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Improving Local Governance and Pro-Poor Service Delivery: CONTINUOUS IMPROVEMENT AND BENCHMARKING LEARNING TOOLKIT

Purpose of the toolkit


The purpose of this learning toolkit is to make municipal service providers aware of CIB and provide them with a practical guide on how to successfully apply these techniques to improve services.

Who can use the toolkit


The toolkit is designed for local governments but can be applied by any level of government. You will need to make adjustments to organization, unit, and position names to suit your own organization. The toolkit will be of most benefit to individuals involved in teams focused on improving services. This can include municipal staff, managers, contractors, and NGOs.

How to use the toolkit


This toolkit provides a structured, step by step instruction on how to improve a service. Work through the modules on the left side of the screen, in sequence. Although an individual can work through this toolkit on their own, we highly recommend that organizations make use of a skilled Facilitator to guide them through the learning process. To learn how to use the toolkit, read the overvie or take a tour of the toolkit. Optionally, you can print out two Handbooks: a Facilitator Handbook and an Analysis Workbook.

Introduction

A full implementation will eventually involve a large part of the municipality's staff working in teams finding better ways to deliver services.

Components of the Toolkit


The Toolkit is organized in eight modules that set out the sequence in which you carry out CIB projects. The first module is the Introduction, which you should read first. The second module is Prepare, which covers all the preparation for CIB in your organization. CIB is the combination of two powerful techniques to achieve change continuous improvement and benchmarking. Continuous Improvement is a systematic method to improve service delivery for access, timeliness, quality, cost, community satisfaction and affordability. Benchmarking compares services with others, to improve your own service delivery. This is done by comparing performance and sharing information about service practices, to find the 'best' practices and increase service standards. Continuous improvement and benchmarking have enabled service delivery improvements in many organizations, government and private, in numerous countries around the world. The ADB has piloted the approach in two major regional projects and its experience has culminated in the creation of this toolkit. For more information, see Origin of the initiative... The modules numbered 1 to 6 in the left hand menu explain the CIB project cycle, to guide teams of staff to carry out their projects to improve services. The modules are:
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Organize Analyze Benchmark Innovate Implement Sustain

The next module is a supporting module covering how to Institutionalize CIB. A Facilitator's Kit is provided to support facilitators of CIB. A Glossary and Site map is also provided.

Timing and effort needed


To complete the learning components of the Toolkit you will need to spend about 60 hours working through the training, spread over several months. Each training element takes about three hours to complete. You should work through the training for each module as you need to, then immediately apply what you have learned to your project work. Each CIB project cycle will take from 3 to 6 months, depending on the complexity of the problems and the ability of the organization to respond.

Maximizing success
The ADB's pilot projects discovered 12 critical factors for success for CIB, and these form the basis of the self-assessment, below. Success factors ... To help maximize success, all stakeholder groups need to understand their own roles and responsibilities. Stakeholders' roles... A number of Asian cities have been successful in using CIB to improve services such as solid waste management, property tax collection, parking, street vending control and customer complaint handling, among others. To learn more, see Success stories...

Getting started
First - print out the Readiness self-assessment and decide whether your organization is ready for CIB. Then read about How to use the toolkit.

What is involved?
A CIB initiative starts with a decision to proceed by the Mayor, Council or the most senior manager. It is best to start with a pilot of two or three small scale projects, to gain experience with the techniques and learn how to modify them for your organization. These pilot projects are completed within three months, then the Mayor, Council and senior management assess the results and decide further CIB initiatives.

Origin of this initiative


Introduction>

This second RETA had four objectives:


1. Build the capacity of the three core municipalities to drive and implement change; 2. Use the three core municipalities to mentor three other municipalities in each country on the use of CIB techniques; 3. Establish a mechanism for participation and feed back from the community and nongovernment organizations (NGOs) on the effectiveness of delivery of municipal services, and publicize the results through the media; and 4. Expand the communication network of the municipalities to facilitate comparing performance indicators, sharing experiences and learning good practices in their delivery of municipal services.

In 1998-99, the Asian Development Bank (ADB), the Asian Development Bank Institute (ADBI), and the German agency for technical development (GTZ) funded a Regional Technical Assistance program (RETA) to test the use of Continuous Improvement and Benchmarking (CIB) techniques as a means of improving the delivery of municipal services. The RETA was also to create an active network of municipalities to exchange information on successful change efforts and good practices The project involved ten cities in seven countries - India, Sri Lanka, Pakistan, China, Malaysia, the Philippines and Indonesia. A number of services in these cities were improved to verify that CIB techniques could yield results, including:
Solid waste management; Customer service and complaint handling; Property tax assessment and collection; Vehicle parking; and Street vendors.

This second RETA was mostly successful, in that the three core cities did progress their CIB capacity and for the most part now have CIB as a normal way of doing business. The three cities improved their services even further, and commenced to support their three satellite partner cities. These RETAs have demonstrated that with the application of a structured approach using CIB, service improvement is possible and likely. Based on the success of the two regional projects, the Asian Development Bank and the Asian Development Bank Institute have funded the development of this CIB Learning toolkit.

Factors for success


Introduction> There are twelve pre-requisites for successful CIB implementation.
1. Clear and visible support from the most senior executive and the most senior elected official. 2. Continuous leadership by a senior executive for the CIB initiative, preferably for at least three years. 3. A critical mass of trained CIB team members - to ensure competing priorities and normal staff turnover do not slow the initiative down . 4. Training in CIB techniques and tools, supported initially by a professional learning facilitator. 5. Apermanent resource such as a dedicated facilitator and a CIB working group to manage the CIB process and drive improvements; 6. An inclusive approach - the Mayor, councilors, service managers, staff, customers, the community and NGOs must all play a part in the CIB process. 7. Financial support - to ensure service investigation and improvements are a priority for the municipality. 8. Allocation of adequate staff time to CIB projects, with the projects taking priority over day-to-day work for the time required. 9. A performance culture - the Mayor and council must focus on service performance and take action to improve it. 10. Professional management practices - meetings must be attended by those invited, be conducted properly and commitments followed through. 11. A team culture - CIB team members must be able to interact with senior managers and offer constructive criticism without fear of compromising their career. 12. A positive culture to accept change, and a willingness to try new approaches when needed.

The RETA demonstrated that the techniques were relevant for municipalities. Several of the participating municipalities implemented changes to increase their customer orientation, improve quality and coverage of services, and enhance revenues. Importantly, the municipalities enthusiastically supported the implementation of the CIB techniques as they discovered the resulting benefits. There were also lessons learned about how to ensure success for CIB:
The need to train enough coordinators in each city to allow for staff movement and day-today priorities; The importance of gaining commitment from senior elected officials and executives to provide leadership; The need to establish local benchmarking partners for sharing experiences and making comparisons; The importance of consumer surveys and community participation for sustaining efforts to improve the quality of services; and The need to allocate a longer time to build a continuous improvement culture and capacity.

Following the first RETA, in 2000 it was decided to support the three cities that had shown a strong willingness to progress to a more sustainable CIB position, and a second RETA was approved to Institutionalize CIB in three cities:
Bangalore, India; Colombo, Sri Lanka; and Cebu City, Philippines.

Stakeholders' roles
Introduction>

Manage the first 2 3 CIB projects Member of the CIB Steering committee Member of the CIB Working party Monitor the effectiveness of the CIB change program and assist where necessary Assess CIB team member training tests and issue competency certificates

Mayor
Study the CIB initiative and evaluate the benefits Make the initial decision and issue directive to commence a CIB pilot project. Chair the CIB Steering committee in the first year. Public face of the CIB initiative for the media and Council in the first two years. Some involvement in the implementation of early improvements public speaking, political guidance, promoting change, supporting CIB project team leaders.

CIB Coordinators
Participate in the initial CIB project teams CIB project team leaders for initial projects CIB trainers, mentors, coaches Coordinate CIB projects and staff allocated to the teams Members of the CIB Steering committee Members of the CIB Working group

Council
Debate the benefits of a CIB initiative with the Mayor. Support the Mayor in commencing a CIB pilot project with vote of confidence. Possibly one seat on the CIB Steering committee for the first year. Keep abreast of CIB project progress and communicate progress to their constituents. Final endorsement of improvement recommendations in the first two years.

CIB project team leader


Lead a CIB project Present CIB project results to the Steering committee Assist CIB project team members Coach CIB team members

CIB project team members


Contribute to the CIB phases 2 to 6 (Analyze - Implement) for the CIB project .

Deputy Mayor, Commissioner or Chief Executive Officer


Same as the Mayor, should they take the lead role instead of the Mayor.

Service users
Participate in customer surveys, discussion groups Provide feed back to Council on service improvements

Directors or Deputy Commissioners


Member of the CIB Steering Committee. Member of the CIB Working group. Possibly the Accountable officer. Possibly one of the coordinators.

Citizen representative groups


Participate in citizen surveys and discussion groups. Possible member of the CIB Steering committee. Possibly assist in implementation monitoring.

Service Managers
Participate on a CIB improvement project. Evaluate CIB recommendations. Manage the CIB Change program or change implementations.

Non-government organizations
Possible member of the CIB Steering committee. Assist in customer and citizen surveys Provide the Citizen scorecard results to assist in prioritizing services for improvement Possibly assist in implementation monitoring.

Service delivery staff


Lead CIB project teams and train other staff (see CIB coordinator below). Participate on CIB project teams (see CIB team member below). Deploy customer and citizen surveys. Assist in the CIB change implementation. Test new operating procedures and assist in their refinement.

Funding agencies
Fund the Facilitator for the first two years. Fund selected CIB recommendations. Monitor CIB implementation success

CIB Facilitator
(may come from a supportive educational institute)
Champion the CIB cause. Train initial staff within the municipality

The media
Assist in citizen surveys. Promote the benefits of CIB and the improved services that result. Assist in publicizing how to use a new service.

Success Stories
Introduction> These examples show some of the results possible with CIB - follow the links to find out more. Numerous improvements were achieved in the first regional project in 1998-2000; amongst these were the introduction of Customer service, deployment of a solid waste daily collection service, educating residents in waste collection and re-cycling, increasing on-street car parking and introduction of a littering action team. See Bangalore, Cebu and Colombo for slideshows containing more information; From 1999 to 2001 Colombo Municipal Council (CMC) in Sri Lanka completed a major exercise to introduce a solid waste collection service for the under-served communities. Click here for a report on Colombo improvements. From 1998 to 2004 Bangalore Mahanagara Palike (BMP) in India has been pursuing service improvements on a wide front. The service improvements have included Solid waste collection, Customer service, Property tax assessment and collection, Vehicle parking, Street vendors, Footpath maintenance, Public toilets and Vocational training - click on the links for reports. Many of these service improvements have been targeted to the poorer communities. Follow this link for a summary slideshow. Naga City in the Philippines has been pursuing equity and service improvements to its poor for many years. Some of their major initiatives include, subsidized land acquisition, urban development, building residents capacity to engage government, institutional support such as loan financing. These improvements have been achieved through inclusive governance, openness with the community, and engagement with key stakeholders and innovative solutions. Their latest improvement is publication of a Citizen Charter. Follow this link for a report containing details.

How to use the Learning toolkit


Introduction>

How the toolkit can help you


The Learning toolkit is intended to help service providers use Continuous Improvement and Benchmarking (CIB) successfully to improve service delivery. The toolkit presents a practical, comprehensive and proven guide to effective techniques and tools for service improvement.

Requirements
To use the toolkit, you need a personal computer with Windows 2000 or higher, Microsoft Office 2000 or later, a CD drive and an internet browser such as Internet Explorer 5 or later. The toolkit is best viewed at screen resolutions of 1024X768 or higher.

Take a tour of the Toolkit


We strongly recommend you gain an appreciation of the contents of the toolkit, by taking a tour.

Navigation
Use the left side of the screen to navigate through the phases of CIB, in the order shown. Links within pages take you to more information and documents such as training guides, slideshows and forms.

