SEC25 – CORPORATE OFFICERS, QUORUM OFFICE – creation of the charter of a corporation

*the determination of the necessity for additional offices is a management prerogative. It is covered by Business judgment rule. *corporate officers jurisdiction – SEC

OFFICER – person elected by the directors or stockholders. EMPLOYEE – occupies no office and is generally employed not by action of the directos and stockholders but by the managing officer of the corporation and who also determines the compensation to be paid to such employee. CORPORATE OFFICERS – officers who are designated as such or given that character in the law, the articles of incorporation and the by-laws of the corporation. QUALIFICATION Sec25 enumerates officers namely: OFFICERS- provided by board or AOI or by-laws a. b. c. The President Treasurer Secretary QUALIFICATIONS: Sec63 recognizes: a. b. VP Assistant secretary TENURE GR: retirement age of 60 can continue with his term. A president is not covered by compulsory retirement age for employees. DUTIES a.Articles of Incorporation 1. 2. 3. 4. *the intent to create an additional corporate office must be clear. *the relationship of a person to a corporation is determined by the incidents of his relationship with the corporation as they actually exist. *it is possible for one to have dual role of officer and employee. The corporation is not prohibited from hiring a corporate officer to perform services under circumstances which will make him an employee. *case of vice-president appointed by the board then another person was appointed as such with the operational title of managing director—the second appointee was considered by the court not as corporate officer but a regular employee. *If by-laws do not authorized the board to create appointive positions, they may still do so because of the principle that BOD is the governing body of the corporation. 5. Sec54 – preside at all meetings of the directors or trustees as well as of the stockholders or members, unless the by-laws provides otherwise. Sec63 – certificate of stocks shall be signed by the president. General supervision and control over corporate operations In absence of a charter or by-laws provision to the contrary, the president is presumed to have the authority to act within the domain of the general objectives of the corporation’s business and within the scope of his or her usual duties. Possesses the power to enter into a contract for the corporation a. Provided: that the conduct of both the president and the corporation shows that he had been in the habit of acting in similar matters on behalf of the company and that the company had authorized him so to act and had recognized approved and ratified his former similar actions. VICE PRESIDENT In absence of the president or if the office of the president becomes vacant Can be elected or appointed Has the authority to act in his stead, or to perform any duty of the office. Duty of succession to the chief executive officership in the absence or disability of the president or the chairman of the board and such other duties as the board may assign. 1. 2. He must be a director (and stockholder) He may not be concurrently the treasurer or secretary PRESIDENT *Dismissal of a corporate officer is always a corporate act, or intra-corporate controversy. The question of remuneration is not a simple labor problems but a matter that comes within the area of corporate affairs and management and is corporate controversy in contemplation of the corporation code.

*other authorities which may create corporate officers: as may be necessary in a particular corporation)

