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THE WESTMINSTER LIBRARY
A SERIES OF MANUALS FOR CATHOLIC
PRIESTS

AND STUDENTS

EDITED BY

The Right Rev. Mgr. BERNARD
PRESIDENT OF
ST.

WARD

EDMUND'S COLLEGE

AND

The Rev.

HERBERT THURSTON,

S.J.

THE

LEGENDS OF THE SAINTS
AN INTRODUCTION TO HAGIOGRAPHY

FROM THE FRENCH OF

Pere

H.

DELEHAYE,
BOLLANDIST

SJ.

TRANSLATED BY

Mrs. V. M.

CRAWFORD

G:
£ v *^3*?*

fe

LONGMANS, GREEN, AND
39

CO.

NEW

PATERNOSTER ROW, LONDON YORK, BOMBAY, AND CALCUTTA
1907

Etttprimi potest. x 1>3H3 «L Jf «7J *. t Westmonasterii.. igo?.L_©orn Jlihtl ©bsfctt. J- Gulielmus Episcopus Arindelensis. S.J. Censor deputatus. Vicarius Generalis. . die ? Junii. is Herbertus Thurston.

Crawford from the second edition of the French original. are accustomed to recite the Divine Office with its historical lessons. whether as a matter of duty or of devotion. and has been carefully revised in passing through the press. for those again who as the Church's local representatives are often asked to explain difficulties regarding the cultus of the Saints. it has been thought that a translation of Father Delehaye's Ldgendes Hagiographiques would be likely to prove a welcome addition to the Westminster Library. The translation has been made by Mrs. M. who take an upon pagan survivals provoked by so many of our modern folk-lorists. for all.EDITORIAL NOTE For those who. V. in fine. Nothing has been added save interest in the discussions a few bibliographical references kindly suggested by the author himself. The Editors accordingly have felt no hesitation in including in the series a work which has everywhere won high commendation abroad from scholars of all shades of opinion. .

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and to be highly derogatory to the honour of the heroes of our faith. If you suggest that the biographer of a saint has been unequal to his task. you are accused with of attacking the saint himself. with equal veneration not only the saints themselves but have been greatly agitated by certain conclusions assumed by them to have been inspired by the revolutionary spirit that has penetrated even into the Church. Historical criticism when applied to the lives of the saints has had certain results which are in no rise way surprising to those who are accustomed to handle documents and to interpret inscriptions. who. who regard them. but which have had a somewhat disturbing effect on the mind of the general Religious-minded people everything associated public. or that he has not professed to write as a historian. it appears. is . This conviction frequently finds utterance in somewhat violent terms.AUTHOR'S INTRODUCTION Recent given progress in scientific hagiography has to more than one misunderstanding.

can only have been inspired by piety. You fact it are told you are introducing the spirit of things essential to weigh rationalism into history. Unhappily. The conditions under which so many accounts of martyrs and lives of saints have been put together are. whose sole object has to appraise at their true value the documents which justify our attitude of veneration. too little known be for any common ground of criticism to available. and who are only too happy when able to declare that one of God's friends has been fortunate enough to find a historian worthy of his task.viii A UTHOR'S INTRO D UCTION too powerful to allow himself to be compromised by an If. and men been treated as iconoclasts. you are at once suspected of lack of faith. as they think. as though in questions of were not above all the evidence. One might have thought that this simple analysis of the attitude of suspicion which so many de- vout souls assume in regard to historical criticism easy than might would suffice to demonstrate the injustice of their it is prejudices. less be supposed to efface an impression which. although wellcalculated to enhance the glory of the saint. indiscreet panegyrist. you venture to express doubt con- cerning certain miraculous incidents repeated by the author on insufficient evidence. of destructive How often has not an accusation criticism been flung. . as a rule. again.

perhaps. to sketch in broad outto line the genesis of their compositions. and show how It far they are from being protected against errors which exact history may. were. more than has been done hitherto. the naive histories. be as first bound to denounce. sweet with the per- fume of fullest true piety. To give assistance in detecting materials of workmanship is not to deny the excellence of what remains. deserve our admiration and respect. in which eye-witnesses relate the trials of virgins and of ascetics. well to warn the reader is is from the the against an impression that might be gathered from a study which mainly devoted to weak points of hagiographic literature. written. and it is to the ultimate adinferior vantage of the harvest to point out the tares that have sometimes become mingled with the wheat to a most disconcerting extent. with pens dipped in the blood of martyrs. the various methods pursued by pious writers.AUTHOR'S INTRODUCTION ix Many readers are not sufficiently on their guard against the vague sentiment which endows hagiowhich graphers with some mysterious privilege of im- munity from the errors of human all frailty to other categories of writers are liable. The as it simple narrative of heroic days. We therefore useful believe that we shall be doing a definitely work if we try to classify. that very reason they For must be clearly .

so much in vogue at the present Certain brilliant displays which have taken day. by glancing through the chapter in which we have discussed the questions touching upon mythological exegesis. however efficacious they themselves. The one is well known. It must surely be admitted that from this simple of the saint are hidden task of classification. and his voice overborne by that of his chronicler. we should advise no neither have we dreamed of disguising the fact that by misapplying methods of research. the need for which we are anxious to demonstrate. it is a far cry to that work of destruction which we may be suspected of having embarked upon. Moreover.x A UTHOR'S INTROD UCTION from the extensive class differentiated of pain- fully-elaborated biographies in which the features by a heavy veil of rhetoric. one to advance blindfold. and its own merits recommend it. It has been our . There is an infinite distance between these two classes of literature. The other too often passes undetected and prejudices the first. if we recommend any one who feels drawn to hagiographic studies to plunge boldly into the realm of criticism. place in that arena have dazzled a public more It is easy to satisfy oneself on this point preoccupied with the novelty of the conclusions than with their trustworthiness. there is may be in danger of being led to quite inadmissible conclusions.

frequently . We do not We believe our- selves justified. such has been the aim of this against the fascination of formulas volume. To rules indicate briefly the spirit in which hagio- graphic texts should be studied. to place people on their guard and preconceived systems. in resisting the temptation to impress the reader by a cheap display of and in avoiding everything that might have encumbered our exposition without adding erudition. to lay for down the discriminating between the materials that the historian can use and those that he should hand over as their natural property to artists and poets.AUTHOR'S INTRODUCTION duty to lay to xi down the necessary limitations. and we make no pretension of having exhausted any one of the subjects of which we have treated. however. The quotations and examples might have been multiplied almost indefinitely. profess to have written a complete Many points which may treatise on hagiography. alas. fective Deshelter methods. far as may be from this little we shall occasionally be compelled to call attention to other people's mistakes. suggest themselves to the reader have not even been touched upon. Controversy banished as Nevertheless —an evil counsellor — has take been book. and show how they may best be observed. anything to the force of the argument.

behind names of the highest times. for all. it For the on those it is a real cause for regret that fall in the thick of the fight blows sometimes at whom they were not aimed. that we have in Some the chapters of this study first appeared Revue des Questions historiques (July. this new edition of the book is simply a reprint of the first. We have slightly revised and completed them in a few places. when critic attacking erroneous and someviews. 1905. which appeared in March. 1903). Let be understood. Except for two or three unimportant additions. one may give the impression of attacking persons. .xii A UTHOR'S INTROD UCTION credit. once and aimed at nobody.

4° ... The Development of the Legend... Unconscious distortion of truth by the individual By the people Level of popular intelligence— Tendency to simpliIgnorance Substitution of the abstract form for fication Poverty of invention The borrowing the individual type and transmission of legendary themes Examples The antiquity of certain themes Artificial grouping of incidents — — — — — and persons II. . Hagiographic documents sitions — Imaginative compo— Romances— Popular inventions — Myths— Tales two principal —Legends—The hagiographic legend: tales. Preliminary Definitions. Artificial its factors CHAPTER II.— CONTENTS PAGE Introduction vii CHAPTER I..... — Cycles . I. — — — — — — — — 12 Predominance of sense impressions over the intelligence Localisations and foot-prints Literary origin of certain of these Iconographic legends Popular etymology Miracles The soul of the people Energy of expression Exag- — — gerated feeling — —Ambitions of individual churches— Morality claims of the mob — Local .....

Procopius legends — The synaxaries St. . The meaning of the term " hagiographer " ideas I. 125 . . 91 CHAPTER The IV. .70 Dearth of material and methods of supplementing fication it by means of stock incidents Acts of St. of of the various categories of documents III. — Latin —Analysis acts of St. Classification of Hagiographic Texts. of a Saint. Procopius of Cassarea Account given by Eusebius Monuments testifying to the cultus The — — three legends of St. — — — — — —Ampli. . — of the three St. Vincent Madelgarus Antiquity of the process Forgeries . Procopius Adaptations to Conclusions Ephysius and to John of Alexandria . Clement of Ancyra Compilation and adaptation Life of St. . Historical view— Division into six classes — Application of Ruinart's Acta Sincera — The " Supplements " of 107 Le Blant CHAPTER The "Dossier" V. The Work of the Hagiographer. Defective system point of ing to categories of saints system to — Classification according to subjects —Accord— System adopted. . — Moralities—Ancient II. —Literary methods concerning history— Special tradi- PAGE views of mediaeval hagiographers Sources tion 60 — —False attributions tradition Pictorial sources —Interpretation —Written tradition — Oral —Relics of the past— Choice of sources — Inscriptions— Use . Documents concerning St.— xiv CONTENTS CHAPTER III.

— CONTENTS CHAPTER VI. xv Pagan Survivals and Reminiscences. Dates of avoidable analogies III. PAGE I. Rites and symbols common to Christianity and to ancient religions miracles II. Concerning Certain Hagiographic Heresies. allied St. . —Superstitions Saint-worship and hero-worship — The centre of hero-worship— Solemn translations — Relics— Fortuitous coincidences worship— Holy places — Christian transPagan survivals ascertainformations — Adaptation of names— A method — Sacred sources ing primitive —Alteration of object— Difficulty of proving IV. — Christian adaptations—Three cases to be —Examples Legend of Lucian of Antioch Livrada legends — Pelagia and Legend of Mythological names — Other suspicious names — Iconographic parallels— The Blessed Virgin — " Saints on horseback" : St. Direct relation established between the history of a saint and his legend — — Confusion between a probable and a truthful narrative — Excessive importance attributed to the topographical element — Legend held — Exaggerated confidence in hagiographers tradition Ill-con- sidered appeals to local in utter contempt 214 Index 233 . Pagan legends considered St. VI. 186 207 CHAPTER VII. — Literary —Suspicious practices borrowings from pagan — Incubation —Collections of sources — Un148 160 in for titles 168 festivals coincidences— A method Examples festivals for ascertaining dates of pagan — 178 V.

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four volumes. Hagiographic documents Imaginative tales. in is the first instance. who composed. too. which in their present form possess is not a saint's life. Nevertheless the Life of Constantine whereas the book of the Martyrs of Palestine. in serried ranks.— CHAPTER — I. written with the object of edifying the faithful by an account of the sufferings of these heroes is at once a hagiographic document and an historic record of the first order. participates in the honours reserved to the canonised saints. in the Greek Church. LET ment. The chapter in The term should which Tacitus first in vivid the Roman martyrs is hues paints the sufferings of not a hagiographic docu- ment. PRELIMINARY DEFINITIONS. Artificial compositions Romances Popular inventions Myths Tales Legends — — — — — The hagiographic legend : its two principal factors. nor can the expression be rightly applied to those pages of Eusebius's Ecclesiastical History across which the victims of the great persecutions defile in It was Eusebius. us. attempt to define what precisely to be understood by a hagiographic docu- not be applied indiscriminately to every document bearing upon the saints. Theodore. . So too the Acts of St. a panegyric of the first Christian emperor who.

The work of the hagiographer may be historical. The result has been a constant . placed upon their tombs. common such as those of Pope Damasus. but it is not necessarily so. The point to be emphasised from the the distinction between hagiography and history. should. let us less familiar begin by laying first down a sight be few definitions supposed. though under a special category. fable. The term may only be applied therefore to writings inspired by devotion first is to the saints and intended to promote it. a free use is made of the terms romance. In the same class again. thus appears that.2 THE LEGENDS OF THE SAINTS in with history. It may assume any literary 1 suitable official to the glorification of the saints.' form from an record adapted to the use of the faithful. in order to be strictly hagio- graphic. than might at In order to describe any narrative which is not in accordance with fact. the document should be of a religious character and should aim at edification. tale. obvious that no one would venture to assert all that everywhere and at times hagiographers have submitted themselves to strict historical canons. Taken in a general sense these words are frequently used as though they were synonymous. myth. to a poetical composition of the most exuberant character wholly detached from It is reality. en joy similar consideration. Before attempting to suggest any rules on this subject. nothing together with It official inscriptions. from the standpoint of hagiography. But by what standard must we measure thek digressions ? That is a point to be determined in each individual case. legend. we may range the calendars or martyrologies in which the anniversaries of martyrs are recorded.

Bernheim. in 4to.PRELIMINARY DEFINITIONS confusion of thought which 3 we shall 1 hope to avoid by a more rigorous definition of terms. H. 1865. in Hessische Blatter fur Volkskunde. L. Lehrbuch der historischen Methode. xvii. Warren. according as they are the spontaneous and impersonal expression of the spirit of the people. Mythos. Erzdhlung. My thus und Sage. Berlin. The author selects and studies his subject. Mythus. which. in the more usual acceptation of the term. E. De Grieksch christelijke roman Barlaam en jfoasa en zijne parabels. i8gg. 2 animals. F. 349. Sage. 1903. but may be divided into two categories. or and deliberate compositions. Barlaam and Joasaph has incorporated into his compilation various apologues which have been the subject of individual studies. 317. J. E. J. 457-68. We in its widest sense. E. who do not always agree among themselves. and the critic of hagiography need not. 2 S. pp. 1837. more especially when the persons brought upon the scene are represented by This does not mean that hagiographers have wholly neglected this form of imaginative composition. Marchen. as a rule. and in its more restricted acceptation is synonymous with the apologue.. Romances. Nevertheless these are exceptions. 3rd edition. Fabel. Berlin. 1901. The author of the Life of SS. 113-39. scarcely discuss the fable. London. in the Zeitschrift fur Volkerspsychologie und Sprachwissenschaft. J. 1905. however. artificial belong to this second category. and applies the resources of 1 The following are the titles of works dealing with this question. vol. need. Rotterdam. Sage. Myths. 97-142. 56 pp. pp. Steinthal. Siecke. Leipzig. may be held to include any imagin- ary narrative. Legende. Myths and Myth-makers. legends and romances all belong to the sphere of imaginative writing. Bethe. trouble himself about the emulators of ^Esop and La Fontaine. which we give without questioning the conclusions of the authors.Fiske. Mythologische Briefe. 1873. pp. I * . tales. Marchen. George.

. its main portions figuring for a prolonged period in all the most celebrated hagiographic collections. see Analecta Bollandiana.4 THE LEGENDS OF THE SAINTS and his imagination to the If work of art he he has chosen for his theme the character and adventures of an historical person or of a period of history. interesting account is to be found in E. partly fictitious. to which reference must now be made. It is true that the name of in his of tale fiction. 2 . Meyboom. we ought to speak of his work as a hagiographic romance. The romance of the Clementine Homilies and Recognitions is widely known. 87-106. 1902. this Romances of type are exceedingly numerous. H. 2 Tales and legends. both characters and incidents. vol. De Clemens-Roman. and a few of them date back to very early times. strictly speaking. should not. 1904. pp. the author has attempted to depict the soul of a saint honoured by the Church. is pure invention it will be a novel of imagination and if. 138-41. is frequently bestowed upon short works and the novelist sometimes devotes himself study to the composition of a narrative of which the form recalls the legend or tale properly so called. U. Groningen. If everything. Concerning this work and the most recent studies on the Clementines. 2 vols. 1 One might instance the Acts of Paul and of Thecla. in der altchristlichen Liter atur in the Deutsche von Dobschiitz. although the expression is one that has scarcely passed into his talent has conceived. . common use. April. he will produce an historical romance. and that collection of the apocryphal Acts of the Apostles which enjoyed such long and extraordinary popularity. be placed in the category of artificial compositions. pp. Der Rundschau. xxiv. by means of a series of incidents. partly true. These learned imitations need only be mentioned here An Roman 1 .

we may perhaps be permitted the use of it in order to avoid confusion. although the confidant of Joad was wholly invented by Racine. we should prefer to regard mythology as a treatise on physics for primitive times. as the author has done. is to demand from words a The definition that we precision which they are unable to supply ". " is essenti- M. the one most commonly accepted by specialists. myth is an abstract idea. . of the word. lived solely in the imagination of is Such. the of night and day and the vicissitudes of the La Revue Critique (3rd June. first Let us consider the myth. succession 1 phenomena supply the proper matter for The sun.PRELIM INA R Y DEFINITIONS it is 5 must unnecessary to dwell on them further. the moon. Reinach may have more reason on his side when he adds: "To attempt to draw a rigorous distinction. ally a story which humanity has believed to be true at a particular stage of its intellectual development. M. on the whole. Reinach in questions this definition of a myth. 1905. as has been ingeniously suggested. the stars. have adopted. or. lightning. being the anonymous product of that abstraction known as the spirit of the people. Whether we insist on treating it as a poetic symbol or whether. between the myth on the one side and the legend and tale on the other. not the technical meaning to class as mythical and it would be wrong personages figures such as Abner in Athalie. while the title of mythical personage is bestowed upon any hero who has the poet." he says. 425) " A myth. The prefer essence of the the myth consists in the personi- fication of a force or of it. The term is fre- quently applied to anything that has no real existence. if you simply an explanation of natural phenomena adapted to the capacity of a primitive 1 people. S. being. however." This formula appears to us too vague to serve as a definition. p. it is none the less certain that natural the myth. reserve our attention for those works of fiction which We have come down to us without any individual parentage.

Is there such a thing as a hagiographic myth ? Or have the hagiographers made use of mythical elements ? I see no difficulty in admitting it. who cannot even watch a cat and dog fight without struggle between darkness some reference light. and shall show later on that they have transferred to the saints more than one narrative which belongs to ancient mythology. of the story-teller in x is exactly characteristic of its style. Phaeton drives the chariot of the sun: such are the graceful fables with which the study of antiquity has familiarised us. for before classifying a narrative it is essential to ascertain definitely its real significance. Hi tres nu- 28. I do not wish to multiply examples. seasons are represented and by the adventures attributed to them.. iv. The tale proper is an invented story referring neither to a real personage nor yet to any definite place. Aurora. and Psyche : " Erant in quadam civitate rex mero filias forma conspicuas habuere. or calculated to set in relief some practical truth as in the case of moral tales. . 1 This is almost literally the opening phrase of Apuleius in Cupid et regina. to the The exaggerations denounced in this sally are only too real.. intended solely for the entertainment of the listener. " Once upon a time there were a king and queen who had a . opens the portals of the Orient." Met. and were we to follow the methods of a certain school there would be very few works of fiction that could not be included under the category of mythology. . and we shall be careful not to make use of the term myth withand out solid reason.6 THE LEGENDS OF THE SAINTS by gods and heroes." This classical beginning very beautiful daughter. so an has declared. which everything is made accessory to the plot of the narrative. . with rosy fingers. ill-tempered critic There are men.

" London.PRELIMINARY DEFINITIONS 7 Contrary to what one would imagine. pp. S. vol. there exists no All may be traced back great variety of popular tales. Cosquin is a definite partisan of the Orientalist theory. none of which appears to belong exclusively to a particular nation or even race they are the common patrimony of humanity. vol. Concerning other systems and their variations. 1904. who the advocates of the Orientalist theory.. ix. mention must be made of two principal ones which have won more favour than the rest. Among We . Emmanuel Cosquin. which coincides more nearly with ascertained facts. i. 1892. for inregard Egypt as the birthplace of popular tales. cannot discuss the subject here. Martens. and which may be considered as extreme solutions. Reinach in the Revue d'histoire et de litterature religieuses. Les fabliaux Bibliotheque de VEcole des Hautes Etudes. to a certain number of types. pp. possession of all nations. Lang. there are some See.-lxvii. they had their birth there and thence set out on their travels to become in the widest sense the 1 common . .. the following may be consulted Ch. les " Incidents communs attx contes orientaux. Some explain the repetition of the . Paris. — : Neo-Scolastique.. 234-62.. Much has been written concerning their origin. 98. UOrigine des contes populaires europeens et les id.. It is in i. vol. Contes Populaires de Lorraine. L'origine des Contes populaires in the Revue id. Qtielques observations sur theories de M. According to them India is the one and only cradle of all popular tales disseminated throughout the whole world. 1886. 147-74. 1 Without entering into a detailed study of the various theories propounded by specialists. Paris. which has been combated more especially by M. actuel des etudes de Folk-lore in the Revue de Synthase his- torique. 2 and whatever one may like to assume concerning their original author. Bedier. stance. Uetat 2 L. same themes and the uniformity of the in similarity in their forms by the human mind.. vol. pp. 1894. Sain£an. 352-84. i. igo2. iv. pp. J. 45-250. 319-20. 1893. less a less simple and Others take refuge metaphysical explanation. vol. Paris. 1891 M.

clearly differentiated. in Ireland. in accordance with It common usage. like those light seeds that the wind carries beyond the seas. must. or of that of the Red Lake. ' man ? ' ' He does not deserve our help. icled carter's prayer. no way necessary to commit ourselves here to any theory of the first' We need only re- member that. It refers it some ima- historical or topographical connection. be observed that in practice classiis and the various categories are less One of these winged tales which fly from nation to nation may for a moment settle on some famous monument. ' Lord. for example. when out walking. 1 1 In the In certain cases the various disguises are easy to recognise. on the other hand. At once the tale is transformed into a legend. as in the stories in which Jesus Christ and St. is a legend of the Basque country. has. wilt thou not come to the help of this poor replied.' A little farther on . Such. they are for ever floating in the atmosphere. is the precise meaning of the terms we have to employ.8 THE LEGENDS OF THE SAINTS origin of popular tales. ginary events to some real personage. for he makes no effort to help himself. however. or localises ^romantic stories in some definite spot A Thus one may speak of the legend of Alexander or of Caesar. cidental introduction of the historical element. Peter said to Him. of the legend of the Castle of the Drachenfels on the Rhine. of necessity.' Jesus . came across a man kneeling in the middle of the road and praying to God to extricate his cart from the ditch into which it had fallen. and may be found in every country and every clime without their being connected in any definite way with either name or place. or the anonymous king who was the principal personage may take to himself some historic name. and one might easily be misled if some other version of the same story did not reveal the purely acfication less easy. The legend. As Jesus was passing on without paying any attention to the scene. chronby Cerquand: "Our Lord and St. St. Peter one day. Peter are brought on the Here. Lough Derg.

