Masters of Arts in Marketing Communications

Middlesex University Business School
Academic Year: 2009-2010
Vishal Sharma M00275820

To Study the Role and Effectiveness of Social Media in Film Marketing

Supervisor: Dr. Evangelos Moustakas

September 2010

Project submitted in part fulfilment of the Degree of Master of Arts In Marketing Communications

Vishal Sharrma

MA Marketing Communications (2009-10)

Middlesex University

Pg 1

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY This research is to study the role and effectiveness of social media in film marketing. Social media is being populated by million as we read this research, by people who share, engage and ‘like’ content on every day basis. And as traditional media sources are feeling the crunch, the rise of social media not just as a platform of engagement but as a marketers’ paradise can’t be denied. This study aims to study how social media landscape is changing the film marketing efforts in UK. It would also test the effectiveness of social media platforms and their popularity among users, who are subjected to film campaigns every now and then. Concurrent mixed research design is followed with a combination of both qualitative and quantitative research approach. An audiences’ survey of 50 has been done online from the target population of London based individuals between the age group of 18 years to 37 years, who are regular social media users. Non-probability convenience sampling technique was used and to adapt it to the social media sphere invitation online sampling was used as a pre-cursor. Film Marketers’ interview was also conducted from London-based studios and film agencies with an intended sample size of 5. Snowball sampling was used. However, only one film marketer was found willing to participate. Both structured and unstructured questions were used. The study had three main research questions: A) Has traditional media being sidelined by the advent of social media? B) Has social media become the focal point of film marketing? C) What role would social media play for the film marketing in future? In this context the main findings were the social media was found to be the dominant source, and traditional media sidelined. There was a shift discovered in users’ preferences for information sources. Social networking sites and blogs were increasingly used for information sources. Additionally, users’ preference for being engaged with film content was found to be through the simplistic functions like status updates, etc and not with widgets and apps. Social media platforms were found to be used increasingly for user engagement, creating awareness, and to monitor and respond by marketers’. Users’ were found not too enthusiastic about user generated content, and marketer concerned about its brand implications. Lack of focus in social media was another concern.

Vishal Sharrma

MA Marketing Communications (2009-10)

Middlesex University

Pg 2


I thank my supervisor, Dr. Evangelos Moustakas, for the encouragement and advice he has provided throughout this research study. I also thank to the individuals who participated in the survey. Special thanks to Mr. James Field, account manager, Substance for his interview and referrals.

Vishal Sharrma M00275820

Vishal Sharrma

MA Marketing Communications (2009-10)

Middlesex University

Pg 3

Appendix B 13. Research Results and Analysis of Findings 8. Conclusions 9. Supervisor Contact sheet Pg no. Limitations 11. Acknowledgements 4.CONTENTS 1. Title Page 2. Appendix A 12. Introduction and Research questions Structure of the report Background Research questions 5. References 15. Appendix C 14. 1 2 3 5 5 6 8 11 11 18 18 20 23 28 36 47 58 62 64 65 72 89 101 108 Vishal Sharrma MA Marketing Communications (2009-10) Middlesex University Pg 4 . Executive Summary 3. Literature Review PEST analysis of the Film Industry in UK What is Social Media? How is Social Media different? Social Media: engaging users Typology of Social Media Social Media and its use in films: what is happening? 6. Suggestions 10. Research Methodology 7.

Literature review is followed by the research methodology. This is followed by the ‗research results and analysis of findings‘ section which discusses the findings of the study and the results. It takes a look at various political. Starting with the ‗introduction‘ section that provides information about the research topic and supporting data justifying this study.INTRODUCTION and RESEARCH QUESTIONS Structure of the report: This report is divided into various sections and sub- sections. economic. the sampling techniques. target population and the sample size. which in detail discuss the research design. Thereafter. PEST analysis is followed by the explanation of what is social media and how it is different from traditional media. It refers to various film campaigns. The final part of the literature review is about how social media is being applied in film marketing. This follows ‗social media: engaging users‘ an insight about the business aspect of social media marketing and information about what kind of users are pioneering it in UK. the utilisation of social media and its affect on user participation. the typology of social media has been discussed in detail to find out what exactly constitutes social media and what are its various platforms. This helps us in understanding the business environment of the industry and what roles various factors play in it. Conclusions and limitations are discussed thereafter. social and technological factors that are affecting the UK film industry. Literature review starts with the PEST analysis of the UK film industry. Vishal Sharrma MA Marketing Communications (2009-10) Middlesex University Pg 5 . tools and applications. This follows the ‗objectives‘ section.

however. Exploiting this medium. However. media consumption pattern. Orkut. marketers‘ indulge is wooing the relevant markets by identifying users who come well classified through social networking sites and platforms on the basis of their age. Not only this medium is cost-effective. 2009) Therefore. Often called the web 2. ―by 2013. providing second by second updates of actors through Twitter.9 million. dislikes. which is a 159% increase over the last three years. blogs. it also highlights another major feature: the mass presence of users using the same medium sharing.‖ (eMarketer.‖ Additionally. Picassa. Flickr. Veoh. organising Vishal Sharrma MA Marketing Communications (2009-10) Middlesex University Pg 6 . the social media networks like Facebook. gender. it is breaking new grounds as its basic principle is the voluntary user participation. and represent 50% of UK Web users. MySpace. This perhaps is the ideal situation for marketers‘. media sharing websites like Youtube.0 has been that though its inherently meant to share messages and content among friends and contacts. likes. engage and influence millions of people at the same time. Background: Social media usage has been an growing trend of this decade. ―usage of social networks and blogs now accounts for almost 23% of time spent on the internet in the UK. who for the first time have a unique opportunity to access. reviewing.Appendices and references sections have also been attached. the striking feature of web 2. contacts/friends who indulge in same group activity etc. commenting and influencing giving rise to a trend. widgets and applications have transformed the users‘ experience. According to a study by Nielsen (2010) [11]. various tools. Reaching millions with the video trailers of new releases.0. considering this incredible opportunity it is only justified that this medium is being used for film marketing. the social networking population will reach 21.

This is possible simply because each like and rating on social networks reaches hundreds beyond a user‘s personal network. Thus. Thus. This study aims to find what role social media plays in film marketing in UK. What do marketers‘ think about adapting to this media? Are traditional media outlets being sidelined due to this change? Would this media pose challenge for the film studios with increased competition from independent filmmakers who can now leverage their films through cost-effective usage of social media? Vishal Sharrma MA Marketing Communications (2009-10) Middlesex University Pg 7 . there is lack of adequate research on the effectiveness of film marketing through social media.virtual events. and its effectiveness. for an industry that seems to be having minimal effects of recession (other factors discussed in detail in the Literature Review section) and is in fact growing. The highlight of the meeting point of social media and film marketing is social media‘s ability to propel content into a viral cycle spanning the globe and film marketers‘ hunger to tap the fan groups and make them evangelists for their campaigns. (Box Office.5 bn and UK box office receipts were £944 million (2009) a rise of 11% from 2008. This would help in justification for the total budgetary spend for campaigns. Therefore. this study would try to address questions from both the audiences‘ perspective and also the marketers‘ perspective. there is a high need to understand from a marketers‘ perspective about the relevance of social media. Why this is important is because film industry in UK is worth £4. There is dearth of literature on how social media is being adapted by film marketers‘. helping in spreading the message far and wide. 2010). Additionally. live streaming of film premiere nights are just some of the ways film marketing has adapted itself to this new medium.

How are audiences‘ who are also social media users adapting to such commercial messages on their social platforms? Are these messages/content leading to commercial purchases? Are audiences‘ increasingly indulging with studios and their film marketing efforts on social media platforms? These are some of the issues that have not been discussed from a research point of view earlier. actors. Do they still rely on traditional sources of information about films. These sub-questions helps in getting a more insight about the research questions. new releases or have they made an transition towards social media sources as an dominant provider of content for their day to day needs. There are three main research questions which in turn lead to several sub-questions. This study would address the issue of effectiveness of this media as a film marketing platform and also document the role social media plays in the marketing efforts aimed at film promotion online. Research Questions: Following are the research questions formulated to study the role and effectiveness of social media in film marketing. Research Question I: Has traditional media being sidelined due to the advent of social media? A lot has been debated about how more and more people are embracing social media platforms and it has become part of the way they are communication. And marketers‘ have been quick on exploiting this factor. So is there a change in the media consumption habits of film watchers. From marketers‘ perspective it would be interesting to learn if the trend is towards the integration of various marketing channels available for film marketing campaigns Vishal Sharrma MA Marketing Communications (2009-10) Middlesex University Pg 8 .

Research Question II: Has social media become the focal point of film marketing campaigns? Is social media the dominant factor in UK when is comes to film marketing. What channels and platforms are being utilised and how effective have they been in engaging users for film marketing. Are only a niche audience being targeted or there is realisation among marketers‘ that more people are joining social networking sites every day? And there is also the factor of how seriously social media is for the branding of films.with social media platforms. What is interesting to learn here is how film enthusiasts are being engaged by film marketers and how are these users responding to their marketing efforts. Or has social media become the most dominant factor influencing their preferences? This brings us to our second research question. this third question will be answered. This would also indicate about the trend that is unfolding whereas the role of social media in film marketing is concerned. Has it become the focal point of marketing efforts and around which rest of the campaign revolves. Another important question that will be answered is whether there is new completion faced by film Vishal Sharrma MA Marketing Communications (2009-10) Middlesex University Pg 9 . release or merchandise selling) is social media most effective. This also raises some questions about at what stage of marketing (during promotion. is it having an impact? The above two research questions would lead us to our final question. Research question III: What role would social media play for film marketing in the future? From the inferences drawn from the above two research questions.

studios in the form of independent filmmakers. There are few other subsection put forth to marketers about whether the ever expanding tools and applications help marketers‘ in engaging users or would it confuse the customers. who can now use social media to bring users more closer to their campaigns leading to its popularity. And whether social media would lose its relevance if audiences/social media users find the content too commercial driven. Vishal Sharrma MA Marketing Communications (2009-10) Middlesex University Pg 10 .

(Ben Child.  Major studios like Dreamworks. This has brought a number of Hollywood figures like Steven Spielberg and Client Eastwood in open defending the council‘s existence. Press has been carrying news that film production in UK will suffer due to the closure of the council. According to the article in Guardian. 2010)  To boost Kent‘s status as a leading film industry destination. the chief executive of the film council demanding explanation on whether the council is routing funds for a campaign to save itself from abolition.‖ (Paul Lewis. communications and creative industries. 2010). ―Kent will now be the only place in the UK outside London to have the power to close roads temporarily so filming Vishal Sharrma MA Marketing Communications (2009-10) Middlesex University Pg 11 . The decision has been due to ―governments current package of austerity measures‖ (Ben ‗The Hereafter‘ and said that such a production could be less likely to choose the UK as a location after the council's abolition. Oscar winning actor and director Clint Eastwood ―praised the efforts of the council during the London-based shoot of his most recent film.LITERATURE REVIEW A) PEST analysis of film industry in the UK Political Scenario:  The conservatives and liberal democrats ruled UK coalition government has decided in favour of the closure of UK Film Council by April 2010. 2010). the minister for culture. Ed founded by Steven Spielberg have raised concern over the future of their projects in UK. parliament passed a bill giving new powers to local authorities in Kent. wrote to John Woodward.