But actual solutions which were passed should be stated in the minutes. and binding effect of a board resolution. Duties: (2009 Code of Corporate Governance) 1. . Ensure that the meetings of the board are held in accordance with the by-laws or as deemed necessary 2. vision. o But different rule on partly nationalized corporation in proportion to the equity participation allowed to foreigners. o If also a compliance officer. rules. Duty-bound to keep records and to make proper entries thereto. - - Foreigners cannot intervene in the management. Even if allowed by Corpo code. and regulations necessary. Supervise the preparation of the agenda of the meeting 3. and objectives of the corporation o Work fairly and objectively with the board. Philippine residency not necessary. - - o Corporate officer concurrently an employee  NLRC has jurisdiction if money claims is as employee not corporate officer - ANTI-DUMMY LAW – foreigners cannot be officers in wholly nationalized and partly nationalized corporation. and keep the money of the corporation unless otherwise provided by the by-laws the contrary. Certificate of stocks are signed by him One who sends notices of the meeting Prepares minutes of the meetings o Minutes – need not be a word-to-word record but what transpired during the meeting. o o President at the same time chairman Director at the same time legal counsel - PROHIBITIONS:     President and secretary President and treasurer Internal and external auditor Chairman and vice chairman  Reason: incompatibility. Contains summary and the highlights. Reason: a director cannot act on his own while an officer acts individually for the corporation. employee or labourer therein except technical personnel. issue receipts. Maintain qualitative and timely lines of communication and information between the board and management. and administration or control whether as an officer. Need not be a lawyer o But it is necessary to be a lawyer when:  The corporation is covered by the Revised Code of Corporate Governance and the Corporate Secretary also acts as the Compliance officer. perform all the duties and responsibilities of the said officer. o Ensure that all Board procedures are followed by members. As long as there is substance. Who maintains stock and transfer book Makes the entries and records transfer of shares in the stock and transfer book. You cannot employ an alien in any position. May be concurrently the president and may be designated as the chief executive officer of the corporation. management and stockholders o Have appropriate administrative and interpersonal skills o Is not corp’s legal counsel: be aware of the laws. - TREASURER Takes care of the funds of the corporation Custodian of the funds of the corporation with the authority to disburse them in proper cases Authorized to receive funds. Duties (2009 Code of Corporate Governance) o Safekeeping and preservation of the integrity of the minutes as well as official records of the corporation. o Inform the members of the board the agenda of their meeting and provide accurate information that will enable them to arrive at intelligent decisions on matters that require their approval. existence. o Attend all board meetings. But SEC requires it as a POLICY. CONCURRENCE OF POSITIONS: any 2 or more positions may be held concurrently by the same person. operation. except on justifiable causes. Covers entire range if employment regardless of whether they involve control or noncontrol activities.CHAIRMAN Its functions vary so widely in different companies. SECRETARY Must be resident and citizen of the Philippines Reason: to allow would be tantamount to a circumvention of the imperative under Sec25 of the Corpo Code. o Applies only to: corporations with businesses that are reserved by the Constitution or law to Filipino citizens or 60% of the capital owned by Filipinos. o Working knowledge in the operations of the corporation. o Be loyal to the mission. Issues ―secretary certificate regarding passage.

. to od acts within the scope of an apparent authority. with which it clothes him The acquiescence in his acts of a particular nature. o The acts of corporate officers within the scope of their authority are binding on the corporation. Primary responsibility for the business is actually conducted by the senior officers and the board only regulates and monitors the activities of the officers. particularly the president. Applied in agency law and existence may be ascertained through: o o The general manner in which the corporation hold out an officer or agent as having the power to act. their actions cannot bind the corporation. Confirmation after conduct. or acceptance and retention of benefits flowing therefrom. *there must be proof of reliance upon the representations. DOCTRINE OF APPARENT AUTHORITY If a corporation knowingly permits its officers or any other agents. but when these officers exceed their authority. with or beyond the scope of hi ordinary powers. their acts cannot bind it. Voluntary choice knowingly made. although irregular or informal. He acts as such. although none was given. confirms. - What establishes apparent authority? The vesting of a corporate officer with the power to bind the corporation Acts of the principal The principal’s liability is limited only to third persons who have been led reasonably to believe by the conduct of the principal that such actual authority exists. Implied ratification – silence or acquiescence. ***reality: BOD do not often meet. acts showing approval or adoption of the act. May assume the post of chairman of the board provided that the latter’s power is limited to that of a presiding officer during board meetings. DE FACTO OFFICERS doctrine RATIFICATION – principal voluntarily adopts. general principles of agency govern the relation between corporation and its officers o When authorized. **official dealings with third persons are valid. their acts can bind the corporation. are incidental to those expressly provided o Powers implied frim the powers intentionally conferred o Powers added by custom and usage o Apparent powers – caused a person dealing with the officer to believe that it has conferred. *the action in behalf of the corporation must likewise be established. the management of corporations is left to senior officers. as against anyone who has in good faith dealt with the corporation through such agent. either expressly or impliedly by habit. in the usual course of business. under the color of authority. Can be express or implied. Company policies – written policies approved by the board. or acquiescence in the general course of business. *corporate officers may act in accordance with company policies. and gives sanction to some unauthorized act of its agent on its behalf. be estopped from denying his authority. so that the incumbent must be more than a volunteer. when unauthorized. custom. for no one can deny that while one may be employed in a non-control position who apparently is harmless he may later turn out to be a mere tool to further the evil designs of the employer.- Reason: to plug any loophole or close any avenue that an unscrupulous alien may resort to flout the law or defeat its purpose. AUTHORITY OF OFFICERS TO BIND CORPORATION Derived from o Law o Corporate by-laws o Authorization from the board. amounting to substitute for a prior authority. with actual or constructive knowledge thereof. A corporate officer or agent may represent and bind the corporation in transactions with third persons to the extent that the authority to do so has been conferred upon him o Powers that. and holds the officer or agent out to the public as possessing power to do those acts. the corporation will. unless the board ratifies such acts or is estopped from disclaiming them. It need not be in writing and may be established by sufficient evidence. o Color of authority – authority derived from an election or appointment.

