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readtheworksof Rudolf she Dreikurs. {Motivation Management).TU At the endof herfirstyearofteachingthird-grade teacher SaraPrabhu spenta fewdays reflecting whatshewanted do differently nextyear. useknowledge abouthumanbehavior drawnfrom the research Adler. however. students turned cards astheyviolated classroom rules.82 PART I Classroon Management as Discipline uolP. JA}LA. evaluate research concerning useof consequencesan alternative tradithe as to tionalpunishment. of Dreikurs. lunchroom the monitor told Sara had thata groupof herstudents failedto clean theirtableand had leftit too messy otherstudents use. . as During summer. in the . consethe quences became moresevere. Albert. for to Thinking of theappropriate logical consequence suchbehavior. wasdetermined finda classroom-management the plan Sara to that better herteaching fit styleand personal philosophy. and waiteduntilshemetwith the class Whenschoolbegan. .6LLret ^t . . sent students the for Sara the to to the to staff. run theclass agreed upona setof rules. Duringthe weeks cafeteria clean tableand to apologize the cafeteria that -a . Throughout each day. Sara wasfrusflawrvas tratedand feltthereweremanyflawsin her plan. t preservice Chapter prepares 5 teachers meetINTASC to standards (Student #2 Develop(Assessment). planrequired establishThis the mentof classroom rules andconsequences. #9 (Reflective ment). Afterusingthis modelfor a year. Dreikurs's model madesense her. understand basic the principles Logical of Consequences. were or for Because Sara sawlittleconnection the between behavior the consequence. no because consequences wereto be based the behavior on the motive themisbehavior. students wouldseethe relationship between theirbehavior theirpunishment. on to the Although planned she to change physical the setupof herclassroom revise and several herteaching of strategies. on and for A few daysintotheterm. the areashefelt that needed mostimprovement herclassroom-management the was plan. of classroom Aftera discussion whatwouldmake theirclassroom smoothlv. WhenSara began teaching adopted discipline hercooperating she plan the teacher hadusedduringSara's student-teaching experience. lntrigued. Sara before developing the rules. readnumerous She booksand management finally and foundan article written theearly1970s articles classroom on in on the useof logical conseguences. Theyestablished consequences. learn strategies applying for natural logical and consequences classroom.Themostcritical thatthe consequences not tiedto the misbehavior the motive the misbehavior. #5 and #B Practitioner) and by helping themto . and Nelsen develop to strategies classroom for management. was and she sureher students failedto seethe connection well. understand motives student the for behavior. . feltcertain by usinglogical tied She that her consequences. moreandmorecards As wereturned.because consequence misbehavior to the for was directly to themisbehavior.

I hate this class. re. However. are Consider the following example. biased. knowing her classmates were staring at her. are that a student'sbehavioris a product ofthe student'sappraisaland perceptionofthe situation. Linda Albert and JaneNelsenhaveprovided a more current twist to Dreikurs's original theory. Today. Standingin front ofthe board. According to Adler. She kept her face to the board. Cynthia hated going to the board." She ran from the room before shecould learn that the classwas actuallylaughing at a late-arriving student who was trying to sneak into the classroomwithout being seenby the teacher. perbut ceptionsand assumptions reality and are thereforenot questioned. Every action of a studentis an endeavorto find a . to students. Then she heardlaughtercoming liom the back of the room. praying the answer would emerge.Becauseshewas overweight. in Many of the conceptsof Logical Consequences basedon the work of the Viennese are psychiatrist Alfred Adler ( 1958).Unlike behavioraltheorists.many teachers. teacherscan develop strategies handle particular problems. BecauseCynthia's ninth-gradeteacherasked studentsto work problems on the board. is Unfortunately.CHAPTER 5 Logical Consequences 83 followed. Sincethe late 1960sand I 970s.:: lrurnooucnoN The last chapterin Part I on classroommanagement discipline is basedon the original as work of Rudolf Dreikurs.is not just to control behavior but also to assist students taking responsibilityfor their actionsand behaviors. "I hate all of you. Logical Consequences. fbr Therefore. Adler's premise is that all people are social beings. Assuming the class was laughing at her. she turned and yelled. however. Adler suggested that students actively interactingwith the environmentand.a major focus of Logical Consequences to control studentbehavior while is helping students recognizethe consequences oftheir decisions.this appraisal often subjective.Albert (1996) and Nelsen (1987) stress that it is importantto understand why students behavein a particularway.understanding motivation in of the behindbehaviorshould not negatethe needfor appropriate consequences misbehavior. Adler did not see studentsas passivelyreactingto what is happeningto them. haveadoptedDreikurs'smodel. eachindividual act by a studentis goal-driven.Cynthia alwaysdreadedgoing to math class.shewas assigned problemthat shehadn't beenable to work the night bea fore. Through this understanding. Sara oftenhadto struggle find an appropriate to logical consequence each for misbehavior remained but confident students that werelearning fromtheconsequences rather thansimply feeling punished. like SaraPrabhu.The premise to behind Logical Consequences.or inaccurate. and the need to belong or to be acceptedis a basic human motivation. ExpandingDreikurs'sdisciplineconcepts. using the concept that the motivation and goals of student behavior must be considered the development a disciplineplan.she felt her face reddenas she struggledwith the problem. Logical Consequences represented shift from a behavioralfocus on disciplineto a more humanisticapa proach.who proposedthat all behaviorhas a purpose. When developed.evenmore irnportantly.