The National and Regional Development Agencies provided £17. 2010) Economic Scenario:  The UK Film council has funded and promoted the British film industry. of which £3. the county claims the local economy has been boosted by the Kent Film Office. The European Union contributed £8.2 million.. which provided £110 million in 2008/09.. BBC Films £12. 12% of the total).9 million (£11.‖ (Ben Child. 2010).5 million.9 million.5 million Vishal Sharrma MA Marketing Communications (2009-10) Middlesex University Pg 12 . will remain in place.‖ (Paul Lewis. According to a spokeswoman for the Department of Culture. is currently due to close down in April 2012. to the tune of £14m. 2010)  Despite the proposed abolition of the council.1 million. 43% of the total.7 million and Film4 £8. Media and Sport as quoted by Guardian. which is worth more than £100 million a year. and Lottery funding for film is set to increase because of the changes the government has made.2 million. which was set up four years ago. ―The key mechanisms that support the industry.‖ (James Robinson. Gosford Park and In the Loop. 18% of the total) and the third-largest was the DCMS grant-in-aid to the UK Film Council and National Film and Television School (£ (Aug 12. including the film tax relief. ―The largest single source of public funding was the UK film tax relief. The second-largest source was the National Lottery (£45. It has ―provided more than £26m in funding since 2000 to films such as Bend It Like Beckham.can take place. the British film industry continues to enjoy government patronage through tax reliefs and other measures. 2010)  UK government provides support to films through variety of

Distribution and exhibition was second with £31. followed by video (20%) and cinema at 4%.000 jobs relied in some way on the business and 35. UK films including co-productions co-productions. with a record box office of £944m and one of the best admissions figures since 1971 (174 million). The current figures stand at 174 million viewers. Of the remaining activities. that‘s a rise of 11% (2008). followed by administration and services to the public (7%) and training and skills (7%). film archives and heritage and script development registered significant increases over 2007/08. pg 123) (refer Appendix A.000 people were directly employed.6 million (11%). 2010).in 2007/08) came from the MEDIA Programme. British films took a 7% share of Vishal Sharrma MA Marketing Communications (2009-10) Middlesex University Pg 13 . ―television accounted for 75% of the total film audience. as in previous years. 2010)  According to a UK Film Council report quoted by The Observer. accounting for £158. 2009 was a bumper year for UK cinemas. UK cinema seems to be defying the recession with the number of people attending the screens up by 6% in 2009 compared to previous year. Film watching via payper-view or other Video on Demand formats represented a small fraction of the total audience in the year (1%). 2010).5bn film industry and according to Oxford Economics 2007 estimates 95. (Henry Porter. Table 5)  UK box office receipts were £944 million (2009). ―Despite the financial crisis. (Ian Tucker. film production took the largest share.4 million (56% of the total).‖ (Public Investment in the Film in the UK. (Box office.‖ (Audiences. According to a report ‗Audiences‘ by UK Film Council. 2010)  The UK film industry is worth £4. accounted for 23% of releases (up from 21% in 2008) and 17% of the market by value. Additionally.

down from 95% in 2008. 2010) (refer Appendix A. (Film Industry Companies.1 million in 2003) while the internet has emerged as an outlet for film advertising (internet advertising spend dipped slightly from 2007 to 2008.2% share of the domestic market.‖ (Nielsen Media Research) (refer Appendix A. Table 6). down from £43 million in 2008. This drop in advertising of UK films was largely due to the lower number of UK/USA studio films released in 2009. though it had been stable in 2008. but increased from £4. The co-production median also fell in 2009. 2010)  ―The median budget of domestic UK features fell in 2009 to £1. and independent UK films took a record 8.9 million). In contrast.‖ (Datablog.the global market.5 million and is now only half the level it was in 2003 (£2. The most rapidly growing was production sector which increased between 1996 and 2009 by 356%. (Distribution. Approximately £28 million was spent on advertising British films. the median budget of inward investment features continued to rise. compared with just 56% rise of UK average. Press spend has fallen over the last six years (from £30. reaching £25 million in 2009. Companies like 20 th Century Fox and Walt Disney. ―The estimated total distributor advertising spend in 2009 was £168 million.6 million. The top 10 distributors had a 92% share of the market in 2009. Table 7)  There has been a steady rise in the number of companies operating within the film and video industries. 2010)  The industry is dominated by few large companies when it comes to the distribution of films.4 million in 2009). This reflects the continuing upward movement in the budgets of Vishal Sharrma MA Marketing Communications (2009-10) Middlesex University Pg 14 . to £2. down 2% from £172 million in 2008.5 million in 2008 to £6.

2009)  Comedy films are usually popular among viewers and gross more money at the bix office. Continuing with this trend comedy accounted for 24% of releases and Vishal Sharrma MA Marketing Communications (2009-10) Middlesex University Pg 15 . Table 1. G-Force. notwithstanding reports of financial challenges facing Hollywood.‖ (Film Production. This provided a much needed impetus to the industry as it grew by 56% in 2009 to £956. comedies and romance/fantasy films appealed to the 15–24 age group.‖ [1]  Due to the rise in inward investment. Last Chance Harvey. from £613 million in 2008. pg 138) Social Scenario:  According to UK Film Council‘s Statistical Year Book. encouraged by the decline in pound-dollar exchange rate. The 40% of the population in the 7–34 age group provided 64% of the top 20 film audience and 53% of the top UK film audience‖ [1] (refer Appendix A. ―teenagers and young adults were the most frequent cinema-goers in 2009. Dorian Gray and Slumdog Millionaire all featuring in the list.  The 7 to 14 age group audience watched animations. UK-produced Last Chance Harvey and The Boat That Rocked attracted a greater proportion of cinema-goers in the 45–54 age group and UK films continued to appeal strongly to the over 55 audience with The Young Victoria. a pattern common to previous years. ―the bedding-in of the UK film tax relief and the resolution of the writers‘ and actors‘ disputes in the USA had major impact on UK film production activity.9 million. (Film Production. 2009. Planet 51 and Up while “action. 2010. Younger audiences are increasingly watching cinema on screens and the trend is on the rise. comedies and family films like Bolt. Table 2).US studio films.

Table 10). after the USA and Japan. ahead of Italy and Spain.‖ has helped the industry. with China‘s forecast share of the global filmed entertainment market increasing to 2.  UK film industry is successfully battling the recession. Although the Indian market is vast in terms of admissions and both India and China have huge populations and are growing fast economically. pg 109) Vishal Sharrma MA Marketing Communications (2009-10) Middlesex University Pg 16 . the success of 3D and a substitution effect as people scaled back expenditure on expensive consumer durables and foreign travel in favour of cinema entertainment. Table 8)  The developing economies are set to open new avenues for film entertainment with their growing middle class and English speaking population. ―In 2009.‖ (UK Film Market as a Whole. The value of the Chinese market is expected to double. their filmed entertainment markets still count in US dollar terms below Australia (population 22 million) and Italy (population 60 million) (refer Appendix A. (UK Film Market as a whole. According to PricewaterhouseCoopers. The USA is forecast to remain the largest single film territory (by a factor of three). ―A good selection of films coming to market. with India becoming the eighth-largest individual territory. the UK had the third-largest filmed entertainment market in the world.‖ However. 2010. (Genre and Classification. 2010 ) (refer Appendix A.20% of the box office followed by drama as second highest proportion of releases (21%) but shared only 7% of the box office.4%. the credit crunch of 2008/2009 might exert some pressure on film financing. pg 106). 2010. The world filmed entertainment market is still dominated by the largest developed economies. the situation is forecast to change by 2014.

This is increasingly an important factor as it were 3D films like the Avatar. (refer Appendix A. ―The UK had the second highest number of digital screens in Europe with 642 screens (behind France‘s 959 digital screens). Out of those surveyed in 15 to 24 year olds. Those watching films from illicit sources are most active from the age group of 25-34 year olds. Of the 642 high-end digital screens in the UK in 2009.  DVD or Blu-ray and television have been important factors when it comes to giving people choices of viewing films. one in three regularly or occasionally watched downloaded films while this decline to one in three 15. Vishal Sharrma MA Marketing Communications (2009-10) Middlesex University Pg 17 . 449 (70%) of them were 3D-capable digital 24-year-olds surveyed said they regularly or occasionally watched downloaded/shared films. Table 3). Older audiences like watching films on television with 79% of the over 55s watching 15 hours or more per week.Technological Scenario:  Watching films online through downloaded version has been a trend more followed by younger audiences. Ice Age III and Up that were the highest takers at the box office. (refer Appendix Table 4) [2] . According to FAME 2010 online survey. According to an online annual survey of 3500 people conducted by Cinema Advertising Association (CAA) known as FAME (Film Audience Measurement and Evaluation) only 5% people claimed to be regular viewers of downloaded or shared films. 2010). This declined to one in four for 25–34 year olds.‖ (Exhibition. 76% of respondents watch Blu-rays or DVDs at least once a month with 7 to 14 year olds being the heaviest consumers. This represents a greater than three-fold increase in the proportion of 3D digital screens over 2008.  Digital screens are on the rise in the UK.

people. 2009 pg 3) B) What is social media? ―Social media refers to activities. Streaming movies on handheld devices is a growing phenomenon affecting the film industry. Tools. knowledge.‖ (Sakfo and Brake 2009) ―The Litmus test for social media‖ as Safko and Brake (2009) in the book The Social Media Bible: Tactics. engage in creating content and spend time Vishal Sharrma MA Marketing Communications (2009-10) Middlesex University Pg 18 . rooted in conversations between authors. prospects. ―social media is the democratization of information. to a many-to-many model. and opinions using conversational media. and audios. one-to-many. Reaching directly to where customer is Paramount and T-Mobile made films Transformers and X-Men Origins:Wolverine available through stream on mobile with the user being able to pause and resume and also watch it online. It is the shift from a broadcast mechanism. practices. transforming people from content readers into publishers. and behaviors among communities of people who gather online to share information. and other stakeholders by facilitation one or more of the following: (a) Communication (b) Collaboration (c) Education (d) Entertainment. videos.‖ C) How is Social Media different? Social media is different from the traditional communication. (Alex Farber. and peers. This trend adds to the on demand film market. and Strategies for Business Success put it ―allows you to engage with customers. pg 37). Conversational media are Web-based applications that make it possible to create and easily transmit content in the form of words. Users here are in control of the communication flow.‖ According to Brian Solis (2010. pictures. employees.

. about how social media is challenging the traditional media through a survey of 17.‖ Additionally. up from 62% in the last study in June 2007. up from 66%. ―Traditional marketing. (O'Reilly 2005). The communication platform is more levelled now between the consumers and the organisations. we've become active participants in them.. 78% read blogs. in 29 countries which reveals that ―social media is moving from the edge to the centre of global media consumption. It‘s less expensive and more effective.‖ According to Brian Solis [7] in an article titled Social Media Continues to Rival Traditional Media on his blog www. listened to by 48%.‖ (Battridge. We no longer simply consume marketing campaigns. ―The bottom line is that social networking can take your reach into the millions and target your company to a specific market.‖ This Vishal Sharrma MA Marketing Communications (2009-10) Middlesex University Pg 19 . has been replaced by a two-way dialogue that has transformed what is essentially a passive process into an interactive experience that's made moviegoers stakeholders in the success of their favourite films.000 people. 2010) According to Starr Hall (2009). Some of the adoption rates are simply staggering as 83% watch video clips. as can be seen in the recent trend in transmedia storytelling. Podcasts are now mainstream digital content. which takes the form of oneway communication where information and assets are drip-fed to us. between the ages of 16 – 54. He quotes a study by Universal writes that traditional media is being rivalled by the social media in terms of media consumption habits of people. 57% of internet users are now members of a social network. RSS consumption is growing rapidly up from 15% to 39%.sharing it with their friends. ―Globally. And in case of film marketing.briansolis.73% of internet users are reading blogs with 48% including these consumer-generated content in their weekly media diet.

reveals a tectonic shift among the media consumption habits of people and considering the trend its only set to grow with time giving some hard time to traditional media. this is also an ideal situation for the marketers who find their customers in the social media world well categorised not just demographically but through their likes.K. Diagram B) Social media by its very nature is meant for the masses. 13 1/2 minutes would have been spent on Social Networks & Blogs. Twitter users searched for information about the brand after being introduced through twitter. Almost 20% of tweets are either responses/answers about the product from the brand representatives or peers. Additionally. ―Web users in the U.. However. provides some interesting insights about how businesses are carrying out their activities. Moreover. More number of B2B companies are experimenting with Social Media and extending their presence. And from those 8% searched for additional information on search engines while 34% used social networks. their interaction and sharing. dislikes and other activities. D) Social Media: engaging users According to Nielsen Wire (2010) [11].‖ (refer Appendix A. According to a study published by Ben Hanna (2009) titled 2009 Business Social Media Benchmarking Study on B2B and B2C social media activities.. spent 65% more time online in April 2010 (884 million hours) than they did in April 2007 (536 million hours). Meanwhile Facebook. Internet Time were condensed into one hour. if all April 2010 U. users are making the most of the Social Media. Nearly 44% customers have B2C businesses overwhelmingly use MySpace and Vishal Sharrma MA Marketing Communications (2009-10) Middlesex University Pg 20 .K.

ability to broadcast opinions about brands. no longer voiceless and faceless consumers who react quietly to public information. products and services further than traditional word-of-mouth can reach.. we are stakeholders in the online communities where we define experiences and outcomes.‖ No doubt social media has brought significant changes in to the way consumers communicate with each other.‖ Additionally. Brian Solis and JESS3 [9] provide a framework of brand and customer interactions through social media through the Social Marketing Compass in his book Engage (2010).. Explaining the framework Brian Solis [8] writes. And.. More than a third said that social networking sites affected brands significantly enough to bring about changes in marketing strategy. It has also meant something that can be scary for brands: Marketers are no longer fully in control of the message..‖ (refer Appendix A. ―40% of brand representatives around the world felt social media posed new challenges to the integrity of their brand. 46% of recommend or talk about products. They now have the ―. Diagram C) In the words of Brian Solis (2010) [8]―Participation and engagement are part of a more effective interactive business communications program now. ―The Social Marketing Compass points a brand in a physical and experiential direction to Vishal Sharrma MA Marketing Communications (2009-10) Middlesex University Pg 21 . production and distribution. social media equalizes the playing field for media consumption. eMarketer (2010) [12] quotes a study by MiresBall and KRC Research about how social media is perceived in the world of branding..recommended products through social media and same was discussed through Twitter by 39%. On facebook. The study also reveals that Social Media accounts for 18% of all the information searches early 2009 and 25% visited the website after learning about the product on the social network.. We are now part of the media ecosystem.