57- . On the variations and derivatives of this story see H. Kohler. »•» Marie de Brabant. May.. Kleine Schriften. J. i. pp. CEuvres poetiques de Beaumanoir. igoo. pp. vol. you give it the external mere tale. have been the object of Acta SS.. 1 may occur that what It apparently a highly distinctive legend will suddenly re-appear in the guise of a folk tale.. vol. pp. was a long time before men recognised an adaptation of the celebrated tale of the ass's skin in the legend of Saint Dymphna. xxv. Consult also the admirable apologue: "Why men no longer know when they are going to die. vol. portions have features of a been identified with some sort of Contrariwise it historical is basis..-lxxxi. Neither Genevieve de Brabant nor ecclesiastical veneration.. 479-86. On the other hand. 180. 1884. 100-2. P. 3 As we have tales. Societe des anciens textes Francais." ibid. This they came upon another man in similar plight. ii. 383-413. legends. but shouting and swearing and doing his utmost. if you despoil the legend of all that connects it with reality. April.: PRELIMINARY DEFINITIONS same way the myth itself g may also readily assume the appearance of a legend. Hence the difficulty of disentangling legend and tale in the celebrated collection of the Arabian Nights^ for in spite of the highly fantastic character of the stories that compose it. vol.. p. Jan. clx. just seen. Suchier.." by the fabulist concernSee R. vol. De Arabische Nachtver telling en in De Gids. 1886. considered as con- nected narrations. de Goeje.. 2 3 Acta SS.. hi. 102-4. Berlin. whose story is identical. in contradistinction to myths and presuppose an historical is fact as basis or pretext such the first essential element of the species. ii. pp. saying: 'This one deserves our help for he is doing what he can'.. is Every one familiar with this incident as told ing Hercules. hi. pp. vol. or 2 before the touching history of Genevieve de Brabant proved to be a theme which had previously been turned to account by the epic poets of India. 1 M. Jesus hastened to his assistance.

von Dobschiitz. " without reference to its historical value. qui legitur in eorum festis. Indeed it is from hagiography that the name itself has been borrowed. We 1 De divinis officiis. it However we phatically popular both in its origins and in its aim. and according as the preponderance is to be found on the side of fact or on that of fiction. .. p. legenda.. people have naturally formed the habit of applying to it the name of the species itself. Legendarius vocatur liber ille ubi agitur de vita et obitu confessorum.io THE LEGENDS OF THE SAINTS may either be developed or disfigured : historical fact by popular imagination and here we have the second Both elements may be combined in very unelement. L. and thus the term legend has been extended to every unconscious distortion of historic truth. ccii. martyrum autem in Passionariis. 345. the Legenda Aurea sanctioned the wider meaning which includes at once the acts of the martyrs and the biographies of other saints." wrote John Beleth. In its primitive meaning the legend is the history that has to be read. thus differentiating the passion from the legend. As it is the fictitious element which determines the classification of legendary narratives. Protestantische Theologie. equal proportions. contrary to the custom that For. as early as the was subsequently to prevail. P. " Legende. 1 in the twelfth century. See also E. seems scarcely worth while to insist on the considerable part played by legend in hagiographic literature. 60. 3rd edition. which is eminterpret the term. 66. Migne. Lthe narrative may be classed as history or as legend. on the feast It is the passion of the martyr or the of a saint. thirteenth century. p." in the Realencyklopaedie fur xi.. vol. vol. eulogy of the confessor. whether there be question of a series of incidents or of a solitary episode. art.

but incapable of chronicling them letters. the anonymous creator called the people that of a mysterious and or. if we prefer to take the effect for the cause." and it is important for us to recognise the part played by each in this process of evolution. is yet incessantly renewed. and we shall seek to prove how it was elaborated by the people on the one side and the hagiographers on the other. . to avoid confusion in the follow- we shall rigidly refrain from doing so.PRELIMINARY DEFINITIONS might. the legend. It is our intention to restrict ourselves almost exclusively to the pious literature of the Middle Ages. Nevertheless. compelled all beaten track. who stands before us as one conto follow a demned to a thankless task. and word legend will only be applied to stories or incidents unauthenticated by history. The methods pursued both by the one and the other may appear to some people to be not yet wholly a thing of the past. many-headed and unfettered perpetually in labour with fresh products of his fancy. but giving to he produces a deliberate and durable character. in n conformity with ancient usage. in whatever stream of literary proing pages. Both together have collaborated in that vast undertaking known as " The Lives of the Saints. in writing. uncontrolled in his methods. which. the ductiveness first. bestow the term legend upon all hagiographic narratives. Hagiographic literature has come to be written under the influence of two very distinct factors. indeed. Beside him there is the man of the editor. is Here the work agent. therefore. swift as the imagination always is. It is an opinion which we ourselves are not prepared to controvert. though the work of all time. we seek to trace to its source. factors to be met with. including even those of admitted documentary value. There is.

THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE LEGEND. development of the legend is. Every man will relate his own legend. the day after a battle. all affect his account. It is the introduction of the subjective element into the realm of fact. the sentiments and impressions of the narrator and the camp to which he belongs. extent of his information. I. we shall have to content ourselves with the two or three salient facts that appear to be established with certaintydescribed in 12 . we were to collect the narratives of eye-witnesses. and should we insist on disentangling the pure historic truth.— CHAPTER II. which is neither wholly false nor yet wholly in accordance with truth. The combined result of these divergent narratives will again be a legend. the outcome of an unconscious or unreflecting agent acting upon historical material. according to our definition. If. Unconscious distortion of truth by the individual Level of popular intelligence Tendency to simplification Ignorance Substitution of the abstract form for the individual type Poverty of invention The borrowing and transmission of legend- — — — By the people — ary themes ficial — — Examples—The antiquity of certain themes — Arti- grouping of incidents and persons — Cycles. The we should find the action twenty different ways while identical details would be related from the most diverse points The of view with the same accent of sincerity.

may occur that. we ourselves then becreators of a new legend. 13 in lieu of the remainder. It is still more rare for us to be in a position to distinguish the causes in such a way as to leave no possible doubt concerning the motives that have prompted the instinct to fill actors. in the gaps in Consequently we allow our our information. be' assumed that putting aside these excep- nothing more easy or more common than to give a faithful description. we substitute a series of deductions. If we happen to be under the empire of passion or of any sentiment that clouds our clear view of things. By a series of intuitive connections tinuity of action. The truth is that in daily life we are perpetually taking part in that unconscious labour from which legends are evolved. resign ourselves to this necessity or elect to remain in agreed as to the special difficulty of giving a precise account of any complicated action is Every one that cannot be taken in at a glance. it is various parts. or that any unnoted circumstance should really have taken place. It must not. it if it coincides with our wishes that the actors should have followed pulse.THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE LEGEND If. battle in our come the ignorance. we are merely writing the history of the own way in fact. with absoincident. lute precision. and to trace the connection between the with. our impression of any complex To begin its very rare to grasp the event in all details. we re-establish the con- and we read our own interpretation into the forces that have brought about such and such a result. and we must either . and each one of us has had occasion to testify a huntional cases there is dred times over how difficult it is to convey. if we secretly desire that any established fact should not have occurred. however. we leave one . any special imheedlessly.

a difference between the two versions of the life ! At once same event and less complete. to introduce a strong subjective element into our narrative. is the privilege of very few. thanks to natural gifts and a superior training. and nothing will appear to have escaped me him that bears upon the criminal and his victim. and that on his deposition. To give an exact description of complex reality demands not only sound sense and a trained judgment but in view. we submit our arguments to a rigid supervision and maintain com- plete control over our impressions. also conscious effort. habit of analysing one's sensations and The of controlling the slightest impulses of one's soul to such an extent as to be habitually on one's guard against the natural tendency to mingle what one imagines with what one knows. according as our own prepossessions suggest. we are liable. Even those who. and pitating interest his narrative is becomes less clear from possessing that palThis is that he gave to it in private. therefore. But suppose this same man subpoenaed to give evidence at the assizes. depends the What of a fellow-creature. to the detriment of truth. or give undue prominence to another. far . and consequently requires a stimulus adequate to the object must be admitted that apart from exceptional circumstances the average man is not endowed with It the intellectual vigour necessary for such a task. suppose that a man has been an eye-witness He will describe the variof some sanguinary drama.i4 THE LEGENDS OF THE SAINTS portion of the picture in the shade. given on oath. do not invariably make Let use of their special faculties. ous exciting circumstances to his friends with the most minute details. Unless. rise above the average of their fellows.

who does not wholly approve of and who will not fail to contribute markedly to its disfigurement by expression. accuracy when we take narrators. and by means of his imagination does his best to repair it. our passions. all it conspire against historical upon ourselves to become . A narrator. Sometimes again the narrative may pass through the hands of a witness it. \. and whether we are eye-witnesses or mere intermediaries. He invents and suppresses another until probability and logic appear to him sufficiently safe-guarded. notes the deficiency. deduc- and passions. Hence it is that even the most veracious and upright of men unconsciously create little legends by introducing into their narratives their tions own impressions. This result is usually only obtained at the expense of detail. and thus present the truth either embellished or disfigured according to circumstances. under such solemn circumstances. our carelessness.THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE LEGEND 15 simply because. our limited intelligence. some new truth. we carry to a far higher point our scrupulous exactitude. Every one in turn understands the story in a different fashion and repeats it in his own way. it need scarcely be said. These sources of error. for the narrator does not observe that he has substituted a very different story for the primitive version. Through inattention or through defective memory some one forgets to mention an important circumstance. become multiplied with the number of intermediaries. and above all perhaps our prejudices. and we are no longer tempted to indulge in the petty vanity of posing as important and well-informed. necessary to the continuity of the history. more observant than the rest. some imperceptible turn of thought or These things happen every day.

contains. le Bon. To avoid complicating the question we shall not attempt to apportion the varying degrees of capacity of different social strata. and. Zeitschrift fur Volkerspsychologie und A book i. would be more and in regard to the matters that interest us the most varied elements have to be taken into account. are of a quite special nature. Psychologie des Foules. Berlin. for the intelligence and impressions of the individual we substitute the intelligence and impressions of a people or a crowd. On the contrary. special point of view. the popular literature of every country. The itself intellectual capacity all of the multitude reveals exceedingly limited. 1 Such laws as have been formulated have been verified by thousands of examples drawn from. indeed. and their activities are subjected to laws that have been deeply studied in our own day. 1895. i860. These collective. 1889. treated from a very 1 Sprachwissensckaft. Popular society in which the legends were elaborated was composed of many elements. paid them honour and loved to sing their praises. . Paris.xix. and it would be a mistake to assume that it usually submits itself to the influence of superior minds. In the Middle Ages the whole populace was interested in the saints. and when. in a certain sense. by G. and by no means excluded I hasten to add that persons of literary pretensions. abstract faculties. some useful remarks. . and to which a special branch of psychology has been assigned.. Hagiographic literature offers a large mass of material amply confirming them. Leipzig. difficult.16 THE LEGENDS OF THE SAINTS This commonplace experience becomes much more interesting and more fraught with consequences when it is indefinitely multiplied. Every one invoked them. the saints gained nothing thereby. the on sides as Lazarus und Steinthal. No task. together with notable exaggerations.

vol. and the average intelligence tends to The best point of comparifall far below mediocrity. Classe. Sdchsichen Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften zu Leipzig).THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE LEGEND latter 17 necessarily it suffer loss from contact with the illogical to attribute former. son by which we can ascertain its level is the intelli- special value to a popular tradition because origin / gence of a brain is child. quickly vanishes. which it ex- simple. " Legend has transformed the Civil Code into the principles of the Revolution expressed in two thousand articles by order of the First Hist. but succeed each other. 1 Concerning this and similar examples consult Wachsmuth. by and The artless nature of it popular genius betrays itself clearly in the legends creates. Ueber Verhandlungen die Quellen der Geschichtsfalschung (Berichte ilber die der K. and would be quite a it had its amid surroundings in which persons of solid In a crowd superiority merit were to be met with. many famous exThe struggles amples of this phenomenon of absorption of many centuries concentrated themselves under the Antiquity has bequeathed to us . Phil. the number of ideas of which the popular is capable of receiving its tremely small.that legends of a similar nature are It is worth remembering growing up in our own day. In truth. 1 In less remote times it is Alexander. Equally simple are any impression and these ideas must be very deductions. and the latest inherits all the greatness of his predecessors. 2 . 1856. pp. viii. which are frequently little more than loosely connected conceptions or pictures. 121-53. while Solon and Lycurgus bear off the honours of a prolonged legislative evolution at Athens and in Sparta. personages and of events of which . arrives at means of a small number of intuitive principles.. Thus the number of it preserves any remembrance is few indeed its heroes never exist side by side. walls of Troy.

G.80-108.18 THE LEGENDS OF THE SAINTS x Caesar and Charlemagne fire who." H. vol. pp. 74. Melusine. Hoogstra. 1894. and by the zens in their communes and corporations. vol. Darmesteter. 1868. 157. Paris. La legende d' Alexandre dans le Talmud in the Revue des Etudes Juives. UEgitto dei Greci e dei Romani. Meyer. Alexander der Grosse und die Idee des Weltimperiums in 1881.-xxiii. pp. 116-18. legende > vii. 35. Fr. p. 203. Histoire 1865 . Paris. 1 Concerning the legend of Alexander consult P. xiv. Were we to believe what legend tells us there is scarcely in the whole town of Alexandria a single stone that was not laid by Alexander the Great himself. La legende de Charlemagne dans Vart au moyen dge 320. 1903. v. 60. Prophetie und Sage. iv. 78. E. v. 3 Maxime Du Camp. Paris. 1901. .. Freiburg im Breisgau. S. Proza-bewerkingen van het Leven van Alexander den Groote in het Middelnederlandsch. pp. a tutelary genius whose beneficent hand has left traces of Consul. 1895. 13. . La legende de Cesar en Belgique in the Illeme Congres des Savants Catholiques. Rome. ist October. 1886. p. p. 2nd edition. public benefits are arms which rouse enthusiasm are attributed to all due to him. there survives only the thought of the Emperor. the popular imagination. On Charlemagne. in their respective lands. J. 2 in Romania. Alexandre le grand dans la litter ature francaise du moyen age in the Bibliotheque frangaise du moyen age.. it is the Code Napoleon. 1898. Miintz. and on the heads of these all chosen heroes feats of the honours accumulate. PP. 1878. Le centenaire du Code civil in the Revue de Paris. vol. Orient et Italie. S. Leroy. and G. so to speak... 1883. its activity in every corner of the isle. Kampers. Brussels.Levi. 2 Since the day when Tiberius turned the rock of Capri into the scene of his debaucheries he has become. Brilliant the national hero. Paris. p. vol. and everything of note throughout the country is in some way connected with his name. 83-99 J. Paris. The Hague. Lumbroso. see G. i. pp. ii. Concerning the Caesar legend consult A.. poetique de Charlemagne. vol. 3 In this summary of history the code is no longer the outciti- come of centuries of effort by king and parliament. vol. Doutrepont. vol.. La d'Alexandre chez les Perses in the Bibliotheque de VEcole des Hautes Etudes.

Traces of the Elder Faiths of Ireland. De Nino. Autun. ated in the district. THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE LEGEND It is 19 obvious that this custom of accumulating on a single head all the glories of preceding heroes affects very markedly the true proportions of the persons conThe splendour of the apotheosis is sometimes cerned. i. igo2. 20.. 3 et le culte de St. the eclipsed heroes of an earlier stage of development. vol. London. 1892 Shearman. St. for it is an understood thing that the really popular hero plays a part in all important events that . Bulliot. all In the religious sphere the idol of hearts is the saint specially venerSt. Martin d'apj'es les legendes monuments populaires dans le pays Eduen. Thus Virgil. 2 * . Wood-Martin. a rich merchant. 8vo. having become the idol of the Neapolitans. pp. such that the hero entirely loses his true physiognomy and emerges in complete disguise. 1 to be the in- spired poet in order to be converted into the governor Local tradition at Sulmona has transformed Ovid into everything that he was not a clever magician. 1 This subject has been exhaustively treated by D. 88. A. a sort of paladin. La mission et les . Virgilio nel medio evo. bordino. Patrick. a prophet. 245 . pp. it is Martin whose name crops up at every turn there. 2 vols. or incidents detached from despoiling. Ovidio nella tradizione popolare di Sulmona. vol. for their benefit. G. Florence. 163.. : and —who would believe is it ? —a great saint. a preacher. Loca Patriciana. 2 Historic truth put wholly out of court on these occasions. including among their these a historic number of setting. ceased of the city. Casal1. p.. 3 The en- thusiasm of the people has not failed to enlarge the sphere of their activities. Here. 1886. 1896. 2 2nd edition. noble or useful can be accomplished without the intervention of the great man who monopolises the sympathies of the populace. . nothing generous. Comparetti. ii. Dublin. 1879 W.

p. P. Paris. In the same way Alexander the Great and Charlemagne absorbed the all achievements of It their namesakes. as we are. whereas. 1882. 1 In the same way. vol. Zahn. incidents borrowed from the of Cyprian of Antioch became interpolated in It that of Cyprian of Carthage. Florence. 3 It is well known that Alexander the Great has had the credit of the foundations of Alexander Severus. on his return from the first Crusade.. Lenormant. Austremonius. P. Rajna. Erlangen. in truth. sojourned in several of their towns. See Th. i. in the reign of the Emperor Decius. for instance.. 1883. 2 was almost inherit inevitable that the illustrious martyr should earlier from the and more obscure Cyprian. 199. Louis. 4 Acta SS. p.20 THE LEGENDS OF THE SAINTS Above all. by the simple force of attraction. A travels VApulie et la Lucanie. vol. Prudenand Macarius of Magnesia. 49. . When the canonisation of Louis IX. The king Louis who passed through the Neapolitan provinces with the remains of his army of of Crusaders was Louis VII.. 1884. had cast into the shade the all it memory became quite natural to substi- tute him for the other Louis in the popular memory. likelihood is men are so rare What there that there should have lived two of It is this sort the same name ? of reasoning which has persuaded the inhabitants of Calabria that St. Cyprian von Antiochien. p.3232 Witnesses to this confusion are St. he never set foot in the district. was sent to Auvergne by St. his predecessors. and that the name of Charlemagne has absorbed many incidents attributed by history to Charles tius Martel. No one. Gregory Nazianzen. do not expect the populace Great to distinguish ! between namesakes. 4 To disturbed. November. was startled by hearing it read out that St. 84. 3 is may be seen from this that the populace never by chronological difficulties. Clement. 1 i. Le ovigini delV epopeafrancese. F. as life early as the fourth century.

compare L. vol. 1 is confused with Caesarea of Pales- and in which a war is referred to as breaking out between the latter town and Carthage. instance. 132. Prefect of Perigueux. Procopii. J. xvi. Caesarea Philippi tine. 1903. 188-92. Men listened without lifting an eyebrow to stories in which counts .THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE LEGEND the popular 21 mind it was perfectly natural that. Lawrence. Cassiodorus in the Melanges Paul Fabre. Concerning the tenacity of the memory of the people in all that concerns the names of the places in the country they inhabit. Paris. vol. did not appear to them any less interesting because the said desert 3 is situated on the banks of the Dordogne. de VAncien Testament. into the desert to seek for the seventy monks who were dying of hunger. To begin no distinction is made between the emperors who 2 Passio S. 222-35. ii. 27 in the Acta SS. pp. to believe that I am prepared men would be more them by exacting concern- ing the topography of their native country. 2 The caravan of seventy camels sent by Isquirinus. surtout a propos 243-44. La Methode historique.. 4 p. see Pere M. in the same early days. 40-50. a knowledge of which is forced upon their 4 own eyes. no. Let us see. We have referred to the value of topographical records in hagio- graphic legends in the Analecta Bollandiana. 1 Roman Empire. 3 Vita S. But why trouble about distant scenes ? As for history. St. Stephen and St. 564. Fastes Episcopaux de Vancienne Gaule. July. 1902. auctore Gauzberto . ii. Lagrange. vol. the popular intelligence it conceives of in the for same spirit of naive simplicity. and questions of distance scarcely existed for it. Paris. pp. Frontonis.. there should have been both dukes and and why should any one have suspected that it was an anachronism to bestow the title of archdeacon on St. Duchesne. p. what impression has been preserved of persecutions under the with. pp. .. who certainly were very far from being mere ordinary deacons ? Neither was the popular mind disturbed by geography..

He has emissaries who scour the empire to his fury. is as recorded in popular legend. while at the same time providing an adequate and visible reason for the numbers of conversions which the rage of the executioners is unable to stem. to combinations of numerous and complex facts. even though he be pelled to undertake journeys of com- which history has preIt is. and the diversity in the application of the edicts. Frequently it is the emperor in person who summons the Christians before his tribunal. Marcus Aurelius and Alexander All are held to be animated by the same Severus. by which all alike are described. The variations in legis- enactments.22 THE LEGENDS OF THE SAINTS have ordered and those who have merely authorised proThere is but one ceedings against the Christians. impiissimus. degree of insensate fury against Christianity. who contrive to invent appalling tortures that have never been inflicted even on the worst of Divine intervention. hunted down and dragged before monsters of judges. epithet. which prevents these refined torments from injuring the martyrs. Everywhere Christians are outlawed. serves to emphasise the cruelty of their persecutors. and represent him worthily. Decius and Diocletian or to Trajan. in lative brief. who much prefer a simple picture and strongly marked outline. do not in any sense appeal to the intelligence of the people. criminals. and to have no other thought but that of destroying it. the purely local character of some of the outbreaks of which the Christians were victims. the very marked individuality of certain of the great enemies of the Faith. This is no obstacle of the State cannot be everywhere. in vivid colours . obvious that the head served no record. the picture of the age of persecutions Such. however. whether reference is made to Nero.

.. 23 that historical sequence has no exist- ence for the populace? one may That. among others. According to the legend of SS. 2 xxii. without exciting susassign the date of a martyrdom in- differently to the reign of any one of the impious Emperors Decius. we substitute an ideal figure : who is the personification of an ab- straction in place of the individual. vol.. Analecta Bollandiana. October. pp.THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE LEGEND Need we add picion. See Analecta Bollandiana. Ouen. vol. ix. 298. the people know 1 1 may recall. and the translation of their relics during the episcopate of St. isolated in a sense from their period and their surroundings. vol. vol.. in the eyes of the people. p. Numerian or' Diocletian ? * That the name of the judge is of no consequence. and that it is a matter of indifference whether the cruel Dacianus could or could not persecute at one and the same time in Italy and in Spain ? The long list of the Popes is unfamiliar to them. Acta SS. xi. Acta SS. and dragged from their natural setting. 100-4. p. As a counterpart to this anachronism one may quote the legend of St. 175-76. Chrysanthus and Daria these saints suffered martyrdom in 283 under Numerian and their acts were written by order of Pope Stephen (f 257). October. Florian and his companions at Bologna. 484. historical personages acquire. See Analecta Bollandiana... 86-88. pp. For a vivid and clearly accentuated . the martyrdom of St. an unreal and inconsistent character. xx. 276-78. xxiii. and the part played by a Pope Cyriacus was not sufficient to bring under suspicion the legend of the eleven thousand virgins. Cecilia of which the date is sometimes temporibus Alexandri imperatoris and sometimes Marci Aurelii et Commodi temporibus. 3 . The martyrdom of the saints is supposed to have happened in the twenty-seventh year of Heraclius (637). pp. 214. Petronius in the fifth century. 2 any more than surprise was caused by the introduction of a Pope Alexander into the story of St. 3 Thus robbed of their individuality. portrait as bequeathed to us by history.. vol.

just as later St. Diocletian is the most prominent here. executioner. . Les Actes des Martyrs. There is also the typical persecutor. most celebrated of these is the redoubtable Anulinus. 27. the cruelty of pagan justice. Gallienus and Maximianus. or that there should be such remarkable resemblances between the acts of so many martyrs. the legend of the martyrs is nothing but a mass of repetitions. Polycarp -and of SS. Alexander personifies the conqueror Caesar. Martin becomes the type of the missionary-bishop and miracle-worker. the Empire regenerated by Christianity. in reality. Cyprian offer the most remarkable variations of detail. This is the result of eliminating as far as possible the individual element.24 THE LEGENDS OF THE SAINTS . only the type. and in a number of legends recourse is had to him to bring about the death of Christians at Lucca. it . Lawrence. then certain judges who personify. 1 It is scarcely surprising that the reading of certain hagiographic records should be monotonous work. under Nero. who was. is animated by the form. while the holy confessor who has earned his reward by an edifying life must needs historical * 1 Consult the quotations in Le Blant. expresses the same opinions and is subject to the same trials. but the typical martyr that is brought upon the scene. p. as a rule. same sentiments. pro-consul of Africa during the great His name has become a synonym for persecution. In the really popular hagiographic legends St. without counting the narratives in which his authentic exploits are recorded. One of the so to speak. 1882. the organising genius of the Roman people Constantine. Paris. is not. While really documents such as the Acts of St. in order to retain only the abstract Every martyr. at Milan and at Ancona. Valerian. Perpetua and Felicitas and of St.