studentsdiscoverthat contributing to the welfare of the group is the best way to gain and maintain acceptance others.::. Revenge-seeking .84 PART I ClassroontManagenrcntus Discipline To use LogicalConsequences your classroom.this is not always the case. Teachers Students choosetheir behavior. Provideinterventionsbasedon the goal. that they have no power. Attention-seeking .When students not belong. Power-seeking . place in the social structureof the classroom. to Students misbehave achieveone of four soals. or that they cannot achieve. Perceptions and feelings become actions.. that they have been wronged. lmposea naturalor logicalconsequence when rulesare brokenor misbehavioroccurs. Evaluate goal of misbehavior determine it is the to if . in you will needto do the following things: 1.Albert (1996) and Nelsen(1987) stress . {l$#$Sh}ii. . in subconscious feel they do The decisionsthey make becomethe basisof their behaviors. GonI'sOF MISBEHAVIOR A student'sbehavior makessenseonly when the teacherunderstands reasonsbehind the the behavior.She suggested that somestudents than a physicalor learningdisability.students tail to understand what actions would help them to be acceptedby the class. havethe power to influence. and Glenn (2000) suggestthat studentsare always making decisionsbasedon their perceptionsof their experiences the classroom. The ultimategoal of studentbehavioris to fulfill the psychological and emotional needto belong. 4. . Nelsen.not control.Ideally. ultimately. Failure-avoiding 2. Lott.Unby fortunately.All too frequently. 3.In order to deal with the actions. havea choosingdisability rather studentchoices.Albert ( 1996)noted that teachers must understand the following: .they act out in order to return balanceto their lives. Buildcommunityin the classroom helpingstudents by connectto each other and to you. .in society.To help studentsfind their place in the classand.

CHAPTER5 Logical Consequences that teachersmust understandthe goals studentsare trying to achieveby their actions. or questionthe teacher'sability. Although all children want and needattention. This accuratelydescribesthe studentwho is power seeking. show-oft'.attentionseekingbecomesa problem when the goal is not to learn or to cooperate but to elevatethe personalpower of the student. they use it" (p. assertiveness. The attention-seeking a or studentwill constantlyask questions. Unfortunately. which can be redirectedinto more appropriate action. willing to acceptpunishment. Albert (1996) stresses that thesestudents of do have positivesharacteristics leadership ability. Older studentsoften have verbal tantrumsand use what Albert ( 1996)calls the "lawyer syndrome" in which they drill the teacher as if the teacher were on the witness stand. the classclown.They are "sneaky. 2.or racial prejudice(Albert. is imporit tant that the teachernot engagein a power struggle with the student."Young people don't lose their temper.In order to be noticed by the teacheror their peers. independent and thinking.Although the teacherand other studentsmay be the targetof a student'sangeror pain. of these not All behaviols are designedto keep the teacherand f'ellow studentsfocused on the attentionseekingstudent. . have a temper tantrum.[n this situation.Students often havethe mistaken idea that they haveself-worthonly when attentionis paid to them. being ignored is intolerable.the child may appearto be a model child and in some casesis the teacher'spet. Albert (1996) states. When the teachertries to stop or redirect one of these students. and humiliation.In the passivefbrm of attentionseeking. Some power-seekingstudentsare more passive. 3.a power struggle between the student and the teachercan ensue. lie. Albert (1996) notesthat thereis a silver lining to attention-seeking behaviorin that the studentwants a relationshipwith the teacher.and that revengewill make up for the lack of belonging. 4.so that the chilclgets attentionin a more appropriate manner. 1996). Therefore." with their words representingone thing and their actions another. the studentis trying to control the adult rather than get attention. for information. Attention seekingplays out in numerousways. such as a broken home.When no longer satisfied with small amounts of attention. Basedon Adler's original theory.Albert and Nelsen identity four studentgoals: l.but for attention. The power-seekingstudent wants to be the boss and will contradict.they are pain. Although the teachermay f'eel physically or professionallythreatened. the studentbecomesa nuisance. the demandfbr attention becomes strongerand stronger. some constructiveand some destructive. which in the studenthas decidedthat there is no way to acquirethe attentionor power desired. 4l).For thesechildren. To seekattention To gain power To seekrevengefor someperceivedinjustice To avoid failure t: 1 r The most common goal for childrenis attention seeking. Revenge-seeking behavioris the result of a long seriesof discouragements.Although powerseekingstudentscan be extremely fiustrating. the causeof this angerand pain may actually be the result of personalcircumstances. parentalunemployment.the teachercan redirectinappropriate behavior.