In social networks. and influencers.1.genuinely and effectively connect with customers. Figure 21. Connect from the heart. where they interact and seek guidance online. social media in increasingly wooing users from all age groups. and feeling into our planning. it‘s held to the same natural laws and rules that govern human behaviour. peers. the brand is represented by you and for that reason. we must factor in compassion. adding to already large number of users who are more willing to engage. pg 270 Moreover. care. Successful branding is magnified when individuals can establish a human and emotional connection. Chapter 21. The socialization of the Web is powered by people and as such.‖ Social Marketing Compass Source: Engage. The outer ring of the social compass guides brands from targets to technology to connection with emotions and empathy serving as the final step to engagement. Thus. share and Vishal Sharrma MA Marketing Communications (2009-10) Middlesex University Pg 22 .

specifically where Facebook is concerned. (refer Appendix A.ride the social media wave. UK is most active among social networking sites users in the Europe. 2010) E) Typology of Social Media? Diagram A: Social Media Groupings (Source: Dave Evans. 47% of 50-to-64-year-old internet users and 26% of seniors ages 65 and up indicate that they now use these sites. ―Usage among internet users ages 50 and older nearly doubled during the past year. 2010. pg 204) Vishal Sharrma MA Marketing Communications (2009-10) Middlesex University Pg 23 .‖ (Abrams. UK has high level of involvement with 44. 2008 . after the US. Social Media Marketing: An hour a day. 2010. and gather information about their family member. Wiley Publishing Inc. Diagram D) Notably.2% users visiting Facebook comparable to US with 42. More specifically.‖ Some of the reasons for the appeal of social networking among older adults according to Pew are: to reconnect with their past contacts. ―More than a third of the entire population have Facebook accounts—the second largest national membership in the world.1% in the month of August. with Facebook and LinkedIn being the main beneficiaries of the more mature traffic. from 22% to 42%. eMarketer (2010) [13] quotes a survey by Pew Internet and American Life conducted in May.

pg 300) ―A blog is a type of content management system. 2008.‖ (Alan Tapp. Estimated 15% UK population run a blog (Johnson 2007).―Social platforms are one of the three major social media groups that exist when viewed from a marketing perspective. and subscriptions that make it perfect for marketing purposes. et al 2008). 2009. including comments. Blog software provides a variety of social features. Often combined with podcasts (digital audio or video that can be watched or downloaded).‖ (Dave 2008. others on the platforms and interactions. pg 9) Dave (2004. social content and social interactions – provides literally dozens of options through which you can correctly add social media elements to your existing marketing programs. pg 174) state that ―Blogs are one of the primary places where thoughts are collected and commented. There as conversations you can listen to. or jump into provided you disclose your affiliation. Some are based on the content. (CMS) that makes it easy for anyone to publish short articles called posts. blogrolls. Some are as follows: Blogs ―An online diary where writers can express opinions.‖ (Dan.000 new bogs launch daily (Eikelmann. pg 204) Researchers have given various classification of social media.‖ Vishal Sharrma MA Marketing Communications (2009-10) Middlesex University Pg 24 . These groups – social platforms. trackbacks. It is estimated that 100.

.contains only 140 characters. or to ask questions.. Services like Twitter (text) and Seesmic (video) have become important components of social media.‖(Dan 2009. ‖ (Dave 2004. Ratings and Recommendations ―The social web is often characterised by terms like ‗wisdom of crowds. Safko and Brake (2009..‘ Reviews. both in a learning mode. These same tools can be used in a marketing context. Twitter. pg 533) define its as ―a cross between blogging and text messaging. both those they know offline and those who are online-only buddies.Microblogging ―it is a form of blogging that limits the size of each post. Microblogs facilitate short burst of thought and communication. ratings and recommendations are all tactic forms of the voting process through which the collective conscious arrives at consensus.. what you are working on. You can create a profile and use these tools to tell others what‘s up.‖ ―One of the most recent tool of the social web is microblog. pg 174) Social Networking “A social network is a website where people connect with firends.” (Dan 2009. pg 31).. sharing personal content and communications. Disclosure is essential. pg 53) ―. pg 300) Reviews.. ratings and Vishal Sharrma MA Marketing Communications (2009-10) Middlesex University Pg 25 .for example.allow their friends within the network to view their page. in particular in a context of people who are interested in thoughts of specific others. to see why your customers like or dislike something – or in an outreach mode where reviews.‖ (Alan 2008.

of course) is as a support tool.. pg 147) Social News Bookmarking “such sites allow users to submit and vote on content around the web. You can see how many other users bookmarked that page and what tags they used to describe it.. pg 103) ―. One of the ways in which many forums can be used (branded to your specification. existing customers can exchange ‗best practices‘ and tips that increase both satisfaction among current customers and encourage and support potential customers as they evaluate your product versus the competitive offers. pg 177) ―The focus of these sites is discussion.also called ‗social tagging‘ comes from how it links what you have bookmarked to others who have bookmarked the same page.‖ (Dave 2004. Through these types of social applications. pg 174) Message Boards ―These range from straight forward forums to full-featured communities.‖ (Dave 2004. linking customers with each other. the value presented to users is focused on allowing them to collect and store interesting links they have found and may wish to revisit.. ” (Dan 2009.‖ (Dan 2009.. Users will make post to them and others will respond.recommendations play a direct role in affirming or derailing an impending purchase.‖ (Anklam 2009) Vishal Sharrma MA Marketing Communications (2009-10) Middlesex University Pg 26 .

Media Sharing YouTube, Flickr, SlideShare, and other media-sharing sites are not just about posting videos, photos, and slides, they are about inviting others into a conversation about the posted object. (Anklam 2009, pg 422) ―...allow users to create and upload multimedia content, sometimes called usergenerated content (UGC).‖ (Dan 2009, pg 77)

In Social Media Bible: Tactics, Tools, and Strategies for Business Success, Safko and Brake (2009) provide a classification of social media on the basis of their function divided among various tools and applications : Category I: Social Networking (Bebo, LinkedIn, Facebook, MOLI, Fast Pitch!, MySpace, Friendster, Ning,, Orkut, KickApps, Plaxo) Category II: Publish (, Typepad, Constant touch, Wikia, Joomla, Wikipedia, Knol, Wordpress, Slideshare). Category III: Photo Sharing (Flickr, Photobucket, SmugMug, Twitxr, Picasa, Zoomr, Category IV: Audio (iTunes, Podbean,, Rhapsody) Category V: Video (Brightcove, Metacafe, Google video, Viddler, Hulu, YouTube) Category VI: Microblogging (PlurK, Twitter, Twitxr) Category VII: Livecasting (BlogTalk radio, SHOUTcast, Live 365, TalkShoe, Category VIII: Virtual Worlds (Second Life, There, Kaneva, ViOS, Active Worlds) Category IX: Gaming (Entropia Universe, EverQuest, Halo3, World of Warcraft)

Vishal Sharrma

MA Marketing Communications (2009-10)

Middlesex University

Pg 27

Category X: Productivity Applications (Acteva, AOL, Bit Torrent, Constant Contact, Eventful, Google Alerts, Google Docs, Google Gmail, MSGTAG, ReadNotify, Surveymonkey, Tiddlywiki, Yahoo, Zoho, Zoomerang). Category XI: Aggregators (Digg, Friendfeed, Google reader, iGoogle, My Yahoo, Reddit, Yelp). Category XII: RSS (Atom, FeedBurner, Ping Shot, RSS 2.0) Category XIII: Search (EveryZing, Redlasso, Google search, Technorati, IceRocket, Yahoo search, MetaTube). Category XIV: Mobile (airG, Jott, AOL Mobile, Jumbuck, Brightkite,, CallWave) Category XV: Interpersonal (Skype, Acrobat Connect, Jott, Meebo, AOL instant Messenger, Go To Meeting, WebEx, iChat). F) Social Media and its Use in Films: What is Happening? According to Dave Olson from in ‗Social promotion for Movies –A Practical Guide‘ state that ―the key to success of any social media-centric promotional campaign is authentic promotion from passionate people. Building a relationship with your audience requires more openness about releasing videos/stills than traditionally seen in the movie business.‖ Dave highlights harnessing the basic principles of social media ―creating, publishing and promoting.‖ This helps create evangelists out of ordinary fans who share the content to their networks and beyond. This makes people ―react and share...from comments to retweets...builds greater conversation about your project.‖
Vishal Sharrma MA Marketing Communications (2009-10) Middlesex University Pg 28

And this is resulting in the out of the box approached with social media.―...the internet and subsequent fragmented media consumption as key drivers for companies to spend more of their time, and effort on developing campaigns for online and non-traditional media arenas. As the popularity of social networking sites such MySpace and YouTuhe grows, so too do the opportunities to help audiences ‗discover‘ new film product.‖ (Tracey Prisk, 2006, pg 18-20) Take example of the user-generated content (UGC) for promotion from as early as 2008 of independent film ‗Bottle Shock‘. The film premiered at Sundance Film Festival and promoted through the blog at BottleShockStories where ―viewers are encouraged to buy the movie, watch it and then write about what wine they were drinking, who they were with and where they were when they saw it.‖ The winner was offered a tour package. (Bottle Bloggers, 2009, pg 20)

Studios are under pressure for changing viewers habits and global recessionary pressures are looking at measures that are ―cheap, and sometimes free, alternatives,‖ (Stanley, 2010). In other words social media strategies. As Stanley (2010) reveal in his article in ‗Hollywood Reporter‘ how the director of ‗Iron Man 2‘ Jon Favreau leaked sensational information from his Twitter account about the sequel ignoring the main stream media. ―Disney/Pixar has launched a screening program to show college students the first 65 minutes of ‗Toy Story 3‘ — a ‗cliffhanger edition‘ — to spark interest and blog posts. These students, most of whom were children when the first ‗Toy Story‘ movies were released, get into the screenings by signing up on Facebook.‖ This shows how social media is increasingly becoming part of the marketing strategy.

Vishal Sharrma

MA Marketing Communications (2009-10)

Middlesex University

Pg 29

―access alone isn't going to make a marketing campaign a success. and 2010 has been notable for the innovative ways in which audiences have been engaged through these networks. is reflective of the broader sweeping change in film marketing. which was written by Lost director JJ Abrams. A MySpace page dedicated to it was made that invited users to apply for a special screening of the film by adding ―the Cloverfield page to their 'top friends' application.. Social media has led to a lot of innovation in film marketing.Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows. but rather allowing the user to feel that film content and experience is part-owned by them. ―While the former can provide millions of viewers for trailers and behind-the-scenes clips. social networks can help people discover movies." Vishal Sharrma MA Marketing Communications (2009-10) Middlesex University Pg 30 . As Paramount did with MySpace to promote its film Cloverfield .‖ This lead to viral activity on the internet. (Marketing. This is not about the audience necessarily being able to effect change in final output/product. He further states that several studios and distributors are embracing social media to generate views and comments for their movie trailers. now studios have to actively engage the audience in order to get buy-in to films. and Inception have generated a buzz on the internet through viral social media campaigns. giving the film maximum exposure on their profile page.. Movies like Scott Pilgrim vs the World .‖ states Sean Hargrave (2008). 2008) ―The major development for movie studios is the combined effect of YouTube and social media. Battridge (2010) in his article highlights the importance of engaging audiences as a crucial factor in the success of the campaign. Whereas previously it has been about broadcast.‖ he adds.The most obvious way of film marketing has been through tie-ups with social networking platforms.

synergistic campaign that challenges and rewards the audience. It can be picked up..However. striving to achieve an emotional response and thus encouraging a purchase. film marketers are no longer relying solely on the traditional four-week trailer/press/outdoor campaign window to build their film‘s brand and generate strong opening weekend box office figures. Whether fans experience the event themselves.‖ Vishal Sharrma MA Marketing Communications (2009-10) Middlesex University Pg 31 . enabling its audiences to interact – to learn.‖ Internet and specifically the Social Media is increasingly finding resonance in films‘ communication plans. helping to create a richer immersion for the public into the film. is now no longer restricted just to that territory.once brands dictatorially imposed their wares upon us.are still as crucial as ever. Online refutes this one-way method of communication. People can now find out information about your film regardless of where they are in the world. The key is to create a structured. Battridge (2010) further states that "The old marketing stalwarts . ―Internet has created a sense of global community. or read about them amid the landslide of exposure. these stunts generate on the growing number of entertainment blogs. these integrated outdoor events provide the connecting lines between traditional and online marketing. force-feeding the consumer with product information..‖ According to an article by Internet Advertising Bureau titled. regardless of national barriers. traditional marketing channels cannot be ignored. feel. in their own time. share and purchase on their own terms. we are now witnessing the tried-and-tested formula being turned on its head.. Movie Marketing [10] ―.the poster. trailer and stills .. A buzz that a film might be generating in one territory...

in turn. Paramount is marketing the film through social media channels instead of traditional advertising campaigns on Andrew further states that Paramount added to the viral activity on the internet by announcing that ―the film would receive a wide release once it hits 1 million demands Vishal Sharrma MA Marketing Communications (2009-10) Middlesex University Pg 32 .000 turned out to be one of the most profitable films of 2009.‖ (Andrew Hampp. 2009) Image Source: http://bit. Fans could literally demand the movie by ―hitting the ‗Demand‘ button on its websitethat the movie screen in their area. a low budget horror film made by San Diego filmmaker Oren Peli with a budget of $15. a user-generated entertainment booking site. That. The movie is being marketed more as an experience by allowing viewers to decide where they want the film to be screened. Taking a non-traditional approach Paramount teamed up with Eventful.The Paranormal Factor The most recent example is of Paranormal Activity. determined which markets Paramount would select for a series of midnight screenings-all achieved by using a bare minimum of select TV spots featuring reaction shots from Hollywood screenings and a smattering of online and radio ads.

already has over 4. Twitter parties and a strong mom-blogger program helped to engage a lot of people.. senior VP-emerging media & client strategy for ‗360i‘.‖ This caused the ‗Demand‘ ticker to soar and surpass 860. 2009) Andrew (2009) summarises the benefits of social media approach through Sarah Hofstetter.‖ A 90-minute live broadcast show was organised with a Vishal Sharrma MA Marketing Communications (2009-10) Middlesex University Pg 33 ." and Eventful CEO Jordan Glazier‘s comments ―You now have a self-identified list of participants who are passionate about entertainment. and the event brand has even more value to them. @TweetYourScream. they can quantify the demand from a buzz perspective.‖ (data as cited in the article dated Dec 10. The Twilight Saga: New Moon.700 followers.‖ (Christina Warren. Paranormal Activity became a hot topic on Twitter for many days.. and a Facebook page (Facebook. Other than Avatar. ―Not only do they know who's interested in it from a geographic perspective. ―A sponsored Twitter states about the success of the film as the first ―social media marketed blockbuster.000 by within 72 hours." As Activity) currently reaches more than 47.on its Eventful page.000 fans who've been uploading their video reactions to the film. Working closely with ―Twilight fan blogs. Michael Jackson‘s This Is It and the American Music Awards pre-show did live streaming for their audiences. 2009-10) [14] More Examples Live streaming through social media has been on the rise. [5] Twilight Social media figured in the marketing strategy of Twilight.