Readiness
Introduction> Not every organization is ready to use continuous improvement and benchmarking straight away. To help you decide whether you are ready to take on this major change initiative, we have provided a self-assessment guide. You can score your organization on 14 criteria, including support from senior elected officials and managers, resources and organization culture. Print out the Readiness self-assessment and use it to decide whether your organization is ready for CIB.

Task pages
Each phase of CIB contains task pages describing what has to be done in that phase. You should work through the toolkit in sequence and do the training modules as they are presented in the links on the task pages. By learning as you work through your project, you can immediately apply each module in practice, reinforcing the learning and advancing your project. Each training module takes around three hours to complete.

Prepare

Appoint the Accountable Officer


Prepare>

Purpose
To appoint a capable individual who will ensure your CIB initiative succeeds.

Why do you need an Accountable Officer?


In this phase you will establish the management structure to plan, implement and sustain CIB. There are five steps:
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Appoint an Accountable officer. Organize a Steering committee. Organize a Working group. Appoint an external Facilitator. Plan a Pilot CIB implementation.

For a CIB initiative to succeed it is critical to have one person that is accountable for its implementation. This person should be a senior person with the authority, the interest and the commitment to make sure your CIB initiative succeeds. You need only one of these people in your municipality, and the position and appointment should be endorsed by the Mayor or Council to indicate the correct level of priority, commitment and authority. For example: In the city of Cebu, Philippines, the accountable person was appointed by the Mayor and was highly regarded by everyone as the Mayor's right hand lieutenant. He had a very keen interest in Continuous Improvement and was well versed in the operations of the government.

Who does this task?


The senior official who made the decision to proceed with a CIB initiative does this task. It is likely to be the Mayor, a Councilor, the Commissioner or the Chief Executive.

How to Proceed
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Specify the position of CIB Accountable Officer - see the Role guide provided. Identify a short list of suitable candidates. Interview candidates and assess their suitability. Appoint the officer. Communicate the appointment to the organization.

Time
This task should take no more than two weeks.

Organize a Steering Committee


Prepare>

Organize a CIB Working Group


Prepare>

Purpose
To appoint a group of senior managers to oversee the CIB initiative.

Purpose
To appoint a CIB Working Group to assist CIB project teams.

Why do you need to appoint a facilitator?


There are always day to day issues that arise for people working on CIB projects. Although a lot of answers can be found in the CIB Learning toolkit, there are times when people need to refer to someone who is more skilled and experienced in CIB than themselves. This is the role of the facilitator. The facilitator role can be as a coach, mentor, trainer or leader, depending on the circumstances. It needs to be someone who is familiar with the CIB implementation process and the tools and techniques used and who is keen to help others through the process.

Why do you need a Working Group?


The Working Group is needed in addition to the Steering Committee because the latter group is made up of senior managers who may not have time to devote to the routine support activities needed for CIB team support. The Working Group carries out many tasks to set up the program while the Steering Committee focuses on overseeing the initiative. The Working Group usually consists of 4 or 5 middle to senior managers and should include the Accountable Officer and the Facilitator. The working Group usually meets every fortnight during the early stages of the CIB implementation.

Who does this task?


The Accountable Officer recommends the Steering Committee members to the senior person within your municipality who decided to introduce the CIB initiative.

Who does this task?


The Accountable Officer selects and recommends the Working Group, then seeks endorsement from the Steering Committee.

How to proceed
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Agree the role of the Steering Committee - a Guide is provided for you. Identify suitable candidates. Seek senior management approval. Issue invitation to join. Appoint Steering Committee members. Convene Steering Committee meetings. A Standing Agenda is provided.

How to proceed
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Agree Terms of Reference for the Working Group - see the Guide provided. Identify suitable candidates. Seek Steering Committee endorsement. Invite candidates to join Working Group. Appoint members to the Working Group. Notify rest of Organization about appointments. Conduct working meetings - a Standing Agenda is attached.

Time
This task should take no more than two weeks.

Time
This task should take no more than two weeks.

Appoint the Facilitator


Prepare>

Plan pilot CIB implementation


Prepare>

Purpose
To appoint a capable and dedicated individual who will fully support your CIB team members in their projects. The facilitator will be their coach, mentor and trainer.

Purpose
To develop a plan for up to three pilot CIB projects, to enable evaluation of the approach and modification to suit the organization.

Why do you need to appoint a facilitator?


There are always day to day issues that arise for people working on CIB projects. Although a lot of answers can be found in the CIB Learning toolkit, there are times when people need to refer to someone who is more skilled and experienced in CIB than themselves. This is the role of the facilitator. The facilitator role can be as a coach, mentor, trainer or leader, depending on the circumstances. It needs to be someone who is familiar with the CIB implementation process and the tools and techniques used and who is keen to help others through the process.

Why plan a pilot?


Before a municipality embarks upon a major initiative such as Continuous Improvement and Benchmarking, the Mayor and council must be confident that the effort and resources will yield benefits that are practical and sustainable. To develop this level of confidence, we recommend you run several CIB pilot projects. They will provide evidence of the effectiveness of the approach. You will also learn how to modify the approach to best fit your organisation. We expect that every effort will be made to ensure these pilot projects do succeed, and you can apply the CIB process to more projects with wider benefits. To get the most out of the pilot projects, there will be more tasks to complete than the pilot projects themselves; you will need to brief the Mayor and council, you will need to use the media to promote your successes and you will need to update your managers so they can see the benefits of these improvements.

Who does this task?


The Accountable officer should appoint the facilitator.

How to proceed
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Specify the position of Facilitator - see the Role guide provided. Identify a short list of suitable candidates. Interview candidates and assess their suitability. Appoint the Facilitator. Communicate the appointment to the organization.

Who does this task?


The CIB Working group will develop the Pilot Implementation plan, and seek its endorsement by the Steering Committee.

Time
This task should take between two and four weeks.

How to Proceed
1. Read the Pilot Implementation Plan guide. 2. Agree the objectives of running a small number of CIB Pilot projects. 3. Nominate the services to be the subject of the Pilot projects and the CIB project team leaders. 4. List the tasks needed to complete the CIB Pilot projects. 5. Agree start and finish dates for each of the major tasks. 6. Agree the financial resources to fund each pilot project. 7. Document a funding request for the CIB Pilot Plan. 8. Submit the Plan and funding request , using the Pilot Implementation Plan guide to the Steering Committee for their endorsement. 9. Commence the approved Pilot projects.

Time
This task should take about two weeks.

Organize

Analyze

Purpose
To organize an individual CIB project.

The purpose of the Analyze phase of a CIB project is to investigate the current performance of the service and find out the customers' and community's views on the service delivery. The Analysis phase involves six tasks:

Why plan individual CIB projects?


All CIB projects work best with a plan. Individual project team members will better understand what tasks they need to complete, when these tasks need to start and when they need to finish. Some tasks are quite independent, whereas others are dependant upon or rely upon other tasks to be completed before hand. The CIB Steering committee will also want to know how your CIB project is progressing and whether or not it will succeed in its objectives. After the plan is approved by the Steering committee, the CIB project team members will all have a clear understanding of their roles, the tasks they will complete, the priority the plan has over every-day work, and the expectations of the CIB Steering Committee.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Define the service Understand the service Measure the service Survey the customer Consult the community Investigate problems

Who does this task?


The CIB Project team leader will plan the project, with the help of the Facilitator and the Working group.

How to Proceed
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Complete the Training: read the guide, slideshow, worked example and assessment. Review the Service nomination from the Steering Committee. Identify key stakeholders in the service. Identify other initiatives that may impact this project. Propose the project team members and confirm their availability. Propose a resource budget. Fill in the details, using the CIB Project Plan. Submit the proposed project plan to the Steering committee. Read the team leader's guide to Getting the best out of your team.

Time
Complete this task in the first week of the project.

Define the service


Analyze>

assure them that you can complete the Innovate phase within three months.

Who does this task?


CIB Project team members do this task.

Purpose
To ensure the team focuses on improving the service processes that have the greatest impact, and to ensure the project

How to Proceed
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Complete the Training: read the guide, slideshow, worked example and assessment. Review your CIB Project plan; Research what the service entails using the Service definition worksheet; Define the service processes and rate their general performance and importance using the Process selection worksheet; Select the service processes to be the subject of this CIB project; Define the chosen service processes using the Process definition worksheet; Verify the chosen scope can be completed within three months, by reviewing the CIB project plan; and Seek Steering committee endorsement of the Updated CIB project plan and your service process selection.

Why define the service?


A service is made up of many processes and it is important for the team to focus on the most important processes that, when improved, will contribute most to the objective. There are three requirements you need to consider when defining a service:
1. The level of detail must be enough to ensure the team members have a clear understanding of what processes are to be addressed by this project; 2. The scope of the project should be such that you can complete all of the phases up to the Innovate phase within three months; and 3. The scope must include those processes that have maximum impact on the objective of the project.

Time
Complete in week 1

As an example, suppose the nominated service is Solid waste. This service includes the following service processes:
Educating the public on waste recycling and disposal Collecting waste Transferring waste Land filling waste Waste separation and recycling Rehabilitation, restoration or reclamation of land fill sites Maintenance of waste collection vehicle Monitoring for littering and dumping Warning and prosecution of litterers and dumpers Charging and collecting fees for some collection services Rehabilitating hot spots or known dumping sites

Understand the service


Analyze>

Purpose
To build the team's knowledge of how the service operates, what the transaction flows are like, what operational and financial risks there may be and what are the opportunities for improvement.

It is clear from the scope of the processes that it is not possible to analyze, review and innovate every service process of solid waste within three months. In addition the service may be delivered across a number of regions or towns, and there may be also a distinction between domestic waste, commercial waste and industrial waste. To scope the project so that it can be completed within three months, the service scope needs to be scaled accordingly. For example, in 2000 the city of Colombo, Sri Lanka embarked upon a CIB project to improve Solid waste. Their scope included:
Solid waste collection; and Education of the community; in Under-serviced settlement areas.

Why do we need to 'understand the service'?


To effectively identify improvement opportunities, it is important to develop a thorough understanding of how the service operates and what the processes are today. It is particularly important to identify problems with the service. For example: In one City, out of 80 garbage trucks that were in the depot, only 20 trucks were operational. The other 60 failed because of:
No spare parts; Mix of truck brands, so a range of spares was not affordable; Poor preventive maintenance; Overloading trucks; Poor driver and user skills resulting in damage; and Not enough resources to repair trucks due for major overhaul.

If the team chooses to only focus on a limited number of processes within the service, then it will be necessary to go back to your Steering committee and confirm with them the actual scope of this project, and to

Another City looked at the way the new City Hall reception area operated and found:
There were no signs to direct visitors to departments; Unsightly commercial advertisements were pasted to the front door; The guard did not have anywhere to store his belongings; There were no short term parking bays for visitors; Visitors could roam freely around the building - a security issue; A toilet did not have a closable door; An old unused storage cabinet was dumped in a corner; An employee was asleep at her desk; and The furniture was old and broken and not in keeping with the new City Hall building.

"Feelings" are not a good way to judge how good a service is performing. The outcome of the service is a far more important measure of performance. For example, a city may have an extensive vaccination program and people may "feel" it is effective but if the incidence of the disease is not declining there should be concern over the effectiveness of that vaccination program. Empirical data (that is, verifiable facts) is a much better way of measuring service performance. For example:
Staff in a city in India had for years "felt" that the city was missing out on a lot of property tax. After collecting empirical data it was found that only 30% of property tax due was actually collected within one year. This evidence was enough to cause the city to establish an improvement project to tackle the problem;

Who does this task?


CIB Project team members do this in collaboration with a small selection of staff from the service area.

By collecting empirical evidence and reporting the results to the Mayor, Council, the management team, service staff, and even the public, it is very likely that decisions will be made and improvement action will happen. The seven measures of performance are:
1. 2. 3. 4. Objective/ Goal Quality Timeliness Satisfaction 5. Affordability 6. Access 7. Cost

How to Proceed
1. Complete the Training: read the guide, slideshow, worked example and assessment. 2. Brief the service staff and advise that some staff will be interviewed by the project team. 3. Plan the work ahead, how it will be conducted, who will be interviewed, how records will be kept of the findings, and what photographs may be needed. 4. Arrange the interview schedule. 5. Interview service staff, walk the process, photograph the process, inspect documents and forms, role play the customer using the service questions. 6. Process map the service processes using the Process mapping worksheet . 7. Verify you have covered off all of the items using the check list. 8. Document your opportunities for improvement. 9. Thank the service staff for their participation and advise them on the projects next tasks.