Any change in the information in the GIS must be reflected in the amended GIS within 30 days from the effectivity or occurrence of the change. ______________________________ SEC 28 – REMOVAL OF DIRECTORS OR TRUSTEES COMPENSATION -by-laws may provide the officers’ compensation may be fixed by the board.  Fixing compensation is part of the regular business of the corporation that the board conducts.operative fact that justifies the election or appointment of the replacement. Right to remove: prerogative of the stockholders or members of the corporation. Removal without cause – elected by majority Removal with cause. Others are contemplated in the other provisions of the code. . Stockholders or members b. TRUSTEES OR OFFICERS Grounds for disqualification: 1. AOI. He is convicted by final judgment of an offense punishable by imprisonment exceeding 6 yrs 2. So that those dealing with it and those who intent to do business with it may know or have the means of knowing facts concerning the corporation’s financial resources and business responsibility. REQUISITES OF REMOVAL: o o o o Take place either at a regular meeting or special meeting called for the purpose There must be previous notice of the intention to remove a director The removal must be by a vote of the stockholders representing 2/3 of outstanding Capital stock or 2/3 members. under sanction of oath of responsible officers. o By-laws may provide the procedure 1) Provided it is consistent with the other provisions of the corporation code.even without provisions.or Code of Corporate Governance. Who can fill vacancies? a. Presupposes the vacancy during the director’s term. or by-laws…. there must be cause for removal ***the meeting that will fill the vacancy in the board created by removal will be called immediately on the same day that the removal was made or soon thereafter. Removal  Disqualification is different from removal *effect of removal: removes one from being a director only but remails as shareholder. - . It is a corporate act. Elected by minority. Changes should be underscored. trustees and officers of the Corporation. it rests with the board. _____________________________________________ SEC 27 – DISQUALIFICATION OF DIRECTORS.Reason: as a matter of public policy and necessity to protect the interests of the public and individuals where those interests were involved in the acts of officers without being lawful officers. *disqualifications are not exclusive.elected by minority REPORT AFTER ANNUAL ELECTION Submit to the SEC within 30 days after the election the names. TRUSTEES AND OFFICERS Rationale: to give public information. Convicted by final judgment of a violation of Corporation Code committed within 5 years prior to the date of his election or appointment. SEC 29 VACANCIES IN THE OFFICE OF DIRECTOR OR TRUSTEE Vacancy . Election done by directors: not mandatory. Reasons for replacement/election: a. permissive Manner of election is discretionary to the corporarion. ___________________________ SEC26 – REPORT OF ELECTION OF DIRECTORS. GIS (General Information Sheet) provided by SEC shall be filed with this commission within thrity days following the date of the annual stockholders or members meeting. o Reason: to keep stockholders and the public transacting business properly informed of their organizational operational status. Rationale: meant to assure that only persons of rectitude can act as directors. Remaining directors or trustees Constituting quorum depending on the reason for the vacancy. nationalities and residences of the elected directors.