‖ [6] MGM had launched the red band (contains profanity) trailer for movie through its website and to several film blogs.BlogTalkRadio. Twitter and MySpace pages providing updates to its huge number of fans.‖ (Samuel (BTR). and reserved seating. (Christina Warren. created special Facebook events page. Facebook/MTV webcast [4]. 2009-10) Hot Tub Machine The movie took a cue from the Paranormal Activity in its campaign through ―. Avatar‘s Facebook Page is also where the MTV-hosted live webcast was hosted.8bn. 2009) Avatar The movie that surpassed Titanic in box office tickets sales exceeding $1. fans can go to this site and volunteer to host a screening of the film. websites and bloggers. Ning and on MySpace and Ning with daily Twitter updates. Those fans see the updates in their personal news feeds. a free t-shirt. Fans were encouraged to go to the Eventful site ( preview screenings for fans. However. and they can then share them with others. (Jean Erickson. Facebook and other social media platforms. Hosts can invite nine of their friends. and a live- streaming red carpet premiere. Vishal Sharrma MA Marketing Communications (2009-10) Middlesex University Pg 34 . loads of other shareable content like trailers etc were provided through Twitter.. and everyone gets free popcorn and soda. ―Fox used the social web to promote the film in a variety of ways. 2009-10) [15] ―Facebook‘s updated Page features make it the place to be for brands seeking to sign-up.Twilight star on www.‖ Avatar has Facebook. including an ‗augmented-reality trailer [3].. BTR reached out to forums. The site allows brands to push updates to fans.. just like on Twitter..

It became successful in garnering a large fan base.000 fans. The movie also has the UK's biggest film page on Facebook. There has also been a significant transmedia effort with downloadable games. scavenger hunts with interactive websites and social networking to connect. These are as follows: Inception This campaign combined posters.‖ Sex and the City 2 Audiences were encouraged to "Tweet their feet". ―leading the film to trend on the social-networking site Twitter during its opening weekend.Battridge (2010) provides few more examples of film marketing campaigns that integrated social media. Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows ―The latest trailer for Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows went live on Yahoo! International and the film's Facebook page. interactive widgets.‖ Scott Pilgrim vs the World The campaign for Scott Pilgrim vs the World used ―social networks to tailor its marketing for individual demographics. placing equal emphasis on both traditional PR and social-media presence. sculpting different materials for avid fans from those designed for relative newcomers.‖ Vishal Sharrma MA Marketing Communications (2009-10) Middlesex University Pg 35 . on-set blogs and YouTube videos. with almost 120. The trailer on Facebook incorporated a live chat feature so fans could discuss the trailer and increased the asset's talkability. comics.

who set the agenda for the audiences‘ and bring to them their campaigns through social media.RESEARCH METHODOLOGY Research Design: The study consists of an audiences‘ survey of individuals who watch films on a regular basis and are in the age group of 18 years to 37 years. This would justify the objectives set by this study on probing the role of social media as a film marketing tool and its effectiveness. The approach of this study can be at best be described as a mixed approach.mixing traditional quantitative with traditional qualitative procedures.. ‗Expansion‘ might involve supplementation or incorporation. but as independent enterprises and considered as a single phase of research. in-depth interviews of film marketers was also conducted.. However.. ―Concurrent mixed designs entail undertaking two or more styles of research at the same or overlapping times. To add depth to the study and summarise the role of social media on the film industry. 2007.. pg 255-256) Approach: This study follows a combination of qualitative as well as quantitative research approach. Film marketers are the individuals who run the film campaigns and decide on which media outlet to tap to effectively reach the audiences. 2007. ―. pg 253) To be more specific concurrent mixed design has been applied for this study with the purpose of ‗expansion‘.‖ (Kent. Data. marketers were put some Vishal Sharrma MA Marketing Communications (2009-10) Middlesex University Pg 36 . methods or paradigms are sometimes mixed concurrently in order to add breadth. Thus. This brings out the audience side of the picture who also happen to be social media users. The data generated from the audience survey and the marketers interview was analysed quantitatively in parts. depth and scope to a project. making it imperative that not only the story of audiences‘ side as social media consumers is probed but also the side of marketers.‖ (Kent.

. 2007.. ―Quantitative research is variable-centered. Thus.. Vishal Sharrma MA Marketing Communications (2009-10) Middlesex University Pg 37 ..‖ (Kent. 2007.are case-centered. pg 253) indicating at such mixed procedures. Quite a few questions posed to film marketers are open-ended. pg 250) According to Kent (2007. Variables are constructed by researcher by engaging in the processes of measurement and scaling.‖ However. The resulting data are entered into a data matrix.. They will offer detailed and. ―. summarising the need for the combination of qualitative and quantitative techniques.‖ Thus. ―The primary objective of exploratory research is to provide insights into and an understanding of marketing phenomenon. including both openended and set-choice questions in the same questionnaire. pg 69).‖(Malhotra and Birks. thus making it essential to follow this questions as well which require in-depth discussion. context. This research is both exploratory and descriptive. qualitative approaches ―. Such research is sensitive to process. At the most basic level is the construction of both qualitative and quantitative data in the same piece of research.there are many different ways of achieving mixtures. ―insightful‖ analyses of each case and perhaps how they relate to one another and to the wider environment. It is used in instances where the subject of the study cannot be measured in a quantitative manner or where the process of measurement cannot realistically represent particular qualities.. but the mixtures themselves may take place at several different levels. hopefully. lived experience and local groundedness. statistical patterns are then sought in which variation in one or more of the variables is ―accounted for‖ by variation in one or more other variables. highlighting the need of both quantitative and qualitative analysis for this study. and probing their relationship to the responses from audiences survey.

(Nielsen Wire. thus providing a justification for its utilisation. Vishal Sharrma MA Marketing Communications (2009-10) Middlesex University Pg 38 . And to add to that the average time spend for a UK citizen surfing social media networks and blogs is 5hours 52minutes.‖ (Consumer Lifestyles in the United Kingdom. pg 73). Target Population: The chosen target population was London based for both the audiences and marketers‘ survey...6 million in 2007. According to the council‘s report titled Audiences (2010. ―The 40% of the population in the 7–34 age group provided 64% of the top 20 film audience and 53% of the top UK film audience. This is in accordance to the approach used in this study. pg 110). is characterised by the prior formulation of specific research questions and hypotheses.‖ Additionally. increasing from 15. and are regular users of social media platforms and channels.. ―between 2000 and 2007.―The major objective of descriptive research is to describe something usually market characteristic or functions.8 million in 2000 to 35. The UK Film Council‘s report 2010 formed the basis for identifying the target population for the audiences survey.‖ (Malhotra and Birks. the information needed is clearly defined. The survey was circulated using social media networking site Facebook with clear instruction about participation criteria.. ―Target population is the collection of elements or objects that possess the information sought by the researcher and about which inferences are to be made. is pre-planned and structured. 2007. 2008). the number of internet users in the UK more than doubled.‖ (Malhotra and Birks. pg 406). Thus. 2010) Thus. 2007. the aim was to draw sample from the target population which constitutes individuals between the age group of 18 years to 37 years.

Sampling Technique: Non-probability convenience sampling technique has been used for the audiences‘ survey. Those approached either worked in the marketing departments of film studios or film marketing and distribution agencies based in London. Vishal Sharrma MA Marketing Communications (2009-10) Middlesex University Pg 39 .. postproduction and distribution sectors were concentrated in London. This would increase the chances of approaching users who are already social media users. ―The production.‖ (McDaniel and Gates. The survey was circulated through social media networking website Facebook with clear instructions about the eligibility criteria for participation. a ―major disadvantage of non-probability samples is the inability to calculate sampling error for them. The London concentration was particularly strong for distribution (55% of companies and 97% of turnover. ―Non-probability samples are those in which specific elements from the population have been selected in a non-random manner.. pg 161-163). pg 303-318). 2006. overall. As London being the hub of film industry in the UK houses a large number of film distribution and marketing companies.‖ Chosen marketers have been running social media marketing campaigns for films on the behalf of film studios like Columbia Pictures etc. 68% of film companies were concentrated in London and the South East and over 85% of turnover was generated by companies located in these two regions.‖ Though. Nonrandomness results when population elements are selected on the basis of convenience – because they are easy or inexpensive to reach. however they might have different media consumption patterns. As mentioned in the UK Film Council‘s report 2010 titled Film Industry Companies (2010.The target population for the marketers‘ interview was also London based.

therefore. 2007. referrals makes the data collection procedure Vishal Sharrma MA Marketing Communications (2009-10) Middlesex University Pg 40 .To reach the relevant sample. populations that make up a very small percentage of the total population. pg 414). Thus. The marketers‘ interview was also conducted through an online questionnaire that had a good mix of open-ended and close-ended questions derived from the objectives of the study.. Therefore.‖ (Malhotra and Birks. These agencies and studios were approached through e-mail and requested to participate in the study.. The starting point of shortlisting film studios and agencies was their nomination in the ‗Marketing and Distribution Awards‘ by Screen International (2010). Another reason justifying this sampling technique is that since the response rate in internet surveys are low.used to select additional respondents on the basis of referrals from initial respondents. ―In snowball sampling. pg 315). that carries the stream of individuals activity on ‗wall‘ and therefore visible to his/her contacts. (Kent. using ‗invitation online sampling‘ some of the potential respondents on Facebook were alerted about the need to fill the questionnaire. sometimes on a random basis. pg 241). but more typically targeted at a few individuals who are known to possess the desired characteristics of the target population.‖ (McDaniel and Gates. This was made possible due to the sharing function of Facebook. 2006. justifying their interviews. marketers here could be considered as industry experts who formulate and implement social media film marketing campaigns. an initial group of respondents is selected. 2007. This procedure is used to sample from low-incidence or rare populations – that is. They in turn shared the link of the questionnaire with others who have interests and profile similar to theirs‘. Participants were requested to provide reference of other marketers in the same filed as per the snowballing technique. This technique is ―.

and the surveys can be completed quickly. to date internet research has been based overwhelmingly on the use of volunteer participation.‖ The medium of dissemination of the questionnaire is through internet. for online survey ―. internet surveys.‖ (McDaniel and Gates. pg 185). pg 240). users of social media. may produce excellent samples. Conducting the survey online has its merits.. ―Sampling for internet surveys poses special challenges.easy. ―How large a sample is needed also depends on the variability of the population characteristics and on the purpose of the research.‖ However. on internet ―the target audience can complete the survey at their convenience.‖ However. This forms the basis of their eligibility. ―The biases are becoming less pronounced over time as the percentage of the population connected to the internet increases. data collection is inexpensive technique.. most refusals (84 percent) occur before the survey introduction (initial refusals)...‖ However. 2007.. pg 315). Few (2 percent) terminate once the survey is under way. 2006 pg 316) Sample Size: The respondents for audiences‘ survey are London based between the age group of 18 years to 37 years. on the positive side increase in internet penetration is changing things.. according to Kent (2007. ―the most common complaint about the use of online surveys is that internet users are not representative of the population as a whole.. only 14 occur after the introduction is read (qualified refusals). the interview can be administered under software control..‖ Same sentiments are echoed by McDaniel and Gates (2002. pg 236-240) Vishal Sharrma MA Marketing Communications (2009-10) Middlesex University Pg 41 . the refusal rate is approximately 79 percent. pg 120). According to McDaniel and Gates (2006. According to McDaniel and Gates (2006.‖ (Kent. ―to date internet research has been based overwhelmingly on the use of volunteer participants. with all their other inherent advantages.