Who does this task?


CIB Project team members do this task. Sometimes the team will need information from computer files or other storage systems and assistance may be required from the people responsible for those areas.

How to Proceed
1. Complete the Training: read the guide, slideshow, worked example and assessment. 2. Confirm the Process (Service) delivery model 3. Select the most important inputs and outputs to measure, and their measurement aspects. 4. Define the measure using the Performance measure definition worksheet 5. Source the data. 6. Name the performance measure title. 7. Collect the data. 8. Report the measure and your findings.

Time
Complete in weeks 2 and 3

Measure the service


Analyze>

Purpose
To gather factual information to measure the performance of the service or process.

Time
Complete by week 6

Why measure performance?


To prove, using empirical evidence, the current performance of the service. People often assess the performance of a service by the way they "feel" about it. Sometimes they "feel" it is performing well, other times they may "feel" it is not.

Survey customers
Analyze>

Consult the community


Analyze>

Purpose
To obtain a clear understanding of the customers opinion about the service performance.

Purpose
To obtain a clear understanding of the communitys opinion and support about issues.

Why survey the customer?


Often there are differences between the service provider and the customer about the level of service performance. The only way to really understand how well the service is performing is to survey the customer and ask their views on how well the service meets their needs. Another reason for surveying the customer is that it gives you the opportunity to explore options with the customer to understand what their views may be on the options presented. As an example:
In 2002 the city of Bangalore, India was looking at options on financing the rebuild of its public toilet facilities. One option was to charge a fee. There were concerns about whether people would accept the fee so the City carried out a survey of prospective customers. The majority of people surveyed said they would be prepared to pay a modest fee. With this response, the City embarked upon a major rebuilding program, and all users of the public toilets now pay a small fee that sustains the Toilets daily maintenance and ongoing operations. By surveying prospective customers the City was able to better assess the option of imposing a fee.

Why consult the community?


The Community consultation task is about surveying the wider community on broader issues that may not necessarily be service related. For example: A council may wish to test the community's views about whether it should invest in commercial activities to generate additional income. Some questions we may consult the community about include:
Would the community pay additional fees for additional services? Would it be acceptable to increase property tax to pay for improved services? Would the community accept a private venture to deliver some services? Would the community accept the municipal government investing in commercial ventures; Would the community accept a change in by-laws, traffic flows, parking restrictions, zoning regulations, or streetscape policy such as the removal of encroachers;

All of these questions could be answered by the City council, but a good community consultation process will yield responses to issues that are not politically biased and will highlight the majority view and intensity of feeling about issues.

Who does this task?


CIB Project team members do this task. In some cases other people may be seconded to the team to help carry out the survey. For example you may consider using an NGO, university students or casual employees.

Who does this task?


CIB Project team members do this task. Other people may be seconded to this team as required. For example you could use an NGO, professional consultation facilitators, a media outlet or media business, or a professional body or association for this purpose.

How to Proceed
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Complete the Training: read the guide, slideshow, worked example and assessment. Design the customer survey using the Survey the customer design worksheet. Prepare the questionnaire using the provided template. Test the questionnaire. Conduct the survey. Analyze and report the results.

How to Proceed
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Complete the Training: read the guide, slideshow, and assessment. Determine the consultation design using the Community consultation design worksheet. Prepare and issue information. Promote the consultation. Conduct the consultation program. Analyze and report the results.

Time
Complete by week 6

Time
Complete by week 6

Investigate problems
Analyze>

Benchmark

Purpose
To build the team's knowledge of underlying or 'root' causes of service problems and identify opportunities for improvement.

Why investigate problems?


To identify improvement opportunities you must first understand the underlying problems. By following the service process along and making a Process map, you will understand how the process works and note some improvement opportunities. The team can also use two tools to probe behind the obvious problems and find out the underlying causes:
Fishbone diagram. Why-Why diagram.

The purpose of the Benchmark phase is to provide the CI team with insight and an understanding of how other organizations, not just municipalities, deliver their services of a similar nature, and how they may have improved their services over recent years.

Why Benchmark?
This insight and understanding is important to the team as it progresses towards developing its recommendations on how to improve your services. It is very difficult to come up with innovative solutions to service issues, and many have tried a range of solutions, so it is faster and more efficient to take account of what other people have done, and to consider their experiences in your local context and from that, develop your own recommendations. Benchmarking therefore, is the sharing and comparing of service delivery processes, service standards, improvement solutions and the barriers that have been encountered and how they have been overcome. Benchmarking can look at a range of service delivery issues including:
1. How available the service is, or what access the residents have to the service; 2. How affordable is the service, and what prices are charged for the service; 3. Whether or not the service is subsidized by other governments or the private sector; 4. How fast the service is delivered to the customer, 5. How efficient the service is delivered, in other words what does it cost; 6. The Quality of the service in terms of faults, hygiene, environmental sustainability and social responsibility; 7. How the service actually operates; 8. What computer applications are used for the service; how IT is used; 9. What procedures or instructions are used to train and guide staff; and 10. What legislation or policies exist to control the service.

Your team can then document what it sees are the most important root causes and opportunities for improvement, and take them on to the problem-solving phase - 'Innovate'.

Who does this task?


CIB Project team members do this in collaboration with a small selection of staff from the service area.

How to Proceed
1. Complete the Training: read the guide, slideshow, worked example and assessment. 2. Plan several problem-investigation sessions with service staff. 3. Choose the root cause analysis tool - Fishbone or Why-Why - best suited to your team and the service problem being investigated. 4. Conduct the analysis. 5. Record the analysis on the Fishbone diagram or Why-Why diagram form, depending on which analysis you used. 6. Verify the analysis by having a review session later with service staff and by checking on key data to confirm which root causes are most important. 7. Document your opportunities for improvement. 8. Thank the service staff for their participation and advise them on the project's next tasks

The Benchmarking phase involves five tasks:


1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Identify what to Benchmark Research best practice providers Develop the Benchmarking approach Negotiate with Benchmark partners Compare with partners

Time
Complete by week 6

Identify what to benchmark


Benchmark>

Research best practice providers


Benchmark>

Purpose
To identify what aspects of your service you wish to Benchmark.

Purpose
To discover who is delivering a similar service that you believe is better than the service you are currently delivering.

Why identify items for Benchmarking?


Benchmarking is a valuable technique to discover innovative ideas that have been used by others. Ideas are hard to come by, and even harder to test, revise, prove and put into practical operation. Therefore you need to focus your Benchmarking efforts on the important items within a service to improve. Identifying what to Benchmark is an important first step because it helps to focus your efforts on the most important issues to improve and not waste time on those that may only return a lower benefit. Also, Benchmarking partners often have limited time to participate in a program, therefore you need to make the most out of your Benchmarking opportunities. To do this it is important to identify the most important issues that you need assistance with.

Why research best practice providers?


Once you have decided what to Benchmark, it is important to gain an understanding of who delivers this service in the best possible way. The best way may not necessarily be the same as your local context, nevertheless by looking at better service models, you will gain an understanding of the possibilities, and then at a later stage, consider whether or not you will adopt these features in your own context. For example, for a service such as Road maintenance there will be private contractors around the World that offer road maintenance as a service, and you may know of other government departments that also maintain similar infrastructure, such as the Department of Aviation maintaining aircraft runways, communications systems, accounting systems etc. Some possible Best Practice examples are:
Service Public health services Medical clinics Parks and gardens maintenance Street vendors Home and Community Care programs Public toilets Customer service reception Cash receipting and transaction processing Metering service consumption and billing customers Issuing property tax notices and collecting revenue Possible Best Practice providers Makati City Philippines Cebu Philippines Kandy Colombo Kuantan Malaysia Australian Federal Government Bangalore India Local Bank, Insurance company 5 Star hotel, retail shop, airline office, Utility office, Post office Mobile telephony service providers, Rank Xerox, Credit card providers Vehicle registration within Transport Dept

How to Proceed
1. Complete the Training: read the guide, slideshow, and assessment. 2. Review service performance, processes, issues, problems and root causes, and whether or not the desired outcome is being achieved 3. List all the issues you wish to focus Benchmarking upon using the Topic selection for benchmarking worksheet 4. Score then rank the issues list from most important to least important using the above worksheet 5. Decide upon the most important topics you want to Benchmark.

Time
Complete by week 7

How to Proceed
1. Complete the Training: read the guide, slideshow, and assessment. 2. Discuss the topics considered for Benchmarking. 3. Brainstorm/ research potential Best Practice providers in your own city, state, country, World. 4. Identify a shortlist and investigate more closely how they deliver their service by using the Benchmarking partner assessment scoresheet. 5. Identify those potential Best Practice providers you wish to approach for negotiation.

Develop the Benchmarking approach


Benchmark>

Negotiate with Benchmarking partners


Benchmark>

Purpose
To decide the specific Benchmarking approach to be taken considering the Benchmarking topic and the potential Benchmarking partners.

Purpose
To negotiate with a selected number of potential Benchmarking partners to seek their participation in a Benchmarking study of a specified service using a specified approach.

Why develop a benchmarking approach?


There are a number of different methods to Benchmark your services with your Benchmarking partners. This task is about deciding on the best method to conduct the benchmarking exercise. The Best method will be:
Quick and easy Fully effective and provide you with valuable and useful information Economical to conduct, without the need to incur large expenses Beneficial to your benchmarking partners as well as to you Interesting and enjoyable to carry out.

Why negotiate with Benchmarking partners?


You need to negotiate with potential partners so that each party knows what is expected and agrees to the approach you wish to take. A potential Benchmarking partner will have a number of questions to consider, including for example:
What benefit would there be in getting involved? What information, forms or documents could I use to improve my own processes? Do I have the people or time to devote to this? What will it cost me to get involved? What is the process, what would I be required to do? How difficult will it be to collect performance information? Will I be giving away classified information and will it be used for any other purpose?

How to Proceed
1. Complete the Training: read the guide, slideshow, and assessment. 2. Score your Benchmarking study needs using the Benchmarking study needs matrix. 3. Choose the best approach for the Benchmarking by comparing your needs with the Benchmarking model matrix best fit tool. 4. Develop an initial Benchmarking study plan using the Benchmarking plan worksheet. 5. Document the agreed approach and confirm potential Benchmarking partners

Your role when approaching a potential partner is to be ready to answer these questions. You must explain very clearly the Benchmarking approach that you have chosen, and how the Benchmarking partners will participate in this approach.
1. Complete the Training module: read the guide, slideshow, and assessment. 2. Agree on the organisations to target for negotiation. 3. Identify who is the best person to talk to and write to them, introducing the Benchmarking opportunity and seeking an initial meeting. 4. Prepare the Benchmarking information package. 5. Meet with the potential partner, outline the approach, present the Benchmarking package, and answer any questions they may have. 6. Modify your Benchmarking approach to accommodate their concerns or issues. 7. Prepare the Benchmarking partners' letter of agreement and Benchmarking code of conduct.

Time
Complete by week 7

Time
Complete by week 7

Compare with partners


Benchmark>

Innovate

Purpose
To discover how your Benchmarking partners deliver their service and what service performance they are achieving.

Why compare with partners?


To find out how your service performs compared to theirs, to identify improvement ideas. Benchmarking with partners provides you with insight on how others:
Set service standards Measure service performance Acquire service inputs Deliver a service Overcome service problems Monitor service outputs and outcomes Manage their service

The Innovate phase is the point at which you take all of your hard work from Analysis and Benchmarking and develop your own ideas and recommendations on how to improve your service.