Students who feel beaten seek to retaliate. and Pepper (1982) describethese studentsas extremely discouragedand defeated.86 PART I CLassroctm Management as Discipline As a means maximizing of one-on-one withstudents. Revenge-seeking studentsknow what the teacherholds dear and do what it takesto violate those values. they provoke others to a point at which relationships with the teacherand classmatesare destroyed.The behavior of these studentsoften borders on the pathologicaland requiresintervention from professionals. because . themabouttheirweekend.it is important that teachersnot retaliate or become emotionally upset. ask welcome thembackif theyhavebeen absent .they withdraw. and becauseof this belief. each partof my classroom. They think that teachersand fellow students are unfair to them. and after a while.I have the the opportunity greetthemby name. in short. important With a student loadof 150teenagers.Colorado 2005 Colorado Teacherof the Year Revenge-seeking studentsthink everyoneis againstthem. disregard their feelings. Revenge-seekingstudents are so deeply discouragedthat they believe that only by hurting others can they find a place in the social atmosphere ofthe school. Therefore. to congratulate themon theirteam's the win nightbefore. Many harbor feelings that are manifested in violence toward themselvesor others. Failure-avoiding studentsexpect only failure and defeat. the teacher feels hurt.They may refuse to try. Dreikurs.acknowledge ofthem so thattheyknowtheyarean . time I make pointto stand a outside doorduringpassing my periods.is a very it efficient one-on-one connect I am a presence the hallway. They can be the victims of a bully. or they can becomethe bully. Only through an attitude of understandingand assistance can thesestudentsbe helped. and hurt them.they sit alone and shrug off attemptsby the teacherto help. these studentssimply give up. disappointment.Thesestudents often threatenteachers and classmates. Eventually. . Feeling they cannot either achieveacademicallyor find a place in the social structureof the class. Grunwald. and in whichthe administration appreciates! Kathy KoenekeHeavers Montrose High School Montrose. and dislike for the student. thestudents As enter room. They are convinced that no one likes them. Feeling personally attacked.

I don't understand he how to do this.CHAPTER LogicalCortsequences 5 87 . Although more teensdisplay the mistakengoal of power or revengethan youngerstudents. Finally. First.and beginshis work. Attention-seeking studentswill stop their annoying behaviorsfor a short time if they receiveattentionfrom the teacher. hoping to be left alone.the student'sdiscouragement contagious.the studentis displayingtailure avoidance. the teacherfeels irritatedor anlf noyed. ifthe teachert'eelsinadequately prepared help to the student.It is Power-seeking Garrettresponds loudly announcing. Brentner. says."Garrett. They are overly ambitious and l'earthey cannot do as well as they want to. They feel pressured parentsand teachersand incapableof meeting their by expectations. I don't needyour help. Albert (1996) notes that a studentwho is avoiding failure rarely distractsor disrupts the classroom. .Walking around the room to make sure everyoneunderstood her directions.The teachermay find it hard to determinewhetherthe studentcann()tdo the work or if the studentwill not do the work. the studentis left aloneto withdraw further from the teacherand other classmates.Placing her hand on Garrett's shoulder. you needto start to work. Consider the behavior of studentsin the following example: After Ms. They are competitiveand f'earthey can't do as well as othersdo." Attention-seeking Garrett looks up at Ms. Brentner'stouch and shouts.Ifthe teacheris hurt by the student'sbehavior." Foilure-ttt'ttidingGorrett keepshis head down and looks at the paperon his desk. Nelsen (1987) identified two clues to identifying mistakengoals. Unfortunately. the student'sgoal is to get attention. .The revenge-seekingstudent's misbehavior will intensify when the teacher attempts to stop the behavior. smiles. "Get your stinky handsoff me."I can't. Brentner gavethe directionsto the class. other factorsare at play as well.she allowed the classto start on their homework during the last fifteen minutes of class.the student is probably seekingrevenge.Instead.If the teacherfeels threatened. . Peerpressure extremelyimportant to is .the studentsleepsor daydreamsquietly throughoutthe class. teachers their reactionsto students' shouldevaluate misbehaviors. by the samestuff we did vesterdav. They fear they will fail if they try.and is soonthe teacherfeels helplessto reachthe student.she said.Speaking barelyabovea whisper. studentis the displayingpower-seeking behavior.she noticed Garrett staring off into space. Failure-avoiding studentsrefuse to respond and withdraw further. Whv do we have to do the samethins over and over again'?" Revettge-seeking Gatett violently jerks away from Ms. The secondclue is the child's respollse the teacher's to intervention. The power-seeking studentwill continue to misbehave and may verbally defy the teacher.Ofien." Nelsen(1987)notesthat it is much harderto discover goal for behaviorafier students the entertheir preteens. "This is stupid.

