaluation: Option E gives the lowest annualized cost while Options A&B give the lowest payback period. the total annualized cost tends to increase. The pressure drop was assumed and set to be zero in both the evaporator and condenser. 5 .3 made while calculating the temperature out of the compressor as seen in Question 2. Options B.  The payback period increases as acetone condensing temperature decreases. The temperature of Stream 3 was specified as -7˚C for the same reason. [Adjusted Variable: Object (Stream 1).  The duties of the refrigerant condenser and compressor decrease as the minimum approach temperature decreases. C or D(base case) could be chosen if the economic potential and payback period were of major importance with Option C being slightly more profitable. Option E could be ruled out if a lower payback period is preferred.  The duties of the heat exchangers and compressor increase as the acetone condensing temperature decreases. The pressure in and out of the compressor and the compressor duty values computed by Hysys and the simple model are fairly the same as can be seen in Table 7. Likewise. An adjust was added to the model and the specified target value set at 73. Variable (Heat flow)]. Target Variable: Object (Vent Gas). At a constant acetone condensing temperature of -20˚C. Propene (refrigerant) was selected as the only component of the process stream.

pp 369 14 Smith.53 1151. The heat released from the condensation of acetone in the evaporator is absorbed by the refrigerant at its saturation temperature and pressure. http://www. R. Chemical Engineering Design.00 1738. Hot C3H8 is then cooled using the condenser.00 1151. 2012.engineeringresource.27 446. (2009). Saturated C3H8 vaporizes at 12˚C to be compressed.80 1158. The compressor increases the pressure and temperature of C3H8. pp 315 13 Gavin Towler. (2011). (2009). pp 307 9 Holland. R.70 1151. 2012. S. Chemical Process Design and Process Integration.A. S.72 0.00 -10.53 1216. Chemical Engineering Design. R. John Wiley & Sons Ltd pp 35 5 Gavin Towler.80 1158. F. S. pp 313-314 7 th Retrieved April 11. from Anonymous Economic indicators http://search. R.00 11 Gavin Towler.00 580.00 It requires a total annualized cost of £628.80 100.73 1292.K. The initial capital is repayable after approximately 4 months.00 -12.54 27. The liquid product was assumed to be 100% acetone as little traces of air were neglected. 2012.53 1151.00 580. from Exchange rates for 2011(Average of 4 quarter) from Chemical Process Design and Process Integration. pp 378 6 .00 445. F. pp 319 6 Gavin Towler. (2005).08 1157. Chemical Engineering Design. Elsevier Inc. As can be seen in Table 6.00 1738. (2009).xrates. J.53 398. John Wiley & Sons Ltd pp 29 15 Gavin Towler. R. thus reducing the pressure as the temperature returns back to -12˚C. R. Chemical Engineering Design. (2005).662 per year. S.80 100.53 1151.proquest. Chemical Process Design and Process Integration.Question 7 Line 5 in Figure 5 is the feed (Vent gas) which is cooled from 40˚C to -10˚C and further separated into vapour and liquid products. John Wiley & Sons Ltd pp 27 4 Smith.A. Flow kg/hr Line no Stream component Acetone Air C3H8 kg/hr kg/hr kg/hr Table 8: Stream Table of the refrigeration system and the separation process 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 C3H8 C3H8 C3H8 C3H8 Vent Gas Cooled Vapour Recovered Vent Gas Liquid 1151. pp 314 12 Gavin Towler.00 100. & Wilkinson.80 100. S. R. Elsevier Inc.html 8 Gavin Towler.00 -10. Option A is the best condition under the set of conditions. (2005). Chemical Engineering Design. Chemical Engineering Design.53 1151. Chemical Engineering Design. Elsevier Inc.185 and operating cost of £31. (2009). Perry’s Handbook 6th edition 1984 10 Retrieved April 11. S.00 40.00 -10.00 Total kg/hr Pressure kPa Temperature ˚C References 1 Retrieved April 11. Figure 5: Overall Process flow diagram (PFD) of the refrigeration system and separation process based on Option A C3H8 is then allowed to expand.53 1216. Cycle 1-4-1 represents the refrigeration system using propene (C3H8) as the refrigerant. R.53 398. Elsevier Inc. Elsevier Inc.00 1151. S.54 49. Elsevier Inc. Watson.pptx 2 Coursework Hand-out (2012) by Dr Megan Jobson 3 Smith. (2009). R. (2011). Elsevier Inc. R.