Increase in the number of directors ***the directors or trustees are not entitled to salary or other compensation when they perform nothing more than the usual and ordinary duties of their office. **remaining hold-over directors cannot replace a director who resigned after the expiration of their term rests on the theory of delegated power of the board of directors. The replacement will serve only for the remaining period of the original term of the director that he replaced. christmas gifts) or any incentive for services rendered for the corporation. There may be too many vacancies in certain cases and there would be no directors to perform their functions. ***in certain cases: the directors are allowed to elect the replacement so that the operation of the corporation cannot be hampered or jeopardized. It is strictly observed. b.this applies to trustees if they actually render services to the corporation. not due to resignation but to expiration of the term. The board may continue to function provided there is a quorum Any act. resolution of the board shall be considered valid PER DIEM – to pay for a day’s services. Expiration of term A ground other than removal or expiration of term (e. Term cannot be split into two or more terms. -may vary from year to year provided the same is reasonable.derived from ―net income of the preceding year‖. bonuses. gifts (e. Not more than 10% of income of the corporation. Effect of vacancy: a. and that the return upon their shares adequately furnishes the motives for service. The replacement does not change the length of the term. c. compensation may be granted by the vote of stockholders representing at least a majority of the outstanding capital stock. if the remaining directors constitute a quorum.) -may be fixed by the board by way of resolution. -covered by business judgment rule. Reason: presumption that directors/trustees render services gratuitously. -may be given only if there are profits. resignation. protection not only to stockholders but also of the corporate creditors and prospective investors. pay etc. d. -prospective in application -not covered by the 10% limit. COMPENSATION –treated synonymously with salaries. If the causes other than enumerated: the board can fill the vacancy. *if a director is also an officer. -allowances of money for expenses each day. remunerations. *remedy in case of abuse – may be recovered in a stockholder/member compensation. death. . . in legal effect. b.b. The by-laws may provide for a fixed compensation If by-laws does not provide. without compensation. he is entitled to receive salaries and not subject to restrictions. -power of directors to fix per diems emanates from statute must be income of the year during which the director served.g. Even if by-laws does not provide. Reason: avoids expenses and inconveniences attending the calling of stockholders’ or member’s meeting. . . COMPENSATION OF OFFICERS ______________________________ SEC 30 COMPENSATION OF DIRECTORS RULES: a. ***the director who will fill up the vacancy will not serve for another one-year term. Abandonment – director of corporation accepts a position in which his duties are incompatible with which will render him physically incapable of performing his duties as director. abandonment) where the remaining directors do not constitute quorum a. the directors are entitled to reasonable per diems (daily allowance. if corporation did not earn. The vacancy is. c. Reason: a. b.g.

All kinds of deception. acting or omitting to act in a situation where there is a duty to act. Requires compliance with law and rules. - Criminal liability – personal liability Solidary liability: (piercing the veil of corporate fiction) o When directors and trustees are officers of the corporation 1) Vote for or assent to patently unlawful acts of the corporation  Patently unlawful acts – one declared unlawful by law which imposes penalties for commission of such unlawful ats.  . Due care entails examination of the facts and circumstances of a particular case.issued for less than their par or issued value or in any other form other than cash value in excess of its fair value. 3) 4) 4) 5) LIABILITY GENERAL RULE: directors and officers are not solidarily liable with the corporation. Must establish clear and convincing evidence. o Thoughtless disregard of consequences without exerting any effort to avoid them. Cannot serve himself first his cestuis second. Liable for the difference between the fair value received at the time of the issuance of the stock and the par or issued vale of the same. Act in bad faith or with gross negligence in directing the affairs of the corporation  Bad faith – dishonest purpose o Breach of a known duty through some ill motive or interest. It must be established. not inadvertently but wilfully and intentionally with a conscious indifference to consequences insofar as other persons may be affected. Due diligence dictates that they must maintain familiarity with the financial status of the cannot be presumed.  Water stocks. Utmost good faith in the management of corporate affairs. Duty to act intra vires and within authority. essential and salutary. did not forthwith file with the corporate secretary his written objection thereto. TRUSTEES OR OFFICERS Rationale: o To assure that the BOD does not act in a manner that is unlawful or to the prejudice of the corporation because of personal or pecuniary interest of the directors. 2) Management duties: o Obedience 1) 2) o Diligence 1) 2) 3) Required to exercise due care in the performance of their functions. 3) o 2) Guilty of conflicts of interest to the prejudice of corporation and stakeholders When a director has consented to the issuance of watered stocks or who._________________________________ SEC 31 LIABILITY OF DIRECTORS. Example: officers exceeds their authority o o o  4) Gross negligence – want of even slight are. Thise principles are rigid. Held to the extreme measure of candor. Not permitted to use their position of trust and confidence to further their private interests. Design to mislead or deceive another. unselfishness and good faith. having knowledge thereof. o Loyalty 1) Loyalty that is undivided and an allegiance that is influenced by no consideration other than the welfare of the corporation. Nature of fraud. There must be loyalty to other stakeholders like creditors.