in parcitate cibi et potus sequi- ita dedita abstinentiae ut nulla sodalium sibi few characteristic incidents revealing her admirable virtues would impress one far more than this conventional picture. iunioribus quasi sequalis. quick at reading. affabilis colloquio. vol. him so enhanced the radiance was always seasoned with wit in the grace of P. inter nobiles huthe following terms " milis. firm in right judgments. Abbot " Erat enim forma praecipuus. unwearied in longanimity. Aldegonde describes her in : Erat namque moribus honesta.THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE LEGEND have possessed all 25 the virtues of his profession. chaste of body. longanimitate assiduus. amabilis adspectu. : the portrait of St. cari- tate sollicitus et ita in eo omnium virtutum decorem sapientia illius adornabat. eloquio suavis. according to the Apostle. ii.37). interna tudine forti- firmus. 1036). vol.. gentle in humility.. merciful to the poor. Jan. humble among great folk. irreproachable in conduct. for example. most ready in answering.. p. which the hagiographer. censura iustitiae stabilis. is Here. affable of speech.. in responsis citissima. temperantia clarus. Fursey. corpore castus. in pauperibus misericors. persuasive of speech. Jan. saint ? But might not the same be written of every The biographer of St. "For she was all. patientia robustus. prudentia praeditus. delights to enumerate. abounding in wisdom. gentle to own age. earnest in mind. humilitate mansuetus. gracious of presence. to her juniors like one of their and so devoted to abnegation in abstinence of food and drink that none of her companions could be compared with her " (Acta SS. 2 God" (Acta SS. f . while wisdom in of all the virtues that his conversation. the faithful mouthpiece of popular tradition. steadfast in resolution. mente devotus. ut secundum apostolum sermo semper in gratia sale esset conditus "} Unquesis tionably this a noble eulogy. a model of abstemiousness. mitis omnibus. 2 A " For he was comely to look upon. of sturdiest patience.. But the popular mind can 1 pararetur". in lectione velox. solicitous in charity. ii.

and its combinations offer but little interest. 187. We have only to glance through the descriptions of celebrated sieges as told by the old chroniclers to discover that the effects of famine. that amusing anecdotes are perpetually trans1 ferred from one person to another. Moreover the programme can boast of very variety. ix. 118. there out its not a town with- legendary absent-minded citizen.. Every one is aware that even in our own day cele- brated sayings are constantly re-issued under fresh headings. of more ordinary occurrence. everywhere the victim of identical misadventures. You ask for a portrait and you receive a programme. 140. that they can all be traced back to a limited number of identical themes. As for its creative faculties. 1 Some examples of this have been collected by H. The comparative study of folk-lore has revealed the fact that the same stories recur among all races and in all countries. the patriotism of the besieged. The study of ancient authors supplies us with in- numerable examples of the transmission of legendary themes. and the cunning artifices designed to deceive the enemy as to the resources of the town. pp. 77.36 THE LEGENDS OF THE SAINTS only retain a simple and general notion of sanctity. Legendes Contemporaines in Melusine. little Poverty of invention is another of the charIts developments all resemble each other. to quote but a single classical example. and is that. 1898-99. and that they have spread themselves over the world from a common stock. Gaidoz. they appear condemned to sterility the moment the public has come into possession of a sufficient number of fairly interesting themes and topics to fit the situations acteristics of popular intelligence. vol. are almost invariably described in identical terms. .

at the siege of Jerusalem. Stratagemmi leggendarii da . xi. vol. xxii.. 4 x collected by A. p... 2 ficient to place In order to appreciate it the historic value of these curious narratives. 1903. 3 See also Romania. mothers.. xxiv. ac- cording to Josephus. is suf- them side by side with others of the same description. Strange as it may seem. Fabulce. Thasos and other cities were equally capable of a devotion that well be called heroic. vol. and again. vol. if we are to accept the evidence of Livy. 4 H. Pitre. The same fact occurred.THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE LEGEND 27 Thus when the Gauls besieged Rome the soldiers were reduced to soaking the leather of their shields and sandals in order to eat it. Ovid. new edition. Romische Tubingen. Palermo. p. 459. 1904. 2 For example. 215. a herd of fat cattle would be driven into the enemy's camp. 180 and following in the . in order to create a conviction that the town was well See G. Salonae. One might vary indefinitely the examples and quote curious cases of quaint legends becoming acclimatised in the most incongruous localities. During the same siege of Rome the women sacrificed their hair to weave into ropes . Aquileia. 1903-04.. pp. Metamorphoses. supplied with provisions. Hyginus. 3 with which to adorn at least two of their kings. citta assediate. 1858. given. Geschichte. or still better with cheeses. Schwegler. Byzantium. 1 many may In the same full way the forthwith chronicles of the Middle Ages are of ingenious manoeuvres infalls vented to deceive the enemy who into the trap and raises the siege. I9i» 3. or the besiegers would be pelted with loaves of bread. frequently made from the milk of nursing The examples have been iii. while the women of Car- thage. vol. 1904. also the Archivio per lo studio delle Tradizioni popolari. the Irish have thought fit to borrow from King Midas his ass's ears. at the siege of Casilinum during the second Punic war. 21 pp. 193-21 1. xxxiii. D'Arbois de Jubainville Revue Celtique. p. 260. .

1890. 124. vi. I see no object in exhaust the subject. Meyer. ... Leipzig.. Sergius and Bacchus. Sept. p.. 315-22. 4 Ibid.. 336 and following. Many striking episodes which an inexperienced reader would be tempted to take for original inventions are mere reminiscences or floating traditions which cling sometimes to one crucifix saint. Oct.. Oct.. some- times to another.. vol. vol. i. It is almost always a waste of time to seek to identify the historical fact which has been respon- sible for the introduction of such epic incidents in the life of a saint. Meinulf - doing so. 3 -Ibid. pp. 3 as well as in those of many others in which variations of detail render the theme less easily recognisable. The body of the latter martyr having been flung out on the highway. vol. p.28 THE LEGENDS OF THE SAINTS A systematic classification of legendary themes lead to furnished by hagiographic documents would similar conclusions. 839. i. 4 but all these enumerations would have to be greatly enlarged before one could in any way hope to For myself. Eustace.. Cahier. 212. p. in the may be found equally and that of St. Nov... See also M. in. 5 P.. Byaeus in Acta SS.. The miraculous bert 1 which appeared to St. vol. pp. p. p. 6 Ibid. 867. Versammlang deutscher Philologen. with reason that a has taken exception to 5 a detail in the acts of SS. 838. was protected from dogs by birds of prey. is in no sense the It exclusive property of this saint. vol.. See Ch. 188. to why It is might as well institute inquiries as a seed borne by the wind has fallen on any critic We particular spot. Hubetween the antlers of a stag.. Lists of saints have been compiled who all vanquished dragons. Caracteristiques des Saints. iii. Ueber die Verivandschaft hcidnischer and Christlichen Drachentedter in the Verhandhingen der XL. legend of St. 6 A 1 Acta SS.

202. vol. vol. her husband presented her with a ring of which the precious stone possessed the property of breaking its donor. 465. p. 186. .. Peristeph. ii... Salomosagen in Deutschland Deuts- ches Alterthum. in a Kalmuk folk-tale. iii. Honoratus of Buzancais.. Vincent. when a calamity happened to This legend. introduced into her life. Elizabeth of Portugal 1 is a Christian adapta- Prudentius.THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE LEGEND similar miraculous protection 1 29 was accorded to the remains of St. may be found with slight variations in the life of St. Ibid. the dramatic adventure that befel the page of St.... vol. i. before starting on the Crusades.. May. Sagengeschichtliche Parallelen aus 6 8 dem Babylonischen Talmud ii. Singer. p... p. vol. 1891. It is a popular theme which has not only been turned to account in the romance of Flores and Blanchefleur. vol. 2 St. since we are on the subject of eagles. Medard and 8 others from sun and rain to be met with elsewhere than in hagiographic documents. 9 E.. Elizabeth of Hungary that. Ibid. p. 231. iv. 7 St. v. i. 215. 102 and following. 5 May. We read in the life of St. Salomosagen.. vol. 185. pp. should we forget that the miraculous bird 6 who Beris spread his wings to protect St. as above. Vitus. but in the A rabian Nights. St. Feb. pp. 71. no doubt on the strength of some historic incident.. ii. Jan... vii. p. Id.. St. Jan. in Zeitschrift des Vereins fur Volkskunde. 87. Singer. Florian. 2 3 Acta SS. 1025-26. vol. Servatius. tulph. Contes populaires de Lorraine.. Stanislaus of Cracow. Cosquin.. May. 301. vol. *Ibid.. 4 while we must not omit the eagle summoned by Solomon to watch over the body of David. 679. xxxv. 9 Again. Acta SS. p. 3 and St. 1892. p.. in Zeitschrift fiir S. Compare 7 Ibid. and in more than one Indian story. or other similar narratives drawn from Talmudic literature. p.. 5 Nor. vol.

the god. 15th August. Francis Xavier and brought to land by a crab is simply borrowed from Japanese mythology. B.. To settle the matter. vol. which was also carried by sea or cargo. the one used at His crucifixion. vol. pp. the boat was towed out to sea. lxxiv.. 40-43. is iii. Revue des Questions historiques. pp. 46. Formichi. 1903. E. where it was once more left to take what direction it pleased. Mitford. there is another figure of Christ in a boat without together with a ladder. Tales of Old Japan. . pp. It arrived towns did their utmost to attract 1 it in their own direc- E. pp. Vie de saint Franqois Xavier. 2 Bouhours. there is tion of a narrative that preserved a figure of Christ which drifted there miraculously by sea and up-stream . 1 while the story of the crucifix dropped into the sea by St. La legende de Sainte Eliza- beth de Portugal et les contes orientaux.3o THE LEGENDS OF THE SAINTS had its origin in India. ii. The Japanese legend related 1871. vol.. traditions populaires. crew As the vessel came to a halt in mid-stream. at Santa-Maria del Grao. the inhabitants of each of the two espied the statue of Hercules to Erythrae.. vol. 2 At Valencia. in the Church of San Salvador. de Sainte Elizabeth de Portugal in the et le conte indien des " Bons Conseils " . 9-30. xxii. Cosquin. La leggenda del paggio di santa Elizabetta in Archivio delle tradizioni popolari. La Legende dn page lxxiii. Cosquin for these details. 3 See Fages. an altercation arose between the inhabitants of the opposite banks for the possession of the sacred relics. Attention is drawn to the loan in the Revue des I am indebted to M. Straightway it sailed up the river and became stationary close to Santa-Maria del Grao. London. the port of Valencia. 3-42 Id. by A. vol... 47. Histoire de saint Vincent Ferrier. 207-17. pp. 3 In a similar strain Pausanias describes the coming of by sea on a raft and came to a halt at the promontory of Juno called Cape Mesata because it was half-way beFrom the moment they tween Erythrae and Chios. 1903. C. 1890. ibid.

101. Madonnas and statues of saints are particularly abundant in Sicily. equally common or of the the miracle of the ship that comes to a halt refuse to oxen who go any farther. Maternus at Rodenkirchen. In gloria martyrum. Feste patronali in Sicilia in Biblioteca delle tradizioni popolari Siciliane. p.. in the legend of " Le Christ des 2 own country (Belgium) transport of sacred objects.. they would have no The Thracian women difficulty in drawing in the raft. 2 We need only recall the arrival of St. vol. Bonn. as has been proved by recent researches. The same story is related of the relics of St. 1 Nothing is more common in popular hagiography than this theme of the miraculous advent of a picture or of the body of a is saint in a derelict vessel . find themselves incapacitated farther. 5-8. 186 1. 5. In our vii. xx. Louvain. Emmerammus at Ratisbonne. of St. it is not usual to employ oxen for the Hence. of St. pp. P. Turin and Palermo. pp. 136-37. . c. 1 Pausanias. 31 But the heavens decided in favour of the first. 4 A similar . Die SintJlxitsagen. Except for the final details the two legends are identical. ii. who inhabited the town made the sacrifice of their locks. and thus secured the miraculous statue for Erythrae. 3 The documents have been collected by H.THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE LEGEND tion. 3 These miraculous voyages of crucifixes. Usener. James in Spain.. Histoire de Tirlemont. of St. or to confirm some church in the legitimate possession of the relics of a saint. George by Gregory of Tours. Lubentius at Dietkirchen. V. Dames Blanches " of Tirlemont. A fisherman of that town named Phormio was warned in a dream that if the women of Erythrae would sacrifice their hair in order to make a cable. xxi. Canons of Saint Germain who from carrying their precious burden any it is the Bets. in order to indicate the spot mysteriously predestined for the guardianship of a celestial treasure. 4 G. Pitre. 88. of the Volto Santo at Lucca. 1899.-xxii. 1900. of the girdle of the Blessed Virgin at Prato. vol.

n. in Bibl. at Ortona. 151. but in order that might declare in explicit terms the desire of the saint to rest on the spot he had selected for himself.. see J. p. 419. pp. on the advent of the relics of St. (Allier) 1866. Theodore Siceotes not only endowed the animal with a voice The made panegyrist of use of it it.. 162-63. hag. Paris. Venice. 694. 107-12. 4 and the reader It list will recall the role attributed to the camels in the history of St.. 5921. would be an endless task to Menas of Egypt. Florence.. 1 In I stria an occurrence of a similar nature is connected with the foundation of the Bishopric of Pedena by Constantine. vol. pp. de Mely. 147-56 concerning the local legend of St. 269. St.32 THE LEGENDS OF THE SAINTS inquiry in other countries would probably be rewarded with equally numerous discoveries. 1904. Uimage du Christ du Sancta Sanctorum et les reliques chretiennes apportees par les flots in Memoires de la Societe 1887... ii. wonderdadig Kruisbeeld. Vite e fatti de' santi et beati dell' Istria. vol. We have some That is already been able to show from examples that of 1 them go back to a very remote antiquity. iv. . series 2 vii. F. The legend of St. A recent work on this subject is that of M. 750. C. zijn Hoboken. ibid. vol. may also be des Antiquaires de France. Auxentius Cyprus was also indicated by the oxen which carried his relics. Antwerp. Stramoy. 5 draw up a complete of the stock incidents of hagiography. pp. crucifix of Concerning the miraculous see P. iii. 17. vol. xx. 1611. Vies des saints allemands de Chypre in Archives de VOrient latin. Thomas Usi e costumi Abruzzesi.. 2 The Greeks have not neglected to introduce into their lives of saints a theme which had proved so popular among their ancestors. mentioned here. p. de Nino. 3 4 5 Analecta Bollandiana. Rainier of Bagno. — p. The site of the Church of S.. pp. lat. Synaxarium ecclesice Constantinopolitance. near Antwerp. Hoboken en . Kuyl. populaires. p. Sathas. Cyril of Gortina to the scaffold also stopped at the chosen spot in obedience to a divine command. vol. D. 3 The oxen which drew St. Manzuoli. pp. 113-44. A. Desire legende de sainte Agathe in La Revue des traditions xiii.

"Apollo triduum et tres noctes lacrimavit. are to be met with in the classics.. N. are by no means the invention of Christian narrators. as for us. and in the accounts of the origin of certain miraculous pictures.F. von Dobschutz.54. Chvistusbilder und Untersuchungen. . 3 with voices issuing from marble lips.. 13. quod est in via Latina non semel sed bis locutum constitit. " Signa ad Junonis Sospitae sudore manavere. The picture or letter dropped from heaven. The legend las of the Palladium of Troy. 7 x." Livy. Houtin. 4 " Fortunae item muliebris simulacrum. p. 1901. vol. xxiii. to be found scattered lives of in the histories of the foundation of celebrated shrines. xliii. Oct. 31. 556 Acta SS. p. 2 with statues bathed in sweat in times of calamity. St. they were indicating their origin.... 1899. 5 St. 7 St. 820. show how common such conceptions were among the ancients. Maurilius..." Valerius Maximus. the statue of Palfallen from the sky. 3 y PP. Ibid. iii. the " acheiropceetos " or picture not made by human hand. vol. 6 Ambrose of Cahors. The people of ancient times would themselves have experienced great difficulty in For them. 33 A number of the legendary themes through the saints... related x in Texte 2 See demonstration of this in E. 5 See A. Laval." Livy. i. to be met with in the Athene lives of St. is gloire. Leipzig. Les origines de VEglise d Angers. Kentigern and many others. 8. as leaves carried hither and thither by the wind. his paene verbis: Bene me matronas vidistis riteque dedicastis. Manothing more than a reminiscence of the ring of Polycrates. Jan.. 4 The story of some object flung into the sea and recovered from the belly of a fish. 1 Like ourselves they were familiar with holy pictures which shed tears. vol. and many other similar legends. i.. 787.THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE LEGEND a point that cannot be too strongly insisted upon.

. p.. 9 Suetonius. No. xciv. St. St. one day. 331.. 5 The miracle of the rock opening to receive St. Ariadne 7 in order to snatch them from the pursuit of their persecutors is but an echo of the fable of Daphne. Tygris caused some sparrows to keep silence who had . collected by Cahier. St. 209. I martiri di santo Teodoto e di santa Ariadne in Studi e Testi. just as the story of St. Vita Platonis. Thecla 6 and St. 8 Papebroch had already noted the borrowing Acta SS. Acta apostolorum apocrypha. Hist. Antwerp. St. No. Antony Benno of Meissen. 1901. 3. Franchi de' Cavalieri... St. iii. 6 Lipsius. Hervatus. Ambrose. Pausanias. when still a imposed silence on the frogs that were croaking villa. Barbara recalls that of Danae confined by her father in a brazen tower. 274-76. and.. as they are not distinct from those of St. vol. vol. 23. 1.. St. 9 child. Octavius. i. Ariadne. 43. Roma. . vol. ii.. 2. George. 7 i. pp. The Acta sanctce Marice ancillce in Acta SS. 10 The hagiographic documents have been i. Cicero. 201-6. Bollandiana apologeticis libris in unum volumen nunc printum contractis vindicata. Vita a Paulino. than one saint of St. 1755. 370. p. 272. P. i.. pp. 1 dore. Suelli. he adds. 2 4 5 Berlin. 1. note April..34 THE LEGENDS OF THE SAINTS The swarm 2 by Herodotus. vol. cannot be quoted in evidence. p. 1900. had long before deposited its honey in the mouth of Pindar 4 and in that of Plato. Kleinere Schriften. James of the Marches. 3 of bees that alighted on Isi- the cradle of St. St. p. Kohler. i. ix. 132. p. Ouen. Westermann. that since then frogs have never croaked on that spot. Nov. p. 8 Suetonius relates how Augustus. 36. De divinatione. Segnorina. vol. Olympiodorus. 6. who did not trouble A large number of legends might be quoted in which other animals play an analogous part.. Bishop of St. and which also visited St. Rieul. himself about the early origin of the incident. Further parallels are quoted by R. 3 Acta SS. 10 1 Herodotus. Thus St. Ulphus.. Caracteristiques des Saints. near his grandfather's The same marvellous incident : is recounted of more of Padua. it is said.

and exposed to the stings of and yet another who protected himself against the snares of sensual desire by spitting out his tongue in the face of the temptress.. and again to the philosopher Zeno of Elea. 35 in the vigorous language Jerome. was renewed under reminiscence of the classics.. 3 * chap. p. Sachs. note g. Hist. 4 St. vol. Jerome. and Nicephorus Callistus 5 repeats it once again in connection with an ascetic who lived in the reign of Diocletian. Julian. 1 These anonymous martyrs are inscribed Hist. v.. At a later date it was told of the martyr Nicetas. Acta SS. 132. vii. by Wachsmuth. ancient writers have related the story on more than one occasion. in the Roman martyrology for 28th July. 74. did not succeed in giving it a permanent attribution. the recorder of this Christian adaptation of an ancient legend. viii. 1856. 22. if we may among believe Sozomen. 1 The magic of St... 2 Martyrdom from insects. and they never troubled her again. now to Lesena the courtesan. August. At the request of St. vol. vii. makes mention of it. 10. June. v. vi. Phil. Sept. As for the episode of the tongue. 6 disturbed her at her prayers. . 6 Hist. Berichte der k. vol. Paul. 2 4 The chief classical texts are quoted zMetamorph. 13. iv. summed up the horrors of the persecutions under : Decius and Valerian the martyr smeared with honey insects. Apuleius. p.. p. 72.. attributing it now to the Pythagorean Timycha. vol. in the early part of his life of St.. Eccles... ActaSS. was but another others. Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften. the wild boars which attracted a crowd of hunters forsook the neighbourhood of his monastery {Acta SS. p. 5 CI.... 3 blance of originality to which they cannot lay claim. vol.. Cagsarius of Aries. note 36). viii. Eccles.THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE LEGEND The which reader will recall St.. Jerome's style and the vivid relief of his pictures endow them with a semwhich.

The result is usually an incoherent narrative. though on occasions the effect is not devoid of impressiveness. At the time of the birth of Christ the precise spot was revealed to St. for example. which occurs in has never ceased to have currency in folk tales. and 1 it has been repeated with endless variations. The apparent complexity of certain legends and the startling effect of certain combinations which appear highly ingenious must not deceive us. culte de Philosophic et Lettres de VUniversite de Liege. pp. a staff to the end of his This stick passed down from hand to hand to days. one version of the legend of the wood of the cross. Joseph.. Demoulin. which served him as. Moses to come and take the staff. Epimenide de Crete in the Bibliotheque de la fasc. 1 who Faxii. The historic elements which do not lend themselves to simplification are merely placed in juxtaposition. driven from Paradise. Brussels. took with him a branch of the tree of knowledge. 1901. long sleep. which in most cases is distinguished by its extraordinary improbability. the patriarchs. the history of Epimenides. 95-100. and we must not hastily draw conclusions in favour of the creative faculty of popular genius. is buried it in the desert. Adam.36 It THE LEGENDS OF THE SAINTS seems scarcely necessary to remind the reader of The conception of a the legend of the Seven Sleepers. and bound together by a very slender thread. which on the arrival of the prophet sprang miraculously towards him. in which other versions of the sleep legend are indicated. Moses made use of it to hang from it the brazen Later Phineas became possessed of it and serpent. . and during the wars an angel hid it in a cave where it was discovered by Jethro while herding In his old age Jethro sent a message to his flocks. H. The following.

and thus passed into the land of Sheba. payment for the spices for his tomb. Geschichte der Kreuzholzes vor Christus in Abhandlungen Bayer. From Jerusalem the coins were The transferred to Arabia. who gave it to the traitor Judas. Meyer. and there remained until they were sent with other gifts by the Queen of Sheba to Solomon's Temple.THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE LEGEND found the staff 37 on the occasion of the flight into Egypt. Kampers. 90. who hoarded it until.. Akademie der Wissenschaften. The legend of Judas's thirty pieces of silver runs on The money was coined by the father of similar lines. Mittelalterliche Sagen vom Paradiese und vom Holze Cf. coins passed into the possession of the sons of Jacob. Abraham. and there lost it. des Kreuzes Christi. W. and from it the cross was made. 1881. and Fr. With the identical coins they paid for the corn which Joseph procured for them in At the death of Jacob they were given in Egypt. 1 It will be admitted that. Cologne. to return with the Magi. He handed it on to his son Jacob. and with it Abraham bought a field as a Later the burial-place for himself and his family. Die der k. and through him it came into the hands of the executioners of Jesus Christ. i. struck with leprosy. 1897. although the root idea of Old and the the mysterious continuity of the New Testament upon which the story has been clumsily built lends it a certain dignity. presented the thirty pieces of 1 As a thank-offering he silver to the Temple. It was found by a shepherd. . 89. the legend of the of wood of the cross does not give evidence much wealth of invention. CI. to whom who they were paid over by the slave merchants purchased Joseph. xvi. he went to Jerusalem to implore Jesus to cure him. Blessed Virgin took the money with her to Egypt. pp. reduced to these terms.. vol.