Issues concerning innovation


There are a number of issues that you must understand before you commence your recommendations. They are:
To have a recommendation accepted and endorsed by management and council, the recommendation must be affordable, politically acceptable, clearly benefit the customer and practical to implement; With regard to affordability it is not always the case that your municipality is the only source of funds to pay for a service. There are many options including asking the customer to pay a fee, obtaining private sector sponsorship and obtaining Central Government support. In most cases if you think hard enough about how to fund a new service, you will find an external funding source. Therefore do not assume at this point, that thr recommendation is unaffordable; When a CI project team is made up of a mix of staff outside of the service delivery unit, there may be reluctance from the service manager to accept your recommendations. To get the service manager to be supportive of the recommendations and to implement them, you will need to sell your recommendations and convince the service manager that it will benefit them, as much as the customer. The task of selling your recommendations to the service staff can be difficult and time consuming; so dont underestimate the effort this will take. Make a determined effort to involve the service manager in this phase and seek their endorsement and support of the recommendations; and The recommendations implemented in the first instance may not work perfectly; be flexible in the acceptance rate or take up rate of your recommendations and accept constructive criticism in the short term, and be prepared to adapt.

A good example occurred in Melbourne Australia, where a number of local governments benchmarked their diversified fleet operations. They compared servicing and operating costs for their respective fleets and found that one fleet operator had lower operating and repair costs than the others. By investigating further they discovered the lower costs were due to using one supplier as the source for all spare parts and consumables, and that supplier had a lower pricing structure compared to the original equipment manufacturers. The other fleet operators dealt with the original equipment supplier, but upon realizing that the same parts could be sourced from an independent supplier they changed their source of supply with resulting lower costs.

How to Proceed
1. Complete the Training: read the guide, slideshow, and assessment. 2. Hold the first meeting to confirm the Benchmarking objectives, approach, tasks, schedule and participants. 3. Update the Benchmarking plan. 4. Undertake the steps agreed to in the Benchmarking plan

The Innovate phase involves four tasks:


1. 2. 3. 4. Identify preferred solutions Recommend improvements Secure funding Approve CIB Implementation

Time
Complete by week 10

Identify preferred solutions


Innovate>

Recommend improvements
Innovate>

Purpose
To select the best opportunities for improvement.

Purpose
To present your findings and recommendations for improvement to your Steering committee for their endorsement.

Why identify preferred solutions?


You may find many opportunities from your Benchmarking study but you need to identify the ones that will achieve the greatest benefit. Criteria to use to judge the various opportunities are:
It will clearly improve the service to our residents in terms of timeliness, quality, access, affordability and/ or their satisfaction; It is affordable and within the financial capacity of our municipality; It can be implemented quickly; It is technically feasible with our current technology or we can acquire the technology to implement the change; It will be easy for our employees to adapt to the change.

Why recommend improvements?


Solutions can sometimes require significant investment, so it is important that proposed solutions be approved by the Steering Committee before moving on to the next phase. To maximise the chances of the Steering Committee approving your work you need to present a well thought out report that helps the reader clearly understand your thinking and analysis. Two tools are useful here:
Impact Assessment. Barrier Analysis.

Assess opportunities and rank them using the above criteria. The ones with the highest score should be those worth pursuing in the immediate future.

Your team can then present its case in a clear and easy to understand format which will enhance the chances of approval..........

How to Proceed
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Complete the Training: read the guide, slideshow and assessment. List all of the most important opportunities using the Advance a solution worksheet . Develop solution strategies. Score the solutions and rank them from highest to lowest. Review the solutions for illogical results. Agree the preferred solutions.

How to Proceed
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. Complete the Training: read the guide, slideshow, and do the assessment. Agree the purpose of the report. Agree on the report index, using the Report template. Collate the preferred solutions. Develop an implementation plan using the Implementation plan worksheet. Estimate the implementation costs and benefits using the Cost budget worksheet. Complete an Impact Assessment using the Impact assessment worksheet. Complete a Barrier analysis using the Barrier analysis worksheet. Draft the report using the Report template Quality check the draft report. Present the report to the Steering Committee.

Time
Complete by week 11.

Time
Complete by week 11

Secure funding
Innovate>

Approve CIB Implementation


Innovate>

Purpose
To secure the funding necessary to pay for the proposed improvements.

Purpose
To seek final approval from your Council to move ahead with the implementation of the new or improved service.

Why secure funding ?


Most service improvements will require some additional funding to pay for immediate changes, such as new facilities, new equipment and new supplies. Ongoing costs may also increase to pay for the improved service to more customers. Funding may come from many sources, such as private sector sponsors, development agencies, NGOs, state and federal governments, finance houses and from internally, being the local government itself. To secure new funding from any of these sources, you will need to present a proposal that outlines your funding requirements plus how the funder will benefit from the arrangement. It is unlikely that a funder will provide new funds for an improved municipal service unless they are satisfied that:
The improved service is a real requirement of the community; The improved service can be implemented with the funds requested; The local government has the capacity and skills to implement the new service; There will be a benefit to the funder in terms of recognition or exposure; and The municipality has the financial capacity to fund the service over the longer term and to repay any related loans.

Why approve the CIB implementation ?


Where the proposed improvements are significant, or may affect many residents, or require substantial funding, it is likely that your Council will require notice of the proposal and will expect to have some input. You may also have limited authority to approve borrowings or spend money on capital items. Generally, approval will be required from Council to advance the implementation of a significant change to any service or infrastructure asset. Council will require all the information necessary for it to make a thorough consideration of the costs and benefits, risks and assumptions and the long term sustainability of the service and the required funding for it. For this to happen, the CIB Project team will need to firstly prepare a formal proposal and will likely follow this with an amended proposal setting out clearly how each of the Councillors' objections or concerns have been addressed.

Who does this task?


The CIB Project team members complete this task, with assistance from the Council secretary.

This task will address these issues by preparing the appropriate documents for presentation to the identified funding sources

Who does this task?


CIB Project team members do this in collaboration with the Finance Department of your municipality.

How to Proceed
1. Complete the Training: read the guide, slideshow, and assessment. 2. Put your proposal on Councils agenda. 3. Consider their likely objections using the Council members and their likely objections worksheet. 4. Prepare your proposal. 5. Issue your proposal to Council members. 6. Amend your proposal to accommodate Council changes using the Council members amendments worksheet. 7. Seek Councils endorsement

How to proceed
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Complete the Training: read the guide, slideshow and assessment. Develop a cash flow forecast, you may use the Cash flow template as an example. Prepare a financing proposal. Seek an interview and negotiate the funding arrangements. Document the funding agreement. Update the implementation plan.

Time
Complete by week 12

Time
Complete by week 12

Implement

At the end of the implementation, involved staff should be clearly recognized for their hard work and dedication to the new service; this is their reward and they will be more satisfied with their careers in your municipality; Lastly, the media plays a large part in: communicating with the customers (this may assist you in training the customer) and externalizing the benefits of the new service (this may assist council in their new elections and make the tax payers happy with their financial support for pro-poor services); so it is best to keep the media updated with your progress and to seek their support by them reporting the positive improvements you have made in your service delivery.

The Implement phase involves the following eight tasks:


1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Build the implementation team Involve managers and staff Plan the change program Document service standards and procedures Deploy procedures and train staff Train customers and suppliers Recognize and reward success Update the media

The Implementation phase of a CI project is where you put your recommendations into action. The CI project team may carry out the implementation work, but if the service is a large service, such as solid waste collection, then a Change team that is made up of supervisors and staff from within the service unit may carry out the implementation tasks.

Issues with the implementation


People have a natural reluctance to change the way they are used to and to take on additional risks that a change may not work well that might reflect on their own capabilities. There are a number of potential issues and difficulties that you should consider before you commence the Implementation phase; they are:
There will be a natural reluctance to change, so to counter this reluctance you need to get the service staff involved very early in the discussions about how the implementation will be planned and executed; To get service staff committed to the planned changes, they will need the opportunity to put forward their own views on implementation difficulties and the possible increase in their work load in the short term; involve them in the early discussions and acknowledge their concerns; No change program is implemented smoothly and without problems; explain to the service staff that we will encounter problems and failures, but also that we have the skills and the determination to overcome these short term issues and we will succeed in improving our service; Implementing a change program can be complex, with many actions taking place at once and many people involved. Some actions may be dependant upon others and some actions may be critical to the success of the program. To keep all of these actions under control, and to ensure each person understands their role and responsibilities, an Implementation plan is essential. The plan needs to spell out the tasks required, the deliverables or outputs, when they need to be delivered and who is responsible for them. Implementing change requires staff to be trained in the new process and to be given adequate information so that they understand what they need to do differently. A quick verbal instruction is definitely insufficient, and staff should be provided with: written instructions, diagrams, thorough training, a chance to practice their new procedures, acknowledgement they are doing the new job well or constructive criticism delivered in a positive manner. Reprimands and open criticism is definitely to be avoided. Customers as well as service staff may need to be trained in the way they use the service; issues of paying a fee, hygiene, completing documentation correctly and taking on some additional responsibilities may all play a part in the new service;

Build the implementation team


Purpose
To build an implementation team that has the skills, knowledge and capacity to carry out the implementation tasks according to the schedule.

Involve managers and staff


Implement>

Purpose
To raise the awareness and knowledge of all affected managers and staff so they will support the Implementation.

Why build an implementation team ?


An implementation team will be required:
1. Where an improved service covers a large territory, or 2. there are many tasks to be completed in a short period of time, or 3. the current CIB Project team does not have the capacity or skills to implement the new or changed service .

Why involve managers and staff ?


When people understand why a new service is being implemented and how it directly affects them, they will be more comfortable with the Implementation process and will not resist the change as much.

Team membership will depend on the implementation tasks and the skills needed to carry them out successfully. The team members need to be selected and approved, and they need training and support to carry out their tasks correctly. With a good Implementation team, the new service should be a success. Some Implementation tasks that may run concurrently are:
Amendments to computer programs; Educating the community on the service change; Training service delivery staff; Printing service brochures, forms, documents; Installing new utilities and services such as power, water, gas, sewage; Documenting new procedures; Making changes or upgrades to infrastructure such as counters, yards, depots, buildings, schools; gates, meters, offices, reception areas, doors, etc;

Who does this task?


CIB Project team members will do this task, but in collaboration with the senior managers of the service or section. It is important that the senior management team be seen to support the changes. If the change is significant, a senior management meeting chaired by the Mayor or Commissioner may be preferred.

How to Proceed
1. Determine the service staff that needs to be briefed on the Implementation. 2. Prepare the briefing materials. 3. Organize venues, questionnaires, input forms, presentation materials, facilities, and presenters. 4. Promote the briefing event and issue invitations to staff. 5. Hold the briefing event and seek staff inputs. 6. Collate and consider all staff inputs. 7. Amend the Implementation plan if necessary

In addition to the above list, these Implementation tasks may also be happening concurrently in different and disbursed locations. Therefore it is likely that you will need an Implementation team, to supervise and manage all of these tasks.

Who does this task?


CIB Project team members do this in collaboration with the managers of the prospective Implementation team members.

How to Proceed
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Complete the Training: read the guide, slideshow and assessment Agree the Implementation strategy. Select the team members. Brief the team on the Implementation. Consider the teams requests. Provide team members with individual plans and documents. Monitor team progress and support the Implementation

Plan the change program


Implement>

Document service standards and procedures


Implement>

Purpose
To develop a detailed plan of tasks and their timing so the Implementation is thorough and concludes according to the overall schedule accepted by Council.

Purpose
To document the service standards and operating procedures of the improved service so that service staff and customers have a consistent understanding of how the service will operate and what performance level is expected.

Why plan the change program ?


In some cases the Implementation plan that has been prepared to-date, has been to satisfy the feasibility and affordability question. Organizing an Implementation team will also require an Implementation strategy and some planning information. However, these plans may not be in sufficient detail that will provide adequate information to the team members so they can complete the task and deliver the outputs according to the needs of the new service. Additional information will likely be needed and may include:
Defining lower level tasks and specific outputs; Example outputs; Sketches or plans of a changed facility; Rough outline of a new form or document; Rough flowchart of a new computer program; Photographs of a similar installation; or A map showing the boundaries of the project.

Why document service standards and procedures ?