or officer has contractually agreed or stipulated to hold himself personally and solidarily liable with the corporation. -the fiduciary duties of officers are subject to the general principles of agency.  C. The vote of such director/trustee in the board meeting approving the contract was not necessary for the approval of the contract. When a director. b. SEC 33 – CONTRACTS BETWEEN CORPORATIONS WITH INTERLOCKING DIRECTORS The contract is fair and reasonable under the circumstances Conditions must be present: a. they have duties of obedience and loyalty. The contract is fair and reasonable under the circumstances INTERLOCKING RELATIONSHIP – when one (or some or all) of the directors in one corporation is (or are) a director in another corporation. by specific provisions of law. trustees or officers. 6) **may be ratified (as valid and effective) provided a vote of at least 2/3 of outstanding capital stock or at least 2/3 of the members in a meeting called for the purpose. o IT IS DISCOURAGED because they have fiduciary relationship with the corporation and there can be no real bargaining where the same is acting on both sides of the trade. EFFECT ON CONTRACTS: GR: VALID. In the case of an officer.  B. in which they are directors. there was previous authorization by the board of directors or trustees. Itself not prohibited under the corporation code unless prohibited by by-laws SELF-DEALING – those who personally contract with the corporation. trustee or officer is made. TRUSTEES OR OFFICERS o WITH THE CORPORATION o A contract between two or more corporations having interlocking directors shall not be invalidated on that ground alone. by-laws or AOI Avoid conflict of interest situtions. Duty if diligence makes an officer liable for damages.5) When the director. Provided conditions are present:  The presence of the interlocking director/trustee in a board meeting (corporation which interest is nominal) in which the contract was approved was not necessary to constitute a quorum for such meeting. There must be full disclosure of the adverse interest of the directors/trustees involved is made at such meeting **contract is still voidable if the director did not disclose the disastrous consequences of the contract. personally liable for his corporate actions. GENERAL RULE: It is VOIDABLE EXCEPTIONS: A. That the vote of such director/trustee was not necessary for the approval of the contract That the contract is fair and reasonable under the circumstances o . D. The presence of such director/trustee in the board meeting approving the contract was not necessary for constituting a quorum for such meeting. o o ____________________________ Effect of interlocking relationship SEC 32 DEALINGS OF DIRECTORS. trustee. DUTIES OF OFFICERS -same with directors. o Agent act within the authority given to him by the board.