1902. in the hands of the chief price of Judas's betrayal.. Le Monete Giuda also. xl. Note by the way. in Studi Religiosi. to imagine links of kindred or of some common action between them. 1883. place for strangers. 94 and following. in reality. the version of the legend the of the thirty pieces of silver in Solomon of Basrah.38 THE LEGENDS OF THE SAINTS priests. igo2. owing to the existence of their tombs and the veneration paid to their memories. who. 1886. the But Judas repented. 430- W. pp. Bee. vol. vol.. they thus became. Oxford. vol. for example. Graf. De Feis. 462-63 L. pp. edited by E. . del prezzo di Roma nella ii. pp. memoria e nelle . Budge. Rivett-Carnac. could neither be passed over in silence nor fused into one. The Book of p. and who gave half of it to the soldiers on guard at the sepulchre and the other half to the potter for the field to be a buryingrestored the price of his sin to the priests. 2 One might quote many examples of such childish concatenations of historical reminiscences resulting in narratives which appear to be carefully elaborated. A. Turin. 506-21. but which are. ii. 412-30. 2 J. H. 1 a succession of similar combinations men have succeeded in identifying the stone which served as a pillow for the patriarch Jacob with that which supports By the throne of the Kings of England at their coronation Westminster Abbey. A. immagin- azioni del medio evo. 38.. It has frequently given itself free scope in relation to the history of certain well-known saints. of in puerile simplicity. The recognised procedure was to group them together. La piedra de la coronation en la abadia de Westminster y su conexion legendaria con Santiago de Compostela in the Boletin de la real academia de la Historia. workings has not been restricted to the famous names and great events of sacred history. to forge a history in which each should play a in its 1 Popular imagination See.

is we can derive from is a picture which into not the result of design yet . them none the less impressive and if a poet had arisen to put shape the raw material of these rude narratives. with the assistance of historical names and a topographical setting. . these legends are interesting and if in places others majority —are — and they are in the Nevertheless. whole cycles of purely imaginary legends have been composed. trivial and meaningless. vol. The best-known example martyrs of of this is that of the Roman whom the legends form a series of cycles frequently had nothing in their sepulture. and our sense of the grandeur of the subject only gives us a more vivid perception of the poverty of the legends to us. that remain and the lack of inspiration and originality in the creations of the people at large.THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE LEGEND well-defined role. way. pp. from the foundation of the Mother and Mistress of Churches by St. he might have drawn from them an epic poem of Christian Rome. we study them as a whole. through the bloody conflicts of the days of persecution. 2-7 and following. 1 Analecta Bollandiana. happily the man of genius who might have endowed us with this work of art has never arisen. 39 without ever stopping to inquire saint whether a particular might not be acting quite In this incompatible parts in two different stories. xvi. 1 each one embracing a certain number of saints who common save the place of Some of poetic . down to the Unfinal triumph under Sylvester and Constantine.. Peter.

The idea may it is fade quickly away. Predominance of sense impressions over the intelligence Localisation and foot-prints Literary origin of certain of these Iconographic legends Popular etymology Miracles The soul of the people Energy of expression Exaggerated feeling Ambitions of individual churches Morality of the mob Local claims. or indeed with even a single idea of any complexity. All the child's ideas and reminiscences are indissolubly linked to material and palpable objects. but. Thus it is that great men live far less in the memory of their countrymen than in the stones. In this respect popular intelligence scarcely exceeds the intellectual level of a child. who. incapable of shown to be coping with any large number of ideas at once. — — — — — — — — — — — The brain of the multitude has been narrow. on the other hand.4o THE LEGENDS OF THE SAINTS II. the popular mind craves what is definite and concrete. shown in the days of Plutarch near the Cephisus to mark the spot where he pitched his . in the place. but the the of things picture remains. fully prepared to receive impressions through the material side senses. and it is to sensible objects that all the people's thoughts and affections cling. the house in which he lodged. cise spot It wishes to identify the pre- on which he stood. the tree that gave him shelter. rocks or buildings with which it pleases first people to connect their names. for For. equally indifferent to abstract concepts. which attracts the populace. turns instinctively towards that which appeals to the senses. Thus we have Alexander's oak. equally incapable of applying itself to prolonged or subtle reasoning. It is not satisfied with knowing that some celebrated personage passed through the country.

-viii. ix. which. 2 Lenormant. In the shown at Sulmona. both the pictures that haunt their imagination and the cele- names that live in their memory. Itinera Hierosolymitana saec. Ovidio nella tradizione popolare di site same way the . xxxix. de Nino. and Adamnan Geyer. 202-3.. pp. Casalbordino. . in the Corpus script. i. 2. iv. Sulmona. all the world over. From tive this point of view nothing is more instruc- than accounts of pilgrimages to celebrated shrines and more especially to the Holy Land. the remains of a structure only built in the sixteenth century.. It is one and the same psychological cause.. Alexander. 1883. vol.. In the religious sphere the popular instinct asserts itself very emphatically in both these directions. its imagination and satisfies its while reflection and the it critical faculty never enlighten concerning the insufficiency or improbability of what invents. Paris.. Eccl. an ancient ruin shown under his name even in our own day. although no historical tradition connects it with the poet and finally Virgil's house at . THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE LEGEND tent at the battle of Chaeronea 1 41 Horace's house at Venusium. F. lat.. of Theodosius. 21. its attention. A travers VApulie et la Lucanie. p. vol. 1886. it Thus it becomes a matter of course that people should transfer to the curious features of natural scenery or to the constructions of bygone ages. of Ovid's house is still A. 3 See more especially the narratives of Antoninus. Brindisi. 2 In the same ever impresses way it the populace always feels con- strained to explain the origin or the purpose of what- and to bestow a name upon every Like a child it object that excites. The earliest narratives by pious pilgrims 3 betray no trace of the 1 Plutarch. contents itself with the first explanation that soothes craving for knowledge. has bestowed well-known names on rocks of unwonted brated shape or natural grottoes which attract attention.

or the tree into which Zaccheus climbed. just as in other 1 Angilberti abbatis de ecclesia Centulensi libellus. Januarius. 17. St. p. It is furthermore only a particular example of a uni- versal phenomenon that people should recognise in the feet.. vol. George and St. the rock smitten by Moses. not even the house of the wicked Dives. without counting the which not one is forgotten. i8gg. and In a similar way the that men 2 should be enabled to point out the precise spot where Simon Magus is it fell : Silex ubi cecidit Simon of St. 1 names of saints are frequently linked with monuments or remarkable places which appeal to the popular imagination. Peter. or at Naples with that of St. Peter's imprisonment.. G. or in Touraine and the neighbourhood of Autun with Martin. Martin. in his ecstasy. people have pretended to have seen the "corner-stone which the builders rejected.42 THE LEGENDS OF THE SAINTS ignorance and hesitation of our most learned exegetes in topographical matters. Scr. Magus. Rome. St. Peter. To show the extent to which material things dominate the intelligence and stifle the powers of reflection. 176. Le forum chretien. xv. hollows of rocks the imprint of the hands or knees of St. p." and have begged for relics " de places mentioned in the Gospels of lignis trium tabernaculorum " those three tabernacles which St. and with glorious assurance they will point out to you the precise spot where David composed his psalms. the cave that sheltered Elijah. . proposed to erect on the mountain of the Transfiguration. Neither surprising that in Ireland so many places are connected with the memory Patrick. M.. Duchesne. Thus it is quite natural that in Rome the Mamertine prison should be selected as the scene of St. 2 L.

224. Frodoberta. La Leggenda 423-39. 2 or whether it was a fairy rather than St. Whether St. A considerable number of 1903. the popular tradition remains unaffected. 1892. while the perched on the neighbouring hills le S. in preferby turning the soldiers of King Adar to stone.. 3rd series. p. turgeschichte. xxii. ence to at all others. vol. should have created the long lines of menhirs Carnac and Erdeven in Brittany. Reinach.. p. N. p. must not be forgotten that very precise cations of locality literary origin. 1 That a large number of such attributions. pp. 4 — L. Frankel. Les monuments de pierre brute dans langage et les croyances populaires in the Revue archeologique. vol. these imprints are attributed to various popular saints. di Giulietta e Romeo Giornale Ligustico. where Romeo and only lived in the imagination of poets. 4 travellers are shown both their palace two ruined 1 castles and their tomb. cit. 355. xix. Ibid.F. testifying in each case that there It is as yet no advance beyond the identifi- intellectual level of childhood.THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE LEGEND localities 43 shown the footprints of Adam and Abraham. who dropped a lapful of stones. 171 and following. he. Cornelius.. Juliet may frequently be traced to a purely at Thus Verona.. useless for building purposes. vol. S. Untersuchungen zur Entwickelungsgeschichte des Jirtia in Zeitschrift fur vergleichende Litteraiii. 2 s xxi. 48 in and following G.. p. p. and that the Blessed Virgin and the saints should have one is been substituted for the heroes of heathen legends. need excite no surprise.. vol. 128. 3 near the lake of Maillard in the department of Seine-et-Marne. more especially in the case of megalithic monuments. 1890. 354. vol. Stoffes von Romeo und .. A great number of miraculous imprints have been pointed out in Italy by various scholars who have published their notes in the Archivio per lo studio delle Tradizioni popolari. should have been christianised. iv. Reinach. p. Brognoligo. and the preceding years. of Moses and Buddha.. .

1 In Alsace are we not shown the forge^ which Schiller has " immortalised " by his ballad of Fridolin. Alsace had never been regarded as the home of the incident. Until the old legend was turned into verse by Schiller in 1797. Davidsohn. Therapon. 278 and following. Now. . pp. may be seen an ancient tree-trunk partially built into the wall and scored with many notches.44 THE LEGENDS OF THE SAINTS have become those of the Capulets and Montagues. This evergreen oak was said still to exist Cappelletti and the Montecchi according to Dante are types. but according to the legend a great oak-tree sprang up from the ground that had been soaked with his blood. to the spot. Yet it was sufficient for the ballad to become popular for the event to be materialised and localised in the most precise fashion. in point of fact. Therapon did not die at Sardica he was a native of Sardis. Of such ^topographical transference to suit the reis no lack of examples in hagiography. The people call it the tree of St. 1905. 1 The in and Dec. See The Times of 10th July. 1905. the "historic" house of was purchased by the municipalityHof Verona. who none the less never existed ? 2 This last example proves that in these cases tradition does not take long to germinate and blossom. . Hertz. 27th May. 1872. and make a point of carrying away with them some small piece of the sacred tree to which they quirements of a legend there attribute miraculous virtues. Die Feindschaft der Montecchi und Cappelletti ein Irrtum in Deutsche Rundschau. pp. and the castle of the Counts of Saverne. near the Church of St. and believe that the saint suffered his martyrdom near On his feast-day. On 8th July. At Sofia (Sardica). Juliet 2 1903. Petka (Parasceve). W. no sense historical characters. they go in pilgrimage by. R. Deutsche Sage im Elsass. 419-28. St. Stuttgart.

G. 4 : A poet is repre- he must be the most learned of men. became easy to transplant the miraculous tree. Thiollier. 711. Bulliot et F. pp. 17. wrongly interpreted have proved the Carved starting- point of a number of quaint legends. C. de Nino. pp. devotes a whole chapter to this question Sagen aus Knnstwerken entstanden. 5 The two fine equestrian statues on Monte Cavallo (now Piazza del Quirinale) in Rome gave currency during the Middle Ages to a most curious tale. 54-55. 59-60. vol.. stances are to be found in this essay. 1 45 The confusion between it Sardis and Sardica having once established itself. for he can read with his feet.. Kinkel. cxxxvi. La mission et le culte de St. Berlin. vi. The life of St.. Jirecek. the object of a similar attempt. Martin monuments populaires dans le pays eduen. x. See Analecta Bollandiana. Mosaik zur Kunstgeschichte. Das christliche Element in der topographischen Nomenclatur der Balkanldnder in the Sitzungsberichte der kaiser lich. 3 Popular imagination in the past has not exercised solely figures on rough-hewn stones and buildings. 161-243. 3 Other examples of similar in- J. and had the singular habit of walking sented with his foot on a large book Synaxarium ecclesia Constantinopolitance. Aka2 1 demie. Radegonde has been 483. vol. p. : pp. 4 C. p. 1897. it ? sometimes has not been precisely in the higher itself interests of history. who came to Rome during the reign of Tiberius. . 1876. 5 A. need tracing the itinerary of a saint we insist on the illusory nature of the process which consists in by means of the landIf this has marks established by legends been attempted. d'apres les legendes et les Autun-Paris. 2 In the face of facts such as these. Ovidio nella tradizione popolare di Sulmona.THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE LEGEND and to cure every disease. It was said that they represented two celebrated philosophers named Phidias and Praxiteles. i8g2. p.

order to inculcate 1 the vanity of the things of this world. A. the It was obviously common people who created the na'i've legend of the saints who carry their own heads. Quiricus. xxii. de Smedt. Julian. Ledru. Hie requiescit in pace Eusebia religiosa magna ancella Dei. without any indica- would lead one to assume the existence of any cultus of this admirable woman. L. Wirceburgi. pp. Every sort of invention has been forthcoming to explain the representations of saints. less man. abbess of a convent at Marseilles. Codex urbis Romce topographicus. 2 Ch. 177-85. and it was told how St. now to be seen in the Mar- Museum. i. 304. This fact was sufficient to give rise to a legend. vol. ana.. 1892. Eusebia. p. in the course of time. Nicholas and the three children is usually traced to a similar source. Liberata or translates into popular Uncumber merely language the explanation of certain peculiar features in a picture. Urlichs. and her forty comtion that 1 C. An inscription. suggested by a prevaand the legend of St. The seilles following is another example. p. pp. Le premier miracle attribue a Saint Julien in ha x. had become damaged and mutilated. which.. 188-92.46 THE LEGENDS OF THE SAINTS in about the city in a state of nudity. But her body had been laid in a sarcophagus of older date adorned with the figure of the dead person for whom it had It was the bust of a beardbeen originally intended. Caracteristiques des Saints.. 351. vol. and we shall see later on that the extraordinary history of St. 122-23.. vol. Analecta Bollandi- . etc. 4 province du Maine. Cf. 1871. 2 lent iconographic type. drawn from hagio- graphy. Principes de la critique historique. pp. Abbess of St. 3 Cahier. 3 A symbol interpreted in a materialistic sense has built up a regular romance around an incident in the 4 life of St. makes mention of a certain Eusebia.

Peter. Others regard it merely as a topographical expression of obscure origin. pp. The Church of St. The erudite may hesitate popular legend sees no cause for : hesitation. passing by the spot on leaving prison he dropped the bandage that bound up his in- jured writer.. Heft 3 . We must." writes a Benedictine. As he was leg. 1875. n. collected To the curious examples of popular etymology large by various learned authors. indeed. Processi et Martiniani.Q. Hagio- graphica Latina. Le Blant. pp.. . 3 Concerning the of Fasciola. BulUttino di archeologia cristiana. Rossi. Etymologische Legenden bei den Alien in Philologus.. The name Fasciola is a reminiscence of St. Inscriptions Chretiennes de la Ganle.c. Supplementband. Lateinische Volksetymo- i8gi O. 2 we may see the naivete of a people who 2 Le Blant. . logie. 49-56. Nereus and Achilleus on the Appian Way the the close to the Thermae of Caracalla formerly bore Opinions differ as to title. F." Here. B." says an old "dum tibiam demolitam haberet de compede 4 cecidit ei fasciola ante Septisolium in via nova. vol. 203-23. A. n. logie in Zeitschriftfur Volkerpsychologie. ferri.THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE LEGEND 47 panions cut off their noses to escape from the vio" Quam traditionem confirmat lence of the Saracens. O. quoted by M. generosse illius heroinae effigies. 4 Acta SS. dimidia facie et naso praeciso supra tumulum posita cum epigraphe. name of Titulus de Fasciola? the meaning of the Some consider Fasciola to be name of the foundress. vol. Keller. Leipzig. title Zur Charakteristik der Volksetymoxii. ii. 2 we might add a number of cases bearing specially on hagiography. more than one legend owes its existence to names incorrectly understood or to resemblances of sound. Weise. restrict ourselves to a few cursory indications. see De See 1880. however. 1 Again. Pott. 6947. "Tunc beatissimus Petrus. 545.iJ>tiothe.

Germany St. p. xviii. iii.. On the Via Porto near Rome there may be seen a little country church belonging to the basilica of Santa Maria in Via Lata. Cyrus and John.. Who is this saint who may be searched Will it be believed that for in vain in the Calendar ? the name and the chapel are intended to recall the translation of the relics of SS. invoked by those who because she enables people to see clearly . Expeditus.. has been acclaimed as the advocate of urgent causes. date which enjoys a surprising and regrettable popularity: St. xxv. Compare Analecta Bollandiana. 90-98. pp. suffer from their eyes (Husten). in certain parts of St. and we are all aware that at times something little better than a pun decides the choice of a patron. vol. iv. under the influence of phonetic laws. par. p. 2 See later. pp. 152. 505-24. 1 Writers have drawn up lists of these con- which are not solely due to popular imagination... v. in France. formerly honoured at Menouthis near Alexandria? 1 Melusine. martyrs. 2 It also happens that.. The influence of sound on the popular impressions formed of certain saints is well known. the names of certain saints have become quite unrecognisable. thanks to his name. Augustine is believed to rid people of diseases of the eye (Auge\ and in others of a cough Clare is Thus. ceits. Ouen cures deafness because he enables them to hear (oui'r) Again. 2. Cloud cures boils (clous). St. 48 THE LEGENDS OF THE SAINTS imagine that a great man cannot even drop a handkerchief without the spot being immediately marked and remembered in order that the incident may be recorded by a monument. vol. . 425 . vol. known under the title of Santa Passera. and which learned men have amused themselves by There is one of comparatively recent multiplying. chap. vol. St.

It is the furthermore by this spiritual feebleness that one must account for the blind attraction of the populace for the miraculous and the sensibly supernatural. Passera. Passera with St. Aubrey. J. Ubaldo . Passera and Aboukir are thus exact counterparts. There is also St. J. San Stin of S. Leone. but even were so I should be done was to confuse St. 405. to the lethargy of their brains they are unable to the rise to an ideal conception. in reality dedicated to SS. 1887. 49 Cyrus. the interior working of grace offers nothings that can be grasped. San Stae of S. Euphemia. Abbaciro. in whom it is not easy to recognise St. the senses predominate over the intellileast that could no astonishment.. Remains the series of changes traced by — of Gentilism and Judaism. Eustachio . has finally become transformed into Passera. vol. Pacero.. The Venetian dialect is specially rich in transformations of saints' names. 428 and following. Pacera. San Boldo of S. 466. Thus in Venice the church of San ilarcuola is. Giovanni e Paolo. 1 Has the metamorphosis ended her feel there. : 4 . See G. San Trovaso is an adaptation of S. San Lio of S. p. ed. and the mysterious" colloquies of the soul with results 1 God must be translated into palpable in order to produce any impression on the Abbacyrus. I or has the new saint acquired a legend of it own ? do not know. etc. p. p. afi/3a Kvpos. Venice. p. 1S69. and sure enough the opportunity has not been missed. Stefanin . Tomassetti in the Archivio Storico Romano. 4th edition. p. Gervasio e Protasio San Zanipolo of S. 1 We have surely said enough to show how. the sound. vol. and short at how owing matter. such is M. 1S81.. xxii.se::i as above. very bewildering to strangers. London. Giovanni decollate . The gence. Abbacirus. Curiositd Veneziane. So. Oswald. The thought of the invisible guidance of Providence does not suffice . among the people. San Zandegold of S. Bullettino di archeologia cristiana. 2 Toma. Tassini. This saint is no other than St. Britten. 2g. xxii. Abbaciro. Ermagora e Fortunato . Praxedes.THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE LEGEND St. One may also quote Sancta Fumia on the Appian Way. but stop image. Twosole. De Rossi.

. Ibid.. iii. Ludwin from the sun's rays with his wings. One might almost say that God Himself seems to favour the very caprices of His friends and seems to multiply miracles without any apparent motive. not refer here to the wonders accomplished through the intercession of the miracle-working saints on behalf of those who visit their tombs or touch their these constitute a special category which de- serves separate treatment. Gangericus (Gery) remained upright throughout the prayers of the saint.. 2g.. . of the saint himself as it were. vol. Junianus conversed with King Clothair. 2 Various saints hung their cloaks on a sunbeam or brought birds to life when they were already turning on the spit. In urgent peril he can always count on the intervention of the celestial powers.. vol. i. 41. enveloped in visible Angels guard his footsteps. Ibid..50 THE LEGENDS OF THE SAINTS The supernatural is popular mind.. Feb. p. s 5 p. 674. 3 In answer to the prayer of St. 772. iii. vol. prophecies and miracles play a necessary part in the lives of saints. is Nature obeys him. vol. 1 and the same thing occurred while St. Landoald brought his 1 Acta SS. 319. Visions. We shall relics. acts But the narrative of the is. Aug.. March. wild beasts recognise his authority. vol. 2 Ibid.. impregnated with the miraculous. 4 eagle sheltered St. p. ii.. 367. p.. *Ibid. only impressive when it is combined with the marvellous. Sebald. ii. Blessed Marianus Scotus had no need of a candle as his fingers when writing at night gave out the necessary light. The staff of St. Aug... 5 and the servant of St. a peasant obtained a similar privilege until An he had found his strayed oxen.. Aug. p. and his cradle signs of divine protection. p. see ante. is Even before his birth his greatness foreshadowed. Hence it is that popular legends overflow with marvels.

THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE LEGEND master fire in 51 the folds of his robe. A methodical classifica- themes employed by them compels one to realise that repetitions are numerous. 171. p. Sept. these bold and naive fictions frequently attain to real beauty. p. March. Above all.. exaggerate the fertility of these hagiographic trovatori. in the The miracle of Joshua was renewed. Putting aside an. overexcited by the craving for the marvellous. we must be on our guard against the belief that from the aesthetic point of view the level of the miraculous creations of popular hagiography is. 30. however. One must tion of the not. vol. iii. and possessed by a burning desire to outstrip one extraordinary narrative by another more extraordinary still. See above. p. 2 In this direction popular imagination knows no bounds. 36. The 1 ' familiar miracle of the arrival of relics 3 on a derelict vessel ended by appearing tame and vulgar. Ibid. as a rule. the material of these biographies is as a rule deplorably commonplace even where it is not beyond measure whimsical and extravagant. among nations of a poetic temperament. nor can it be denied that. him to confer ordination on one and the same day at Reims and at Laon.. 4* . 3 2 viii.. occasional happy thought or a few interesting ideas worked out with some ingenuity. and that it is chiefly familiar topics that by means of new combinations of an appearance of variety is conferred on different groups of legends of the saints. we person of St.. Acta SS.. 1 learn. more especially in certain in order to allow Ludwin surroundings. has only too frequently overstepped which an unlimited field bounds in a region in appears to open out before all the creative faculties. The imagination. vol. a high one.

Die alten Petrusakten in Texte und Untersuchungen. pp. i. 45. 5 ii.. 3 a babe to leap in its mother's womb like St. v. Liberius at Ancona.52 THE LEGENDS OF THE SAINTS one. xxiv.. John the Baptist was not enough to foreshadow the greatness of a saint. 57. vol. See Melusine. therefore. the child is pp. Peter by whom it was entrusted with a message for Simon. an infant who lived but three days after birth. Raccolta di cinque discorsi intitolati corone. 56-60. vol. vol.. . 62. Paul. 91 vol. 3 Ibid. vol. i... 257 6 . iv. vol. 1 as also did St. Schmidt. vol.. C. 141. It was in a stone coffin that St. May.. June. cor.. 8 Commodianus has also commemorated a lion who miraculously made 9 a speech in support of the preaching of St. 228. 106-7. p.. p. 630.. June.. Carmen apolog. 36. 323. who made his voice heard three times in one day... 729. 605.. vol. Nov. A. 405. 7 but also of a big dog who conversed with St. Isaac. Jan.. p. 61. Lipsius. 7 R. Ibid. Rumwold. pp. 297. 108-9. Fursey spoke before his birth. p. Leipzig. but also preached a long sermon to his parents before breathing his last. vol. 5 This miracle scarcely surpasses that of St. pp.. invented the idea of a Some heavy sar- cophagus floating on the water. 58. 70. vii.. Acta apostolorum apocrypha. only five months old.. 447 . 272-77.. St. Carmen apolog. 1891. pp.. ^Lipsius. Acta SS. Such narra- ^Stefano Lusignano. i. Padua. p. vol... xxiv. its The incident of the child speaking before birth has not iv. Mamas landed in Cyprus. p. 4 so also did St. Cf. vol. v. 1903. 2 Acta SS. 9 ib. 1577. Schmidt. 139. In Commodianus.. *Ibid. pp. pp. vi.. vi. 325. vol. p. 6 In the Acta Petri we read not only of a child seven months old addressing violent reproaches " in manly tones " to Simon Magus. but who not only repeated his profession of faith in such a way as to be understood by all present. . i. Cf. been utilised by hagiographers alone. v. pp. 52.. For Julian at Rimini 2 and St. iv.. vol.