The documentation of Service standards will establish a consistent understanding between customers and service staff on exactly how the service will operate and what performance standards are expected. The Service standards should clearly document:
A description of the service Where the service is obtained from; What time the service is available; How the customer accesses the service; What inputs the customer needs to make; Price of the service; The performance of the service: Speed of delivery Quality of the deliverables; Level of customer satisfaction; Level of access; What to do in case the service fails or the customer wishes to lodge a complaint; Confidentiality of the service information; Dependence upon other providers or utilities that Council cannot be held accountable for should a disruption occur with their services (electricity, water supply etc.).

The level of detail should be equal to the degree of management and monitoring that is necessary to minimize the risk of a task being faulty or late, and the degree of direction necessary to ensure the task is completed properly.

Who does this task?


Where a new service is being implemented concurrently in many areas, the CIB Project team should plan a Change program. Where there is some latitude or decision making at the local level; the planning should be done by the Implementation team at the local level.

The service procedure should be in sufficient detail, that any Council staff member can deliver the service process by referring to the service procedure. The procedure should explain:
What the input/ trigger point is to commence the procedure; When should the procedure be commenced; What specific actions are required; What forms or computer programs to use; What outputs are created; What approval levels are required; Where the outputs are delivered; What to do if an exception occurs; and The overall timing of the individual tasks.

How to Proceed
1. Determine whether or not a Change program needs to be defined at the local level or the central level. 2. Assign responsibility to develop the Change program. 3. Develop the Change programs (detailed implementation plan). 4. Verify that all Change programs are consistent with the overall Implementation plan, finish dates, estimated resources and costs. 5. Approve the detailed Change programs. 6. Encode the Change programs with a Version control and/ or approval date and the name of the approver.

Who does this task?


For a small change to a process that is consistent across the whole of Council, the CIB Project team can complete this task. Where the improved service is large and must be delivered in a consistent manner across the whole of Council, the service specification can be drafted by the CIB Project team, and then it should be approved by the Council. Where the new service and procedure is unique to an area, then the local Implementation team should document the Service standards and procedures in collaboration with the local service manager and their staff.

All managers in the City; All employees in the City; All service staff involved in the procedure; On a request basis; Anybody using the Intranet or Internet. 12. Document the service procedure using the agreed format and medium. 13. Approve the new procedure and register it in the Procedure index (or version control).

Deploy procedures and train staff


Implement>

Purpose
To provide information and direction to all service staff so they can deliver the improved service according to the improved design and achieve the expected service performance targets.

How to Proceed
Define the service standards.
1. Obtain and review your Councils standards for documenting Service standards and operating procedures. 2. If the above is not available, then define how Service standards are to be documented and version controlled in your Council. 3. Define the performance standards for the service in respect of: Timeliness; Quality; Customer service and satisfaction; Access. 4. Define the other components of the Service standard. 5. Develop a publication and distribution strategy. Publication format and medium options are: Service brochure; Council internet site; Council Service directory; Service poster, Sign board etc. Distribution options are: All households; All school students; All commercial businesses; All customers; All residents. 6. Publish and distribute the Service standards in the agreed format.

Why deploy procedures and train staff ?


Service staff will need very clear direction on what procedure is to be followed in the delivery of an improved service. Service procedures are often written and forgotten; held in a filing cabinet or in some managers office. Very often, the operating procedures are out of date, not distributed to relevant staff, have pages missing, are out of date and are not version controlled. In these circumstances, it is little wonder that service staff inherit a process from their predecessor, invent their own process, evolve the process over time to meet changing needs and eventually have a process that is unique, complex and inefficient. Operating procedures need to be:
Quickly accessible to all staff delivering the service; Up-to-date and complete; and Clear and understandable to the service operator.

Define the operating procedures.


7. Obtain and review your Councils standards for documenting operating procedures. 8. If the above is not available, then define how procedures are to be documented and version controlled in your Council. 9. Process map the improved service (how it will operate). 10. Agree the process map with the servi;ce manager. 11. Develop a publication and distribution strategy. Publication format and medium options: Procedure manual; Loose leaf paper pages; Cards; Intranet site; Electronic document on a central server. Distribution options:

Operating procedures can be distributed to relevant staff using:


Paper based manuals with version control and serial number control; Individual pages that can be inserted into a book or manual; Individual cards that can be filed in a card box for quick access; Intranet site using an electronic index or find function to each page; An electronic manual located on a local area network, incorporating an electronic index or find feature (e.g. MS Word document with a table of contents);

In addition to deploying the operating procedures to all relevant staff, it is important that staff are trained in the new procedure and have the opportunity to practice the procedure, experiment with exception conditions, role play a difficult customer or transaction and contribute to the further refinement of the procedure.

Training on the procedure can be delivered: face to face, using a video training tape, using a workshop with service staff or a formal class room environment. Training can be scheduled:
Whenever the process changes; On an regular cyclical basis covering both changes and existing procedures; For new staff or staff re-assigned to a new position/ process; On a request basis; or In response to an unsatisfactory result from an internal audit program.

Train customers and suppliers


Implement>

Purpose
To raise the understanding of customers and suppliers on how the improved service is to operate and what specific actions are required from them to ensure service performance can be achieved as specified.

At all times, staff should feel confident that they are performing their work according to the designed process and within their level of authority. Should they feel unsure of any aspect of the process or authority, they should have access to the operating procedures for personal reference, and to training and support should the procedure prove inadequate.

Why train customers and suppliers?


In all municipal services there are customers, service staff and suppliers (both internal and external), and each of these groups of people will have an influence on how the service operates. Customers often provide inputs such as information, documents, applications and requests, and should the Quality of any of these inputs be poor, then the service will not operate smoothly and performance will suffer. Likewise with suppliers; if they supply poor Quality inputs such as consumables, computer services, constructions and contracted services, then the service will not operate as planned and again performance will suffer. It is essential therefore that customers, service staff and suppliers are trained in how to work the service so that good performance is achieved. We have already addressed service staff training in the previous task, so this task will focus upon customers and suppliers. Often, customers are not trained in how to use a service, and they obtain this knowledge through making mistakes and being corrected, through many visits to achieve what should have been achieved within one visit, and the resubmission of documents to correct earlier mistakes. Initial weaknesses in the knowledge can be overcome in time with service experience, but this does not resolve the inefficiencies that are created by the first time customer, or the infrequent customer. You can see how well the airlines train us as customers, to ensure we check into the airport one hour before departure, have our ticket and passport with us and only bring a limited amount of baggage. All of this information is sent to every passenger no matter how frequently they fly. Imagine the airport chaos is passengers arrived late, did not have their ticket or passport available and brought too much baggage. Similarly with a municipal service, customers need to have knowledge of:
Where to access a municipal service; What actions the customer needs to take to access the service; What information needs to be supplied; What lead time is required to access the service; and How much the service will cost.

Who does this task?


The service manager responsible for the service staff should deploy the operating procedures and train their staff, because it is essential that the service manager be in control of their service and take ownership of it. If however, staff training is a significant step within the Implementation, the service manager should seek assistance from the Councils internal training resource or an external trainer, the CIB Project team or the Implementation team whichever is the most appropriate

How to Proceed
1. Nominate the staff that requires training in the new procedure. 2. Decide who will deliver the training and when. 3. Decide upon the training medium and approach: Face to face training; Video show; Workshop; Teach; Practice; Experiment; Role play; Progressive or all at once. 4. Develop the training materials: Operating procedures, Case studies, Role plays; Practice transactions. etc; 5. Publish all the required material for distribution to the staff. 6. Organize a training venue, facilities and computer access if required. 7. Deliver the training. 8. Seek staff feed back on operational difficulties or training deficiencies. 9. Re-dress operational difficulties or breach in the procedure. 10. Update staff records to reflect their training and new skills.

Much of this information will be contained in the Service charter/ standards, but often this information is not provided to the customer unless it is requested or after commencement of the service. Customer training is necessary for the customer to make efficient, quick and painless access to the service. Customers do not need training in all of the detail of the service, but they do need to be aware of the essential issues, or be able to find out about the essential issues prior to accessing the service for the first time. Training can be delivered through a number of mediums such as:
1. Internet access to the municipal web site, that provides basic instructions; 2. Service directory books, published and provided to every household; 3. A public reception counter, located in strategic locations where customers often frequent (e.g. shopping centers, business districts etc.); 4. A telephone hot line that will provide basic verbal advice; 5. Advertisements in news papers and other printed medium; 6. Advertisements on television or radio; 7. A service brochure that can be mailed to the customer upon request or attached to another document that has some association with the changed service.

5. Agree upon a training schedule. 6. Develop the training materials that meet the needs and fit with the chosen medium and participating agencies. 7. Deliver the training as scheduled. 8. Measure the learning and behavior change. 9. Assess the learning and behavior change and schedule further training as required.

Recognize and reward success


Implement>

Purpose
To Recognize and reward service staff, the Implementation team, customers and suppliers for their contribution to the successful implementation of the improved service.

Why recognize and reward success?


Everyone enjoys and appreciates recognition and reward for their contribution to a successful project or improved service. By recognizing peoples contribution, they will be more satisfied with their involvement and will support your municipality in the future with further service improvements. Recognition is not costly and can take many forms such as:
Letter of thanks, addressed to the individual and signed by a senior officer (eg. Mayor or Commissioner); Public ceremony where individuals are presented and issued a certificate of appreciation (special event, or at the Council meeting); Newspaper advertisement or public posters naming individuals or groups (including the customers and suppliers) that have contributed to the project, and thanking them for their contributions; TV broadcast of a site visit by the Mayor where the Mayor publicly describes the improved service and names the groups of staff that have contributed; Poster showing team members, displayed in the municipal reception hall; and Meet with the Mayor, Councilors or Commissioner and describe the team members experiences and achievements with the project.

Medium examples are:


1. How to lodge a building application and downloadable application forms, all available from the City Internet site; 2. A service directory setting out the service description, contact telephone numbers and basic instructions on how to access the service; 3. A City Shop located inside a shopping mall, that looks like a retail shop and provides basic information about Council services; 4. A telephone hot line number such as 777.7777 that connects the customer to the Seven Seas Municipal Council Help desk; 5. One page advertisements that illustrate the new one-way street map to assist drives to navigate around the city on the new one-way street design; 6. One minute advertisement on television that illustrates how a responsible driver should obey parking limitations in the City business district, and what fines will be incurred should they over stay the time limit; and 7. A service flyer brochure that explains how to use a Loading zone in the central business district that is mailed to the vehicle owner with the vehicle registration renewal advice.

Who
The Service manager in collaboration with the Municipal Public Information Officer should complete this task. This task may also be assigned to an external professional advertising agency that has dealt with publicity for other government services.

Rewards in the form of benefits may be also considered, but in many cultures this is not used. The benefits may include:
Once off financial bonus; Additional holiday entitlements; Additional education days and/or cost subsidy entitlements; Benchmarking visit to a neighboring city or country; Elevation in rank or status with a commensurate salary increase; Issue a gift certificate that offers admittance to a relevant event or purchasing power at a retailer of related equipment or consumables; Issue a physical gift such as a pen, office equipment, office computer, reference book, or relevant equipment; Renewal of an office vehicle or upgrading of an office vehicle; and Extended usage of an office vehicle.

How
1. Define the customer and supplier categories that require training. 2. Define the training needs or the change in customer/ supplier behavior that is required. 3. Determine the best training medium to be used to reach these customers and to achieve knowledge retention. 4. Negotiate with participating parties such as TV stations, other agencies for their support.

Who does this task?


The CIB Steering Committee should decide upon the reward and recognition events and benefits. The CIB Project leader may be asked for their input. This may also need to be done in collaboration with the Human Resource Department within the municipality and/ or the senior politicians, such as the Mayor.

With this reporting the electorate will develop confidence in their current councilors, and re-elect them based upon their positive performance. The councilors in turn will likely support on-going service improvements and promote the CIB process amongst their peers. Reporting CIB achievements to the media is critical to the development a sustainable CIB culture in your municipality.

Who
The Public Information Officer (or similar) will complete this task. It is likely that your senior managers or your Mayor will be interviewed and quoted in the media on specific improvement projects. The progressive collection of evidential material may be delegated to one of the Implementation team members as a specific task.