Sherlock Holmes. Ice Age 3 among others. The returned questionnaire was just one. ―Substance offers stand-out digital and traditional marketing solutions to the entertainment and leisure 2010). The sample drawn for the marketers‘ interview conducted through online questionnaire was around 10.substance001. Another reason for this sample size was time The number of returned questionnaires were fully filled as the settings of Google Documents used to create the questionnaire would not allow incomplete submission. the sample size for the interview was low. Substance‘s clients include Walt Disney Picture Company.Their most recent projects include Avatar. account manager for Substance. The marketer interviewed was James field. this was accommodated in the study. The sample size drawn was of 50 respondents. The Vishal Sharrma MA Marketing Communications (2009-10) Middlesex University Pg 42 . (also attached in Appendix C). ruling out the drawback of non-responses in this sampling technique. Warner Brothers. HBO among others. (Detailed profile of the interviewee in the Research Results and Analysis section) Questionnaire: The audiences‘ questionnaire can be found at http://bit. and the link to the marketers‘ survey is http://bit. Due to time constraint and limited availability of subjects with the specific criteria. 20th Century Fox. The response rate was extremely low. Marketers‘ cited busy work schedules for their unavailability. Thus. According to their website.‖ (www. Miramax Pictures.Following the invitation online sampling potential participants were alerted.

mainly because no interviewers are involved. unstructured or open-ended questions give extra weight to respondents who are more articulate.former has 13 questions and the latter 21. in such a scenario. 2007... ―the coding procedures required to summarise responses in a format useful for data analysis and interpretation can be extensive. respondents can consult with others. pg 127) Self-administered surveys are ―.‖ (Malhotra and Birks.. there may be little detail on open-ended questions. manner of speaking. no one is present to explain things to the respondent and clarify responses to open-ended questions..‖ (Kent. there is less control over the data capture process. the absence of an interviewer is an advantage in that it eliminates one source of of the most cost effective ways of collecting data.‖ (McDaniel and Gates. pg 381) Vishal Sharrma MA Marketing Communications (2009-10) Middlesex University Pg 43 . dress. The marketers‘ survey has a quite a few unstructured questions that ―enable the respondent to express general attitudes and opinions that can help the researcher interpret their responses to structured questions.. 2006. 2007. Implicitly. in addition to questions related to respondents demographic profile.‖ However.. Though the questionnaire is provided with relevant instructions but since the mode of dissemination is online ―.‖ However. There is no interviewer whose appearance. pg 166) The online questionnaire for the both surveys have been made using ‗Google Documents‘ with an neutral background colour and easily readable fonts. on the other side ―... or failure to follow instructions may influence respondents answers to questions. ‖ One of the disadvantages could be that ―there is no opportunity to probe or seek clarification.

1 Considering the viral nature of Social Media.3 Do you think there is scepticism among studios/marketers on how seriously to adopt the Social Media for their campaigns in UK in comparison to traditional tools? Please share Structured questions ―which specify the set of response alternatives and the response format.‖ have been used dominantly in the audiences‘ survey. do you feel the need to look for additional information from other sources?  Definitely  Most likely Vishal Sharrma MA Marketing Communications (2009-10) Middlesex University Pg 44 .5 Do you think film marketing through social media would lose its relevance if audiences find it more commercially driven and less entertaining? C. which is ―the respondents tendency to tick an alternative merely because it occupies a certain position or is listen in a certain order. Respondents tend to tick the first or the last statement in a list.Following are the examples of some of the unstructured questions posed to marketers‘ C. pg 382) Following are the examples of some of the structured questions used in the survey 7. 2007. particularly the first. In such questions there could be an order bias or position bias. Effort has been made that the response alternative includes all the possible choices. do you feel it is possible to have effective and measurable goals for your film campaign? Please share C.‖ (Malhotra and Birks. After accessing information regarding the film you are interested in through social media sources.

In case of marketers‘ they Vishal Sharrma MA Marketing Communications (2009-10) Middlesex University Pg 45 .g. Twitter etc?  Definitely  Most likely  May be  Never Some of the questions have also been based on scaling e. May be  Never 10. gender. 5 for Least appealing) each column) (Tips: You can select multiple options in In addition to this questions pertaining to the demographic profile of the respondent have been formulated e. Which of the following film promotion tactics do you find most appealing? (1 for Most appealing. occupation. for age.g. Would you be more inclined towards buying a film merchandise / Dvd after reading your friends reviews / likes on social network sites like Facebook. 9.

designation. work profile. email id. Vishal Sharrma MA Marketing Communications (2009-10) Middlesex University Pg 46 . company address and LinkedIn or blog address.have been asked questions to state their name. Data Analysis: Data was analysed both qualitatively and quantitatively using statistical depiction and content analysis.

There was a tie between social networking sites and blogs. online videos (e. The number of respondents who rarely opt for social media sources is merely 21%.1 on how effective are some of the information sources in providing information about movies. and not surprisingly this is becoming their information source as well. B. According to results of Fig R. no one source came out as a dominant source.g Yoututbe. Online videos/podcasts got 44% and respondents relied on their friends with 46%.1. Though. This is very much in sync with the growing number of people using social media as discussed in the Literature review.e. those with the most effectiveness voted more than 30% for each category were social networking sites like Facebook. when it comes to relying on social media sources for information about movies. Traditional sources like the Newspapers and radio were ranked least effective at 26% and 20% respectively. social media sources score the maximum. which garnered 38% too. Platforms that support shareable content and increased engagement i. Importance and influence of inter-personal relationships can‘t be undermined as proved by ‗friends‘ getting the most number of responses. 36% have a definite yes while 40% use this option only sometimes. Veoh etc) along with podcasts that bring the most Vishal Sharrma MA Marketing Communications (2009-10) Middlesex University Pg 47 . however. Microblogging sites like Twitter (36%).RESEARCH RESULTS AND ANALYSIS OF FINDINGS Audiences’ Survey Note: Figures and tables mentioned in this section are in Appendix B A. However. According to data tabulate in table R. Myspace etc (38%).

This 30% undecided category provides an incredible opportunity for marketers‘ to tap with innovative social media content.‖ according to James. the percentage of people who are unsatisfied is at 0%.43) D. Out of traditional marketing channels only ‗outdoor publicity‘ fairs well at 22%. Noticeably.13) only 24% ‗strongly agree‘ while 32% ‗somewhat agree‘.12. ―I think that it is only natural that spend with increase. Radio in terms of effectiveness was at 8%. R. Rise of social media sources in the context of film marketing is quite evident here considering that even in the ‗somewhat effective‘ category social media platforms scored equally well.entertaining content through movie trailers and ‗behind the scenes‘ footage that is easily shareable is the second most effective source. (refer Fig. 30% of the respondents are open to participating and engage with the content for film promotion on social media platforms. However. as social media encompasses more of the target audiences' daily social and media habits. equally 30% neither agree or disagree. Newspapers and outdoor publicity (posters etc) got 12%. C. According to the results in Fig. R. R. Considering the informal nature of social media. In terms of satisfaction in general with the information being channelized through social media sources (refer Fig. Vishal Sharrma MA Marketing Communications (2009-10) Middlesex University Pg 48 . it is not surprising that 34% are undecided. This brings an important opportunity for marketers‘ and could hope for an increased budgetary allocation to tap in this segment more effectively. Even here a large number of respondents at 34% are undecided..

According to this information most of the respondents would readily try the most basic functions of social media platforms while engaging a film marketing content. Referring table R. Respondents who might try apps and widgets is at 22%. Another factor supporting this is that 34% would not go out of their means to manufacture content that would require them to participate in contests. another 30% are also averse to participating in an Live streaming. pictures are common marketing tactics that film marketers‘ employ to engage social media users.E. This indicates towards the trend that what is simple and easy to understand and perhaps the most basic tenets of social media platforms is easily appreciated by the respondents. Vishal Sharrma MA Marketing Communications (2009-10) Middlesex University Pg 49 . Respondents who voted for ‗most likely‘ also support such tactics. However. Surprisingly another 34% would never follow a film page on Twitter.2. This is perhaps also the most effective tactic from the marketers‘ perspective to make the content go viral and share with millions in the matter of minutes. making videos. Such contests like graffiti. and ‗follow on twitter‘ at 34% respectively. 32% are undecided about using any kinds of widgets and apps. when it comes to engaging users through film marketing tactics on social media platforms 46% would definitely recommend through their status message. However. This is followed by sharing content like videos/photos etc and like/recommend/retweet the content at 42% respectively. This is followed by ‗commenting or reviewing‘ the film content at 36% and visiting the ‗official film page on the social networking site‘.

This is somewhat consistent with the findings from table R. 58% spend at least 0-1hour through Microblogging (e.‖ according to James. ―It is very important that the personality of the brand is present within all aspects of the social media channels. This is important as blogs in recent times have come as comprehensive source of information and perspectives. This is followed by 38% who spend the same amount of time on sites like YouTube. so need to make sure that any copy. 40% of the respondents spend at least 5-6 hours a week on social networking sites (users were not given the option of identifying social networking sites. imagery and interaction with consumers is true to that brand. Veoh etc watching videos online. It‘s an amalgamation of these factors based on informed decision about users‘ preferences. Another important factor here is that use of these applications on a social media platform is meant to bring out the personality of the brand (film). (refer Fig. A large number of respondents visits these sides as per research results. R. Respondents with high level of involvement with Microblogging are 5-6 hours (24%). Microblogging Vishal Sharrma MA Marketing Communications (2009-10) Middlesex University Pg 50 . Referring table R.F. We are also representing the brand.47) G. 7-8 hours (10%). This is the most direct interaction that a consumer has with the brand (or in our case.2. the film).3. point J regarding following film content on Twitter. Twitter). MySpace etc). Blogs are another important choice of respondents who spend at least 2-3 hours (34%) and 0-1 hour (50%). when asked about how much time users‘ spend using various social media platforms and tools every week.g. just a cue mentioning Facebook.

I.32. Referring Fig. large number of respondents (32%) are undecided about widget and apps. Referring to point E. a substantial number of people do look for additional information from sources other than social media. this large group of people are being influenced and they go about looking for more information.30. 32% of the respondents after being engaged through some source of information on the social media platforms would ‗most likely‘ look for additional information.31.30. Those who responded ‗may be‘ were 36%. From the marketers‘ perspective. H. Vishal Sharrma MA Marketing Communications (2009-10) Middlesex University Pg 51 .2. the respondents were divided in their preference. when asked does your friends reviews and likes on social networking sites for a film content would make you inclined towards making a purchase decision. social media here acts as a precursor for further probe. R. Referring Fig R. Whereas those who answered it as a ‗definitely‘ and ‗most likely‘ stand at 30% and 38% respectively. Just 28% came with a ‗definitely‘ reply. Respondents spend time using online forums and groups with 80% (0-1hour) and 72% don‘t indulge using widgets and apps more than 0-1 hour. table R. Referring Fig R. those respondents who don‘t consider information from social media sources as authentic and reliable are just 2%. thus. followed by ‗most likely‘ (26%) and ‗maybe‘ at 26%. This shows increased reliability on social media sources. Fig. J.hasn‘t caught the eyes of users compared to other social networking sites as of now. Referring to point H. R.

33. M. Fig R.35. it‘s understandable that respondents would like to make an informed decision and not just on the online reviews of their friends. Fig. K. and another increasing trend is watching films online at 28%. making the approach personalised works. an overwhelming 42% of respondents feel positive about a film after being engaged (replied back/retweeted/appreciated on the official film page) on social networking sites. However respondents watch their movies in cinema (46%). R.37. R. This indicates at changing preferences of respondents towards all things online.34. Referring Fig. This hints at the trend that ‗engagement‘ is the hallmark of social media and in the context of film marketing. L. Vishal Sharrma MA Marketing Communications (2009-10) Middlesex University Pg 52 .Therefore. Referring Fig.36 and Fig. while 18% were comparatively younger at 18years-21years. 54% fall into the 22years-26years age group bracket. R. 22% of the respondents were in the age group of 27years-31years. video on demand has not yet caught the attention of respondents at all. R. gives the demographic profile of respondents. male (56%) and females (44%).

39) 1. ―Initially.Marketers’ interview The marketer interviewed was James field. (refer Fig R. (Refer Fig. 1. Also worked with Universal. social media has been ranked ‗neither important or unimportant‘. in terms of ‗brand recall‘. ‗viral nature‘. Momentum Pictures and Warner Bros. Profile: Account Manager at Substance primarily for 20th Century Fox. Referring table R.4. Vishal Sharrma MA Marketing Communications (2009-10) Middlesex University Pg 53 Twitter: www. when asked about comparing social media channels/features used in film marketing in comparison to the traditional approach. account manager at Substance. Same was the case with three other factors ‗cost effectiveness‘. ‗word of mouth publicity‘. film critics and film insiders has meant that we have had to increase our awareness of the social media happenings‖ (refer Fig.1 However. in terms of ‗reach‘ social media was rated ‗most important.twitter. James ‗strongly agrees‘ that use of social media has become a dominant feature in film Name: James Field Designation: Account Manager Company: Substance Website: www. and the rapid adoption of film fans.43) 2. Appendix B) marketing efforts in UK. R. there was scepticism. Social media‘s contribution to film marketing here seems to be high with its inherent features suiting the marketing effort. is there a realisation of the impact of social media for film marketing? According to James. However.susbtance001. Working with Substance for 4 years. But the effectiveness of social media. as with any new technology.