teachers needto understand goals of the students'behaviors.the teachercan provide a signal that indicatesthat TABLE5. the teachermust work the To to determinethe real issuesunderlying behavior. Crunwald.Table 5.1 further explainshow to determine thesegoals.Often these studentsare not aware of how annoying their antics have become and will try to correct their behavior when the teachertalks to them about the situation. do this. reinforcementshould occur only when these students are acting appropriately." ref. Nelsensuggests and that seekingpeerapprovalis an additionalgoal fbr students. Pepper and Nelsen .In some cases. (1987). 'Just for the Teenagers also havethe mistakengoal of excitementand will often misbehave fun of it.1 The FourMistaken Goalsof Students MistakenGoal Student's Belief Example Student's Teacher's of Behaviors Reaction to Behavior Constantly demands attention Desiresto be teacher's Student's Reaction to Intervention by Teacher Stops momentarily butthenresumes Attention Seeking The student feelspart of classonly when getting aftention from the Annoyance/ lrritation teacher otherstudents or pet off Shows Becomes class the clown Contradicts ProfessionallyContinues verbally to Lies threatened or physically defy Hastemper tantrum theteacher teacher's Questions authority knowledge or ls aggressive toward teacheror classmates Becomes bully a Threatens teachersor classmates PowerSeeking The student feelspart of the classwhen controlling the teacher or other students Revenge Seeking Thestudent feels out left ofthe social structure so strikes at out classmates teacher or Failure Avoiding The student feels incapable achieving of socially academically or and no longer tries Hurt Intensifies behavior Sleeps daydreams or throughclass Attempts be invisible to Inadequate Withdraws to further helpstudent from teacher or classmates (19B2). For attention-seeking students.88 PARTI Classroom Management Discipline as teenagers.t'ri Rmcrrruc STUDENT To BEHAVIoR Dinkmeyer and Dinkmeyer (1976) stressthat to effectively work with students. A teacher'sreaction to misbehavior should be related to the goal for the behavior. Source: Dreikurs.

the studentsknow exactly what they are doing and must not be allowed to physically or psychologicallyhurt other studentsor the teacher. Albert (1996) stresses that power seekingcan be reducedwhen students allowed a are voice in the classroom.Nelsen(1987)agrees that too often punishment creates what shecalls the four R's of punishment:resentment.She advocates granting legitimatepower by involving students in decision making. teacherand the attention-seeking the student are not alone in the class. When students can have a choice. repair. they feel they have power.Becauseneither the studentnor the teacherwants to lose face.and classmates may give the studentthe attentionhe or she seeks.the first requirementis disinvolvement.Blackwelder. The social order consistsof a body of rules that must be learnedand followed in order for a classroomto be a caring place in which studentscan learn and grow.When students have real responsibility. encourage the studentto use positive self-talk. discussion ofthe student's behaviorshouldtakeplacein private.studentsmust experiencethe consequences behavior in order to preof serve the "social order. the teachershould try to determine the causeof the problem.Nelsen (1987) advocates method that advances social a the order. Becausethere is no reintbrcementfor the studentif power is not contested. they can discussthe student'smisbehavior. is bestfor the teacherto allow a cooling-off it period. For dealing with revenge-seeking students. because felt that students he associate punishthe ment not with their own actionsbut with thoseof their punisher(Queen. Rather than punishment.In some cases. reffi**r' CorusreuENcEs oF MrsBEHAVtoRs Dreikurs rejectedthe useof punishment." The teacheris the representative the social order. When dealing with a power-seeking student.studentsaren't aware that they are taking out their frustrationson the teacher. is importantthat students allowed to have It be their say. 1995). After both the teacherand the studenthave had an opporlunity to becomecalmer.Unfortunately.and retreat. rebellion.When this occurs.The teachershould avoid a direct confrontation. fbr having their say is as importantas having their way.& Mallen.it is critical that the teachernot engagethe studentin a power struggle. the person of who imposesconsequences failing to respectthe established for rule.Regardless the motive of or reasons the behavior. . Albert (1996)suggests this that allows both the teacherand the studentto save face as everyoneis allowed to escapea heated situation.or replaceany damagedobjects(Albert. is important that teachers to build a it try caring relationship. In dealing with studentsseekingto avoid failure. the student may stop trying to get the attention of the teacher and act out even more.CHAPTER 5 Logical Consequences 89 the behaviorneedsto stop. 1997).In other cases. revenge. To learn responsibility.revenge-seeking for students must be requiredto return. Albert (1995) suggeststhat teachersmodify the instructional methods.This begins by talking with the studentabout the behavior.they are less likely to strive for power in destructiveways.provide additional tutoring. When the teacher's power is challenged. and teachnew strategies use when the students to wants to quit trying.Many times this will defusethe situationbecause many students.

