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EG2570 Engineering Design and Practice

ELECTROMECHANICAL DRIVE SYSTEM - GEAR RATIO SELECTION USING THE MATLAB SOFTWARE PACKAGE Location: Monday, Thursday, Friday G012 1. INTRODUCTION
In its simplest form, a drive system will consist of something to be driven - a load - and something to do the driving - a source of motive power or prime mover. In an electromechanical drive system the prime mover will usually be an electric motor of some kind. This design exercise is concerned with an examination of the factors which might affect the determination of a suitable gear ratio to enable a selected prime mover to meet the demands imposed by a predefined load. The exercise comprises three parts: i) firstly, a check that the selected prime mover is suitable for the proposed application. This will be done by checking to see that the prime mover can deliver sufficient POWER to meet the demands of the load. Note that the gearbox does not alter the POWER available, only the TORQUE. ii) secondly, the determination of a suitable gear ratio. This will be done by solving the problem algebraically and be verified and graphically displayed by a MATLAB programme. iii) thirdly, a check to ensure that, over the complete range of load speeds, the drive torque available exceeds the maximum load torque demand. The three main objectives of these exercises are: 1) to provide experience in forming quadratic equations, their solution and their use to produce characteristic curves suitable for component matching; 2) to give awareness of the communication requirements of the graphical presentation of results; 3) to develop skills in using the MATLAB programme to solve engineering problems. Reporting The reporting of this exercise will be IMMEDIATE. Keep a note in your logbook of your algebraic solution and the MATLAB programme you write to verify your solution and to portray it graphically. Either sketch or print out the key figures your programme produces. Include your FINAL SELECTION and the reasoning you used to justify it. ASSESSMENT The exercise will be ASSESSED DURING THE SECOND SESSION on the basis of your logbook and your group’s oral report on your selection decision (This will take place at the end of the second session). Therefore you must keep notes in your logbook as the exercise proceeds.

2.

GENERAL ARRANGEMENT

A schematic diagram of the proposed drive arrangement is shown in Figure 1.

JM
Motor

JL
Gearbox
Figure 1 Proposed Drive Arrangement

Load

1

From these it also follows that θm = αm and that θl = αl. essentially the relationships between the various torques and the resulting angular motions. Tm and the torque imposed by the load .3.4 2 . Note that θm = ωm and ωm = αm and that θl = ωl and ωl = αl . referred to the gearbox input shaft. Also.3 or Equation 3. Firstly we have the torque developed by the motor motor torque.2. For the load shaft the corresponding variables are θl . Note that the x-axis of Figure 1 can be used to denote values of the gear ratio N by dividing the range of ωm through by ωlmax since under worst operating conditions ωm = Nωlmax.or driven .2. TS and a viscous friction torque.ωm = Nωl . and any value of excitation voltage. ωl . αm = Nαl 3.or driving . Note the graph is of the form T= mωm + C where m is the line gradient and C is the crossover point on the y-axis. angular velocity and angular acceleration of the motor (gearbox input) and the load (gearbox output) shafts. referred. Thus for any value of motor speed.2.1 The term (J1 + N2Jm ) is called the effective inertia. Tl. Pl . to the gearbox output . For the motor shaft we denote these by θm. T l The load torque is made up of several components.1 General Definitions and Relationships We are concerned here only with the mechanical aspects of the drive system. respectively. the corresponding value of the motor torque Tm. required to drive the load can be expressed as: & & Tl = J l + N 2 J m θ&l + fθ l + Ts ( ) Equation 3. The characteristics are given for a series of different values of excitation voltage.2 Load Torque and Power With these basic definitions and relationships established we can now begin to derive the equations of motion for the drive system. in this case. The variables of interest to describe the angular motion of the drive system are the angular displacement. Thus the equation which gives the torque. can be calculated by multiplying the load torque by the angular velocity of the load. Pm at this speed is given by: Pm = Tmωm Pm = Tm Nωl.3 Motor Torque and Power The torque available from the motor is obtained from the motor torque-speed characteristics given in Figure 2.load torque. ωm and αm respectively. expressed in terms of the load speed.shaft then the effective inertia would be (J1 /N 2 + Jm ). We begin by noting the various torques acting on the drive system.2.2 3. TV . ANALYSIS OF THE DRIVE SYSTEM 3.shaft. a static friction torque. ωm. We shall do this by considering the two shafts independently.ωl and αl . EC . Equation 3. Thus Pl = Tl ωl Equation 3. because of the kinematic relationship for the gearbox. θm = Nθl . The power absorbed by the load. can be obtained. If the corresponding analysis is carried out referring everything to the gearbox input . The power developed by the motor. EC .