R.40 and Fig. enabling us the opportunity to adapt our strategy quicker than ever before.6. all the way to release and reviews (and then the home entertainment release).41. R.‖ (refer Fig.44) 5. constantly engaging customers for commercial purpose could fireback as a strategy since social media is supposed to be a fun activity with friends. However. R. On expected lines as even respondents pointed (refer table R. Referring Fig. when asked about how important the social media is for film marketing. This indicates at the aim behind using social media in film marketing. ‗customer engagement‘. there is a growing acceptance of social media as a marketing tool. and this is the fine line that we need to walk. to get a better understanding of what do marketers‘ consider as an essential part of their strategy while promoting a films. presenting our content to them in the most engaging and unintrusive way possible. and spreading ‗general awareness‘ is how social media is being used for film marketing. respondent ‗somewhat agrees‘ that users respond more positively on a social media platform compared to an offline channel. To ‗engage influencers‘ and ‗engaging media‘ are ‗somewhat important‘. to ‗monitor and respond‘. Referring table R.5. 47) 4.3. Referring table R.‖ according to James. ―We need to ensure that we are constantly monitoring the online buzz for a title. the response was ‗very important‘. 4.1 However. This highlights the fact that with increase usage of social media platforms (as discussed in above points).1) about videos and podcasts being Vishal Sharrma MA Marketing Communications (2009-10) Middlesex University Pg 54 . (refer Fig. from its conception to the release of the first trailer. Social media allows us to get instant feedback. ―Yes. As James quoted in his interview. R.

6. Referring Fig.3). ―User generated content always has the potential to damage the brand.6 clearly indicates that video/audio content sharing are the must have for a film marketing effort. if marketers‘ are not able to control its branding aspects. Social networking and Microblogging fall in the ‗somewhat important‘ category.most effective source of information by 44% and 42% have tried or are open to sharing video/audio (refer table R. 32% are undecided about experimenting with it (refer table R. these not being the priority for marketers‘ is understandable 8. perhaps this is not being prioritised in film marketing. and to add to that 5-6hours are being spent every week by 38% of the respondents (refer table R.2).. it could easily harm the brand. Virtual worlds fall in the ‗least important‘ category and live streaming in ‗not so important‘. users‘ weren‘t too enthusiastic about participating in contests that required them to show their creativity (such as graffiti contest.42. the respondent considers the user generated content (UGC) as neither important of unimportant. These options are usually known to be used by some niche audience..3) and. Considering that some of the least amount is spend by users on widgets and apps (72% spend 0-1 hour every week) (refer table R. Analysing in the light of these points table R. there is a level of monitoring that restricts Vishal Sharrma MA Marketing Communications (2009-10) Middlesex University Pg 55 . make a video etc) with only 22% giving a ‗definitely‘ reply for participating in such contest while a substantial had 34% replied in ‗never‘.1 UGC often could prove to be a liability.2). Considering table R.2. Widgets and apps fall in the undecided category. Therefore. as these are the platforms which allow sharing of the content. 7. R. 8.

so that it did not have any illegal. While ‗somewhat effective‘ for creating awareness. thus. (refer Fig.46) 10..1 However. creating this interdependent cycle which won‘t be possible without engaging users‘. or the early adopters (and their corresponding film tastes).the likelihood of this.45) 9. social media is highly effective in engaging users‘ during the film release.7. it means that we are able to reach an increasingly larger target audience. And as per results of audiences‘ survey.. R. before it was a very niche target. infringing or offensive content. According to results by table R. now the broader audiences are finding their positions in the social media real. We ensured that we could moderate the entries before placing them live into the contest. amount of ‗shareable content‘. R. ―.. the marketer considers customer reciprocation and increased brand recognition as the most important factors on which a successful film marketing strategy using social media could be gauged. Though awareness and engagement are clearly connected words in the world of social media.‖ according to James. respondents do indulge in sharing content and accessing various social media platforms. Vishal Sharrma MA Marketing Communications (2009-10) Middlesex University Pg 56 .. 9. which asked users to upload videos of themselves dressed as made-up superheroes. there is always a fear that the relevant target groups might not be engaging in a way intended. According to table R.‖ added James (refer Fig.8. Having ‗positive comments‘ on social networking sites‘. One example is the YouTube activity for the theatrical release of Kick-Ass. and same for selling merchandise. and few ‗other‘ factors also fall in ‗somewhat important‘ but a definitely important category.

R. For studios though. Though a lot will depend on how independent filmmakers use this option in their future projects. we can gain more emotional reactions to how a film is being received. there are not many major drawbacks of the application of social media in a film marketing strategy. it is another tool to add to their belt for targeting consumers.43) 11. However. and to stand out in a cost-effective way.0 has build upon that reputation substantially.. lack of control over UGC fall in the ‗neither important nor unimportant‘ category. account manager. ―Due to the multiple dialogues created by social allows them to make a name for themselves. Using Twitter as an example. Substance. ―. Difficulty to engage users and the lack of focus are ‗somewhat important factors‘ while lack of effective metrics. it is qualitative in its nature. but then with Facebook we can track a more quantitative result by seeing how many fans a film has. and a part in their overall marketing strategy. do independent filmmakers have more leverage now when it comes to establishing a connect with the audiences? And are they growing as a threat for studios? According to James. 12.According to James. Vishal Sharrma MA Marketing Communications (2009-10) Middlesex University Pg 57 . R. using a minimal budget.44). another cause of concern is that since internet is considered as a leveller of sort and web 2.‖ (refer Fig. According to table R.‖ (refer Fig..9.

1) when it comes to their choice of information sources. R. Various social media platforms and channels are being actively populated by respondents in search of information. the reliability on personal sources like friends have not diminished. point C) Considering these factors it can be safely said that the traditional media is at risk from social media channels and is being sidelined by social media.1). point G). R. which is the hallmark of social media. online video sharing sites. unlike traditional media. a rise in the budgetary spend for social media is predicted by experts (Fig. Since social media can more actively engage users (table R. and blogs. Moreover. A large amount of time has been spent using social networking sites (table R. Conclusions have been presented in the context of the research questions to summarise the results of this study. what has caught the eye of the users is aspects that allow shareable content and increased engagement. However.7. Based on the research results and the analysis of the findings following inferences can be drawn. radio. Fig. outdoor publicity have been the least favoured information sources (Fig. Online videos and podcasts. Changes being Vishal Sharrma MA Marketing Communications (2009-10) Middlesex University Pg 58 . point 9). R.43. particularly about movies.CONCLUSIONS Note: Conclusions have been referred to the findings and analysis of the section above.1. social networking sites and blogs are their top choices.3. Research Question I: Has traditional media being sidelined due to the advent of social media? To start with there is a definite a definite shift in respondents preferences (table R. Newspapers.

47.3. (Fig. table R.7. Social media features suit film marketing well due to its effective reach.30. table R. point O. Fig. the effective reach for film marketing is set to go up as well. point 4). film marketers consider social media as an effective tool to monitor and respond. and generate awareness (table R. Considering that generating information about audiences is an important aspect of film marketing. Fig R. (Fig.1. However. (Fig.32.30. Results have been indicating that social media has helped marketers‘ bring engagement with users to a new level. Engaging users through the content they readily share has become an important aspect of film marketing effort.3). point 9.brought about in peoples‘ media consumption habits (table R. cost effectiveness. R.4). table R. (Fig R. R. quite a few respondents opted for sources other than social media to help them in that decision. viral nature and ability to generate word of mouth publicity (table R. engage.46. and did not rely on the results of ‗likes‘ or ‗reviews‘ functions from friends.1). Social media has become a Vishal Sharrma MA Marketing Communications (2009-10) Middlesex University Pg 59 . when it comes to making purchase decisions. R.5). Ability to get instant feedback and adapt the strategy quickly is adding new dimension to their effort.6.13) is largely responsible for that since social media acts as a precursor to the information they seek. point 9) With more audiences finding their place in social media. table R. R.2. point H). Research Question II: Has social media become the focal point of film marketing? Certain aspects of social media which are equally loved by users and offered by marketers‘ is sharing online videos/ podcast (table R.

Research question III: What role would social media play for film marketing in the future? People are finding their place in the social media world (point 9. R. R.dominant feature in film marketing (Fig.45. and lack of focus remain.1). (table R.42. (Fig. film in this case) remains.9. Quite a few number of respondents considers social media sources to be providing authentic and reliable information.e. However. point K). Another concern is about the lack of focus in the marketing effort and the difficulty to engage users. Respondents have indicated at feeling more positive about a film after engaging with on social networking sites. point G) Respondents voluntarily become part of the films‘ marketing effort made possible through social media platforms.33. point 1). concerns about maintaining the sanctity of the brand (i. and marketers‘ are riding the wave and following them. Fig R. (point 1. (Table R. point E) Considering these factors. it could be safely assumed that social media has become the focal point of film marketing effort. R.1). some concerns like branding in the social media environment remain. (Fig. point 8. However. point 8.3. R. Users‘ habits have been increasingly hinting towards a change in favour of social media. this creates a new environment of increased competition for film studios and agencies. However. Users‘ have been quick to assume control of social media channels. and the time they spend on these channels speaks volumes about the level of engagement that‘s taking place or is possible.31. (Fig. considering Vishal Sharrma MA Marketing Communications (2009-10) Middlesex University Pg 60 . (table R.2.1) and even marketers‘ are adapting to the new scenario. point I). point 12).39.

0 is even a great leveller than its initial avatar. which can target consumers better with all the might they already have. Considering that the social media saga is still unfolding. (Fig. (point 4. (Table R.2) Vishal Sharrma MA Marketing Communications (2009-10) Middlesex University Pg 61 . Table R. the very basics of social media is what is popular among respondents and same trend could be assumed to follow. This could give some advantage to independent filmmakers‘ but it‘s the studios.3). It‘s the simplest of functions. R. (point 11). with new tools and applications coming everyday.that web 2.1) Additionally. not being too intrusive and commercial will work for the film marketing effort.48).2. Table R. (point E. the interview result indicates that engaging audience on social media platforms beyond a point for commercial gains could be a self-defeating strategy. it is indicated by the results that respondents have not been too comfortable using widgets and apps. Adding to this point.

it is suggested that maintaining other sources of information from where the user can access information (e. They like to play around with the most basic functions like sharing.g. 4) Recommendations on social media platforms or ‗likes‘ do not entirely persuade users to make a purchasing decision. it is advisable to engage users in the way they understand and not confuse them. websites. especially video and audio (e. Vishal Sharrma MA Marketing Communications (2009-10) Middlesex University Pg 62 . news sources etc) is essential. YouTube. Veoh etc) are the ones most readily shared by users. status updates and likes.g. Therefore. 3) Users are still simplistic in their approach when it comes to social media. Therefore it is advisable not to avoid social media for the film marketing purposes. They seemed to be either averse or undecided about the usefulness of widgets and apps. if at all such content (user generated content) has the potential to harm a film‘s image. 5) Users‘ don‘t readily participate in contests that require them to create content. Therefore. However. 2) Online content. therefore bringing film content in these formats could help make them go viral. Monitoring such content and gatekeeping is extremely essential.SUGGESTIONS The main recommendations of this study are: 1) Audiences are increasingly opting for social media platforms and channels.

it seems like studios are cautious but do not consider independent filmmakers as a threat as of now. as indicated by the study should not be undermined. importance of interpersonal contacts like friends. However. 9) Social networking sites and blogs are some of the most influential tools that can be incorporated in a film marketing project. Users have reported to be more inclined if they are reciprocated. 7) Having enough elements of content so that the brand (read film) clearly unfolds infront of the eye of users is important.6) From the data gathered. Independent filmmakers‘ can utilise this medium to garner instant fame and spread their projects across boundaries. There have to be enough avenues of engagement and sharing. Vishal Sharrma MA Marketing Communications (2009-10) Middlesex University Pg 63 . 8) Making the user experience personalised could result in gains for the marketing effort.

LIMITATIONS a) Willingness of the subjects to participate is a major limitation of this study. pg 120) e) The expert interview of film marketers‘ was only one due to the lack of response from those contacted despite repeated efforts. Vishal Sharrma MA Marketing Communications (2009-10) Middlesex University Pg 64 . which ―. therefore convincing them to participate and share their experience and views was quite a task. Online surveys are ―. 2006.. Film Marketing professionals are hard pressed against time. c) The Audiences‘ survey was circulated through social networking site with clear instruction about the eligibility criteria for participation.‖ (McDaniel and gates.. b) Since the study was conducted through online questionnaire.can result from deliberate falsification or unconscious misrepresentation.‖ (McDaniel and Gates. Thus.fully self-selecting and probably representative of no one except web surfers. This also caused delays on occasions. therefore subjects could be probed following the set direction of the questionnaire.. 2006. This proved to be a major limitation as a live interview would have allowed more probing into the genre under consideration. this doesn‘t allow this study the depth that was intended. it won‘t be possible to guarantee with certainty about the respondents‘ credentials. pg 134) d) There is a possibility of ‗response bias‘.. However.

pg 112) Table 2: Cinema Audience by Age group. 2010. pg 113 ) Vishal Sharrma MA Marketing Communications (2009-10) Middlesex University Pg 65 . 2010. UK Film Council Statistical year Book. 2010 (Table 1 Source: Audiences. 2009 (Table 2 Source: Audiences. UK Film Council Statistical year Book. Chapter 14.APPENDIX A Table 1: Frequency of Cinema Visits by Age group. Chapter 14.