Unfortunately.a consequence must fbllow.only expresses personalpower ofthe teacher on the and the authority a teacherhas over students. Every act has a consequence. Punishment. anticipate. Punishmentsare tied to the past.when a studentbreaks a class rule or behavesinappropriately. .Dreikurs and Loren (1968) provided the following criteria distinguishinglogical consequences from punishment.the studentmay considerthe consequences punishas ment ratherthan as a logical resultof the student'sown behavior. Only carefully and appropriatedly adminstrerednatural and logical consequences promote intrinsic motivation. Logical consequences teacher-arranged are ratherthan being the obvious result of the student'sown acts (Meyerhoff.it is critical that consequences as be relatedto the student's actionsand be discussed with the student.2006). They are tied to the social order.90 PARTI Classroom Managertertt Discipline as Therefbre. the sense are in that they are imposedstimuli usedto reducea targetbehavior (Elias & Schwab. lt is tbr this reasonthat students often perceivelogical consequences punishment. and personal responsibility. student the must be given the option of stoppinginappropriate behavioror face the consequences the misbehavior(Dinkmeyer & Dinkmeyer. Essential thesetechfor niquesto have their desiredpositive effect is that they are rooted in a caring relationship betweenteachers and students. Meyerhoff (1996) notesthat there is no need for a teacherto provide natural consequences. . . and make decisionsbasedon the consequences of their actionsin the real world (Nelsen. is the teacher's lt the natural consequences a student'sbehavior are not physically or psychologically of hannful to the student. however.Natural and logical consequences so called becausetheir goal is to are teachchildren to understand. of . which all human beingsmust learn in order to function in society. thereis angerin punishment. when usedappropriately. and some are teacherimposed. becausethey will occur job.Logical consequences distinguishbetweenthe deedand the doer. 2000).to make sure that even without the teacher'sinterventior.because they represent the rules of living. Logical consequences express reality of what happens societywhen one the in breaksa iaw or rule. presentchoicestbr the student. . They are the result of the are evolutionof eventsand take place without adult interference.To avoid consequences being viewed as a punishment. Logical consequences concerned are only with what will happennow. & Glenn.self-control.Lynn & Glenn. Logical consequences involve no elernentof moral judgment.Logical consequences neededwhen the misbeare havior substantially affectsothersor when the potentialnaturalconsequence too severe. . are Punishments rarely are. some occur naturally.Often.PunishmentdemandscomLogical consequences pliance. 1976). the consequences not If are understood by and accepted the student.t. 1996). or but they can havetrernendous power in that they help studentsto learn accountabilityfor their choices (Nelsen.Lott. Natural consequences the resultsof ill-advised acts.When a teacheremploys a logical-consequences approach. punishmentinevitably does. Logical consequences tied directly to the misbehavior. is Logical consequences a subsetof punishrnent. . Logical consequences appliedin a nonthreatening are manner.Therefore.logical consequences not alwaysreadily are apparent easilydevised. the other hand.