Maximum output shaft velocity. DESIGN PROCEDURE The exercise is a MATLAB exercise as well as an analysis of an electromechanical drive system. Remember to comment the m-files to indicate what is happening.1 Motor Data Motor inertia.12 x 10-2 9.e.3. αlmax 1. Jm Motor torque.2 Load Data Load inertia.e.003 Motor Torque (Nm) 0. A failure to meet either of these conditions would mean that the motor was unsuitable for the intended application and that a different motor would have to be selected. 3 . i. In addition to producing an algebraic solution the lab requires m-files (batch files for MATLAB) to be written to solve the problems and make the appropriate plots.55 X 10-9 100 10 kgm2 Nm Nms/rad rpm rad/s2 5. f.3 x 10-3 2. In the design procedure that follows a variety of tasks are to be accomplished. The mfiles and plots should be included as part of your logbook.001 EC = 0V 150 300 450 600 Motor speed (rad/s) Figure 2 Torque-Speed Characteristics for AC Servomotor 4. and (ii) the motor must be capable of providing a driving torque in excess of that required by the load. i. Ts Viscous friction coefficient. Pmmax > Plmax where Pmmax is the maximum motor output power and Plmax is the maximum power demand of the load.002 1. Tm 0. 4.004 EC = 115V (max) 0. Jl Static friction torque. kgm 2 0.4 Compatibility Requirements If the motor is to be capable of driving the load then two conditions must be satisfied: (i) the motor must be capable of delivering sufficient power to meet the power demand of the load. COMPONENT DATA 4.3 x 10-7 see Figure 2. ωlmax Maximum output shaft acceleration. NTm > Tl .

Calculate Tm from equation you have derived in step 1.2. Consider gear ratio N between 0. 3.5 rad/sec and 11 rad/sec and define a vector with 0. 11) This is an easy stair type 3D plot so that feasible gear ratios N could be designated.5 to 11 define a vector with 0.1 calculate the load torque from the & equation Tl = fθ l + Ts use the load data in 4. Note: Apart from the two program above .Since it may be difficult to designate the region in which Td>TL by this plot you can write second program which is similar with the first such as: Second program Drive the equation of a line which gives the Tm motor torque versus ωlm motor angular velocity only in maximum voltage 115 V by using the parameters in figure 2.2 spacing between elements. 5.2 spacing between elements.2.Calculate Tm from equation you have derived in step 1. . how these feasible gear ratios could be explained and justified via the equations in pages 1-3 and record your ideas it in your log books. 10) By using the command mesh in MATLAB plot the conf you have created in step 9. 10.By using the commands for and end in MATLAB store the Td and TL in all 1050 cases that are created in steps 2 and 3. & Since in steady state θ&l = 0 then according to equation 3. by looking at “ones” or top stair.5 spacing between elements. 4 .5 to 11 define a vector with 0. your efforts in responding to the bolded instructions 12 and 13 determines quality of your report.Necessary steps to prepare an initial MATLAB file for EG2570 gearing system First program 1. 4.By using the command mesh in MATLAB plot the Td and TL you have stored in step 8.Drive the equation of a line which gives the Tm motor torque versus ωlm motor angular velocity only in maximum voltage 115 V by using the parameters in figure 2. Since ωlmax is 100 rpm consider ωl between 0.Consider gear ratio N between 0.Since ωlmax is 100 rpm consider ωl between 0.Calculate the ωlm via gear ratio N.5 spacing between elements. 13) Discuss in your group about the implementation of the constraint in page 3 which quotes ”Maximum output shaft acceleration. 9. 2.Calculate the drive torque Td via gear ration N.2 8. 12) Discuss in your group about. 6.Since in steady state θ&l = 0 then according to equation 3. Calculate the drive torque Td via gear ration N.1 calculate the load torque from the 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) & equation Tl = fθ l + Ts use the load data in 4.2 8) By using the commands for and end in MATLAB store the Td and TL in all 1050 cases that are created in steps 2 and 3. Calculate the ωlm via gear ratio N. & 7.5 rad/sec and 11 rad/sec and define a vector with 0. αlmax 10 rad/s2 “ and suggest the feasible gear ratios in this case and record all your ideas in your log books. 9) By using the commands if and else and end in MATLAB create a confirmation matrix conf so that if Td > TL returns ‘1’ otherwise returns ‘0’.