Florence. went in procession to the house of Cataldus The device and visited it from cellar to garret. followed by all the cardinals. iv. 195. de Nino. Need we add that popular admiration. . We may quote here. The following fact concerning St. Consequently the legend relates how the Pope. and it has no idea of keeping its feelings under control. 53 perhaps be mere reminiscences of Balaam's unless indeed the incidents were inspired by a study may of the fabulists. The populace can only be moved by strong emotions. vol. and impressing everything they touch with that element of exaggeration and even of violence of which so many legends have preserved the trace. These excesses lead us to speak of the passions to which the popular mind is liable. an ecclesiastical commission was appointed to pronounce on their nature. Cataldus is a small His sanctity having example from among many. p.. This was too simple for literary effect. passions intense and unrestrained. Usi e costumi abruzzesi. is always quite unmeasured ? tude endows its favourites with every great quality. But it makes use of energetic language to affirm its impressions and enunciate its ideas. betrayed itself by extraordinary manifestations which appeared to be miraculous. a legend 1 A. although it has no connection with the history of the saints. and cannot tolerate the idea that others should appear superior to them.THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE LEGEND tives ass. It takes no account of delicate shades. 1887. not seldom The multiill bestowed. 1 reminds one of the methods of those painters whose whole talent lies in the suggestion of life and movement. and just as it is incapable of perceiving them so it is incompetent to express them.

it seemed impossible that a warrior such as Charlemagne should not have taken part in them accordingly from that time forth the Crusades became one of the episodes : in the history of that popular hero.. Ignatius of Antioch became the child whom our Lord showed to the people when He enjoined upon them 2 St. and that in a period when illustrious birth added markedly to a person's merit. or who were supposed to have taken part in some scene in the life of Christ. 284-99. admirers but to connect this Mussulman prince with a French family. 354-65.. 1893. when popular imagination was fired by the great expeditions to the Holy Land. the legend of Saladin. vol. Thus St. Pavia. 18. 312. San Siro primo vescovo di Pavia. 3 St. and to make of him a knight and next door to a Christian. p. 428-38. People had no hesitation in identifying the ancient patrons of churches with certain personages who are mentioned in the Gospel. i.. Paris. . 3 Prelini. a patent of nobility should invariably have been made out in their favour ? But what was valued even more than noble birth was the honour of having belonged to our Saviour's immediate following. Under such circumstances is it surprising that all the saints should be endowed with all the virtues.. 1880. p. 2 Acta SS. G. La Legende de Saladin in the Journal des Savants. vol. 54 THE LEGENDS OF THE SAINTS is that particularly instructive from this of view. . but one which his personal qualities emphasises in a remarkable way the enthusiasm with Nothing would satisfy his which he was regarded. Feb. 486-98. The very point admiration and and especially sympathy which his moderation and humanity inspired in his prisoners gave rise to a most improbable story. Syrus of the humility and simplicity of childhood Pavia became the boy with the 1 five loaves. 1 Again. i. pp.

. controverse de V apostolicite de VEglise de France. MS. L. without realising that the Caesar in question was no other St. first a noble ancestry which caused The passion for the Romans and then the Franks to connect themselves with the heroes of the Iliad. ii. Paris. Vita S. 4 Houtin. 1894. xviii. Rodez. Martialis a. and bestowed upon each one an Episcopal See. 22). Duchesne. which he borrowed from the .. Labbe. one church vied with another in claiming the honour of apostolic foundation. vol. vol. 1887-92. xii. 402. pp. proceeded with so much haste that he included various names that obviously had never been borne by a bishop such as Caesar. sur 2 3 les origines chretiennes Vita S. 13. Documents du Rouergue. In other countries also people have taken pleasure in concocting similar legends. p. Paul. Les anciens recueils de legendes apostoliques in Compte-rendu du troisieme Congres scientifique international des Catholiques. vol. Ursini. La v. and more especi- among those of France. p. discovered this fresh form of self-flattery. 456. 458. 1903. Brussels. The forger who disguised himself as Dorotheus of Tyre drew up a list of the names of all the persons mentioned in the New Testament. 4 Among ally 1 the churches of the West. vol. ii. Pseudo-Aureliano.. 3 In the East these claims appear to have had their origin in a literary fraud. and the impulse once given. especially they that are of Caesar's household " (Phil. pretensions to apostolicity . so flattering to national vanity. 2 Bourret. 462 . " All than Nero. no.. p.. 2 may readily be conceived that the legends tracing back to Christ or to St. 3rd edition. pp. bibl. He words of the saints salute you. See Analecta Bollandiana. THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE LEGEND Martial held the towel at the washing of the feet 55 1 and It St.. Ursinus read aloud during the Last Supper. Nov.. Peter the mission of the first bishops of important dioceses were not solely inspired by a disinterested love of the saint. 67 and following.

. 54. In either case they belong to the category of products of legendary growth. p. nothing is more easy in dealing with a crowd than to strike the chord of patriotism. It matters. or whether created by the people they have been simply disseminated by hagiographers who have become parties to the fraud by arranging and embellishing them. xviii. and constitute only the normal development of popular ideas and aspirations in the matter of ecclesiastical origins.. One must therefore not be over1 to on anxious to give credit to those biographers who confer this distinction their heroes. They have no scruples. and as everybody relies on his neighbour to examine the validity of the evidence brought forward. wholly devoid of that sense of responsibility which causes an individual to hesitate before a dishonest or irregular action. very little whether the interested imaginings of " apostolic " or other claims are of literary origin. vol. not the place to investigate the respective parts played by popular imagination and by literary fiction in the elaboration of these celebrated legends. therefore. and their audacity does not recoil before any obstacle. and What is important to note plicity of the multitude in is that the inventors of these ambitious narratives could always count upon the com- every enterprise that tended to flatter local sentiment. Analecta Bollandiana. Thus freed from all trammels the ambitious designs of the people know no limit. Neither time nor dis- Taken collectively they are A title of honour which the Greeks have been unequal to refusing any of the holy bishops who were more or less contemporary with the Council of Nicaea was that of having sat among the "three hundred and eighteen fathers". 1 For we must not expect of people in the aggregate either keen intelligence or an enlightened morality. vanity or self-interest.56 THE LEGENDS OF THE SAINTS this is did not spring up with quite the same uniform impulse.

A History . the saint. where her uncle. had her put to death.THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE LEGEND tance will prevent them from claiming as their special property 57 own any saint whom they may elect to honour and whose glory they may desire to see reflected upon themselves. This has in no way deterred the Cypriots. Hackett. which. and in proof of this that he bestowed his name political crisis Diocletian transferred on the town of Salamis. Catherine in which one learnt. afterwards known as Constantia. where — — the Emperor Maxentius. but King of Cyprus. 1901. was not King of Egypt at all. 1 1 Lusignan's account is quoted textually by J. It is well known with what care she was brought up. and how proficient she became After the death of her father she returned to the island of Cyprus. p. learning that she had become a Christian. that the famous Costos. thanks to a series of ingenious and discreditfrom annexing a saint of whom the cultus no less than the legend has always been as popular in the Greek as in the Latin Church. London. At some Costos to Alexandria and confided to him the government of Egypt. despairing of her recantation. of the Orthodox Church of Cyprus. first of all. Both by her birth and by her martyrdom her biographers have connected her with the town of Alexandria. Every one is familiar with the legend of the great St. father of able artifices. 395. had her thrown into prison at Salamis where the actual prison was shown in the time of Lusignan and then sent her back to Egypt. It was at this period that Catherine was born. She suffered her martyrdom at Alexandria. Now Stephen of Lusignan declares that at Famagusta he read the Greek text of a life of St. Catherine. adds the chronicler. caused said that she it to be was a native of that town. in all the liberal arts.

Sabini Quartalschrift. La passio S. Epist. 3 Gregorii I. 59. 3. 1. 4 iv.. vol. 5 F.. Pero. as above. Nevertheless the grotto where they slept their sleep of three hundred years has been shown in the neighbourhood of Paphos. 2 Concerning the localisation of the legend in the East see J. 37576. 1-26. vol. The inhabitants of Spoleto naturally regard him as their compatriot. July. vol.. At the neighbouring Monte San Savino he has been made into a bishop of town of Chiusi. Langobard.. pp.. but he is also claimed by those of Fermo. but tries to persuade himself that the legend might refer to a different group from that of Ephesus. vi. Later on they attempted to bishop. where a basilica 4 was erected to his memory. G.. Paul the Deacon. 456... ix. M. a Faenza. who possess his relics. Scr. they invented a sojourn of the saint within their territory. niente di meno essi cittadini di Paffo dicono ab antiquo esser chiamata quella spelonca di santi sette dormienti Quoted by et possono esser altri di quelli di Effeso. 25 pages.. p. after his translation of his relics. de : Goeje. ii.. p. De legende der Zevenslafiers van Efeze. As for the people of martyrdom at Spoleto. Langob. 1900.." Hackett.58 It THE LEGENDS OF THE SAINTS might have been supposed that the Seven Sleepers of Ephesus would have been sufficiently protected against similar attempts both by their celebrity and by the marvellous details of the legend. 1 Stephen of Lusignan expresses some surprise. rer.. xvii. Reg. G. Lanzoni. noi ritroviamo nelli leggendarii che sette dormienti erano in Epheso. and. Savini in the Romische 1903. Amsterdam. p. Savinus is a martyr to whom honours are known to have been paid in the sixth century 3 at Spoleto. and by those of Monselice. Hist. The various groups on which the title of Seven Sleepers has been conferred are discussed in the Acta SS. pp. 2 St. 5 : pass him off as their 1 first " Nella citta di Paffo e una spelonca la qual dicono esser delli li sette dormienti. 82. 121.. M. .

. 2 3 Analecta Bollandiana. But so far we have only consulted this latter agent in those things in In the which he is the echo of the popular voice. 1 and to lay bare the secrets proper to Bibliotheca hagiographica latina. Often they are satisfied with the honour of having received him. It is by means of this simple Nicephorus. become a and that St. 6086. 1 has artifice that St. the celebrated martyr. 3 We have now seen something of the processes of As he the anonymous author who creates legends. 6085. 370-80. Ibid. vol. xviii.. within their city walls.. pp. n. local saint in Istria. 2 — himself does not hold the pen. Maurus has been claimed by so many towns Rome.. registers his tales we have usually been compelled to have recourse to the hagiographer who and discoveries. Fondi. and then all that is necessary is to imagine a journey which need in no way affect the main lines of his history.THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE LEGEND The bonds which 59 the people seek to establish be- tween themselves and a favourite saint are not always as close as this. Lavello and Gallipoli. following chapter we shall attempt to trace out what is specially his own. n. alive or dead. his craft. without counting Parenzo. Fleury.

simply recorded what they have seen with their eyes and touched with their hands. THE unconscious mental processes of the people occupied with the manufacture of stories about the saints leads. Neither need we occupy ourselves here with that class of writers. possessing both literary power and the necessary information. and accepted on all sides as furnishing the most pure sources of hagiography. known to every one. faithful Have hagiographers guardians of historical proved themselves more tradition ? Let us remember. Their narratives constitute authentic historical memoirs no less than works of edification. THE WORK OF THE HAGIOGRAPHER. who have under60 . to a weakening and obscuring of historical testimony. in the first place.— CHAPTER III. that we do not propose to include under the term hagiographer every man of letters who has occupied his pen with the lives There are among them some who have of saints. I. will be excluded from our present inquiry. The meaning of Moralities the term " hagiographer " — Ancient ideas concerning history — Literary methods — Special views of when mediaeval hagiographers. These candid witnesses. sometimes even to its almost entire suppression. as we have shown.

which affect at times to be inspired by them. we shall be have There is no need for drawing a distinction between If from a purely literary Greek and Latin authors. Fortunatus. at vari- ous periods of the Middle Ages. succeeded in closely work the value of which is in no way contested. — — posed long after the persecutions this point —constitute the shall — I wish to emphasise greater part of their literary wares.THE WORK OF THE HAGIOGRAPHER 61 taken to discharge the functions of a historian. If we should mentally subtract from the martyrologies or lectionaries of the West and from the menologies of the Greek Church the writings which every following these models. The acts of the martyrs comquality. They and are the last representheir writings. Again. Ennodius or Eugippius. We must reserve our full attention for those conventional and factitious productions composed at a distance from the events recorded and without any tangible relation to the facts. easy to extend to other writings what to say about these. and produced one will agreed in accepting as historic documents. We therefore occupy ourselves almost It will exclusively with this class of compositions. there still remain a considerable collection of the Passions is of martyrs and of the lives of saints of an inferior amongst which some have been unanimously rejected by the critics. Hilary of Poitiers. . we write with similar respect of those conscientious biographers who. point of view the former usually possess an advantage. men like Sulpicius Severus. The authors of this residuum for the most part anonymous are the hagiographers whose methods we propose to study. instinct tatives of classic antiquity. while others are regarded with suspicion. with art and life. must not be confused with the artificial productions of later periods.

for it parables or tales designed to bring truth or some moral principle. Just as the ancient story-tellers brought kings and princes on the scene. and never pretends to be dealing with real facts. 3 of Boniface of Tarsus. Feb. nothing to choose point of fact they constitute but is The first question that should be addressed to an author the value of whose work one wishes to estimate. And even truth. pp. mart.. ii. 894-95. vol. one whose only aim was to write a work of fiction.. so the Christian moralist would quite naturally fortify his precepts by the authority of a martyr or an ascetic. 4 Ruinart. pp. 4 vol. The celebrated Passio S. Ibid. P. 1 may be said of the histories of Theodulus 2 of St. 666. Act. Acta SS. 756-65. when it was not a question of inculcating some narrative. vol.. Die Legende des Martinian in Wiener Studien.. Nzcefori 1 had no other aim. home some religious The author relates as a means of teaching. and the same the Stylite. the outlines lives but merely of giving pleasure to the reader by an attractive of a saint's life at a time when of saints were the favourite reading of the faithful. offered an element of interest that was not to be despised. SeeL^s Stylites in Compte-rendtt v. p. Feb. 2 May.. 289-91.. 253-93. Certain hagiographic documents are clearly of this nature. pp. concerns the class of literature that he professes to pro- would be manifestly unjust to condemn. More than one solemn lesson has been preached to the people in the guise of a hagiographic document. ii. sincera. 3 scientifique des Catholiques. 204. 1895. vol. Rabbow.. Martinianus. and a single group. p. du troisihne Congres 1894. they are duce.6s THE LEGENDS OF THE SAINTS in as regards the historic sense there between them. .. on the ground of historical inaccuracy. Acta SS. pp.. vi. Brussels.

lat.. p. Pelagia. 1882. Acta SS. p. See Cyprian von Antiochien 8°. Theodora. 974. the theme of which be recognised in the legend of Faust. hagiogr.. Regice Bruxellensis. The story of CEdipus in 4 gloomy horror has been apAttributed in turn plied to others besides St. It may be read in the Legenda Aurea... vol. vol. Ibid. to St. chap. Jan. 2 3 4 153 pages. Poemes et legendes du moyen . Mathia Apostolo..THE WORK OF THE HAGIOGRAPHER and of Cyprian of Antioch. pp. Cosquin.. See Creizenach. Jan. son origine. 444-56. 7 It is well known that this legend has also been applied to Judas Iscariot. vol. 3 to St.-A.. May. bibl. Istrin. Oct. ii.. 1 little 63 last may What save a religious romance is the oft-repeated tale of the adventures of a pious astery with the woman hiding herself in a mon- name and heroine is in the garb of a man. La legende des saints Barlaam et Josaphat. G. 258. 8 E.. it was widely read throughout the Middle Ages as the biography of a saint 7 And which of us to-day is unaware that the life of the saints Barlaam and Joasaph is the Hospitaller. 1875 V. in the Revue des Questions historiques. n. but made shift with all its a simple adaptation. pp.. Albanus.. an imaginary personage. Erlangen. und die deutsche Faustsage. Die griechische Version der Judas Legende in Archiv fur slavische Philologie. Compare Analecta Bollandiana. 1893. may be. Julian and to others. ii. It is obvious that this was Margaret or Apollinaria. 3649-51. The called. Barlaam und Joasaph in Abhandlungen den k. i. De S. p.. In many cases they did not put themselves to the trouble of in- venting. Compare Acta SS. 1-88. vol. 926-27. Academie. i. 5 6 pp. xlv. Catalogus codd. vol. chap. i.. 605-19.. Kuhn. bayer. xiv. Ursius 6 merely an adaptation of the Buddha legend 1 ? 8 In Zahn. Gregory. 2 Euphrosyne. .. Eugenia. xx. 5 to a St. 1898. Judas Iscarioth in Legende und Sage des M. 124. Paris. CI. accused as the case of misconduct and proved to be innocent after her death? Marina. vol. Bibliotheca hagiographica latina. MSS. xx. later.. vii. a favourite theme among pious story-tellers. vol. 1880. pp.

181-215. .. in the spirit in As long as they continue to be read which they were written. pp.64 THE LEGENDS OF THE SAINTS mind of the monk John. Indeed the classification of literature is not always an easy task. however. our ancestors suffered from no hesitations. to whom we owe it in its Christian form. p. in age. fictions of this type are not without a certain danger. xxii. and in some cases comes very quickly. Yet was it not the outcome of a natural evolution. and he might well reproach us in our turn. and the heroes therein depicted were genuine saints equal in all respects to those who enjoyed traditional honours. and judge him only from his own standpoint. h>was nothing more than a pleasant and piquant narrative serving as a vehicle for religious and the moral instruction. 131. when people no longer recall the original intention of the story. Concerning devotion to the two saints. In their eyes all noble narratives which delighted them were history. see Ana- lecta Bollandiana. In such cases. and is it not likely to occur wherever hagiographic documents are accepted an uncritical spirit ? In point of fact it is quite unjust on such occasions to blame the hagiographer. vol. it The fact is greatly to be deplored wherever occurred. But a moment comes. these new saints quitted the literary sphere in which they had been created and really be- came the object of public devotion. and we can imagine our own great-grandchildren finding themselves much embarrassed by some of our contemporary novels of a vivid and convincing realism. all goes well. We should first ascertain what he intended to produce. It also happened though less frequently than one might be tempted to suppose that. under favourable — — circumstances. Nevertheless.

i. as a no conception whatever. v °l« " Peter. antiquity rhetoric. and in what sense he understood the duties of a historian. were the inheritors of the literary traditions of the ancients did not open up new paths 1 Concerning all this see E. a place mid- way between the rhetorician and the poet. And when one remembers how easy a conscience rhetoricians had in matters of truth. ascertain grapher in most cases will reply that he intended to Hence. it is not difficult to measure the distance that separates us from antiquity in our manner of judging the qualifications and duties of a historian.THE WORK OF THE HAGIOGRAPHER It is 65 true that to the question of intention the hagio- write history. Then historians had regard. in such cases it is important to what ideas he entertained concerning historical writing. accuracy scarce at rule. main thing was to give pleasure to the reader interest of the narrative. H. 1897. in a sense. for the ancients was the very essence. can easily be imagined that the Middle Ages which. who was never popular with might be quoted as one — little saw but difference The historian holds. Die geschichtliche Litter atur iiber "•> PP. vol. When we attempt to arrive at some understanding of how the ancients themselves understood history. 5 . 1 What for us is merely accessory. i8g8. above all else. — Polybius. as it between history and were. pp. less..200-4. the The by the beauty of the descriptions and the It brilliancy of the style. Norden. 81 die ff. With classic rare exceptions the general public. material truth troubled them all. Leipzig. and of the critical spirit they had. to literary effect . Die antike Kicnstprosa. we are less surprised at the naive conceptions concerning it held by men of letters in the Middle Ages. Leipzig. Romische Kaiser zeit. It goes without saying that he did not entertain the same ideas on the subject as we do now. .

66 in the THE LEGENDS OF THE SAINTS domain of history. the simple minds of these semi-barbarous scribes were lacking in the very as first qualification for exercising the critical faculty in however slight a degree. in the Middle Ages. and far ancients little became a compiler. meant everything that was told. . The who might have been his models knew as he did of those complicated processes by means of which we hope to disentangle the true from the false. They were devoid of guile. and. he problems that as- the historian. one lacking more preoccupied with his readers' tastes than with a laborious quest after truth. save in very rare instances. everything that was written in books. or that a likely tale need not necessarily be true. History. no testify to the fact. goes without saying that this elementary conception of history was shared by the hagiographers. and to reconstruct the characteristic features of a personage or a period. The author frequently laments his incapacity. Moreover. The confusion between history and legend was never-ending. less than their is own declarations. Above all. in Nothing more common the prefaces to lives of saints than excuses for imperfections of form and a preoccupation concerning style. torian When the his- no longer desired to be restricted to the role of annalist or witness he discernment.were not in the direction of criticism. and they never suspected that a written testimony might be false. his sincerity only guarantee of the quality of his wares consists in commonplace protestations of the reader wholly which leave unmoved if they do not actually awaken his suspicions. their tendencies . obviously ignores the sail many delicate Meanwhile. and professes anxiety lest he should bore his reader. It Their writings.

2 vol. amending what was corrupt. quaeque subrogans. superflua scilicet resecans." " My method has been s* .THE WORK OF THE HAGIOGRAPHER 67 Among their the many hagiographers whom we is might interrogate as to the manner in which. here author of the Martyrdom of St. to set down the Passion of the holy martyr Fortunata in my own words." Prologus ad Passionem S. adding anything necessary. Mai.. who is quite conscious that everything not for the best in the hagiographic world. testifies to the discredit into which his predecessors and rivals had allowed the form of fall. correcting what was extravagant and rearranging what was disorderly." The opening words ordinary. et m. history which he professed to cultivate to " Sancfalsa torum martyrum passiones auctoritatis. of comparing and weighing evidence. cutting away what was superfluous. p. iv. in opening lines. In point of fact the requirements of the reading 1 " The Passions of the holy martyrs are held to be of less authority because in some of them falsehood is found mixed up with truth. 289. Fortunatce v. in their day. Spicilegium Romanum. of studying documents. quia scilicet idcirco minoris habentur in quibusdam illarum l inveniuntur mixta are far from certain curiosity cum veris. The idea of undertaking fresh researches. can suggest nothing more efficacious as regards the abuses he chronicles than improved editing and an amended style. has not even occurred to him. vitiata emendans. and one asks oneself with a how the author proposes in the case he has been engaged to write to give it that authoritative character which is so desirable. He hastens to let us into his secret " Passionem of this that : new Passion sanctissimae virginis Fortunatae hac ratione stilo propriae locutionis expressi. inordinata corrigens atque incomposita componens". Fortunata his one — the —who. profession was understood. 2 necessaria Thus a is writer.