accordingto Albert. In order to maximize the informationalvalue of logical consequences while minimizing the control aspect..five elementsare needed.:.2. and Albert advocates view of classroommanagement a that focuseson creatingclassroomenvironmentsthat are supportive students' psychological of needsand today'scomplexapproaches to learning. respectful.CHAPTER 5 Logicnl Consequences 91 2000). Reasonable Respectful Reliably Enforced Revealed (2000). addresses behavior.not the a lt the characterof the student. lt is impoltant. Thesefive R's of logical consequences explainedin Table5. logicalconsequences connectedto the misbehavior should be established. Lott. Source: Albert(1996). and able to contribute. be effective. HrrprHrc Sruorrurs Corururcr One critical differencein the work of DreikursandAlbert is that Albert's more currentview providesa more supportive.reasonable. of classroom management relationalcommunity in which studentscan take risks in thinking for themselves. A consequence should follow misbehavior. to make them suffer. TABLE5. Consistencv the kev is A consequence should be revealed(known) in advancedfor predictable behavior suchas breaking classrules. take responsibilityfor their learning. not A consequence shouldbe statedand carriedout in a way that preserves student'sself-esteem.. drive the cognitivebenefitsfrom peerinteraction.logical consequences To must be related. . A consequence shouldbe equalin proportionand intensity to the misbehavior. connected.& Glenn.2 The5 R'sof LogicolConsequences The5 R'sof LogicalConsequences Related A consequence shouldbe logically connected the behavior. Nelsen. that studentsbe made to feel part of the classroom colnmunity by creatingan environmentwherethey feel capable. The purpose is for studentsto seethe connection betweenbehaviorand consequences. are Wi]]*ll.reliably enfbrced.Albert (1996) advisesthat providing consequences will not prevent students from misbehaving the future ifthe consequences not accompanied encouragement in are by techniques that build self-esteem and strengthen student'smotivationto cooperate the and learn.seek teachers'help when necessary. to The more closelyrelatedto the consequence. When misbehavior occursthat was not predicted. Threats without action are ineffective.and revealed. more valuableit is to the the student.

or that are specificabout a student'spositivequalities. Courier: Serves theteacher's prizes.Classmeetingsshouldbe held to discussproblemsand issuesof concernfor the entire class. . Venosdale Krisanda Fourth Crade Teacher Monroe School St. They suggestthat class meetings can be the placewhere true dialogueand problem solving can begin. . . calls. and Glenn (2000) ership roles within the classcan promote this awareness. feel careers rotate that To helpmy students a partof the class. plants. Use affirmation statements Build affectionate relationships with simple actsof kindness. of Show appreciation students'kindnesses good work throughpraise. . The emphasis should be on completing work in a satisfactory manner and on continuous improvement. Louis. with teachers and Students needto believethat they can developpositiverelationships To connect. advocatethe use of class meetings for that purpose. Teachersshould also help students realize they need to contribute to the welfare of their classmates and to the positive atmosphereof the class. help students . Passes newassignments.92 PARTI as Management Discipline Classroorn Students can be madeto feel capableby creatinga classroomin which it is acceptable to make mistakes. in of Game questions. Give attentionto students listening and showing interestin their activitiesoutby side of class.The teacherneedsto ensure that everyone can be successfulby providing work appropriate for various learning styles and skill levels. reading and ShowHost:Assists teacher drawing names. hands lunch out tickets. Accept all studentsand encouragetolerance of diversity. Some the careers of include as messenger deliver to itemsto the office.Allowing studentsto have leadNelsen. Takes careof the classroom Lunch Monitor: Takes dailvlunchcount. Horticulturist.Lott. Paper Passer: out Technologist: Responsible keeping computer for the area neat and shutting at down computers the endof the day.phone and written notesto parents. haveclassroom we eachweek.Albert (1995) suggests that teachers fellow classmates. Missouri .