UK Film Council Statistical year Book.Table 3: Frequency of Cinema-goers Watching Downloaded or Shared Films. pg 119) Table 4: Frequency of Cinema Goers Watching Films Downloaded from Authorised Source by Age. Chapter 14. 2010. Chapter 14. 2009 (Table 4 Source: Fame 2010 survey in Audiences. UK Film Council Statistical year Book. pg 121) Vishal Sharrma MA Marketing Communications (2009-10) Middlesex University Pg 66 . 2010. 2009 (Table 3 Source: Fame 2010 survey in Audiences.

all Modes. UK Film Council Statistical year Book. 2010. 20042009 (Table 6 source: Distribution.Table 5: Estimated Total Audience for Films in UK. pg 62) Vishal Sharrma MA Marketing Communications (2009-10) Middlesex University Pg 67 . UK Film Council Statistical Year Book 2010. 2009 (Table 5 Source: Fame 2010 survey in Audiences. chapter 8. pg 123 ) Table 6: Distributor Market Share as Percentage of Box Office Gross. Chapter 14.

pg 26) Vishal Sharrma MA Marketing Communications (2009-10) Middlesex University Pg 68 . pg 64) Table 8: Films Released in UK and Republic of Ireland by Genre. ranked by Gross Box Office (Table 8 Source: Genre and Classification. UK Film council Statistical Year Book 2010. 2003 and 2007-2009 (Table 7 source: Distribution. UK Film Council Statistical Year Book 2010. chapter 8.Table 7: Estimated Advertising Spend. Chapter 4. 2009.

Chapter 13. pg 107) Vishal Sharrma MA Marketing Communications (2009-10) Middlesex University Pg 69 . 2010. 2009 (Table 10 Source: The UK Film Market as a Whole. 2008-2009 (Table 9 Source: Public Investment in the Film in the UK. pg 149) Table 10: Filmed Entertainment Revenue by Country/Region. Chapter 17. UK Film council Statistical Year Book 2010.Table 9: Activities Supported by Public Spend on Film. UK Film council Statistical Year Book 2010. US $million.

Link: http://bit. U. 2010. Web Use Up 65% Since 2007 – Social Networking more than Doubles.Diagram B: What UK users are doing online? (Source: Nielsen Wire. May Vishal Sharrma MA Marketing Communications (2009-10) Middlesex University Pg 70 .K.

September 10. Social networking doubles among boomers and Diagram D: Who is using social networking sites? (Source: eMarketer.Diagram C: What brand representatives think about challenges to their brands from social media? (Source: eMarketer. September 3. 2010. Link: Vishal Sharrma MA Marketing Communications (2009-10) Middlesex University Pg 71 . 2010. How Social Media Is Changing Brand Marketing. Link: http://bit.

Podcasts Friends TV channels 46% 26% 38% 20% 4% 16% 8% 32% 4% 6% Vishal Sharrma MA Marketing Communications (2009-10) Middlesex University Pg 72 . R.Appendix B Note: contains graphs from the survey results Fig.1: Table R.1: Effectiveness of information sources in the context of movies Information Sources Most Effective 12% 12% 38% 30% 36% 38% 44% Somewhat Neutral Not very Least effective effective effective 16% 22% 22% 20% 16% 14% 24% 14% 32% 20% 28% 20% 20% 14% 32% 28% 14% 18% 10% 20% 10% 26% 6% 6% 4% 18% 8% 8% Newspapers Outdoor Publicity Social networking sites Search engines Microblogging Blogs Online Videos.

R.Radios 8% 20% 20% 32% 20% Fig. R.12: Fig.13: Vishal Sharrma MA Marketing Communications (2009-10) Middlesex University Pg 73 .

Table R. make your own fan video etc) Recommend through status updates Participate through Live streaming (video/chat) with actors. crew etc Follow on Twitter Using apps and widgets Vishal Sharrma Definitely 42% Most likely 26% Undecided 16% May be 2% Never 14% 42% 18% 24% 6% 10% 36% 34% 38% 18% 16% 22% 4% 14% 6% 12% 22% 16% 16% 12% 34% 46% 26% 8% 10% 10% 26% 12% 18% 14% 30% 34% 6% 12% 16% 6% 32% 14% 22% 34% 24% MA Marketing Communications (2009-10) Middlesex University Pg 74 .2: Marketing tactics that the users’ readily try/ have tried for a movie? Marketing Tactic Like/recommend/ret weet content on social networking sites Share content (photos. MySpace etc Participate in content that require to show your creativity (e. video etc) Comment or review Visit film’s official page on social networking sites like Facebook.g. graffiti contest.

Veoh etc). Audio (podcasts) Social networking sites (e.g. Twitter) Widget and Apps Sharing information 0-1 hour 2-3 hour 5-6 hour 7-8 hour 8 hour & more 0% 0% 54% 32% 34% 24% 8% 38% 4% 6% 12% 24% 40% 16% 8% 80% 18% 0% 0% 2% 58% 6% 24% 10% 2% 72% 38% 16% 18% 6% 26% 6% 12% 0% 6% Vishal Sharrma MA Marketing Communications (2009-10) Middlesex University Pg 75 .Table R.g.3: Time spent using various social media platforms and tools every week Social Media Platforms / tools Blogs Online videos (e. Yoututbe. MySpace etc) Online forums and groups Microblogging (e. Facebook.g.

Fig.31 Vishal Sharrma MA Marketing Communications (2009-10) Middlesex University Pg 76 .30 Fig. R. R.

33 Vishal Sharrma MA Marketing Communications (2009-10) Middlesex University Pg 77 .Fig. R. R.32 Fig.

R.34 Fig. R.35 Vishal Sharrma MA Marketing Communications (2009-10) Middlesex University Pg 78 .Fig.

Fig. R.37 Vishal Sharrma MA Marketing Communications (2009-10) Middlesex University Pg 79 .36 Fig. R.

38 Fig.39 Vishal Sharrma MA Marketing Communications (2009-10) Middlesex University Pg 80 . R. R.Fig.

R.40 Fig.41 Vishal Sharrma MA Marketing Communications (2009-10) Middlesex University Pg 81 .Fig. R.

43 Vishal Sharrma MA Marketing Communications (2009-10) Middlesex University Pg 82 . R.42 Fig.Fig. R.

R.46 Vishal Sharrma MA Marketing Communications (2009-10) Middlesex University Pg 83 .Fig. R.44 Fig.45 Fig. R.

4: Social Media Channels vs.Fig.48 Table R. R. R. Traditional marketing channels for Films in the following terms: Least important Not very important Neither Somewhat Most important important important nor unimportant Reach User acceptability Brand recall Reusability of the content Cost effectiveness Viral nature Word of mouth publicity Vishal Sharrma MA Marketing Communications (2009-10) Middlesex University Pg 84 .47 Fig.

Table R.5: How is social media used for film marketing? Least important Not very important Neither Somewhat Most important important important nor unimportant Engage influencers Monitor and respond Customer engagement General awareness Engaging media/press Vishal Sharrma MA Marketing Communications (2009-10) Middlesex University Pg 85 .

Second World) Video / Audio Vishal Sharrma MA Marketing Communications (2009-10) Middlesex University Pg 86 .Table R.6: Must haves for a film marketing campaign using Social Media Least important Not very important Neither Somewhat Most important important important nor unimportant Microblogging (e. Twitter) Widgets and apps Forums / groups Blogs Social networking sites Live streaming Online games Virtual world (e.g.g.

Table R.7: At what stage of film marketing is social media most effective? Least effective Not very effective Neither effective nor uneffective Somewhat Highly effective effective Generating awareness through shareable content Engaging users during film release Selling merchandise / DVDs Establishing connect with audience from different territory Vishal Sharrma MA Marketing Communications (2009-10) Middlesex University Pg 87 .

8: What factor would count as a successful film marketing strategy on social media? Least important factor Not very important Neither Somewhat Most important important important factor nor unimportant Customer reciprocation Increased brand recognition Positive comments Shared content / likes Others Table R.Table R.9: What is the major drawback of using social media for film marketing? Least important factor Not very important Neither Somewhat Most important important important factor nor unimportant Lack of effective metrics Difficulty to engage users Lack of control over user generated content Lack of focus Others Vishal Sharrma MA Marketing Communications (2009-10) Middlesex University Pg 88 .

actors. For further information contact me on sharrmavishal@gmail. I am Vishal Sharrma. MySpace etc)) Search Engines (google. When it comes to finding information about movies which of the following sources do you find most effective? *1 for Most effective. MA Marketing Communications student from Middlesex University. London. scoops etc     Mostly Some times Rarely Never 2. All the collected data and its results will be used for academic purpose only as per university guidelines. Thank you for participating in this study. Evangelos Moustakas." a London based study to identify how social media is transforming the industry.e. Let me start by introducing myself. about their releases. Yahoo! etc) 2 3 4 5 Vishal Sharrma MA Marketing Communications (2009-10) Middlesex University Pg 89 . senior marketing INSTRUCTIONS: This questionnaire contains 13 questions that should be completed in a single attempt.Appendix C Audiences’ Questionnaire (Link: ) Role and Effectiveness of Social Media in Film Marketing Hi there. Middlesex University. This online interview is part of my dissertation titled "Role and Effectiveness of Social Media in Film marketing. London. 5 for Least effective (Tips: You can select multiple options in each column) 1 Newspapers Outdoor Publicity (posters etc) Social Networks (Fb. For this dissertation module I am being supervised by Dr. Do you think you often rely on Social Media sources for information about movies? *i. It will take you approximately 10 minutes to complete * Required 1.

MySpace etc)) Participate in contests that require you to show Vishal Sharrma 2 3 4 5 MA Marketing Communications (2009-10) Middlesex University Pg 90 . interviews etc)) Comment or review Look for updates on the official film page (i. Do you feel satisfied with the information that you receive on social media sources? * 1 Strongly disagree 2 3 4 5 Strongly agree 5. videos Friends TV channels Radio 2 3 4 5 3. Do you tend to indulge / participate more often in a Film promotional campaigns while using Social media channels? * 1 Strongly disagree 2 3 4 5 Strongly agree 4. 5 for Never (Tips: You can select multiple options in each column) 1 Like / recommend / retweet their content on social networks Share their content (videos. photos.e on FB. Which of the following promotional tactics would you most readily try / have tried for a film? *Rate 1 for Definitely.1 Microblogging (Twitter etc) Blogs Podcasts.

veoh etc) and Audio (podcasts) Social Networks (Facebook.1 your creativity (graffiti contest. chat etc) Follow on Twitter Using apps and widgets 2 3 4 5 6. MySpace etc) Online forums / groups Microblogging (Twitter etc) Widgets and Apps Sharing information 2-3 hour 5-6 hour 7-8 hour 8 hour or more 7.e live video. youtube. do you feel the need to look for additional information from other sources? *    Definitely Most likely May be Vishal Sharrma MA Marketing Communications (2009-10) Middlesex University Pg 91 . After accessing information regarding the film you are interested in through social media sources. self-made short video) Recommend through status updates Participate through Live streaming (i.g. How much time do you spend using following Social Media platforms and tools every week? *(Tips: You can select multiple options in each column) 0-1 hour Blogs Online Videos (e.

Do you feel that the information that comes through social media sources is authentic and reliable? * Definitely Most likely May be Never 9. Never 8. Facebook etc 2 3 4 5 10. Which of the following film promotion tactics do you find most appealing? *1 for Most appealing. Do you feel more positive about a film after being retweeted / replied back / appreciated on the official Film page on a social networking? * Definitely Most likely May be    Vishal Sharrma MA Marketing Communications (2009-10) Middlesex University Pg 92 . Would you be more inclined towards buying a film merchandise / Dvd after reading your friends reviews / likes on social network sites like Facebook. Twitter etc? *     Definitely Most likely May be No 11. 5 for Least appealing (Tips: You can select multiple options in each column)     1 Promotional stunts Viral videos Live streaming with actors / crew Outdoor publicity / posters Interactive apps / games Interesting updates through social network sites like Twitter.

where did you watch films most of the times? *      Continue » Cinema TV channels DVDs Online Video on demand Profile Age *      Gender *   Occupation *      « Back 18-21 years 22-26 years 27-31 years 32-36 years 37 years and above Male Female Student Self -employed Professional Unemployed Other Submit Vishal Sharrma MA Marketing Communications (2009-10) Middlesex University Pg 93 . How many films have you watched in last one year? * 13. No 12.

1 In your opinion are social media channels becoming a dominant feature in film marketing? * 1 strongly agree 2 3 4 5 strongly disagree A.2 How would you rate these factors when comparing Social Media channels used in film marketing to traditional marketing channels? *1 for Least Important.Marketers’ Questionnaire (Link: http://bit.3 Do you think customers/users respond more positively when approached through social media rather than an offline channel? * 1 strongly agree 2 3 4 5 strongly disagree ) Section A A. 5 for most important 1 Reach User Acceptability Brand Recall Reusability (of the content) Cost Effectiveness Viral Nature Word of Mouth Publicity 2 3 4 5 A.4 How would you rate the importance of having a Social Media strategy for film marketing campaigns? * 1 Least important 2 3 4 5 Very Important Vishal Sharrma MA Marketing Communications (2009-10) Middlesex University Pg 94 .