All else is indifferent to them. which partakes at once of the nature of biography. then.1 those who would per- suade an author to rewrite a biography or a martyrdom. and that he is free to omit those aspects In the in which his hero appears to less advantage. not relate simply in order to interest. The inevitable pitfalls are too familiar to need reIt follows from the very purpose of his capitulation. . not without For he does influence on the character of his work. writing that the panegyrist is not bound to draw a portrait of which every detail is in precise accordance with the truth. When the monk Theodoric arrived in Rome. panegyric and moral instruction. 294. the Canons of St. " So ill-favoured and corrupt owing to its barbarous style as to Theodorici monachi prcehorrify rather than charm learned ears. Martin. cit. same way the eulogy of a saint was held incompatible with the slightest suggestion of blame." 1 presents difficulties of a somewhat delicate fatio in vttam S. is inspired by the ideas of history current in his day. Martini papce. They are shocked by the barbarity of the style. Nevertheless he writes with a special and clearly defined object. p. but above all else Thus a new form of literature is created to edify. Every one knows that he is painting an ideal picture. and as the saints themselves were subject to human infirmities the task of the hagiographer intent on sacrificing nothing to truth nature. The hagiographer. of whom they possessed a biography " in tantum rusticano stilo praevaricata atque falsata. vol.. Mai. quae doctas aures terrerent potius It is the classic complaint of all quam mulcerent ".: 68 THE LEGENDS OF THE SAINTS public did not go beyond his suggestions. Peter's begged him to turn his attention to the life of Pope St.

for of mind. . 69 depends largely on his state instance. He was acutely conscious of the fact that his own writings belonged to the latter category. Holy Scripture and those to which no one was compelled to give credence. : He was those in which every one was obliged in all its parts. But there exists a school of hagiographers who would gladly strike out the denial of St. and this conviction naturally gave him an easy conscience in regard to historic exactitude. more than craft. Peter from the Gospel.THE WORK OF THE HAGIOGRAPHER His fidelity. others only relative truth. Hence the feigned hagio- indignation. They submit themselves. we should ask ourselves whether the name of history. while pursuing his aim of persuade himself that the sins of the even after his conversion. it. actually enhance the triumph of divine grace. we could wish. as we moderns understand all. he can saint before and a rule. far from clouding his glory. in order not to tarnish the aureola of the prince of the apostles. should be applied further cir- to their writings at Nor must we omit cumstance which species of books to believe. he is not likely to leave the more human side of his hero in the shade. and will beware of placing him on those inaccessible heights which discourage imitators.. so frequently all met with among graphers against narratives. Thus for him some books contained absolute truth.e. as If. i. It who do not give credence to their betrays the man whose conscience is not entirely clear. edification. to bear in mind a assists us to grasp the attitude of the acquainted with two mediaeval hagiographer. to the stern exigencies of their as faithless his- But before we condemn them torians. and that his readers were fully aware of it.

p. Andrece. At other times he drawn from some 2 may pose invented. in We to have already seen what sense our pious authors usually interpreted their duties while professing to discharge the function of a historian. 504. John of Reome (f about the : year 544) by Jonas. % 3 " What we have seen with our eyes.. rer. elements always.. He may even display a certain not infrequently met with in classical authors. p. 1. ii.. 2 iii. G. and what use did they make is As a general rule the hagiographer not very eager his affecta- to inform his readers from_ whence he has drawn fnTonnatlOn. as an ocular witness of facts 1 written document. vol. i. Passio Perpetuce. Cf.— 7o THE LEGENDS OF THE SAINTS II. Sources — Written Tradition — Oral Tradition — Relics of the Past— Choice of Sources Interpretation of Sources — Inscriptions — Use of the various Cateattributions Pictorial — False Tradition gories of Documents." i PassioS. . as it is a case of solving in each individual instance : the twofold problem What sources of information had they of them? at their disposal. Acta Barnaba.. vol. what we have beheld. introduces the following phrase Et ne quis hoc fabulosum putet esse quod dicitnus. 1. An example of this may be found in an author of the Carlovingian who when re-writing the life of St.. referente viro venerabili Agrippino See also M. . or of incidents that he himself has For if chroniclers worthy of credence have made justifiable use of the scriptural phrase. ibid. Bonnet. 1. 292. diacono. n.. vol. ipsius Agrestii filio. Merov. Acta apostolorum apocrypha. Quod i). We have now historical examine how they exercised it. 1 . 2. it. we may look for in their Here. 3 vidimus oculis nostris quod perspeximus {\ John i. Scr. there have also been no lack of impostors to abuse 1 4 period. cognovimus. ii. n.. p. in hiding the sources of his knowledge. 5. and what work. tion.

the attendant 10 of St. Theodore 6 Athanasius. vol. ii. 6 ica& rj/jLas Slcoj/jlos. George 5 Augarus. vol. 6. vol. Palestine.. 132. Saint Cassiodore in Melanges Paul Fabre. Eurippus. 9 Acta SS. 8. Analecta Bollandiana.. p. THE WORK OF THE HAGIOGRAPHER 71 Others have appropriated the familiar formula of Eusebius when he describes the persecution of Diocletian in Palestine. 1 and by this means have passed themselves off as contemporaries. Passio S. Paris. p. the com- panion of of St. xvi. 149. 2 3 See Analecta Bollandiana. Acta SS.. Sebastiance. 7 Nilus. iv. Moscow. Baptist 4 We are all acquainted with St. 2 Above all. p. Margaret. 9 Evagrius. the servant of SS. p. 122. . The proceeding was already familiar to Rohde. 60. xxii. Passion des Saints Ecaterine et Pierre d'Alexandrie. the servant of St. p. Theodotus. vol. Pancratius Tauromenium Florentius. Brussels. 1. Dominata n time. 8 Acta SS. June. the pretended disciple of John the with Pasicrates." Gordianus. 1 The persecution of our De Martyribus 3. 3. 6. so numerous are the examples of it.. Senator " and own 1. 1897. 1902. 4 5 6 7 A. 127. pp. May. Der griechische Roman. E. Bibliotheca hagiographica grceca.. 11 H. n. .. vi. 31-32... Anecdota Grceco-Byzantina. the disciple of St.. 10 v. Cassiodorus. 8 Theotimus. 3 We must assume. — .. p. n. Viteau. 1893. p. 23. Catherine. the stenographer of St. Paris. the novelists of antiquity. p. 44. grcecornm bibliotheca Vaticancs. that the hagiographer felt justified in making use of the literary fiction which consists in speaking in the name of a disciple of the saint in order to give greater weight to his narrative. pp. the secretary of St. July. vol. 47. Delehaye. pp. Also Analecta Bollandiana.. 271. . codd. 359. hag. vol. must we beware of authors who profess to have discovered engraved tablets. Vassiliev. 1899. 320-28. p. Catal.

ii. Analecta Bollandiana. chronicles. 803-30.. have been at the disposal of hagiographers. . They may be grouped in two broad categories tradition and antiquarian remains. pp. that all inscriptions and seems superfluous to point out cir- memoirs. p. Menas.. Oct. historical It kind of writing. 72 THE LEGENDS OF THE SAINTS 1 and Enoch. We shall see later sources. Hermogenes and Eugraphus is supposed to have been written by St.e. 2 3 4 May. E. We must not necessarily conclude that they themselves were. first i. 114-38. xviii. biographies. vol.. according to cumstances. Gregory of Nyssa... the servant of St. Angelo. But it would be a mistake to conclude that lack of documents would usually restrain them from undertaking the task of historians or from writing the lives of saints.. and to try to distinguish the elements of which they are composed. Athanasius. every other these classes of documents. the witness The above list might of the doings of St. von Dobschutz. 3 Passion of SS. pp. annals. and so on. it is their writings we have to examine. category we > recognise primarily written narratives. Another device was to place history under the Thus the patronage of some well-known name. vol. be considerably augmented. by what means they supplemented inadequate 1 Acta SS.fully informed because they furnish the reader with a profusion of details. Hence it becomes useless to interrogate the hagiographers themselves. vol. 405.. Ibid. Christusbilder.. 12. p. iii. Placidus 2 : In the tradition. the history of the image of Camu liana is attributed to 4 St. The classification of historical sources suggested by Droysen can be conveniently applied to hagiography.

— THE WORK OF THE HAGIOGRAPHER Another in 73 error. Le Liber Pontificalis. all is to assume that the first centuries of the Christian era authentic accounts were in existence of the martyrs who were honoured with public worship. i. Stephen.. in the Roman Church during the years of persecution. whose martyrdom is related in the Acts of the Apostles. St. speaking of St. 1. Unhappily the mistake has been made of assuming in regard to others what is in reality only true of this solitary instance. and to infer that the documents which clearly belong to a later date contemporary sources. pp. xxxviii. vol.-ci. here we must not exaggerate its resources. Augustine. c. Thanks to special circumstances the Church in Africa Yet even was. very widely spread. On the faith of a text which has since been appraised at its proper value. 1426. in this respect. made use of these " Cum aliorum martyrum vix gesta significant words inveniamus quae in solemnitatibus eorum recitare possioriginal : were derived from mus." Sermo. huius passio in canonico libro est". 2 1 It is certain that in the fourth in the case of other martyrs we can scarcely find sufficient about them to read in public on their festivals. various scholars have asserted that. n. Migne. there existed a body of notaries entrusted with the duty of collecting the acts of the martyrs. p. 315. this saint's martyrdom is set forth in a book of the canonical Scriptures. in a privileged position. P. 1 It remains none the less true that the average value of hagiographic documents from Africa is very much higher than that of the materials bequeathed to us by most other Churches. " While details . L. vol. and of this supposed corporation unfair advan- tage has been taken to give to the narratives of the Roman Legendarium a historic authority to which they have no sort of claim... 2 See Duchesne.

accounts of and narratives circulating among the word every unwritten historical or legendary report that might be used by the editor of the life of a saint. We have seen first-hand in the previous chapter who spoke from how an incident preserved in the popular tion memory may undergo unconscious distor- and with what strange accretions the history of a hero may sometimes be enriched. p. the people of Rome were ignorant of the history of the greater number of them. . p. The hagiographer has constantly found himself confronted by legendary narratives. But how far more often must they have been satisfied with a tradition which had suffered from its transmission through tortuous channels. No doubt it has happened at times that people. the only ones with which oral tradition could furnish him. and not infrequently he may have drawn from at first 1 his own resources what we should tales of spontane239. It is scarcely necessary to point out that it is not always easy to determine the precise origin of legendary data for which a hagiographer may make himself responsible. martyrs romains. A second source of information indirect witnesses is oral tradition : the reports of contemporaries or eye-witnesses. 1 century.74 THE LEGENDS OF THE SAINTS when Damasus placed his famous inscriptions on the tombs of the martyrs. in a hagiographers have gathered precious information from the lips of witnesses knowledge. the hagiographers had to dis- pense with any appeal to written tradition. When the necessity made itself felt of providing a circumstantial narrative.. Dufourcq. Les gesta des be tempted to mistake for folk vol. for such did not exist. Analecta Bollandiana. They are as likely to have been supplied him by literary as by oral tradition. xvi. 24 ff.

rule. owes its origin to the fantasy of some artist. vol. . among others Prudentius in his description of the mar- The panegyric of St.. xlvi. tyrdom of St. 2 Migne. Hippolytus. We know beyond a doubt that certain authors of legends were directly inspired by the frescoes or mosaics before their eyes. 3 Ibid. that which a whole people ends by saying must have been enunciated in the first place by an individual. p. or to a mistaken interpretation of some iconographic detail.THE WORK OF THE HAGIOGRAPHER ous growth. G. 737. however. pictorial tradition must not be neglected. vol.. 3 More than one legend. numbers of the biographies of illustrious saints conclude with a detailed portrait which in its precision would appear to reveal an eye-witness. p. Certain hagiographers have made a somewhat unexIn the synaxaries of pected use of pictorial tradition. But at the same time it may happen that both these sources enrich themselves from the creations of painters and sculptors who transform and give back to them the ideas they had previously borrowed. 75 After all. 1 Euphemia by Asterius of Amasea is merely the description of a series of frescoes. 2 and in the panegyric of St. When studied closely. i xi. it becomes obvious that these descriptions are simply borrowed from those the Greek Church 1 Peristeph. 336. and why should not the hagiographer who holds the pen have been the first to formulate some legendary detail tion that ? It is always with this mental reserva- we must accept oral tradition as met with in written documents. as we shall see. .. Artists. P.. xl. for it plays an important part in hagiography. Thirdly. as a seek their inspiration in written or oral tradition. Theodore attributed to Gregory of Nyssa the orator draws the attention of his audience to the paintings of the basilica.

lxvi. Propyleeum ad Acta SS. In the first place. taste If in spite of the lack of material he feels compelled to gratify popular we can guess what the result must be. and we will try to watch him at his work. in the interpretation he puts upon them. and in the way he wields them together. In the same way we often possess more of the saints than a mere memory we may have their relics. He knows this is insufficient to satisfy than these relics the eager curiosity of the people. an authentic document. in its various forms. we must not expect a very judicious choice from our man of letters. 1 For those who have not recognised their origin the portraits might possess a quite exaggerated importance. a tomb visited by pilgrims. a hallowed corpse. a feast celebrated each year on the day of death. who is forced to restrict himself and to give the preference to one authority rather than another. From all these the historian draws inspiration often indeed the hagiographer possesses no other documents . their shrine. p. . Novembris.76 THE LEGENDS OF THE SAINTS manuals of painting from which Byzantine artists copied the features of the unchanging physiognomies of their saints. sometimes even their writings. an instrument. a more or less faithful and certain traits of individual But the past has at times bequeathed to us something of itself. can : supply to the hagiographer picture of the past character. . 1 We He has never learned how to See Synaxarium ecclesice Constantinopolitance. The bent of his mind will betray itself in his choice of documents and items of information. have now enumerated the ordinary sources of information at the hagiographer' s disposal. a building. This then is what tradition. of the past. Let us suppose him well furnished with materials.

and all 77 appear to him of Hence he mingles the historic element equal value. whose it cultus can be accurately is quite natural that the extraordinary interest displayed by the people in the fabulous tales circulated concerning them. by means of selected extracts sent by the Greek monks of the Coelian Hill to Constantinople. Two light. the deaths of the celebrated martyrs Theodore and Menas. Thus. xxiii. 1 St. and deliberately neglected the sources that would have interested us the most in order to devote all their attention to the more marvellous features which betray in a marked degree their legendary charactex^=In this they merely followed popular taste. vol. 449-54. . indiscriminately with legendary lore. pp. Analecta Bollandiana.. the writings of Gregory of Tours on the martys and confessors. allow us to observe. as we have attempted to show elsewhere. and it is perhaps to loss very tendency that we must attribute the of the acts of a large number of saints who had en- joyed a widespread popularity. so to speak in the very act. the other the Golden Legend. without wishing to affirm that there have ever existed written accounts of localised. hagiographic collections which first saw the one at the dawn of the Middle Ages. at its culminating point.THE WORK OF THE HAGIOGRAPHER weigh evidence. copious materials at their disposal. the methods of pious writers compelled to restrict themIn both cases they had selves in their narrative. instinctively drawn as we have seen towards everything that this is miraculous and tangible. which was composed. should have encour- A similar preference betrays itself very clearly in the Greek life of Gregory the Great. and it is not this last which goes to the wall when space forbids a lengthy his sources narrative.

what hagiographers and their assistants have occasionally been capable of deducing even from such documents as it required no special aptitude to interpret. It is may sometimes known that the Scillitan martyrs suffered death in the on 17th July. . This participle was ex- XVI. a mediaeval public rarely hesitated. 180. We might relate here. but also on the interpretation put upon them and the treatment to which they are subjected. and some one or other for a participle. The solely value of a work does not depend on the choice of authorities. did we not fear to wander too far from our subject. The clearest texts give rise to the be misunderstood. and We most unexpected inferences. This fact is easily verified by means of the catalogues of Latin and Greek hagiographic manuscripts published by the Bollandists. lishes it Emperor Commodus. adorned with fantastic developments and interlarded It with fables. must. both separately and in nearly all the volumes of Analecta Bollandiana since 1882. Condiano consulibus beginning of the reign of the The wording of the Acts estabfirst : quite clearly from the Prcesente bis et name was wrongly mistook 1 it Augustas. kal. almost always happens that it is the less simple version which scripts. restrict ourselves to one or two examples. indeed has revealed the permanent fact that between a purely historical document and a touched-up version. is preserved in the greater number of manuis 1 while often enough the primitive composition historical only to be found in a single copy. however. The first understood.78 THE LEGENDS OF THE SAINTS aged the hagiographers to neglect more and more the more sober material furnished by their acts and even The study of manuscripts to eliminate it altogether.

VAfrique chretienne. 62. Alban of Verulam gave shelter. : 2. imperatores. . ? " Fructuosus. or something that was con: such prcesidente. Et jussit eos sua sententia vivos ardere. Loth. exsistente. who in his turn was identified with the consul of that name in the year 200. Paris. prcestante. There was then nothing left to do save to add the names of the emperors Severus and Caracalla. This was done without. 348-49. sEmilianus dixit Fuisti. Fructuosus and his companions may be read the following interesting dialogue between the judge ^Emilianus and the martyr Episcopus es ? Fructuosus episcopus dixit : Sum. 2 litteraire de has been admirably exposed by M.. our hagiographer supplied boldly.. it is merely because Geoffrey of Monmouth mis- took a chasuble for a man. P. read fustibus in the place of fuisti. any one suspecting The imperator what a revolution this apparently justifiable correction would introduce into the chronology of the Christian persecutions. ii. Fustibus eos stemite. pp. of course. failing to perceive the sarcasm of the judge.! : THE WORK OF THE HAGIOGRAPHER changed sidered for 79 an equivalent. 3 "Art thou a bishop " I am ". said ^Emilianus replied " Thou hast been ". thus adding a fresh 1 This series of alterations Monceaux. i. itself The word by having no meaning. Now in that year there were two emperors reigning side by side. A copyist. vol. 2 In the passion of St. Saint Amphibalus in the Revue Celtique. i8go. At the same time Condianus became Claudianus. Histoire 1901. J. We see from the result what comes of to distinguish a name from a participle Y not being able If the name Amphibalus has been conferred on the saintly confessor to whom St. vol. p. then Claudius. And he sentenced them to : : be burned alive. the bishop. mentioned in the text was easily corrected into.

Jan. contigit? Marciana has been led to confuse odorare with adorare : unless indeed he himself wished to embellish the narrative of the hagiographer by writing : " Leo percurrit percitus 3 Adoraturus veniens Non comesturus virginem. let loose in the arena. 1 was possibly also a very slight error of some copyist which transformed into a miracle a quite It natural incident related in the Acts of St. But our learned editors preferred 1 Acta SS.— 80 . vol. sprang furiously upon its her. A moment's reflection should have sufficed to St. A lion. p. Le Blant. lion . Thus what could be more improbable than the feast of St. h\. 569.. 570. The Ibid. Marciana. bounds forward to adore. See E. 2 3 Ibid.. i. and stood over her with paws on her chest ... p. p." must not omit to mention here a whole series of gross errors due to the carelessness of compilers of synaxaries or martyrologies who had summary methods of their own for dealing with any difficulties they might meet with in their editorial duties. Les Actes des martyrs. not to devour the virgin maid. 30. then having smelt her. 340.. p. vol. correct the mistake. Jan.. THE LEGENDS OF THE SAINTS torture to the martyr in order to justify an inaccurate reading. Babylas with the three children in competition with that other We Babylas and his eighty-eight companions on the same date and with a more or less identical history ? The origin of this duplication was an abbreviation in two letters which was mistaken for a number of two figures. turned away without doing her any injury martyris corpus odoratus earn ultra non The author of a hymn in honour of St.

pp. 45. p. Martin. St. Cosmas and Damian. They are more likely to fuse two personages together. and another {tiro) on the 17th. those of Rome who were stoned under Carinus. it was propagated by the hagiographers who bestowed upon it that special authority which the uneducated " always accord to the written word. 5 See above. 10th November ." 3 Synaxaruim ecclesice Constantinopolitance. Bishop of Tours.. p. have their own ways of simplifying matters. vol. and the sons of Theodota who died 1 2 peacefully. The Latins celebrate the two saints respectively on 7th February and gth November. appears a venial offence. Theodore of the Greeks and the Latins. Theodore (stratelates) on 8th February. 1st July. 5-8. thanks to a mere question of dates. 211. xix. than to create two in the place of one. 2 Compared with such enormities the duplication of St. November St. . 4 The Greeks celebrate the feast of one St. as we have seen. and in this instance the man of letters would seem to have been the guilty party. 217. without realising the absurdities they were gaily accumulating. Martin.. pp. 6 . If it was the people who created the legend of the cephalophorous " or head-bearing saints. 1 In the same spirit they invented the three groups of SS." say the synaxaries gravely. " that there are three groups of martyrs of the names of Cosmas and Damian. For the common people. 10th of France. We need not revert here to the curious explanations which popular imagination has occasionally invented concerning certain carved monuments of which the meaning was obscure. Bishop Synaxaruim. 4 The two feast-days have given rise to two legends. those of Arabia who were decapitated under Diocletian. 791.THE WORK OF THE HAGIOGRAPHER to lengthen out the list 81 of the saints. " It should be known. 5 The hagiographers accepted such explanations with zest and embodied them in their narratives. Les deux Saints Babylas in Analecta Bolland. 3 It is probable that a similar origin must be assigned to the double St. Martin.

by the More which Eleutherius. the primitive readings of the Hieronymian Martyrology. Ariadne in Studi e Testi. p. Tripodis et ario V. with the help of the best manuscripts. into eighty-three martyred soldiers. who listened to the saint. lxxxiii milptes] ? 3 One may read without much trouble in the Hieronymian Martyrology under the date of nth June Romae via Aurelia mili: These are two separate entries commemorating a Roman and a PhoeIn the Middle Ages it was transformed nician martyr. and often unsuccessfully. 149-61. not God with their voices. i" martirii di S. and we may well ask whether their learned solutions learning in this matter is a very relative term are invariably worth more than the interpretations of the ignorant — — public. Basi/idis. seated on a preaches to the animals grouped around him. 145. Ibid. 6. recalls the familiar representations of Orpheus. And writer here a noteworthy detail presents asserts that the animals itself. -51111.Basilidis.82 It THE LEGENDS OF THE SAINTS has been said with truth that in 1 all probability the Passion of St. vol. why should we express surprise at the little blunders committed by the eighty-third mile our ancestors. 2 Our chroniclers have frequently had to pronounce on more embarrassing problems than these.. all lifted up Obviously he had seen in the mosaic representations of animals walking. who wear out our brains in attempting. The being able to praise the right foot. 2 3 Analecta Bollandiana. But for ourselves. 1 Pio Franchi de' Cavalieri. Teodote e di S. 6. to re-establish. p. 164. lxxxiii mil[iario]. Eleutherius especially the scene in hillock. pp. into a single group of three. as of a when they turned Roman road.. . was partially inspired paintings or mosaics that adorned his sanctuary. Tripoli Magdaletis.

Thus. 1635. interesting gallery of inscriptions compiled on these principles is to be seen in D. Triumpho de los santos del regno de Cerdetia. Bergamo." and no one was competent to explain to them that at the period in which these inscriptions were cut the word did not bear the significance they attributed to Mistakes it and which it only acquired at a later date. 40-50. it must be admitted. Bonfant. Mazzi. the honours of an easy of this kind have procured canonisation for more than one obscure personage. have given other examples of a similar nature in the name of the deceased have supplied the learned writers of Sardinia with an equal number of martyrs. An ancient author asserts that the three bodies were presented by to the basilica Honoof Santa Maria Transpontina. 1873. 2 Traspontina. 16. M. They were capable of very mediocre epigraphists. secolo appartenenti alia chiesa di Bergamo. p. 6 * . Cassiodore in Melanges Paul Fabre. in fol. 41 . p.THE WORK OF THE HAGIOGRAPHER 83 Magdalis. 30. We have treated this question in Analecta Bollandiana. See an example in G. 292. and so on. 3 But these are errors which would not always be avoided 1 even It 1 age of the Corpus inscriptionum. vol. Delle iscrizioni cristiane anteriori La al VII. which in those days was simply a title of honour corresponding to " His Holiness. Finazzi. pp. 407-11. A. Our predecessors were also. translating the classical B[onae] M[emoriae] by B[eati] M[artyres]. A. pp. Mas- telloni. and thus a new saint was created out of the 1 slightly disfigured name of a town. the article on St. vol. Mai. Florence." or. p. " His Lordship. 93. The En 3 Caller. has happened only too frequently that inscriptions in the of the translation of the three martyrs quoted by the Rufus and Respicius An account Leo lost. I martiri della chiesa di Bergamo. as we should say. priest in his prologue to the Passion of SS.. xviii. pp. 14. Speratus was read by them as Hie jacet beatus martyr Speratus. M. iv. 1717. Spicilegium Romanum. 1883. 2 Sometimes in the epitaph of a bishop they would come across the word sanctus. Some dozens of inscriptions bearing the abbreviation B. Hie jacet B.. before We A. has been rius III. Naples.