They suggestthat the model promotesautonomy by allowing studentsto take responsibilityfor their actionsand choices. the it cult to know how to respondto inappropriate behavior. 1996).Blackwelder. He to funher suggests that such a conceptremovesthe need for teachers considertheir own to decisions and classroom demands creating in problemstudents.the model is not without its critics. ffi:llwp''lt'( Locrcnl CorusreuENcEs tNTHE CmssRoorr. l7).Queen. eachgroup wrote what they thought the code should be. including the teache4will interact and treat each other.r Su*urin When EricaMcCaslin beganher first yearof teaching sixthgradeat Bracey Middle School. ffi:t.With a code of conduct.After puttingall the codeson the board.CHAPTER 5 Logicttl Consequences 93 Rather than using traditional classroomrules. A code of conduct allows studentsto f'eel thev havea voice in how the classwill irct. Even after teachers haveestablished rnotivesfbr misbehavior.Dividingthe classinto groups. she decidedto use Cooperative Discipline her classroom-management as model. Kohn (1996) also questionsDreikurs'sidea that studentbehavior is a choice.Unfortunately. because children often sendfalse or mixed signals(Morris.However. Rather than establishing set of classroom a rules.she allowedthe students spendthe to first few days of schoolestablishing classroom a code. He 'Adults states. One criticism is that first-yearteachersmay have a difficult time identifying and understanding students'motivesfbr misbehavior. who blithely insist that children chooseto misbehave rather like politiare cianswho declare that peoplehaveonly themselves blamefbr being poor" (p. may still be ditll. to Kohn (1996)calls logicalconsequences "punishment lite." He states that it is difficult to differentiatebetweenpunishmentand logical consequences questions and whetherthere is a real differencebetweenDreikurs's model and other models that promote punishment for misbehavior. She suggests that students classroomrules as adult-driven. thereis not alwaysa naturalor a logical consequence flt the misbehavior. is impossiblelbr evena veteranteacherto determinethe goal of it eachchild's behavior. see Codes of conduct provide a franework for how everyone in the class.partsfrom several were incorporated and the classagreedon the following classcode: . studentsare held accountablefor their behavior at all times.rt'r . Albert (1996) advocates the use of a classroom code ofconduct. and Mallen (1997) contendthat within the contextof a classroom. SrRrrucrHs WEAKNESsEs LoctcALCoNsEeuENcEs AND oF Many seeDreikurs's Logical Consequences the later variationsof Dreikurs's theories and by Albert and Nelsen as a positive way of promoting communicationand respectbetween teacherand students.

towardothers I WILLeliminate hurt others.. McCaslin several had opportunities seehow well to Duringthe firstmonth. teacher. one hour in time-out writinga letter apology Kristin. weekfrom his spending her decided that causing to fallto the floor.thatall students as threestudents werepicked eachmonthto serve the chance serve thetribunal. to on had to twiceuntilall students an opportunity serve. As partof the Montgomery of individual. will showrespect eachother. a Joe Nell Waters Principal Montgomery Central Middle School Tennessee Clarksville. should treated class. I . we will do nothing and everyone We for our ing or anyone from learning.McCaslin's sixth-grade believe all students the of withdignity and courtesy. learn.WhenJamal in the decided wouldhaveto payto replace he leaned backin hischair.WILL.rsroomManagement as Discipline tN4'---h t- at Students MontgomeryCentralMiddle Schoolsign a code of conductthat reads Central Communitl. and our classroom. a and that developed Theclass agreed if a problem for and the wouldhandle situation provide consequence misbehavior.Ms. believe we have responsibility helping We that from teachthatprevents McCaslin Ms. students lf a problem developed So wouldhave a the roomtribunal who woulddecide consequences. I WILLsettheexample a caring profanity from my language. theschool. of to Nickwouldhave spend to . Ms. . to I WILLencourage others do thesame. and that Bethany wouldmissthe opportunity attend assembly would to the decided brokethe aquarium whenhe to remain the classroom finishher work.McCaslin. tribunal the threedollars a parents agreed Jamal wouldhaveto contribute that aquarium. tribunal. the Ms. no student and couldserve Ms. Jamal's WhenNickpulled of moneyto the replacement the aquarium.thetribunal thechairfrom underKristin. the and above in signed codeof conduct a copywasposted Each student theclass thewhiteboard. . that be We.94 PART I Clu. andif others won'tbecome partof thesolution. WhenBethany failed finishher assignmenf McCaslin to her planwasworking. between student Ms.McCaslin two the wouldbe sent a classto between students. l WILLnot let my wordsor actions to by I WILLdo my partto makeMCMSa safeplace beingmoresensitive others.

CHAPTER 5 Logical Consequences 95 Tom Watson/hlerrill Allowing students worktogether to increases feeling community the of within the classroom. feltthe planhelped for she students make connection the between theirbehavior the consequence theirbehavior.Dreikurs and Albert identified four studentgoals: (l) to (2) seekattention. Basedon Adler's original theory.and feel capable.and (4) to avoid failure. to gain power. and of W$)l:: Suumnny Rudolf Dreikurs'sLogical Consequences Linda Albert's Cooperative and Discipline arethe last modelspresented with a focus on control. in that every act has a consequence. Logical Consequences represented shift from a behavioralfocus on disciplineto a more hurnanistic a approachbased on the conceptthat the motivationand goals of studentbehaviormust be considered the in development a discipline plan. Although McCaslin Ms. .The ideathat the consequence must fit the crime is the key to their theories. someoccur naturally.contribute.and someare teacherimposed. of Linda Albert proposesa cooperativeapproachto help studentsconnect. sometimes foundit difficult find an appropriate to consequence eachmisbehavior.When developed.(3) to seekrevenge someperceived for injustice. ExpandingDreikurs's discipline concepts.