5 for Most important 1 Engage Influencers Monitor and Respond Customer Engagement Generate Awareness Engaging Media/press 2 3 4 5 B.2 What platforms would you consider as a must haves for an social media film campaign in terms of importance?*1 for Least important. 5 for Most important 1 Microblogging (e. how would you rate the following in terms of importance? *1 for Least important.A. Social Media is only able to reach a niche audience and isn't able to penetrate the masses in UK? Please share in detail * Continue » Pg 2 Section B B.5 Do you think when it comes to film marketing.g Twitter) Widgets/ Apps Forums/ groups Blogs Social networks Live Streaming 2 3 4 5 Vishal Sharrma MA Marketing Communications (2009-10) Middlesex University Pg 95 .1 When it comes to Social Media Strategy for Films.

* B.e.3 How importance is User Generated Content when it comes to film marketing? * 1 Least Important 2 3 4 5 Very important B.g. go viral and damage the brand? Please share * B. Second Life) Video/Audio 2 3 4 5 B.7 How important is it to trace the digital footprint of your brand on the social web and WHY? Please share *i. how it is perceived in the digital world.6 How important is to establish the personality of the brand through Social Media Channels? Please share in detail.5 How important is Social Media Optimisation (SMO) for film marketing campaigns? * 1 Least Important 2 3 4 5 Very important B. what Vishal Sharrma MA Marketing Communications (2009-10) Middlesex University Pg 96 .4 Do you consider the User Generated content a liability that could possibly spin out of proportion.1 Online Games Virtual worlds (e. what people are talking about the brand.

emotion is being associated with it etc B. 5 for Very Important Factor 1 Vishal Sharrma 2 3 4 5 Pg 97 MA Marketing Communications (2009-10) Middlesex University .8 At what stage of the film's marketing process do you find Social Media most effective? *1 for Least effective.10 What do you think is a major drawback of Social Media film marketing campaigns? *1 for Least important factor. 5 for Highly Effective 1 Initial stage: generating awareness through shareable content During film release. DVDs etc Establishing connect with an audience from a different territory 2 3 4 5 B. 5 for Very Important Factor 1 Customer reciprocation Increased recognition of brand Positive comments Shared content / likes Others 2 3 4 5 B. engaging users Selling merchandise.9 How would you rate the success of your Social Media film campaign? *1 for Least important factor.

do you feel it is possible to have effective and measurable goals for your film campaign? Please share *are the end results of campaigns quantifiable? or do they bring out surprised results? C.3 Do you think there is skepticism among studios/marketers on how seriously to adopt the Social Media for their campaigns in UK in comparison to traditional tools? Please share * Vishal Sharrma MA Marketing Communications (2009-10) Middlesex University Pg 98 .1 Lack of effective metrics Difficulty to engage user Lack of control over user generated content Lack of focus Other « Back Continue » 2 3 4 5 Pg 3 Section C C.1 Considering the viral nature of Social Media.2 Do you think studios/marketers would increase spend on Social Media activities in UK? Please share * C.

5 Do you think film marketing through social media would lose its relevance if audiences find it more commercially driven and less entertaining? * C.6 Do you think web 3.4 Do you think Studios will now have to face a tougher challenge from independent film makers.0 would bring in new era of tools & applications for film marketing or would it lead to information overload on Social Media highway? Please share *there are already scores of tools and applications in the digital world. the next generation social media would be an improvement over the present ones or would they add simply add to the traffic) « Back Continue » Pg 4 Section D Your Profile Full Name * Designation * Vishal Sharrma MA Marketing Communications (2009-10) Middlesex University Pg 99 . who can market their films through Social media? Please share * C.C.

campaigns. blog link « Back Submit Vishal Sharrma MA Marketing Communications (2009-10) Middlesex University Pg 100 . experience etc Email id * Links *Pease provide your LinkedIn.Company / Agency *Please include address About yourself in brief *Film marketing projects.

Chapter 1.  Anklam (2009). UK Film Council Statistical Year Book. pg 119121. Link: http://www. Ten Years of Net Work. 2010. K. Link: http://bit. Government attacks UK Film Council for lobbying to stay in existence.2010). 2010). UK Film Council Statistical year Book. Link: http://bit. (accessed on Aug Vishal Sharrma MA Marketing Communications (2009-10) Middlesex University Pg 101 . (2010). Business. The Learning Aug Guardian. pg 9-14.2010). pg 3  Audiences. 2009 pp. 16 No. 80 Issue 34. (2009).  Ben Hanna (2009). Chapter 14. pg 111-123. Chapter 14. 2010 (accessed on August 20. Facebook usage still rising in Europe. Link: http://bit. Vol. (accessed on Aug 20.2010).uk. 2009 Business Social Media Benchmarking but UK usage slows. nma. (accessed on Aug 20. UK Film council Statistical Year Book 2010. T-Mobile Strikes Film Streaming Deal with Paramount. benchmark-study  Box Office. p4-22  Alex Farber (2009). 415-426  Andrew  Abramas V. 2010. How Paranormal Activity Hit It  Ben Child (2010). Advertising  [1] Link: http://bit.

July 26).ly/dg6Zuz  [8] Brian Solis (2010. (2008. (2009-10).com. Mashable.briansolis. Avatar Premier to be Broadcast Live on Ustream. (2009-10).com. and measure success in the new web. (2009).ly/bgT3rP  [9] Brian Solis.  Consumer Lifestyles in the United Kingdom.  [3] Ben Parr. Link: Euromonitor International  [5] Christina Warren. Link:  [14] Christina Warren. cultivate. Link: http://bit. Chapter 21.briansolis. Mashable. Link: http://bit. (2010). Once More. Internet Users Visited a Social Networking Site in May 2009‘. (2009-10) Avatar + Interactive Trailer + Twitter = Awesome. Link: Vishal Sharrma MA Marketing Communications (2009-10) Middlesex University Pg 102 . www.Hot Tube Machine: The Anatomy of a Social Media Campaign. Independent Film Guide. Bottle Bloggers. Engage: the complete guide for brands and businesses to build. May 5). Mashable. Link: http://bit. ‗Nine Out of Ten 25-34 Year Old U. With Feeling: Making Sense of Social Media.).com. The Social Marketing Compass: creating a social media plan. www. John Wiley & Sons Inc. Engage.  Brian Solis (2010). Link: http://bit. Paranormal Activity Rides the Social Web to Millions at the Box  ComScore (2009).K. (2009-10).ly/8I43eO  [6] Christina Warren.  [7] Brian Solis. pg 268-276. (2008. pg20. Social Media Continues to Rival traditional media. September 3. Reed Business Information.

[15] Christina Warren, (2009-10), Avatar Now The Biggest Movie Ever Worldwide, Link:

[4] Christina Warren, (2009-10), Facebook and MTV to Host Avatar Webcast Featuring James Cameron,, Link:

Dave Olson (2010), ‗Social promotion for Movies –A Practical Guide. Link:

Dave Evans, (2008) Social Media Marketing: An hour a day, Wiley Publishing Inc, 2008 , pg 204

Distribution, Chapter 8, UK Film council Statistical Year Book 2010, pg 61-64, (accessed on Aug 20,2010). Link:

Daniel Battridge, (2010, Aug 4), Time to See the Bigger Picture, The independent, London (UK), pg 14. Link:








Conversation, Link:  Exhibition, Chapter 9, UK Film Council Statistical Year Book 2010, pg 66-79. (accessed on Aug 20,2010). Link:  [12] eMarketer, (2010, September 10,), How Social Media Is Changing Brand Marketing, Link:  [13] eMarketer, (2010, September 3,), Social networking doubles among boomers and seniors, Link:  [2] FAME Survey 2010 in Audiences, Chapter 14, UK Film Council Statistical Year Book, 2010, pg 119-121. (accessed on Aug 20,2010). Link:
Vishal Sharrma MA Marketing Communications (2009-10) Middlesex University Pg 103

Film production in 2009, Chapter 16, UK Film Council Statistical Year Book 2010, pg 133-142. (accessed on Aug 20,2010). Link:

 

Four and a Half Minutes Online, June 15, 2010. Link: Film Industry Companies, Chapter 19, UK Film Council Statistical Year Book 2010, pg 162-170. (accessed on Aug 20,2010). Link:

Genre and Classification, Chapter 4, UK Film Council Statistical Year Book 2010, pg 26-37. (accessed on Aug 20,2010). Link:

Henry Porter, French films glow with confidence and culture. Ours should do the same, The Observer, Aug 8, 2010 (accessed on Aug 20,2010). Link:

Ian Tucker, (2010, July 25,) Cinema-going booms: it's in 3D and you escape mum and dad, The Observer. (accessed on Aug 20, 2010). Link:

Jean Erickson, (2009), A Promo With Bite, Pump Up This Promo: building brand recognition, Successful Promotions, October, pg 36-39

James Robinson, (2010, July 27), Kent wins boost from new film law,, (accessed on Aug 20,2010). Link:

Kent R. (2007),Marketing Research: Approaches, Methods and Applications in Europe, Thomson.

Lon Safko, David K. Brake, The Social Media Bible: Tactics, Tools, and Strategies for Business Success, John Wiley & Sons Inc, 200

Marketing, (2008), ―Cloverfield Movie in MySpace Push‖, Media News, pg 6.

Vishal Sharrma

MA Marketing Communications (2009-10)

Middlesex University Pg 104

McDaniel C. and Gates R., (2006), Marketing research Essentials, fifth edition, John Wiley & Sons,Inc

McDaniel C. and Gates R. (2002), Marketing Research: the impact of the internet, firth edition, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Malhotra K. Naresh and Birks F. David, (2007), Marketing Research: an applied approach, Third European Edition, Prentice Hall.

[10] Movie Marketing: The Changing Film Marketing Model, Internet Advertising Bureau. Link:

[11] Nielsen Wire, (2010, May 20), U.K. Web Use Up 65% Since 2007 – Social Networking more than Doubles. Link:

Nielsen Wire, ( 2010, June 15), Social Networks/Blogs Now Account for One in Every

Nielsen Media Research estimates in Distribution, Chapter 8, UK Film Council Statistical Year Book 2010, pg 61-64. (accessed on Aug 20,2010). Link:

O'Reilly, T. ,(2005), What is web 2.0. Design patterns and business models for the next generation of software

Paul Lewis, (2010, Aug 12), Steven Spielberg's studio 'concerned' by move to axe UK Film Council, (accessed on August 20, 2010). Link:

Public Investment in the Film in the UK, 2010, Chapter 17, UK Film Council Statistical Year Book 2010, pg 144-150. (accessed on Aug 20,2010). Link:

Vishal Sharrma

MA Marketing Communications (2009-10)

Middlesex University Pg 105

Link: http://bit.0 Part-1 by Monica  Tracey Prisk. June Vishal Sharrma MA Marketing Communications (2009-10) Middlesex University Pg 106 . (2010). Other referred material:  Film Publicity 2.eMarketer. pg 21-23  The UK film industry in statistics. NMA.2010). How Social Media and the Web Helped Avatar make $1 Billion. Hollywood Link: http://bit. Roaring Success.). Link:  Starr Hall and Chadd Rosenberg. pg 105-109. accessed on September (accessed on Aug 20.substance001. Get Connected: The Social Networking Toolkit for Business. pg 18-20  UK Film Market as a Whole. (2006). www. (accessed on Aug 20. (2010. Making Sure It‘s Right on the Night. 414 Issue 27. Link: http://bit. August 11. Link: http://bit. Film Marketing Vertical Vocus. p1-14  Samuel Axon. ‗Screen Unveils Nominees for UK Marketing & Distribution Awards. (2009).2010). nma. Stanley T. Vol. UK Film council Statistical Year Book 2010. (2009-10).ly/cHue3G   www. Chapter 13. Film Marketers look to Hook Up. B&T. Entrepeneur Press  Screen International. (2008)  Sean Hargrave. Link: www.

ly/5VN57z  Social Media Optimisation: SMO is the new SEO-Part 2 by Brian Solis. Link: Transmedia and Film Marketing Tips by Chris Quigley. In Social Media. Link:   The Value of Film Publicity by Steve Barrett. It‘s business to business by Brian Solis. Link: Vishal Sharrma MA Marketing Communications (2009-10) Middlesex University Pg 107 . It‘s not just business. Link: http://bit.

COM Telephone Number: 07875672250 Programme of Study: MA MARKETING COMMUNICATIONS (2009-2010) Date Purpose of Meeting/Agreed Actions Supervisor Signature Vishal Sharrma MA Marketing Communications (2009-10) Middlesex University Pg 108 .UK .AC. Name: VISHAL SHARRMA Student Number: M00275820 Email Address: VS336@LIVE. This form must be submitted with the dissertation.MDX.Dissertation Supervisor Contact Sheet To be completed by student and signed by supervisor to confirm contact. SHARRMAVISHAL@GMAIL.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful

Master Your Semester with Scribd & The New York Times

Special offer for students: Only $4.99/month.

Master Your Semester with a Special Offer from Scribd & The New York Times

Cancel anytime.