Julius. 4 Ibid.. tr. Emerita whose Now there the companion of Emerita. vol. Damasi epigrammata. . a memorial formula in vogue at one period. In the inscription C. pp. 1 needed sometimes only a word. dand. adtr. The first became quite naturally the name of another saint. Digna. to give most extraordinary legends. 278). name was recognised in the second of the two epithets. viii. hid. L. In muro S. 2 From a mistranslation of an inscription by Pope Damasus. pp. there sprang a hagiographic romance of unusual improbability which assumed the existence of two martyred brothers each that in honour of SS. 3 It was' the erroneous ininscription terpretation of another Damasian 4 which to gave rise to the legend of the Orientals who came Rome and in order to carry off the relics of SS. 2 vol. qziae fuit inter Romanos et Iudceos tempore Iudce Machabcei. Ccesar. X. 40. i. cur.. ubifuit scripta amicitia in loco bono et notabili.. but into which none the less they have tumbled headlong. q. existed a St. Strabo. I. for instance.. 470-71). even less than a word. Hence the precise information contained in the Mirabilia (see Jordan. pp. 26.. (C. pontif. xvi. mil. n. ii. 2 Analecta Bollandiana..84 THE LEGENDS OF THE SAINTS for have provided traps hagiographers that appear to us now of a very obvious kind. 30. and men referred this to the treaty of friendship between the Jews and the Romans quod rescripserunt in It rise to the cereis (1 Mack. Felix bearing the name of Felix. Basilii fuit magna tabula cenea. Topographic der Stadt Rom. who is described as digna et merita. simply to refer to the disciples of Jesus Christ who came from the East to bring the Gospel Paul. vir agr. Ihm. 1 the epitaph of a virgin We find. and Adauctus. aed. and concerning these two noble sisters the hagiographers elaborated a highly dramatic and most circumstantial history. 22). F. bis. the last two words were translated ivD(aeorum) PONTiF(ex). p. Peter intending Discipulos oriens misit wrote Damasus. 19-29. It only remains to add that the inscription in question was not engraved on a bronze but on a marble slab. tabulis vol. L.

Abercius may contribution to the criticism be found in an article by F. P. . 1899. His journeys were mentioned in the celebrated epitaph. Abercius in Revue des Questions historiques.. 5-33. Protus and Hyacinthus (Ihm. the symbolic queen became the Empress Faustina. 6 2 Ihm. 3 fresh details to the imagination of example of a whole legend being suggested by the reading of an inscription is that of Abercius. 6th June. Duchesne. 40... and the object of the journey the healing of a princess possessed by an evil spirit. vol. p. ix. Vitus.. 80..35- The deacon Cyriacus. 49) proof that the Acts of St. n. 76. p. a common St. n. pp. pp. A useful of the Acts of St. s not participate in e nella See Pio Franchi de' Cavalieri. vol. 76. 333. to be found in the Acts of SS. xvi. Analecta Bollandiana. 1898. will iv. Agnes. vol. Readers familiar with Damasian phraseology his illusions. Agnese nella tradizione is leggenda.. . 468-70. means of revealing the hagiographer. 4 By means of various episodes which are little more than reminiscences of other legends. 1896. 1 and no doubt many others. xxxiv. vol. Damasi epigrammata. pp. C. 6 Analecta Bollandiana. p. It is summoned and to is Rome for a similar purpose. Not long ago Father Bonavenia attempted to deduce from that of SS.THE WORK OF THE HAGIOGRAPHER to 85 The inscription concerning St. p. Acta SS. in the Acts of St. Cony- Talmudic Elements in the Acts of Abercius in The Academy. S. Eugenia contain " un fondo di vero da atti piu antichi e sinceri ". Analecta Bollandiana. beare. S. Oct. 4 Rome. Marcellus. Tryphon and also in the lives of St. the hagiographer in the end put together a highly detailed narrative which met with the greatest success.. vol. vol. 5 xvi. occurrence which Potitus. 1883.. xv. 2 have equally been the Rome. 485-93 L. 5 In spite of this no serious interesting An doubts should be entertained concerning the episcopacy of Abercius and the traditional cultus rendered to him in his native 1 town. Mathurinus and of Naamatius. Nuovo Bullettino di archeologia cristiana.

Before the days of majority of scholars who worked in the combs without any safe criteria by which to discern where cultus was really paid. 1 These relics. dated 21st December. which. Philomena. .86 It THE LEGENDS OF THE SAINTS must. 469. Rome. xvii. ii. of less conse- quence new The reading Caeae Antonina 1 they have not extended to creating objects of veneration but merely to locating them. ^Analecta Bollandiana.. 2 The is inaccurate identification of geographical names responsible for another class of errors. 198-202. whose insignificant epitaph has suggested the most ingenious combinations. and the faithful frequently refused to be satisfied with the bare name inscribed on the marble. pp. A recent discovery by Signor Marucchi. See Duchesne. vol. See Analecta Bollandiana. p. vol. forces one to conclude that the famous epithet Pax tecum Filumena was not that of the deceased woman (or perhaps man) found in the tomb at the time of the translation. were eminently suited to satisfy the pious curiosity of the faithful. imagined they had discovered bodies of saints in a number of tombs before De Rossi the Roman cata- which the pilgrims of ancient days never dreamt of making a halt. Osservazioni archeologiche sidle iscrizione di S. pp. xxiv. 1878. 119-20. 1904. doubtful at the best. be confessed that the erroneous inter- pretation of inscriptions. of carved monuments and of other antiquities did not give rise to legends in the Middle Ages alone. Les corps saints des Catacombes in Bulletin critique. On the model of the ancient Passions many new legends were manufactured. it is true. alas. The best known example of this is the case of St. Filomena. as in place of Nicaeae ap- Concerning relics from the catacombs there exists a decree of His Holiness Leo XIII.. vol.. and has furnished the elements of a detailed narrative including even the interrogatory of the martyr. were eagerly sought after. while appearing reasonably probable.

Paulus apostolus in mari quod nunc Venetus Sinus dicitur naufragus et Militce Dalmaiensi insula post naufragium hospes^ sive de genuino signiThese ficatu duorum locorum in Actibus apostolorum? fact that they are comparaexamples. Delia Calabria illustrata. omitting as 1 as possible and adding nothing beyond 2 Acta SS. claimed the Scillitans as their own Indeed they championed these pretensions with so much assurance that in 1740 the Congregation of Rites authorised them to celebrate the Mass and Office of St. and fellow-citizens. in 4 . We have now seen the hagiographer face to face He has made his selecwith his historical documents. ii. Fiore. vol. Naples. Speratus and his companions. vol. 26... against this But the people of identification. 27- 28. March. tion and has realised how much he can draw from them. p. confronted with problems efforts : which were for them insoluble.THE WORK OF THE HAGIOGRAPHER 87 peared to confer on the town of Cea in Spain the right 1 The inhabitants of Scilla in to claim St. i. Antonina. Calabria imagined that the Scillitan martyrs could only derive the Squillace name from protested their town. Venetiis.?i73o. 3 . make us realise all the better the methods of mediaeval hagiographers. How has he employed his material ? This depends of course both on his particular aptitudes and his personal tastes. When it is a question of written documents we do not hesitate to give our preference to the hagiographer who copies them most slavishly and reproduces them with the little greatest fidelity. 1743. as may be seen from the title of a work by Giorgi D. Paul visited the country. from the very tively recent. 2 In other places great have been made to prove that St. pp..

the hagiographer submitted his material to a process of preparation and adaptation which conferred on it in some measure the stamp of his personality. he succeeded in adding a new complexity to one of the most important problems in literary history. Paid le jeime et la chronologie de Metaphraste in the July. combine them in various ways and create a work which. was such that he was justified in passing it off under his own name. as we know. would amplify them. Revue des Questions historiques. to writers who freely appropriate the wares of others. . if not original. 1893. Cases may be quoted in which he has been satisfied with this modest role. The famous life of St. In most cases. and without caring whether or not he robbed them of their documentary character. 1 From the very fact that he presented himself as the author of a piece of writing details filled with personal details. and merely adorned with a new preface. written by an eye-witness. that of Metaphrastes. without taking the trouble to warn the reader of his method. Theoctista.88 THE LEGENDS OF THE SAINTS what is strictly necessary. He would put his documents in order and dress them up in his best style. was transcribed almost literally. all these were naturally attributed to him with the result of making him nearly half a century older than he really In our own day we apply an unflattering epithet was. It will be admitted that it is difficult to formulate any 1 We have referred to the matter in La vie de St. and we have a curious example of it in the collection of Metaphrastes. but in the Middle Ages no one resented being regarded as a plagiarist. But as the new editor if indeed he is worthy of the title contented himself with giving utterance in his prologue to a few — — high-sounding generalities.

p. Lanzoni. Passio Laurentii. 1903. ii. 3 It is easy to imagine the degree of licence writers permitted themselves in ages of lesser culture. in which the intimate brought to light . Marcelli P. 292. : When 1 The reader must be referred here to an excellent study by M. Gordiani et . Restituti.. Die geschichtliche Litteratur uber die Romische KaiserI. pp. an archer in the bodyguard of the Duke of Zahringen scoffed both at the preaching and " He can no more work the preacher by declaring St. 1903. Pontiani. pp. Recorded by Father E. Even 2 classical historians occasionally gave mania which one would like to describe as innocent. Michael. 2 et Crescentiae.. iii. Nevertheless. Primi et Feliciani.. The following two examples are selected from comparatively recent lives of saints. methods of composition may be studied in an author or in a series of documents that are closely related. zeit bis 3 Theodosius Leipsic. 1897. Marii et soc. Epimachi. Susannas. . 392-93. Stephani P. Bernard came to preach the Crusade in the diocese of Constance. vol. without prejudice to them it may be said that they not infrequently embarked on that perilous course which leads to the embellishment of a tale in order that it may impress the reader more vividly. and that writers in the Middle Ages sucto a way cumbed frequently to the temptation may be proved from certain cases where a comparison of texts establishes the fact beyond dispute. 1-26. Petri et H.THE WORK OF THE HAGIOGRAPHER 89 general precepts concerning a literature at once so vast The use of historical sources and the and so varied. relations : between a whole series of Passions are . 1 but not in a collection of narratives scattered over the wide field covered by hagiographers of every nation and all periods. xvii. Freiburg im Breisgau. F. La Passio Sabini o Savini in the Romische Quavtalschrift. Eusebii et Callisti. Peter. Geschichte des deutschen Volkes vom dreizehnten Jahrhundert bis zum Ausgang des Mittelalters. et Serapias et Sabinas. Processi Martiniani. vol. Sabini. vol.. Viti Marcellini.

Mtin- ster. author of the Exordium. i. a century later. who consequently transformed the sublime vision of faith into a material apparition.. the scoffer perceived him and fell senseless to the ground. 1886.go THE LEGENDS OF THE SAINTS I can ". 2 3 Bibliotheca hagiographica latina. 2497." which would suggest a resurrection from death. n. 182. the author of a collection of St. When the saint came forward to lay his hands on the sick. " But. . say the modern interiores principis oculos vol. Menckenius. in the very bed she shared with her husband. Bernard's miracles. " at that instant God Almighty opened the eyes of his soul.." in the noble words of the historian. and whom no The indignant duke one would tend any longer. pp. Tunc aperuit Deus On 1 wrote the historian. J." 2 This admirable account by Thierry d'Appoldia was considered too simple by later biographers. 3 the spot where the leper had slept. Huffer. 92. Elizabeth of Hungary when. B. 1990. and instead of a leper he saw the figure of Christ crucified stretched upon the bed. vol. offered up a prayer and helped him Not one of the eye-witnesses says a to his feet. See G. . . ii. 1 fell dead and that the saint restored him Every one the is familiar with the beautiful incident in life of St. We called the Abbot. Alexander of Cologne adds " I was quite miracles than : close to him when this occurred. word And yet. Conrad. rushed into the room and dragged off the bed-clothes. Herbert. remaining unconscious for some time. p. Der heilige Bernard von Clairvaux. . Scriptores rerum germanicarum. she laid a miserable leper who inspired disgust in every one. and the poor man was unable to rise until Bernard came to us. and Caesarius of Heisterbach all affirm that the archer to life.

Even when writing somewhat lengthily concerning the saints Emeterius and Chelidonius.. vol. in the written record of his passion. : quod de scriptis passionis ipsius gestis titulum invidit This dearth of material. and of supplying. " there lay a bleeding crucifix with out- III. and the shrine dedicated to his memory. Jan. ii. He may know the name of the saint. often happens that his task is less marked out. life — — — — — Hitherto in we have almost exclusively treated of cases which the It editor of the of a saint follows clearly the lines traced for him by the materials at his disposal. jealous of title to the glory of Vincent the Martyr. 73-78. that the 2 " It is more than probable enemy of our race. Vincent Madelgarus Antipilation and adaptation quity of the process — Forgeries.. Prudentius warns us that the necessary documents are lacking * while the author of the passion of St. from such meagre records. 91 hagiographers. confessor or bishop. Dearth of material and methods of supplementing it Amplification bymeans of stock incidents Acts of St. matter for edifying reading." fame Acta p. But popular tradition may have retained nothing further. 394. Clement of Ancyra ComLife of St.— THE WORK OF THE HAGIOGRAPHER stretched arms ". has robbed us of the which might be found SS. . sometimes even his qualification as martyr.. which does not appear to have checked in any degree the fertility of his pen. and yet in spite of this it becomes a question of satisfying the devout curiosity of pilgrims and pious persons. Vincent plunges into his subject with the announcement Probabile satis est ad gloriam Vincentii martyris . 2 Peristeph.. is the common lot of a large number of 1 inimicus.. i.

so they themselves by order of their superiors. or else had recourse to borrowing. See Dom Berengier. As they were compelled say. Brought before the judge he confesses his faith and suffers horrible tortures.. for example. vol. is The setting of the narrative clearly outlined. have been equallylittle it. account of the The Christians are being hunted out large numbers fall into the hands of the detailed . for that matter. Saint Expedit martyr en Armenie et patron des causes urgentes in Missions catholiques. of the innumerable hagiographers have resigned themselves to the necessity of supplementing the scarcity of documents by narratives founded on probability: omnia qua says in re prcesenti accidisse credibile (vi. everywhere soldiers. St. vol. and has produced an abundance of colourless and insipid narratives. pp. .g2 THE LEGENDS OF THE SAINTS inconvenienced by hagiographers. pp. xxviii. A saint. to write. who. and amongst them the hero of the tale he is arrested and thrown into prison. 425 .. See also Analecta Bollandiana. 1 Such. Each part capable of develop- 1 The process of development "in accordance with probability" has not been abandoned by hagiographers even in our own day. whose name is inscribed on the Hieronymian martyrology for the 18th or igth of April under the rubric Melitince Armenia. 2). 128-31. more or less. Endowed with more or less imagination and fluency.. i8g6. is the scheme on which every is editor has to work. a martyrdom. Expeditus. go-98. The former method is the simplest. less First there must come a more or persecution. . and either made a generous use method of development as practised in the schools. and frequently. He dies and his tomb becomes the scene of innumerable miracles. p. they boldly took the only course open to them. vol. xxv. has become in accordance with this method "the valiant Thundering Legion ". as Quintilian Take. in leader of the xviii. est.

THE WORK OF THE HAGIOGRAPHER
ment on
lines clearly suggested

93

by

historians

who have

by other legends which serve and even by the analysis of the situations, while for the most part the amplifications are full of those exaggerations which are the prerogative of orators anxious to make the most of what they have to say. Thus the picture of the persecution is always painted as black as possible 1 the emperor or judge usually figures as a monster in human shape, thirsting for blood, having no other aim than the destruction of the new faith throughout the world. Here, then, we have the
related similar incidents,

as models

;

first

of our stock subjects.

Readers must not let themselves be deceived even when they think they recognise the authentic phraseology of an edict. Nothing is more easy to imitate than the forms of an edict, just as in our own day one might reproduce the terms of an Act of Parliament or
of a ministerial decree, and
all

the more easily

when the

document
ing in

is intended for a public the reverse of exactmatters of phraseology. 2

The

interrogatory of the martyr

is

another of the

favourite themes of the hagiographer, and he depends more especially on this portion of his narrative to assist him in attaining the normal length of the composition. He might, one would fancy, at least use such dialogue to
1

The

oratorical description of the persecution

by

St. Basil in the
ii.,

panegyric on St. Gordius
I 43-44«. 2

may

serve as a model, Gamier, vol.

pp.

sometimes been

Edicts are frequent in hagiographic romances, and scholars have to the trouble of investigating them. See, for example,

the edict in the Passio S. Procopii to which Mr. Goodspeed has devoted several pages in the American Journal of Philology, vol. xxiii., 1902, p. 68 ff. See also Analecta Bollandiana, vol. xxii., p. 409. Signor P. Franchi de' Cavalieri, J martirii di S. Teodoto e di S. Ariadne, p. It should be observed that the 105, quotes several other examples.

Passio S. Ephysii

is

copied from that of St. Procopius.

94

THE LEGENDS OF THE SAINTS

bring into bolder relief the generous sentiments or the noble qualities of the martyr, as was done by the writers of antiquity, who scattered conventional discourses through their historical works just as modern But it is very rare that from writers scatter portraits.

among
sonal

the questions and answers one can seize any per-

and characteristic trait. We find only dissertations on the absurdity of paganism and the beauty of the

Christian faith, speeches of an inconceivable improbabil-

which would be more appropriate on the lips of a pulpit orator than on those of a prisoner before a court
ity

of justice in the course of a rapid criminal procedure.

The triumphant eloquence

of the martyr

is

usually set

off against the ignorance and vulgarity of the judge,

unless indeed the latter displays sufficient

the Scriptures and the Christian religion
learned reply from the accused.

knowledge of to provoke some

In

many

instances the hagiographer has not even

taken the trouble to compose the harangue which he
puts in the

mouth of

his hero

;

he has found

it

more
which

convenient to transcribe a chapter or extracts from

some

suitable treatise, 1 a proceeding thanks to

the apology of Aristides has been preserved to us in the history of SS. Barlaam and Joasaph.

To any one
it

who

has studied the authentic Acts of the martyrs

1 There is no general work in existence bearing on this subject. There are, however, two useful works of recent date: G. Mercati, Note di letteratura biblica e cristiana antica in Studi e testi, vol. v., Rome, igoi, pp. 218-26; Bidez, Sur diverses citations et notamment sur trois passages de Malalas retrouves dans un texte hagiographique

in the

By zantinische

Zeitschrift,
k. d.

the Mittheilungen des
vol. vii., i8g2, p.

159,

Roem. Abth., has noted some borrowings from Clement of

xi., 1902, pp. 388-94. archceologischen Instituts,

J.

Fuehrer in

Alexandria by the author of the Passion of St. Philip of Heraclea [Bibl. hag. lat., n. 6834).

THE WORK OF THE HAGIOGRAPHER
is

95

superfluous to point out

how

falsely such rhetoric
is

between the short and touching answers of the martyrs inspired by the wisdom of the Holy Ghost, and these studied declamations which at their best recall some school display. After the interrogatory the torture of the martyr is
rings,

and what a

difference there

the

subject

that

lends

itself

best to

amplification.

The

simplicity

of the final act of the

tragedy

in

authentic chronicles, as, for example, in the

martyrdom

of St. Cyprian, would scarcely please our pious rhetoricians,

who can

conceive of no other

way of establishby making him

ing the heroism of the martyr than

undergo lengthy and refined torments. They multiply without having to trouble themselves as to the limits of human endurance, for Divine Providence is made to intervene to prevent the saint from succumbing beneath the agony inflicted, and to allow the hagiographer to exhaust all the torments that his imagination or reminiscences from his studies may
his sufferings

suggest.

Undoubtedly the masterpiece in this line of composition is the Passion of SS. Clement of Ancyra and
Agathangelus.

The scene

of their torments

is

successively from a nameless

town

in Galicia to

moved Rome,

hence to Nicomedia, to Ancyra, to Amisos, to Tarsus, and finally back again to Ancyra. This perambulating martyrdom, diversified by the most extraordinary miracles, is prolonged for no less than twenty-eight years, during which time the following tortures are inflicted both on Clement and on his companion Agathangelus

by persecutors who include in their number the Emperors Diocletian and Maximianus, and the Prefects
Domitianus, Agrippinus, Curicius, Domitius, Sacerdon, Maximus, Aphrodisius, Lucius and Alexander.

96

THE LEGENDS OF THE SAINTS
To
start with,

Clement

with iron hooks, his stones he is bound to the wheel, beaten with sticks and horribly mutilated with knives his face is stabbed
;

hung up, his flesh torn mouth and cheeks bruised with
is
;

with

stilettos, his

jaws are broken and his teeth drawn

while his feet are crushed in iron fetters.

Then the

two martyrs together are whipped with ox thongs and suspended from a beam their bodies are scorched with flaring torches and they are flung -to the wild Red-hot needles are run into their fingers beasts. under their nails and they are burned in quicklime and left there two whole days, after which strips of skin are torn from them and they are once more beaten with rods. They are stretched on iron bedsteads brought to a state of white heat, then thrown into a burning furnace this last torment lasts a day and a night. After that they are again beaten with iron hooks, and a kind of harrow covered with iron points For his is set up and the martyrs are flung against it. part Agathangelus undergoes in addition the torture of he is having molten lead poured upon his head dragged through the town with a mill-stone round his neck and stoned. Clement alone has his ears pierced with red-hot needles, he is burnt with torches and he receives more blows from a stick on his mouth and
;
;

;

having endured fifty strokes of the rod on several days in succession he has his head cut 1 off at the same time as Agathangelus. It is very rare that hagiographers carry their naivete, or perhaps we should rather say their audacity, to so high a pitch, and the accounts of the sufferings of the martyrs do not usually reach this degree of improbahead.
last after
bility.

At

Nevertheless,
1

taken
Jan., vol.

separately,
ii.,

the various

Acta SS.,

pp. 459-60.

THE WORK OF THE HAGIOGRAPHER
chapters in the Passion of St.

97

Clement of Ancyra

represent accurately enough the style of composition

only when they are at the end of their own resources that the writers allow their heroes After undergoing such amazing torments St. to die.
indulged
in,

and

it is

head cut off, and this is such an ordinary conclusion to the most marvellous and terrible tortures, that some learned writers have seriously asked themselves how it happens that the axe and the sword have proved efficacious instruments of martyrdom when " It so many other methods have been of no avail. has been suggested that the sword being the outward sign of power in society, it is the will of God that it should not be frustrated by His providence which desires the maintenance of public order as the guarantee of a hundred other interests. But might we not also say that this happened as a Divine reprobation of the barbarous inventions to which tyrants had recourse because their hatred was not satisfied by the simple death of the Christians?" 1 While bearing in mind the relative mildness of the Roman code one cannot deny the cruelty of certain persecutors. But has the writer quoted above stated the problem fairly, and ought the question not rather to be addressed to the hagiographers, compelled in spite of everything to put a term to their rigmaroles and kill off their heroes ?
his

Clement simply has

The

natural conclusion of the

drama was
of a saint

after all the

classical

punishment, death by the sword.
of the
life

The composition
martyr
is

who

is

not a

regulated

by

similar laws in all cases in which

the author adopts the
narrative
ing, but
1

method of

amplification.

The

is

necessarily less dramatic

and

less interest-

it

more

easily admits of developments.
i.,

Where

Cahier, Caracteristiques des Saints, vol.

p. 307.

7

was in the habit of healing the blind. and sometimes the whole biography is a mere string of them. Hence a diversity of episodes. his virtues. then clearly he must be exemplary in all the duties appertaining to his calling. it is obvious that he thinks himself worthy of the episcopal throne. his life : childhood. the most imafter death. neither does an abbot practise the same virtues as a nun. youth.. can he rightly be If the subject of the held up as a model of humility ? biography is a holy monk. : nationality. it is essential that he should only accept consecration under protest he does not resist. duties as a A bishop has not the same monk. In the for life of a holy bishop. simple and natural as they appear. his miracles lastly his cultus and miracles In innumer- able lives of saints at least one of the points in the above programme is supplied by commonplaces. portant events in his career. causing the paralytic to walk. driving out evil spirits and the like. and without risk of blundering one may describe his fasts and vigils and his assiduity at prayer and spiritual reading. whatif ever his condition. have not been wholly restricted to hagiographers anxious to tradition. fill in the gaps left by We have seen its how the popular voice gladly attributes to favourite hero the glories and virtues . And as it is mainly through miracles that God is pleased to make manifest the merits of His servants. The profession or quality of the saint is also subjected to analysis. The methods we have just described. one may take it for granted that the saint. g8 THE LEGENDS OF THE SAINTS a complete biography of a saint is desired the life Before his birth his divides itself into three parts. and if his own opinion of himself is so indulgent. his parents. . for instance. his future greatness miraculously prophesied .