How to Proceed
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Decide upon the event or results that define the end of the Implementation. Measure the degree of success the Implementation has achieved. Define the people or groups that should be recognized for their contributions. Decide upon specific individuals or staff groups that should be offered benefits. Decide upon the method and timing of the recognition. Decide upon the timing, form and value of the benefits. Conduct the recognition events. Issue the benefits to individuals. Seek independent views on the degree of satisfaction with the celebration events and reward benefits and note any dissatisfaction for future reference.

How to Proceed
1. Maintain a record of all current and completed CIB projects. 2. For each CIB Implementation, progressively build up evidential material on the success and outcomes of CIB projects as they progress with their implementation; Customer interviews (Video and recorded) Supplier interviews Service staff interviews Photographs of changes (Video and still) Key Performance Measure trends (use independent data collection) Progress reports to the Steering Committee 3. Decide upon a media release strategy: when, how and who to. 4. Develop media release documents consistent with the media strategy. 5. Include customer interviews 6. Include photographs Include KPI trend data 7. Release the above information to the media. 8. Coordinate media interviews with senior managers and the Mayor or councilors as requested. 9. Monitor media reports and validate their accuracy. 10. Correct any inaccurate or misleading media reports. 11. Report to the Steering Committee (or Council) on the extent of media coverage in respect of your CIB projects.

Update the media


Implement>

Purpose
To provide information and evidence to the media with the expectation the media will positively report upon the achievements of the municipality in its service improvements.

Why update the media ?


Service improvements need political support to initiate them and approve their funding. That support will come from elected politicians that have a strong mandate to improve municipal services. That mandate, will come from the electorate by them electing politicians based upon their performance. That performance can only be known from personal experience and constructive reporting in the media. Therefore to sustain a continuous improvement process and develop this into a culture of the municipality, the media must positively report all of the improvement achievements made by the city and give credit to the politicians, staff and suppliers that have contributed to that improvement.

Sustain

The sustain phase of a CI project involves the following six tasks:


1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Accept feed back on new procedures Measure on going performance Adjust to counter poor performance Update budget assumptions Update the service standards Audit compliance

Gather feed back


Sustain> The Sustain phase of a CI project is where all of the changes that have been successfully implemented during the Implementation phase are now put firmly in place and the new service delivery becomes the normal way.

Purpose
To receive constructive feedback on the improved service or changed process from customers, suppliers and service staff, so that any initial problems are resolved and expected improvements are fully realized.

Issues concerning sustaining the changed process


There are a number of issues to be considered:
The original recommendations and the changes that were implemented may not in fact be ideal and through the imperfect design and decision process you may have made some assumptions about the service or the way in which the customer users the service, that have now proved to be untrue; It is important therefore, that you seek the opinions of your customers and staff on how they see the new service operating and whether or not there are any flaws in the service, or if with a small amount of additional effort the service could be improved yet further; Often the management team and service staff will assume that with the delivery of a good service, then the service objectives will be achieved; for example if we deliver excellent education so that children and young adults will achieve employment, the assumption is therefore that with a good education you will get a job; we will never know this unless we measure whether or not school leavers actually are employed; When an imperfect service results, and you can see weaknesses in the outputs of the outcome is not being achieved, then this is the time to make the minor corrections to make the service better, as was your objective in the first place. Often the CI project team and the Implementation team will simply accept the minor failings of the changes, and are reluctant to make that extra bit of effort to achieve the original goals maybe they are tired and exhausted from all of the previous effort dont give up; make those final adjustments and you will end up with the results you long for; As the new service is delivered it is important that it receives appropriate funding in the future so that the service standard does not deteriorate. To do this the budget assumptions regarding output costs, volume of outputs delivered, forecast demand levels and demand dampening strategies, all need to be input to the budget considerations; You owe it to the customer a clear indication of the service standards you are promising to deliver, including; response times, Quality, customer satisfaction, fee levels, and access. This promise, can be expressed in a Service charter or Service description and once issued, you will be under an obligation to fulfill your promise; To ensure that the new service and its service processes are delivered into the future you should be monitoring the key performance indicators for this service to ensure that the standards are achieved, but also you should look at the processes to ensure they are being complied with. Most municipalities use an Internal Audit resource to verify these items, and the Auditor reports to the council with their findings; and Finally, once you are happy that the service is normalized, and is operating in a sustainable manner, it is time to celebrate your success.

Why gather feedback ?


A new process or service will have been developed based upon what we believe is correct at the time of it's design and development. This will include how we believe the customer will react to the new service, how the suppliers will provide their inputs to the new service and how our staff will deliver the new service. Our most important belief is that the improved service will deliver the benefits that we expect. Many of these beliefs will eventuate and a better service will result, however some of our beliefs and assumptions may not eventuate, and we may need to correct the new service to fully realize its potential. It is important therefore, that we seek feedback on the improved service from our customers, suppliers and service staff, so we can be sure the improved service is operating as planned and the benefits are being realized.

Who
The CIB Project team does this task. Conducting a customer or supplier survey and collecting the survey results may be delegated to the Implementation team or to an external survey provider.

How to proceed
1. Decide what feedback should be collected and when: Service difficulties; Customer satisfaction; Supplier satisfaction; Hazards or risks; Access; Responsiveness. 2. Decide upon the customer, supplier, staff groups to participate. 3. Plan the feedback approach: Survey. Workshop. Focus group. Interview. Opinion box. 4. Prepare the survey instrument. 5. Test the questionnaire. 6. Conduct the surveys, focus groups, or workshops. 7. Collate and analyze the results. 8. Determine the changes necessary to further improve the new service.

Where the service process has been changed or extended, this should result in a change in output performance as well as (in the longer term) a change in service outcome. In many cases, service output standards will have been set and it will be incumbent upon the service staff to achieve these service standards. Outputs should be measured in respect of the aspect that is expected to improve. This may include:
Quality; Timeliness; Cost; Customer satisfaction; Access; and Affordability.

Finally, it will always be the case, that as a result of any improvement, the service outcome should improve. This is the final measure that should be tracked.

Measure on-going performance


Sustain>

Who does this task?


The measure definitions should be defined by the CIB Project team. The data collection and reporting should be an ongoing responsibility of the service staff. The monitoring should be undertaken by both the service manager and the CIB Project team.

Purpose
To measure the ongoing performance of the improved service to ensure the inputs are being correctly supplied, the outputs are being delivered as planned and the benefits from the service are being realized as expected.

Why measure on-going performance?


As part of the service improvement process, your team will have addressed changes to inputs, the service process itself and will have set standards of performance for the outputs. Hopefully, the service outcome will be improving as a result. Where critical inputs have been improved in respect of their timeliness, quality, cost or our satisfaction level, it may be necessary to measure these inputs to ensure they are received in an improved form, according to the new service design. To manage the improved service inputs and ensure they are supplied to the service according to our design, the improved or critical inputs should be measured in respect of the aspect that is expected to improve. This may be the inputs:
Quality; Timeliness; Cost; or Our service staffs general satisfaction.

How to Proceed
1. 2. 3. 4. Decide upon which inputs, outputs and outcomes are to be measured. Decide upon which aspect of these should be measured. Define the performance measure. Collect the performance data. > 5. Process the data and produce the performance reports. 6. Monitor the results and identify any failings in expected performance.

Adjust to counter poor performance


Sustain>

Update budget assumptions


Sustain>

Purpose
To analyze the results from the customer, supplier and service staff feedback and the performance results and take corrective action to ensure the improved service reaches its expected performance.

Purpose
To update the budget assumptions in relation to service access, service standards, output unit costs, and demand management strategies so that future budget allocations will provide sufficient funds to sustain the improved service.

Why update budget assumptions?


When a service is improved, and particularly if the service has been extended to reach more customers, it is important that the basis of budgeting (budget assumptions) takes to account the changed characteristics of the new service, so that adequate funds are provided in the following years to sustain the new service. In particular, if any of the following aspects have changed, then the budget will definitely need revising:
Additional customers have been added to the service; e.g. wider access to waste collection, more houses connected to the water supply, additional medical clinics established, additional public toilets built; service has been promoted and demand has risen; Service staff have been increased to provide a better service; Service standards have changed and there is wider scope in the service definition; Efficiencies have been obtained by improving the service process or by introducing computer technology and the output unit costs are less; Current customers are provided with greater access to the service by extending operating hours or extending the number of access points.

Why adjust to counter poor performance?


By taking the results from the customer, supplier and service staff feedback and the performance measure results, you may find that the changed service is still not performing the way you expected. In this case, corrective action will be required to reach the expected performance level. The likely issues that will result will vary according to your service and the improvements implemented, but some issues may include:
Customers are still confused about the new service and are still unsure of their role and responsibilities in service access and use; Suppliers cannot meet the higher standards of performance for the inputs; Service staff are still unsure of the exact process and request further assistance; Mistakes are still happening and the Quality of the service output is still poor; The outputs are still delivered late and do not reach the timeliness standards; The output unit cost of the service is still too high, and the fall in unit cost has not resulted; and There has been no change in the service outcome, even though the output performance has improved

Who does this task?


The service manager normally completes this task with support from the Finance section within the municipality.

Who does this task?


The CIB Project team completes this task. Some collaboration will be necessary with the service staff and the Implementation team to conduct the root cause analysis.

How to Proceed
1. Define the service scope what the service is, how it operates, any changes to the service over the last year, and what is actually delivered. 2. Calculate the last years average output unit net cost. 3. Forecast the new years output unit quantity . 4. Adjust the output unit price (fee) based upon Council policy and inflation. 5. Multiply the new unit fee with the new forecast volumes. 6. Adjust the old average output unit cost for inflation and additional scope. 7. Multiply the new output unit cost with the new output unit volumes. 8. Calculate the net cost based upon output units. 9. Prepare a line item budget for the new year. 10. Reconcile the two budgets at the net cost level to ensure resources are available to meet the new demand. 11. Adjust the service scope (standards) or output volume to achieve reconciliation between the output based budget and the line item budget 12. If the output volumes are reduced (compared to the forecast), a demand management strategy needs to be specified and included in the adjusted service scope or standards.

How to Proceed
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Identify implementation problems that need corrective action. Complete a root cause analysis of each issue. Select a preferred solution for each root cause. Develop an Implementation plan for the preferred solutions. Cost the additional corrective actions. Present the Implementation plan and its costs to the Steering Committee. Adjust the overall Implementation budget with the above approval. Implement the actions according to the Implementation plan.

Update service standards


Sustain>

In the Budget (or Service plan), we may say that ourTarget, is 90% of all telephone enquiries will be answered within 30 seconds of the call being made. The Standard is the ideal to aim for. The performance target is the degree to which that ideal should be attained

Purpose
To update the Service standards (or the Customer charter) to reflect the service as it will be provided in the New Year, in respect of its description, access, fees, timeliness, quality, process and grievance redress.

Who does this task?


The Service manager develops the Service standard (or Service charter). The Public information officer should provide the Corporate standard including logos, format, medium etc. to be applied to the final public document.

Why update service standards ?


As the Continuous improvement program reaches its conclusion, and the New Years budget is formulated for the improved service, you will be committing to provide the new service to a level or standard that will be different to what was delivered in the past. Customers, staff and suppliers should all have a clear understanding of the new service standard, so they do not have unreal expectations and they work to meet the standard. Following the approval of the New Years budget, or the normalization of the improved service, the service standard should be updated and published for the community. The service standard document should include:
1. A description, setting out what the service is and it's purpose; 2. The level of access; who in the community can access this service, where do they access and when; 3. The price or fee to pay for the service (if applicable); 4. The responsibility of the customer at the time of accessing the service; i.e. what does the customer need to do; 5. The responsibility of the service staff; i.e. what do they do to meet the needs of the customer; 6. How quickly the service is provided; i.e. what the response time is; 7. How accurate the service will be; i.e. whether or not any faults are likely, or imperfections are tolerated; 8. The level of customer satisfaction that is expected; 9. Exceptions that may inhibit service delivery; i.e. any items that the municipality is dependent upon, that are outside the control of the municipality, and should these events happen, the service may be affected; 10. Confidentiality of any customer information or data held by the municipality; 11. Grievance redress process; i.e. should the customer be unhappy with the service, how they can lodge a complaint or request the problem be resolved; and 12. The outcome from this service; i.e. why is the service offered to the community in the first place.

