# PH2200

Electric Charges and Forces

Formula Sheet
Parallel-plate capacitor: ⎛η ⎞ E = ⎜ , from positive to negative ⎟ ⎝ ε0 ⎠ 1 ( Ering ) z = 4πε 2 zQ2 3/2 0 (z + R )
Potential and Field

Knight

K q1 q2 F1 on 2 = F2 on 1 = r2 q = ( N p − Ne ) e E = Fon q / q Fon B = qB E E= q ˆ r point charge 4πε 0 r 2 1

ΔV = V ( sf ) − V ( si ) = − ∫ Es ds
si

sf

= the negative of the "area" Es = − ΔVloop dV ds = ∑ ( ΔV ) i = 0
i

( Edisk ) z =

η 2ε 0

⎡ ⎤ z ⎢1 − 2 ⎥ z + R2 ⎦ ⎣

a = (q / m) E

τ = pE sin θ

The Electric Field

W ΔVbat = chem = E (ideal battery) q Q C= C = κ C0 ΔVC C= (parallel-plate capacitor) d Ceq = C1 + C2 + C3 + ... (parallel) ⎛ 1 ⎞ 1 1 Ceq = ⎜ + + + ... ⎟ (series) ⎝ C1 C2 C3 ⎠ 2 ε Q 1 2 = C ( ΔVC ) UC = uE = 0 E 2 2C 2 2
Current and Conductivity
−1

Enet = ∑ Ei
i

Gauss’s Law

ε0 A

Electric dipole: p -q + +q
s p = ( qs, from negative to positive )

Φ e = E ⋅ A = EAcosθ constant field Φe = Φe =
surface

E ⋅ dA Qin
0

∫ E ⋅ dA = ε

Field on axis E =

1 2p 4πε 0 r 3 p 4πε 0 r 3 1

E at surface of a charged conductor: Esurface ⎧η ⎪ = ⎨ε0 ⎪perpendicular to surface ⎩

Field in bisecting plane E = − Q L Q surface charge density :η = A Q volume charge density : ρ = V Uniform infinite line of charge: linear charge density : λ =

Electron current: i = rate of electron flow N e = iΔt i = nAvd eτ E m Conventional current: I = rate of charge flow = ei vd = Q = I Δt Current density: J =I/A J = nevd = σ E

The Electric Potential
U elect = U 0 + qEs (parallel-plate capacitor) U q1 + q2 = 1 q1q2 4πε 0 r U elect = ∑
i< j

⎛ 1 2λ ⎞ E =⎜ , perpendicular to line ⎟ ⎝ 4πε 0 r ⎠ Uniform infinite plane of charge: ⎛ η ⎞ E =⎜ , perpendicular to plane ⎟ ⎝ 2ε 0 ⎠ Uniformly charged sphere: Q ˆ E= r for r ≥ R 4πε 0 r 2

1 qi q j 4πε 0 rij

U dipole = − p ⋅ E = − pE cos θ U q +sources = qV V = Es E= V= U q +sources q

( inside a parallel-plate capacitor )

ΔVC (parallel plate capacitor) d 1 q point charge V= 4πε 0 r V =∑
i

σ=

ne 2τ 1 = ρ m = ∑ I out ΔVwire L

∑I
I=

in

Ewire =

1 qi 4πε 0 ri

ΔVwire ρL where R = R A

Need additional help? Then visit the Physics Learning Center located in 228 Fisher. Walk-in hours are Monday 7:00 – 9:00 p.m., and Tuesday through Thursday 3:00 - 9:00 p.m.

Fundamentals of Circuits I=

ΔV R junction law :

E=N

d Φ per turn dt

Useful Geometry

loop law : Pbat = I E

ΔVloop = ∑ ( ΔV )i = 0
i

∑I

in

= ∑ I out

Ecoil = ω ABN sin ωt

V2 =

N2 V1 N1

Circle Area = π r 2 Circumference = 2π r Sphere Surface area = 4π r 2 Volume = 4 π r 3 3 Cylinder Lateral surface area = 2π rL Volume = π r 2 L

Electromagnetic Fields and Waves

PR = I ΔVR = I 2 R =

( ΔVR )

2

R Req = R1 + R2 + R3 + ... + RN (series)

∫ E ⋅ dA = ε ∫ B ⋅ dA = 0 ∫ E ⋅ ds = −

Qin
0

⎛ 1 1 1 1 ⎞ Req = ⎜ + + + ... + ⎟ (parallel) RN ⎠ ⎝ R1 R2 R3 Q = Q0 e − t / τ I = I 0 e− t / τ τ = RC
The Magnetic Field

−1

d Φm dt
0 through

∫ B ⋅ ds = μ I

F =q E+v×B I disp = ε 0 vem c=λf E = cB 1 S= E×B

(

)

d Φe + ε 0 μ0 dt

PH2100 in Brief

Fnet = ∑ Fi = ma
i

B= B=

⎞ ˆ μ0 qv × r ⎛ μ0 q v sin θ =⎜ , RHR ⎟ 2 2 4π r ⎝ 4π r ⎠ ⎞ ˆ μ0 I Δs × r ⎛ μ0 I ( Δs ) sin θ =⎜ , RHR ⎟ 2 2 4π r 4π r ⎝ ⎠

d Φe dt = c = 1 / ε 0 μ0

FA on B = − FB on A Fspring = − k Δs Constant Acceleration : xf = xi + vix Δt + 1 ax ( Δt ) 2
2 2

2 R μ = ( AI , from south pole to north pole )

Blong straight wire

μ I = 0 2π d

Bcoil center =

μ 0 NI

μ0

(

)

yf = yi + viy Δt + 1 a y ( Δt ) 2 vfx = vix +ax Δt vfy = viy + a y Δt vf2x = vi2 + 2ax ( xf − xi ) x vf2y = vi2 + 2a y ( yf − yi ) y

μ 2μ Bdipole = 0 3 (on axis of dipole) 4π z ∫ B ⋅ ds = μo I through
Bsolenoid = Fon q

cε P 1 I = = Savg = E02 = 0 E02 A 2c μ 0 2 F I prad = = (perfect absorber) A c I = I 0 cos 2 θ I transmitted = 1 I 0 (incident light unpolarized) 2

μo NI

L = qv × B = ( q vB sin θ , RHR ) qB 2π m rcyc = mv qB

Uniform Circular Motion : 2π r 2π rad ω= T T θ f = θi + ω Δt v= ar = v2 = ω 2r r

f cyc =

Fwire = IL × B = ( ILB sin θ , RHR )

Physical Constants

μ0 LI1 I 2 2π d τ = μ × B = ( μ B sin θ , RHR )
Fparallel wires =
Electromagnetic Induction

K = 8.99 × 109 N ⋅ m 2 /C 2

ε 0 = 8.85 × 10−12 C 2 /N ⋅ m 2
e = 1.60 × 10−19 C me = 9.11 × 10−31 kg mp = 1.67 × 10−27 kg

Energy Conservation K = 1 mv 2 2 Emech = K + U Kf + U f = Ki + U i P = F ⋅ v = Fv cos θ

E = vlB

Φ m = A ⋅ B = AB cos θ (uniform B-field) Φm =

μ0 = 1.26 × 10−6 T ⋅ m/A
c = 3.00 × 108 m/s

area of loop

B ⋅ dA

Need additional help? Then visit the Physics Learning Center located in 228 Fisher. Walk-in hours are Monday 7:00 – 9:00 p.m., and Tuesday through Thursday 3:00 - 9:00 p.m.