the corporation is entitled to all profits earned by the fiduciary from the transaction. - . and controlling shareholders of a corporation must not take for themselves any business opportunity that could benefit the corporation. the fiduciary may take the opportunity for him. and an opportunity is presented to it embracing an activity as to which it has fundamental knowledge.  SEC 34 . indeed.  Reason: a fiduciary with a conflict of interest should be required to justify his actions and because of the practical reality that the facts with regard to such questions are more apt to be within his knowledge. officers. Principle providing that directors. Business opportunity is one which the corporation is financially able to undertake From its nature. If the opportunity was disclosed to the board of directors and the board declined to take the opportunity for the corporation. Reason of the code for allowing the creation: the board may not readily face the contingency of confronting urgent matters which requires its attention. Absence of 1st and 2nd – voidable 3. o When a corporation is engaged in a certain business. fair dealing and loyalty of the offender to the corporations should rest upon the officer who appropriated the business opportunity for his own advantage. Indispensable requirement for the contract to be valid. *notice must be given to the corporation that such opportunity exists and the corporation does not want to avail of the opportunity Sec 34 applies if: a. practical experience and ability to pursue. and controlling shareholders. c. Burden of proof: on the questions of good faith. ***RATIFICATION – 2/3 votes of outstanding capital stock. The corporate opportunity doctrine is one application of the fiduciary duty of loyalty (source: Wikipedia) coverage: limited to directors. although in a sense. It gives assistance to BOD in the performance of their functions.DISLOYALTY OF A DIRECTOR DOCTRINE OF CORPORATE OPPORTUNITY – Directors should not give preference to their own personal amelioration by taking the opportunity belonging to the corporation. The corporate opportunity doctrine only applies if the opportunity was not disclosed to the corporation. officers. acquires for himself business opportunity which should belong to the corporation must account to the latter for all such profits by refunding the same. MIXED TEST Apply any two or all the test. More restrictive tests LINE OF BUSINESS TEST – an opportunity as corporate whenever a managing officer becomes involved in an activity intimately or closely associated with the existing or prospective activities of the corporation. _____________________________ 2. - ***a director who.or herself. The theory is that profits made and advantage gained by an agent belongs to the principal. INTEREST OR EXPECTANCY TEST – precludes acquisition by corporate officers of the property of a business opportunity in which the corporation has a ―beachhead‖ in the sense of a legal or equitable interest or expectancy growing out of pre-existing right or relationship. The doctrine applies regardless of whether the corporation is harmed by the transaction. When the corporate opportunity doctrine applies. b. SEC 35 – EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE – a corporate body ―with standing in law. and is one that is *the director must inform the corporation that the loss oa certain business is imminent and the corporation must be given a reasonable chance to undertake the business. is in line with corporations business and is of practical advantage to it Is one which the corporation has an interest or a reasonable expectancy TESTS 1. ***property of business opportunity ceases to be a corporate opportunity and is transformed into personal opportunity where the corporation is definitely no longer able to avail itself of the opportunity. Applied reasonably and sensibly to the facts and circumstances of the particular case. - consonant with its reasonable needs and aspirations for expansion. Whether the business opportunity is of sufficient importance and is so closely related to the existing or prospective activity of the corporation as to warrant judicial sanctions against it personal acquisition by a managing officer or director or director of the corporation. it applies even if the corporation benefits from the transaction. which is adaptable to its business having regard for its financial position. it may be properly said that the opportunity is in the line of the corporation’s business. it is an agent of the BOD because it performs what otherwise is vested by law in the BOD‖.

- Quorum – same sa directors Required vote – majority vote of committee members When exec com not validly constituted . To be appointed by the board. o There can be members of the executive committee who are not directors provided that at least there members are directors. Resolutions may be repealed by subsequent board resolution unless what is involved is an accomplished fact or a contract that is binding on third persons. o The resolutions passed and approved by the executive committee are as valid as the resolutions of the board provided the resolutions have been made at the time the committee is constituted. Decisions are valid and unappealable. Actually performs certain duties of the board and in effect.De facto officers . it is acting as the board itself. o A foreigner can be a member in proportion to the foreign shareholdings in the corporation. Authority: To the extent provided in the resolution of the board or in the by-laws. The board cannot delegate entire supervision and control of the corporation to an executive committee for this is contrary to the charter and the law that requires that the directors shall have general supervision and control of the corporation.- May be created only of a provision in the by-laws Composition: not less than 3 members of the board.

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