How to Proceed
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Understand your councils standards for documenting Service standards. Obtain the previous Service standard and review its contents. Review the recent changes to the service. Define the new Service standard. Develop a publication and distribution strategy. Publication format and medium Service brochure; Council internet site; Council Service directory; Service poster, sign board etc. Distribute to: All households; All school students; All commercial businesses; All customers; All residents. 6. Document the Service standards in the publication format. 7. Distribute the Service standard document.

The definition of key performance measures will be consistent with the statement of service level set out in the Service standard, however target values will not be within the Service standard, but documented in the annual Budget and periodical management reporting. For example: In the Service standard, we may say that ourStandardis that all telephone enquiries will be answered with 30 seconds of the call being made.

Audit compliance
Sustain>

How to Proceed
1. Decide upon who will conduct the audit and approximately when. 2. The auditor plans the audit program in respect of: What service processes will be audited; Timing of the audit; Staff notification method; Staff who will participate; Standing procedures that will be the reference point; Method of reviewing the current process; Method of documenting non-compliance; and How the results will be reported and discussed. 3. 3. Notify staff of the internal audit schedule. 4. Obtain the current standing procedures. 5. Review current processes and reconcile with the procedures. 6. Document non-compliant processes. 7. Prepare the Audit report. 8. Discuss the Audit results with management and staff. 9. Agree on a course of action to correct non-compliant processes. 10. Agree on a schedule to follow up the planned corrective actions. 11. Review the actual corrective actions and confirm back to management these are complete and effective.

Purpose
To identify any processes that have become non-compliant with the standing procedures and may result in inefficiencies, unacceptable risks or lead to poor performance.

Why audit compliance ?


To sustain the improved process the manager will be collecting performance data and monitoring the actual performance level. In addition to this, it is normal practice to Audit the improved process to ensure the service staff are still conducting the service according to the documented procedures. The reason for this is that some non-compliant processes will inevitably creep in and may take some time to show up in the performance measure, or may not be significant enough to have an impact upon performance. Other non-compliant processes may have been implemented in good faith and in fact do have a positive impact on performance, and these should be considered for adoption into the procedures. Just because a changed process step is non-compliant, this does not necessarily mean it should be abolished; it may be good to keep and standardize it. Your Internal Audit program may look over all processes over a period of time, but when a process has been significantly changed, as in a CIB Project, it should be audited around one year from the Implementation period. You have a number of options to conduct the audit; they are:
Conduct your own audit program for the service; Seek to have the service included in the Internal audit program; Seek to have the service included in the External audit program; Hold a staff workshop, and have the staff review the standing procedures and openly discuss actual non-compliance processes; and Have some independent person role-play the customer, document the actual procedure followed as seen by the customer, then reconcile this with the standing procedure.

Who does this task?


The service manager should request to have their service audited for compliance. Assistance may be called upon from the Internal audit function or from the external auditor to physically undertake the audit.

Institutionalize

Plan for a full CIB implementation


Institutionalize>

Purpose
To establish a plan for the full implementation of Continuous Improvement and Benchmarking as the agreed techniques for achieving excellent customer satisfaction on a sustainable basis. Following the Implementation of your pilot CI projects, it is time for your municipality to assess whether or not it wishes to pursue Continuous Improvement and Benchmarking as a normal operating culture. If the decision is yes then the organization needs to establish the structure, the information and the policy to make this happen. To Institutionalize Continuous Improvement there are eleven tasks to complete:
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. Plan for a full CI implementation. Name the CI initiative. Link CI to rewards and recognition. Establish a CI BM library resource. Develop a service listing. Identify pro-poor services as priorities. Nominate CIB project. Monitor CI project progress. Overcome barriers. Create flexible decision making. Build up internal CI capacity

Why plan for a full CIB implementation?


To institutionalize CIB in a sustainable manner, a number of facilities and items need to be in place. These range from human capacity to systems facilities, and require very specific implementation tasks to ensure their completeness and effectiveness. Establishing a formal CIB implementation plan for the institutionalization of CIB will go a long way to making this happen, and within a time frame that is acceptable to your Council. There are seventeen tasks in this Phase; some can be implemented concurrently to shorten the implementation period.

Who does this task?


The CIB Steering committee will plan for the full implementation of CIB.

If you are unfamiliar with the term Institutional capacity or would like to understand more about this subject go to An overview of what institutional capacity means.

How to proceed
1. Seek a formal resolution from your Council that your municipality will adopt CIB. 2. Advise all managers and staff that CIB is now a Council policy and all staff shall comply with this policy. 3. Review all of the tasks within the Institutionalize phase, as set out in this Toolkit. 4. Develop a CIB Implementation plan. 5. Seek Council approval of the CIB Implementation plan. 6. Issue the CIB Implementation plan

Name the CIB initiative


Institutionalize>

Link CIB to rewards and recognition


Institutionalize>

Purpose
To decide upon a unique name for the CIB initiative so the initiative is easily recognizable and memorable, and clearly coveys the objective of council, which is to continuously improve its services to its community, and particularly the poor.

Purpose
To develop and implement a reward and recognition system that will motivate service managers and staff to seriously pursue Continuous Improvement (CI) in their service.

Why link CIB to rewards and recognition?


Continuous improvement may not be sustainable unless service staff is motivated to pursue service efficiency and excellence. Continuous improvement programs require extra attention and effort, and any change process has risks of failure. There will be a natural reluctance to volunteer extra effort or to accept additional risks, unless there are rewards and recognition to make this worthwhile. There needs to be a policy and processes that reward managers and staff for their extra efforts and extra risk taking, and their achievements in improving their services. Recognition and reward options that may be considered include:
Additional annual leave days Advancement/ promotion Public recognition Financial bonus Paid education Paid study leave Additional facilities or entitlements

Why name the CIB initiative ?


For the CIB full implementation to succeed it needs to be elevated in importance, be recognizable and memorable with all service staff and be clearly supported by council, the mayor and the senior management team. Choosing and promoting a unique program name should achieve the recognizable and memorable objectives. The more unique and striking the choice, the more memorable the program should be. The name needs to also convey the objectives of council, being the continuous improvement of municipal services. Examples from other cities include:
PRIDE - an acronym used in Australia by one city meaning Promoting and Recognizing Individuals when Delivering Excellence SPRING - an acronym used in the Philippines meaning Simplifying PRocesses IN Government NIRANTARA - a name used in Bangalore India that means to continuously improve SIP an acronym used in Papua New Guinea that means Service Improvement Program DO BETTER a name used in Australia to reflect the intentions of a business to continuously improve its performance

Any reward and recognition process should be an integral part of the Personal Performance Appraisal system.

Who does this task?


The Human Resources section should develop the rewards and recognition policy and processes and have this endorsed by council. In some municipalities employee unions may need to be consulted, and local awards or employee contracts may need to be modified to incorporate this policy

Who does this task?


The CIB Steering committee should develop a choice of names, but it is likely youre council will approve the preferred name, logo and their application.

How to Proceed
1. Agree a method to generate ideas for name choices, logo, colors and application: Competition Workshop Brainstorm Research 2. Conduct the agreed method and generate a list of names, logos, colors etc. 3. Critique the suggested names and vote on a preferred name. 4. Submit a preferred name and some alternatives to council for their approval. 5. Seek councils formal endorsement for their choice of name. 6. Advise senior managers and staff of the name choice. 7. Have the Public information officer issue a press release that explains councils policy on CIB and use of the chosen name

How to Proceed
1. Seek councils authorization to develop a proposal for an effective reward and recognition policy and process. 2. Develop the draft policy and a process concept for submission to council. 3. Seek union and staff representative bodies endorsement of the proposed policy and process concepts. 4. Seek council endorsement of the proposed policy and process concept. 5. Advise all affected staff of the new policy and the process concepts. 6. Implement the new policy and develop the new processes. 7. Request Internal/ External Audit to report upon the correct use of the reward and recognition policy and process and its effectiveness.

Establish a CIB library resource


Institutionalize>

How to Proceed
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Determine the needs of future CIB project teams. Develop a concept plan for the CIB library resource. Cost the CIB library concept plan. Approve the concept plan and cost budget. Implement the plan. Promote the use of the CIB library to all CIB teams. Monitor the CIB library utilization and the teams satisfaction with the facility.

Purpose
To provide a supportive working environment and a source of knowledge to facilitate future CIB project teams so they perform to their maximum ability.

Why establish a CIB library resource ?


CIB project teams require support and facilities in the form of: Space to display the current status of all active CIB projects with their planned and current status; Space to display CIB team members contact details and methods of consulting with them on any CIB project related matter; Space for the entire team to meet and discuss issues in their project; Space to display service flowcharts, examples, pictures and other materials generated from their project; Telephone and a private area from which they can telephone customers, suppliers and staff to interview them on the project service; Computer equipment and access to the internet so they can research potential Benchmarking partners, access Benchmarking information, prepare questionnaires, process performance information and prepare reports; Space to hold and display example information such as municipal plans and annual reports, service charters, service offerings, promotion material, training materials, CIB recommendations, CIB performance measures and best practice performance, customer and supplier surveys; and Space and facilities to train CIB team members that have not had the experience of participating in a CIB project. An example is the Cebu SPRING Room.

Develop a service listing


Institutionalize>

Purpose
To prepare a listing of all municipal services and their current performance status so that poor performing services can be identified, prioritized and nominated for a CIB project. Generally a local government will deliver around 100 services, and this number should provide adequate detail and focus for you to prioritize services for improvement. An example listing of services is provided.

Why develop a service listing ?


Continuous improvement as a process needs to focus upon a group of actions or activities, a product or a service. A service, in the local government context is a group of activities that together satisfy a specific need of the community. A service can be broken down into sub-services so the CIB process can deal with specific issues and parts of the bigger service can be identified as priorities for improvement. For example Water may be defined as a service, but this can be broken down into sub services such as:
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Water catchment Water storage Water treatment Water connection Water reticulation/ supply Water metering and billing Sewage billing Sewage collection Sewage treatment Sewage disposal

Who does this task?


The CIB Steering committee should authorize the establishment of the CIB Library resource center, and the CIB Working group should carry out the necessary tasks. The Facilitator will be able to provide expert assistance in respect of the CIB Library inventory and any IT equipment that is required.

Taking the above list of sub-services, it may be the case in your city, that Water connection is not accessible to some parts of the community, and it may be this sub-service that needs to be improved. In other cities, Water metering and billing may be a problem, and in other cities Water catchment may be an issue. It is best to collect service information at the top service level first, then at a later time collect information at the sub-service level.

Generally a local government will deliver around 100 services, and this number should provide adequate detail and focus for you to prioritize services for improvement. Information relating to a service that can be collected may include:
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Service name; Description; Sub-service break down; Number of current customers or volume of output; The number of potential customers currently denied access to the service; The severity and frequency of incidents of poor quality of the service, or incidents of customers with related sickness or health problems; 7. The severity and frequency of incidents of poor timeliness of delivering the outputs, and in particular when the timeliness is so sever it equates to denial of service access; 8. The number of potential customers denied access to the service because it is unaffordable for them; and 9. The frequency and severity of customer complaints about the service.

Identify pro-poor services as priorities


Institutionalize>

Purpose
To identify and prioritize pro-poor services for improvement using the CIB toolkit.

Why identify pro-poor services as priorities?


A pro-poor service is a service that provides the minimum basic needs of a community in respect of:
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Water Waste collection Sewage and sanitation Electricity/ energy Education Medical and hospital Housing Communications Employment or sustenance.

When you decide upon what information is to be collected, please consider the basis on which you will prioritize the services for improvement (see Identify pro-poor services as priorities) because the basis will require information, that is being collected at this point.

Who does this task?


The CIB Working group should undertake this task, but it will require participation and cooperation from all service managers. The service listing can also be developed by:
The service managers independently; A specific project team set up to do this task; The facilitator; or A consultant hired to do this task.