revengeseeking.or are logical conarejust punishments sequences diff-erent from punishment? Artifacts for Your Portfolio Developing 1. a logical consequence. a typical punishmentthat might be usedfor each.Do you agree.he noticedthat someone had carvedthe letters"JK" into a desk. Hoernschemeyer now? How can he apply the principlesof do Logical Consequences resolvingthis situation? to 2.) Many with which considera strengthof AssertiveDiscipline to be the consistency punishmentis administered. Developing Your Personal Philosophy of ClasirodmManagement L Would you be comfbrtableusing Logical Consequences your classroomas that you will management approach? Why or why not?Are theresome strategies plan? definitely incorporateinto your classroom-management . Describethe behaviorsof thesestudents. Hoernschemeyer class. classitythe students'behavteacher's iors as attentionseeking. Observethe behaviorsof three students. it was not difficult for Mr. students 85 Attention-seeking students 86 Failure-avoiding Logicalconsequences83 Naturalconsequences 90 Power-seeking students 85 Revenge-seeking students 85 ww?. Describefive typical classroommisbehaviors.. Prabhudesignedconsequences basedon the misbehaviors and the students'motivesfbr them.. Ms.t""""' Krv TrniutNoLocY Definitions for theseterms appearin the glossary. Hoernschemeyer guesswho to had damagedthe desk. In the openingscenario.power seeking. Do you agreewith this methodfor determining the appropriate consequence misbehavior'l for What problemsrnight this methodcreatein a classroom? --).Since Jack Kelly occupiedthe desk eachsixth period. and 2.96 PART I Clussrcun Managernentas Discipline Wr. CnnpunAcnvrnrs on Reflecting the Theory preparedto leavehis seventh-grade l .Kohn suggests logical consequences that arejust "punishmentlite" and that they with a lessoflensivename. providesfor a more individual Logical Consequences approach discipline. How doesthe teacherreactto their behaviors? How do the students reactto the intervention? Basedon your observations. As Mr.Which do you considerto be more critical-to be consistent to or to deal with students individuals? as . Describea naturalconsequence. What should Mr.or failure avoiding.

H*r FoR RrsouncEs FuRrHrR Sruov Furtherinformationabout Logical Consequences resources its use in the classand fbr room can be found by contacting Dr. (1996). tional learningand classroon management.res. Meyerhoff. B. G.1 3 ..). Nelsen. Dreikurs.From complianceto responsibility:Socialand emoY.B. & Mallen. (3rd ed.).L. Blackwelder.New York: BallantineBooks. & Glenn. 664-666. M. M. (1958).J.Circle Pines.D. Dreikurs.C. A.R.Inc... Kohn.- CHnprun RsrrRrrucrs Adler. Be-vond discipline: From compliance to community.Responsible agetnent for teachersantl students. (1982). ( 1968 A new approac'h discipline:Logical conseto ).J. Phi Delta Kappan. L. & Loren. S. quences. (1996).C. sr. R.J. L. Elias.Discipline:Is it a dirty word?Leanttng. J. for 16. 43-46. In practice. NJ: Merrill/Prentice Hall. JaneNelsen EmpoweringPeople.Alexandria.CHAPTER 5 Logical Consequent'es 97 Will. (1995). C. CA: PrirnaPublishing. Linda Albert 8503 N.. and contentporary isHandbook of classroomtnantrgement: Research. Thresholds Edin u c a t i o n2 2 .Logical consequences: key to the reA duction of disciplinary problems. Natural and logical consequences. UT 84059-1926 -456-7 70 (Phone) 1 -800 1 Wg3til . Morris. Weinstein(Eds. Mahwah. Pediatrie:s Parents. Inc.. (1997).Positivedisciplinein the classroom Rocklin..B. (2006). ( 1987). Nelsen.Upper Saddle River. Dinkmeyer. ..Maintaining sanity in the F. New York: HarperCollins. & Schwab. K.New York: Hawthorn Books. NJ: LawrenceErlbaumAssociates.. & Dinkmeyer. classroom. & Pepper. Jr. Lott. (2000).R. Cooperative discipline. New York: Capricorn. L. Albert. (1996). (1976). P .Positivediscipline. 29th Street Tampa.MN: AmericanGuidanceServlce.D.Contrasting disciplinarymodelsin education. O .B o x 1 9 2 6 Orem. P. . A. 57. Evertson.24. FL 33604 (P 813-931-4183 hone) (Fax) 813-935-4571 Dr. classroom manQueen. (1996). C. VA: Association Supervision for and Curriculum Development..8-10. Albert. A. 8. Grunwald. What liJ'e shouldnrcanto yoz. 7 .