The minimum basic service level provides:


1. Access by all members of the community that need it; 2. A Quality output (i.e. fault free) that is safe, hygienic and does not risk the health of the service user; 3. A Timely output that does not inhibit service access; 4. Pricing that is affordable and does not inhibit service access; and 5. Adequate customer satisfaction.

Should any of the above services have:


1. Sections of the community denied access to the service; 2. Outputs that in some way may risk the health or well being of the customer; 3. Outputs that are not delivered in a timely manner and ultimately restrict access to the service; 4. Prices that are unaffordable for some in the community, and ultimately restricts their access; or 5. Customers that are generally dissatisfied with the service,

How to Proceed
1. Agree on what defines a service. 2. Agree upon the information that is to be recorded for each service and/ or subservice. 3. Develop the data collection method and resources. Questionnaire to each Director/ manager Staff interview Manager workshop Use financial budget/ costs center as a base 4. Collect the service data. 5. Process the data into a spreadsheet or computer file. 6. Return the service listing to the responsible managers for validation. 7. Correct the service listing. 8. Implement a procedure to keep the service listing updated

then that service should be identified as a priority for improvement. The grading of the service seriousness, should be based upon:
The number of potential customers currently denied access to the service; The severity and frequency of incidents of poor quality of the service, or incidents of customers with related sickness or health problems; The severity and frequency of incidents of poor timeliness of delivering the outputs, and in particular when the timeliness is so sever it equates to denial of service access; The number of potential customers denied access to the service because it is unaffordable for them; and The frequency and severity of customer complaints about the service.

The grading should be evidenced by data that has been collected for each service (refer earlier task Develop a service listing).

Who does this task?


The CIB Working group should complete this task, however the final decision on whether or not a specific service should be improved using the CIB toolkit will remain with the CIB Steering committee (see Approve this CIB project within the Organize phase).

The project team leader should be nominated at this time, because there needs to be one person that holds the accountability for progressing the project. The team leader has the responsibility for marshalling the team, and commencing the CIB project with the Organise phase.

Who does this task?


The CIB Steering committee should complete this task, but much of the work may be delegated to the CIB Working group.

How to Proceed
1. 2. 3. 4. Obtain the Service listing prepared in the preceding task. Agree upon the definition of a pro-poor service. Identify pro-poor services that currently have inadequate performance. Grade these services according to their seriousness.

How to Proceed
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Obtain the listing of pro-poor services identified as priorities for improvement. Decide the objectives or the expectation for improvement. Decide the approximate start and end date. Decide the CIB Project team leader. Complete the CIB Service nomination form.

Nominate CIB projects


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Purpose
To decide which service or components will be the subject of a CIB project and to state the expectations for improvement from the project.

Monitor CIB project progress


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Purpose
To monitor the progress of all current CIB projects so that any delays, difficulties or barriers may be dealt with, or instructions provided on how to maintain the projects schedule.

Why nominate CIB projects?


The CIB Service nomination is a formal process to clearly set out the expectations of the Steering committee in respect of improvements required for a particular service. The nomination information has four important elements:
1. 2. 3. 4. The The The The service or service components that is to be improved; expectation for improvement, or the objective; start and end dates; and CIB Project leader.

Why monitor CIB project progress?


As each CIB project advances it is likely that some difficulties and delays will arise. Many of these will be capably dealt with by the team leader, but others may need the support of the Steering committee. We refer to the most likely problems and issues, as Barriers and these are dealt with in a separate page Barriers, and how to overcome them. In the early years of a CIB pilot implementation, there may only be a handful of active projects at one time, but as the initiative gathers momentum, and more projects are commenced, it is conceivable that many projects will be active at once. In the Philippines, a large regional city had approximately twenty CIB projects running concurrently. When the number of active projects exceeds ten, it is time to consider reviewing their status by exception.

The nominated service needs to be very specific. Nominating the service as Public health or Education will not provide adequate information with which the project team can focus its attention. A better specification will be Educating the community on public health issues or Food vendor licensing. The expectation for improvement should be specified in quantifiable terms if possible. An example may be Decrease the number of reportable food poisoning incidents from food vendors by 20%. In this way, we can objectively measure the success or otherwise, of the CIB project. The start and end dates for the project need to be set relative to the capacity of the likely team members to commence and conclude the project. Seasonal demand, other projects, normal work capacity and public holidays need to be considered.

Exception means that where a project is running according to its original plan, and the team leader has no issues or concerns, then the Steering Committee does not look at that project in detail. On the other hand, where a project is seriously late, or has some issues or difficulties that cannot be easily resolved, or it seems the project objectives may not be achieved, or the team leader is seeking assistance, then the Steering Committee should carefully review this project and provide the necessary assistance. The approach should be that all projects team leaders provide a monthly status report; these reports are summarized onto a summary list; one person reviews this list and identifies those projects that require Committee review. A set of traffic lights is one method of flagging the requirement for review.

Why identify Barriers and overcome them?


Based upon a survey held at a regional conference on improving municipal services, a work session discussed Barriers and how they may be overcome. The results of the work session showed the following Barriers to be the most common, and these would inhibit the implementation of improvements:
Individual staff performance is not measured; Staff do not have a personal training program; Managers and staff are not remunerated according to their performance; Budget allocation and justification method is weak; Provincial or Central Government hold the power of decision making; Managers are not rewarded or recognized for improving performance; Peers do not adequately support managers when change programs falter.

Who does this task?


The CIB Steering committee completes the monitoring using updated project status reports provided by each CIB project team leader. Each CIB project leader should provide a Project status report on a monthly basis (or more regularly if required). Where the Steering committee monitors only the summary report by exception, the facilitator or a member of the Working group will need to summarize all of the projects and flag those requiring Steering committee review.

These are fundamental barriers to change and need to be dealt with at the whole of municipal/ organization level. It is not effective to deal with these at a service level or department level, because this would raise inequality between those staff involved and those not. The CIB toolkit can be applied to address your priority Barriers. The approach should be to:
1. 2. 3. 4. Organize a team to look at the Barrier(s); Analyze the Barriers, particularly in completing a staff (customer) survey; Benchmark how other municipalities have dealt with the same issue; Innovate, complete a root cause analysis and identify your preferred solutions; and 5. Implement changes over time, recognizing the capacity of staff and managers to adapt.

How to Proceed
1. Have Review project progress as a standing agenda item at the regular CIB Steering Committee meetings. 2. Brief each CIB project manager on the requirement to provide a monthly project progress report. 3. Receive and collate monthly CIB project progress reports. 4. Summarize the projects status on a Summary report. 5. Review each project and flag those requiring S/C attention 6. Review CIB projects by exception. 7. Agree on the root cause of any project problems. 8. Decide upon a course of action. 9. Write up the minutes of the meeting and issue them to all members. 10. Advise the CIB project leader of the required action.

Who does this task?


The CIB Steering committee should complete this task, but in collaboration with internal departments responsible for Human resource management, Staff training, Finance, and the Council secretariat.

How to Proceed
1. Identify local Barriers that will definitely inhibit the successful implementation of your CIB initiative (use the Assessment of Barriers to change tool). 2. Identify the priority Barriers (those you wish to minimize in the short term). 3. Decide whether or not these priority Barriers can be dealt with collectively or individually. 4. Complete a CIB Project nomination(s) to deal with individual or collective priority Barriers.

Barriers, and how to overcome them


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Purpose
To identify Barriers to the successful implementation of your CIB initiative and implement strategies to minimize them.

Flexibility in decision making


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Provide authority to the staff to make their decisions based upon the level of delegation determined above; Encourage staff to make decisions on their own without referral to their superior, but assist them to do so during their early experience; and Monitor staff decision making using performance metrics or internal audit programs to ensure decisions are made within the powers of delegation and decisions are made correctly. The objectives of this model are: Customer requests are dealt with in the minimum amount of time; Decisions are made by the staff member closest to the actual request or transaction and who is most knowledgeable about the detail of the transaction; Decisions are made correctly; and The municipality is not put at risk in respect of:
Fraud; Corruption; Litigation; Financial loss; or Employee or customer accidents or injury.

Purpose
To delegate responsibility and accountability to managers and staff, so the municipality can operate in a flexible and responsive manner to meet the needs of its community.

Why pursue flexibility in decision making?


During the course of assisting many local governments with Continuous Improvement and Benchmarking it has become evident that many governments are constrained by the lack of documented policy and procedures, poor staff training, and limited delegation of authority and accountability. In many cases, simple decisions are not taken by the staff officer dealing with the issue because they are either unsure of the correct decision to make, or do not have the authority, or are not prepared to take the risk of a decision. In the end the decision is moved up the hierarchy of management, and inevitably ends up with the most senior manager who is overwhelmed by the numerous requests being made. Decision making then stalls and the customer becomes dissatisfied. A better model for fast and flexible decision making is: Have the policies of the government clearly documented so all managers and staff know the major business rules of their service, (these may be documented as service specifications, service charters, or government by-laws) Have all business processes clearly documented so that all staff know exactly how to deliver a service, and in particular what decisions they must make in respect of exceptional events or circumstances; Train all staff in the processes they personally deliver or conduct; ensure they know exactly how the process should operate, and the manner or method of their decision making to address exceptional conditions; Delegate decision making to do so, to the lowest level in the organizational structure that is commensurate with good risk management, knowledge, skills, age, intellectual capacity and maturity;

Who does this task?


The Mayor, Chief Commissioner or Chief Executive should undertake this task. They may seek assistance from the CIB Working group or the Human Resources Branch of the organization.

How to Proceed
1. Develop a model for flexible decision making. 2. Undertake an audit to determine the municipalitys level of flexibility, responsiveness, delegation and accountability. 3. Review the current legislation governing decision making powers and the degree of delegation that is possible. 4. Develop a policy that requires flexible decision making, underpinned with appropriate responsibility, accountability and authority. 5. Develop an implementation plan to deploy the above policy. 6. Implement the plan. 7. Repeat the audit to determine the improvement in the municipalitys capacity for flexibility and decision making.

Build up internal CIB capacity


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The above assessment tool can be altered to meet your own needs, and is not meant to be a prescriptive list.

Who does this task?


The CIB Steering committee should complete this task.

Purpose
To build internal capacity to conduct CIB projects quickly and effectively, so that the municipality can continuously improve its services, efficiently and effectively.

How to proceed
1. Complete a regular assessment of the municipalitys capacity to deliver CIB projects (use the Assessment of Current Capacity to Improve tool). 2. Identify priority capacity gaps that need to be improved in the short term. 3. Decide whether or not each priority gap can be dealt with as a CIB project. 4. Complete a CIB project nomination for those gaps that can be addressed as a CIB project.

Why build up internal CIB capacity?


The capacity of an organization to Analyze a service, identify opportunities, then implement those opportunities is often mistakenly understood to be simply a set of analysis skills. In fact the capacity of an organization to improve, includes:
Information; Skills in analysis and innovation; A culture of consultation and open communication; Project management skills; Documented procedures and instructions; Public information or public accountability; and Supportive financial and performance monitoring systems.

To ensure CIB projects are conducted in an efficient and effective manner, not only do the CIB teams need to have the technical skills to complete a CIB project, but they must also operate within a supportive culture and structure, and have appropriate information, methods and systems available to them. Where the underlying capacity to change weakens, or does not exist in the first place, then corrective action or improvements need to be commenced so that CIB projects have a better chance of success. To deal with these capacity weaknesses, you can apply the normal CIB toolkit and address your priority weaknesses using a CIB project. The approach should be to:
1. 2. 3. 4. Organize a team to look at the Capacity weaknesses; Analyze the weaknesses, particularly in completing a customer survey; Benchmark how other municipalities have dealt with the same weakness; Innovate , complete a root cause analysis and identify your preferred solutions; and 5. Implement changes over time, recognizing the capacity of staff, managers, council and systems to adapt.

The tool Assessment of current capacity to improve is provided as an assessment framework or audit check list to facilitate your CIB Steering committee to assess your capacity on a regular basis. We suggest annually so that improvements or weaknesses can be monitored for their change.