Sometimes . „ * . often. vol. 132-33. 1 I am speaking here of impor- tations to be accounted for neither by misconceptions it is nor yet by carelessness. while 99 many a noble deed and striking incident has become the common property of very diverse indiThe pious writers of the Middle Ages have viduals.. The most disconcerting coincidences do occasionally occur. Fastes episcopanx de Vancienne Gaule. and have unscrupulously allowed themno is selves. in their need. whose conversion in both cases was effected through the reading of the " Lives of the Saints " that each founded a religious order under one and the same title. pp. but sometimes also we meet with examples of wholly characteristic episodes which without any sort of apology have been imported in their entirety from another biography. who both died in Italy. merely a case of commonplaces on the Christian virtues which have been copied out word for word sometimes we have incidents which at a stretch might have occurred and have been related in identical terms. Fronto of Perigueux an episode of markedly exotic hue taken from an Egyptian legend concerning a namesake.THE WORK OF THE HAGIOGRAPHER of others. 1 See Duchesne. in the interest of their saint. and that both these orders were suppressed by two popes . for ous matter into a biography. ii. and I am willing to quote a noteworthy example. find in the legend of St. imitated the importations so mon in comlegends. when we of names responsible for introducing wholly extraneas. I fully admit that one must beware of raising a cry of plagiarism on the strength of a mere resemblance. I am not referring to those frequent cases in which a similarity example. to pilfer narratives that have sort of connection with him. If one were to read that on the same day the Church celebrates two saints.

far from for it would be difficult to find an analogous example to the above." which had been supplied to him in order to enliven the tedium of convalescence he founded the order of the Jesuits.. vol. was touched by grace while reading the " Lives of the Saints. such coincidences can be frequent. This life July. . one might well declaring on the strength of these characteristic features that a single individual had been multiplied into two. 333-54. exist two saints. compelled to supplement the paucity of primitive sources by more or less legitimate means. and their secrets are easily surprised. 31st July. suppressed. 1 The naive hagiographers of the Middle Ages. 1556. methods are simple. Poncelet in the Analecta Bollandiana. The following. which has been quoted here merely as a curiosity.. 1 367. has been the object of a detailed study by Pere A. 3 1 st July. Ignatius of Loyola who died in Rome. John Colombini. honoured his patron with a literary composition of adequate dimensions. who died at Siena. which the biographer of St. 2 In the preface he begins by transcribing the pro1 shows the process by Vincent Madelgarus Acta SS. St. of whom all these particulars are true. 2 . as every one knows. a later Clement. strictly historical and even comparatively modern. was brought back to the practice of the Christian virtues by reading the " Lives of the Saints. do not introduce us As a rule their to any very embarrassing dilemmas." and founded the order of the Jesuati which was suppressed by Clement IX. pp.. 422-40. xii. pp. vii. If I recall the fact it is not because it. and that he must have been inscribed twice over in the And yet there martyrology under different names.ioo THE LEGENDS OF THE SAINTS feel justified in bearing the same name. vol. for example. by St.

St. St.: THE WORK OF THE HAGIOGRAPHER logue from the introduction life 101 of St. Aldegond. but for it which he transcribes word other reminiscences which enumerate. He is buried within his monastery where he exercises his power on behalf of the faithful who invoke him taken from the life of St. moreover. word for word. In order to describe the birth and early years of the saint. Gallus by Gregory of Tours. a phrase from Sulpicius Severus there follows a second which reproduces. to which he adds . Vincent's son Landric embraces the ecclesiastical state this is taken from the life of St. it is true. plagiarist's account six chapters from the life of St. : : : : : which. Patroclus. Waldetrudis. Bavon. Vincent's own family. Gregory of Tours' preface to the life of St. He gives himself up to prayer and penance and practises all the religious virtues taken from the life of St. Ursmar. Martin. which one of the chapters in the life of St. served him as a historic source. he accumulates reminiscences from the life of St. who relates it of St. St. Erminus. Bavon. while the history of his marriage literally is extracted from the Vita Leobardi by Gregory of Tours. word. We must add. A blind cleric recovers his sight on his tomb this miracle is appropriated in its entirety from Gregory of Tours. without speaking of others from members of St. Waldetrudis and St. Leobardus. Martius and Quintianus by Gregory of Tours. Knowing himself to be on the point of death he confides his spiritual children to his son Landric taken from the life of St. Vincent enters on the religious life and trains his followers taken from the lives of SS. The same author furnishes fills him with the greater part of a vision. to our. Erminus. besides numerous would take too long to The lives of saints filled with extracts from other .

. or even interesting episodes which seemed likely to prove effective in their pages. Notice sur la plus ancienne biographie de saint Remade G. vol. Caprasius are the same as those of St. not satisfied with appropriating wholesale certain phrases of general application. xvi. 2 x Acta SS. pp. while those of St.. often by merely exchanging one name for another.102 lives THE LEGENDS OF THE SAINTS of saints are exceedingly numerous. . pro- visional lists: Histoire litteraire de la France. Martina is literally St. Analecta Bollandiana. the group of Florentius and Julianus possesses an identical history to that of Secundianus. Thus. Lambert of which several portions are shared One can guess what degree of imporin common. Symphorian. such has been the destitution of some editors that. and some are nothing more than a mere hagiographic anthology. Kurth. Brussels. Lambert. vii. Euphrosyne. for the list of these strange duplications is far longer than one would be tempted to suppose. Marcellianus and . Arnold of Metz and St. vol. 3 vol. One can imagine the perplexity of the critic on finding the same facts related in the same words of two different saints. 355-68. i. St. 193. as best they could to their Veranus. Castissima owns identical with that of St. Tatiana the same acts as St. Hubert.. 2 Indeed. what faith can be placed in the lives of St. pp. for example. com- and adapting them saint. 1 well ask himself He may tance he will attach to a biography such as that of St. the passion»of St. iii. which is servilely imitated from the life of St. 3 It must suffice for the moment to refer the reader to some p. and so on. Remaclus. 760-63. they have been reduced to seizing whole positions. We hope some day to draw up a complete catalogue of them. in Bulletins de la Commission royale d'histoire. 1876.. 496. p. Nov... 4th series. vol.

ibid. might recall the example of St. Script.. 2 If Latin hagiographers to meet in the have had frequent recourse to the convenient process of adaptation.. Histoire de Saint Azazail in the Bibliotheque de VEcole des Hautes Etudes. 513-32 Scheil. the Greeks have not deprived themselves of the same resource. p. Nov. 1897.. rev. Synaxarium ecclesia Constantinopolitance. et sanctorum. Brockelmann.. It was M. fasc. 62-96. 6 1 Analecta Bollandiana. Onesimus with that of St. 2 Acta SS. See also Analecta Bollandiana. vol. Florian. 3 and the life of St. vi.. as may be proved by comparing the history of St. p. Sept. 5 The life of Mar Mikha was published by Bedjan. honoured at Bologna. 3 iii.THE WORK OF THE HAGIOGRAPHER 103 Another variety of the species of composition we have been characterising is that of the narratives in which the author has contented himself with introducing a new personage while all still retaining the original I hero and the story belonging to him. p. has been introduced into the Passion of the sixty martyrs of Eleutheropolis. pp. merov. G. vol. Alexis. pp.. 210. 428-30. C. vol. in order that he might be provided with a history. 4 Not long ago further parallel cases were unearthed in Syrian hagiography: the life of Mar Mikha scarcely differs from that of Mar Benjamin. Pancratius of Rome.. 4 . who. See also Krusch. 270-71. vol. who pointed out this interesting example of a monk who appropriates the legend of a neighbouring monastery and does not hesitate to dedicate his plagiarism to the Patriarch Symeon. 5 while the history of St. whom one is surprised company of St. 67. xii. 141. 93-95. Florentius of Mont Glonne. Acta SS.. La vie de Mar Benjamin in the Zeitschri/t fur Assyriologie. Mar Benjamin. Zum Leben des vol. Acta martyrum that of Mar Benjamin by V. pp.. xxiii. .. i. 292-95. . vol. Macler. 1 and also that of St. pp. Barbara with that of Irene and Cyriaena.. vol. Azazai'l is a mere adaptation of that of St. in M.. 820. Florian of Lorsch. pp. pp. 6 F. iii. xxiii..

4 tion of the original. 27. in a quite unexpected sense. Unhappily we must remember Italy. vol. Eutychius as repassion of St. vol. ... Santa Agnese nella tradizione e nella leggenda. as M. Pio Franchi has pointed out. ii. a local martyr See Analecta Bollandiana. and indeed Rome. It is not solely in hagiographic literature that editors of saints' lives have sought the material for their compilations. ix. 3 and the Damasian version of the death of St. Mark of Arethusa. 20. Franchi.. p. It is not as yet plagiarism in its crudest form. 3 4 P. p. Mark . Acta SS. Nnove Note agiograWe may observe by the way fiche in Studi e Testi. 58.. Cassian. is borrowed from that of the martyrs of Phrygia as related by Socrates and Sozomen." and transfers are effected on a somewhat liberal scale. 1 The martyrdom of St. p. The torture of of Arethusa is testified to by St. n. and one can scarcely the temptation to locate this wretched plagiarism among barbarous surroundings in which literary culture was practically unknown. Agnes possesses undeniable resemblances to that of St. that as early as the fourth in century in saints. pp. In Julian. Eulalia. while the martyrdom of St. Damasi epigrammata. 68. to the " common of saints. Vidian. 452-53. 2 Ihm. Lawrence. even in its The lated by Pope Damasus 2 is simply a reproduction of that of St. p. St. St. as above. 617. 2.104 THE LEGENDS OF THE SAINTS process appears so puerile The one is and summary that tempted to assume resist that it can only have been carried out in the darkest epochs of the Middle Ages. xix. It belongs. vol. Lucian. 1899. Artemas of St. Rome. of Pozzuoli inherited the Passion that after St. not the almost word for word transcripBut already legend has come to be regarded as no-man's land. we come fit across deliberate adaptations of foreign legends to national minor details. Mark of Arethusa. Cassian scarcely differs from that of St. 1 Thus the legend of St.. Gregory Nazianzen. i. Id. n. Jan..

They were reduced to the extremity of imitating the sculptors who changed the statue of a consul into that of a saint by supplying a new head. 25. Les vies des saints de Bretagne. pp. pp. a lily or some other symbolical object. the Enfances Vivien and A liscans . at least as rule. Dom Lobineau. Dymphna is an adaptation of a popular 2 tale. 2 See above. 121-35 L. Thomas. legend of St. Colledoc had no "other materials to work with than the romance of Lancelot du Lac and a bold and fertile imagination ". 3 writings we have been describing undoubtedly I constitute literary frauds which one feels inclined to con- demn with great severity. Saint Vidian de Martres-Tolosanes et la legende de Vivien des . to class them as forgeries. 436-37- . that hagiographic been disgraced by a certain number of forgers whose naivete can scarce avail as their excuse. Paris. ven- ture. as is that of St. but by the stage. the product of falsehood and ambition which for long misled credulliterature has ous minds and unsuspecting critics.THE WORK OF THE HAGIOGRAPHER 105 honoured at Martres-Tolosanes might easily be confounded with the epic legend of Vivian. The not by the Church. d'Ancona. 2nd edition. Olive which has been popularised in Italy. which is related in two metrical l the romances. p. Viviens d'Aliscans et la legende de saint Vidian in the Etudes romanes dediees d Gaston Paris. chansons de geste in the Bulletin de litterature ecclesiastique. Saltet. Feb. We must freely confess. 44-56. a general should not. Turin. however. There have been audacious fabrications.. however. nephew to William of Orange. 1902. 1725. a key. 9. or by placing in his hand a cross. is of opinion that the author of the life of St. i. 3 A1. 1891. pp. vol. p. among these we 1 A. Origini del teatro italiano. or to regard the authors of these substitutions as guilty than those titled to more who naively believed themselves en- supplement the silence of tradition by narratives mainly supplied by their own imaginations. Rennes. 1891.

1 the notorious translation of St. ii. ronde in Romania. Hi.. pp. vol. vol. i. Acta SS. 5 De Vorigine et du developpement des romans de la Table i. Joseph of Arimathea 5 and the name of first authors of the apostolic legends of France can scarcely plead their history. vol.. St. 2 the life of St. pp. 457-82. 4 The monk of Glastonbury.. pp. P.. vol. good faith before the tribunal of One can only turn contemptuously away... de Rossi. xv. pp. Paris. pp. 3 and the Passion of St. Oct. 1872. 1039-50. 340-58.. Maurus by the so-called Faustus. 1051-52. 114-38. Barnabas. Denis to Ratisbonne. even while marvelling at the simplicity of their dupes. 431-52. 3 4 1 Acta SS. who recast the legend of St. 2 Neues Archiv filr aeltere Deutsche Geschichtskunde. . June..106 THE LEGENDS OF THE SAINTS may quote the Cypriot legend concerning St. B.. Placidus by Peter the Deacon. See also Duchesne. vol. Barnabe in Melanges G. pp. 45-49. Ibid. Jan.. under the Gordian. who was no other than Odo of Glanfeuil.

be seen in the Versus domni Bert. 1 A curious example of this may harii abbatis de miraculis almi Patris Benedicti (M. Poet. or even literary form.CHAPTER — Classification six IV. Miracles. Defective System to Categories of Saints View art's — Division into Acta sincera — The " Supplements " of Le Blant. vol. hat. as Metrical. aevi carol. Biographies. chapter by chapter. 394-98). THE CLASSIFICATION OF HAGIOGRAPHIC TEXTS. pp. ii. that he has necessarily profited by the licence that we are agreed in according to poets. Rhymed Lives and This mechanical kind of classification scarcely affords any indication of the historical value of the documents. or on the so on. hi. Thus it would be a mistake to conclude from the circumstance of a hagiographer writing in verse. Mediaeval poets are often as ingenious in turning their original text into hexameters as they are lacking in inspiration and poetic 1 invention. Historical Point of Ruinclasses — Application of System to be useful at this stage to summarise the preceding pages while attempting to draw up a system of classification by means of which it will be possible to arrange in groups the majority of what may be It called hagiographic may documents. 107 . Translations. We may leave out of account purely external divisions founded on the subject of the narrative such as Passions. St. G.. in which book of the Dialogues of Gregory is turned into verse. according to Subjects — According — System Adopted..

and we possess the Acts of each one of them. 3 Analecta Bollandiana. pp. and at first sight more logical. We have already pointed out that the word " sanctus " did not always possess the very precise significance that it bears to-day. Cyprian in that of Africa. series xv. In point of fact.. Next to them come those real personages devotion to whom was in the first instance irregularly established. . 1 It may be remembered that all the pious personages of whom St. in the first place. 1894. belong incontestably to this class. Lawrence in the Churchjof Rome. xviii. known only for his orthodoxy. There are. and that it has been the means of conferring the honours of a tardy canonisation on more than one bishop. Martin in that of Gaul. vol. 2 Civilta Cattolica. vi.. xiv.108 THE LEGENDS OF THE SAINTS Another system of classification. those whose cultus has been canonically established by the Church and has received the sanction of centuries. 420-21. vol. and St. hagiographic literature treats of a large and varied assortment of personages who do not all possess equally valid claims on public veneration. 2 just as Theodoret wrote the biography suddenly found themselves during their very life-time incorporated in the annals of the Greek Church through some caprice of the hagiographers. 3 It has even happened that worthy individuals on whom their contemporaries had never conferred the aureole of sanctity.. vol. 292-305. St. would consist in grouping the documents under the various categories of saints. have been raised to the ranks of the martyrs or the the hermits of 1 whom Analecta Bollandiana. 653-69. pp. Gregory the Great recalled the virtues in his Dialogues ultimately took their places among the saints of the Latin Church.. whatever consecration it may have acquired through length of usage. St. pp. 406-11.

. 1 And how frequently has not the discovery of a established given rise to tomb or of a group of bodies whose identity could not be definitely some local devotion ? which has often enjoyed a lengthy popularity The greater num- ber of these saints.. 1 See above. Eng- Uncumber) who was represented 71. Liberata or Wilgefortis (called in lish St. Milan. Reusch. 2nd edition.THE CLASSIFICATION OF TEXTS Blessed as the result of 109 some special circumstances. the celebrated St. as. vol. 5 437 V. have none the to them. 3 A1. Such a one is Cassiodorus. 1885... d'Ancona. See also H. but not on that account to be neglected to : whom a real existence has ultimately been attributed. 2 as a bearded pp. less found hagiographers ready to do honour lists The long of the saints furnish us with yet a the imaginary personages third category. and possibly other places. vi. Origini del teatro italiano. vol. Their history was transformed into a saint's life and they were honoured with a chapel at Novara. who became. no one quite knows how. Der Index der verbotenen Biicher.. p. to 3 Other fictitious saints owed their origin some iconographic accident. 21 and vol. relatively few in number. ii. vol. p. for example. pp. unauthentic in varying degrees. We have already referred to various heroes of romance and of hagiographic tales transformed into historical person- ages and gradually becoming a nucleus of devotion. ii-> Acta SS. i. a martyr of the early centuries. 1. Some of them have a purely literary origin. Rosana -whose life was even printed had not the Roman authorities — — intervened. 227. 124-26. The reader will remember the chanson de geste of Amis and Amile who were killed by Ogier the Dane near Mortara in the Montferrat district.60. 2 The poem of Flores and Blanchefleur would have given birth to a St.. Oct.

itineraries. When this means of identification fails it becomes impossible to decide in which of the three categories we should place a saint whose name legend has handed down to us. various saints of the second category are provided with quite fairly authenic title-deeds. and to establish the fact of a traditional veneration by martyrologies. 1 Acta SS. 1 woman We need It is not insist very strongly on the inconveni- ences of a classification of hagiographic documents in strict accordance with these various categories of saints. Liitolf. who appears to have been unknown to antivol.... 183-205 Volto Santo von Lucca in the Jahresbericht der Gorres-Gesellschaft. A. und 1901. pp. Martina. 1902. 128. Thus it happens that saints as celebrated and as wellauthenticated as St. vol... 482 vol. . monuments. obvious that there need be no intimate relation be- tween the subject of a narrative and its historical value. G. vol. die .. we had nothing but his Acts on which to base our judgment. When historical records are lacking it is often possible to supplement their silence by the help of other documents. in the case of St. Id. xix. Agnes are chiefly known to us by legendary Acts. 50-70. on the other hand. Schnurer. and whose legend was inspired by one of those draped crucifixes of which the Volto Santo of Lucca offers the best-known example. pp. fortis in Freiburg in the Freiburger Geschichtsblaetter. Die Kummernisbilder ah Kopien des 1863. 43-50. vol. pp. July.no THE LEGENDS OF THE SAINTS nailed to a cross.. xxii. etc. xziii. Sanct Kummerniss Kiimmernisse der Schweizer in G eschichtsfreund. Sebastian. Wilgeix. p. p. . pp. This common and most regrettable anomaly suggests a number of embarrassing problems that cannot always be solved. Der Kultus des Volto Santo und der hi. Thus if. we might feel concerning him the same hesitation as about St. while. 74-105. v. Lawrence and St. See also Analecta Bollandiana.

we ought not to take them into consideration. The existence of records of this nature deposited in the archives of the proconsul has been attested more than one It witness. strictly speaking. S. . pp. 1 Pio Franchi de' Cavalieri. compositions intended for the edification of the faithful. 1903. Martina in the Romhch& Quartal- schrift. first Catherine or St. be quite superfluous. scrupulously respected. 222-36. however.THE CLASSIFICATION OP TEXTS quity. and that. or the second category of Under these circumstances we must have recourse to the one classification of the principle which allows of a strict Acts of the martyrs and of hagiographic documents in general they must be classed by the degree of truth and historic value they possess. I.. and only application of this principle as far as the main divisions are concerned. for it does not require prolonged investigation to ascertain that no proces-verbal of the times of persecution has come down to us in a separate and unadulterated form the documents which are honoured with the title of Proconsular Acts are. in which the official text of the interrogatory. The question is by whether any of these proces-verbaux have been preserved. Thus it happens that the most celebrated of all these documents. which has . vol. xvii. Such a protest would. The official reports of the interrogatories of mar- tyrs are entitled in theory to the first place in import- ance. Barbara in either the the saints. The following results have been arrived at by the . 1 m Nor is it likely that we shall ever obtain decisive evidence for placing St. might be objected that such official records do not come within the scope of any category of hagiographic documents. at best. forms the main portion of the narrative.

scenes emphasise the heroism of his sacrifice. Was or did the interrogatory copied in the proconsular office. A second category of authentic Acts comprises the accounts of eye-witnesses. and one is present at the carrying out . 2. .ii2 THE LEGENDS OF THE SAINTS been held up to us as the most perfect model of Proconsular Acts. but safe to affirm that the editor has introduced nothing of his own into the phrases he places on the lips of the martyrs. the official text of an early interrogatory in 257. the Passio Cypriani. In point of fact nothing is easier than to But we have recognise authentic "consular acts". after so lost many centuries the emotions If nothing of their intensity. of the sentence. in reality. Scillitan martyrs the hand of the hagiographer is less One hears only the words of the martyrs and visible. some Christian ? in the audience difficult to take it down in shorthand it is It would be decide this point. the martyr poses as though he were on the stage. as the result of which Cyprian : was sent into exile then the official report of the finally the arrest and the second interrogatory in 258 In the Passion of the account of the martyrdom. their persecutor. reluctantly to admit that very few are in existence. These authentic interrogatories are always quite ad- and even they excite have mirable. or of well-informed contemporaries record- ing the testimonies of other eye-witnesses. is. anything could spoil the impression they produce it would be the clumsy imitations which are to be found In the dramatic far too frequently in the passionaries. a composite record in which one must distinguish three separate documents strung together by a few phrases of their latest editor first. and others worthy of confidence. and gives utterance to academic devised by hagiographers to orations. In these .

an element which is entirely absent from the purely official It follows that we may carry the analysis farther Acts. The third category is composed of Acts of which document belonging to the principal source is a written one or other of the preceding categories. 8 . : and subdivide this category under three headings (a) Documents in which the witness alone speaks in his own name. in other words. In this way we possess seven different versions of the Passion of the Scillitan martyrs. But all these of Cyprian by the testimony. We may naturally include in this class redactions at second or third hand. 113 which are of a is literary character. according to his own sweet will. amplifies. and in the Deacon Pontius. and the historical records that have come down to us only in an amended form are extremely numerous. consider- able space accorded to the subjective element. or even on occasion interpolates. 3.— THE CLASSIFICATION OF TEXTS narratives. without the intervention of any written source. It includes every degree of remodelling from simple editorial corrections as regards the arrangement of the composition and details of development. that they express directly. A certain number of the lives which compose the menology of Metaphrastes belong to the category of adaptations which have for their sole source an historic document that the editor has abridged or paraphrased. as in several chapters of Eusebius's have this in common. an oral and contemporary varieties Martyrs of Palestine. up to the free recasting of the original which a fresh editor quarries from. Those in which a contemporary author restricts (J?) himself to chronicling the testimony of others. (c) Those in which personal observation life is added to the testimony. turns inside out.

4. After the historical romances dealing with real personages. and in particular we must include in it the whole series of cycles of the Roman In these compositions which consist Legendarium. class is This very numerous. As a gen- eral rule the historic residue in these plagiarised com- positions is of about the for the same value as that of the laboriously compiled romances of which mention has just been made is . which fantasy has a free Although their authors I cess of imagination. all hagio- . minimum of adaptation de- manded feast 5. the historic element almost always reduced to an infinitesimal quantity. to transform the history of one saint into that of another necessarily concerned with his name. historical romances. all this class. frequently of a tissue of literary reminiscences. The fourth category consists of Acts of which the source is not a written document. It is only proper to place in a separate category is forgeries properly so called. that to say. the existence of his shrine. his and his shrine. Nicephorus and the history of Barlaam and Joasaph are types of 6. and The name of the date of his feast are in safely inferred many cases all that can be in from a species of composition field. popular traditions is and fictitious situations. come the imaginative romances^ in which is the hero himself the creation of the poet. in other words. do not as a rule sin from exwould add to the above class those Acts which are simple adaptations. the saint. The Passion of St. but the fantastic combination of a few real events in a framework of pure imagination.1 1 4 THE LEGENDS OF THE SAINTS by authors at those produced work not on an original document but on a composition which has already been recast.

The speak necessity for a process of weeding out. A.5 THE CLA SSIFICA TION OF TEXTS 11 graphic legends composed with the object of deceiving It is not always easy to ascertain the real the reader. or to 1 M. and the combined efforts of many author of the fraud. and thanks to which the line for all of demarcation between fable and history had been drawn once and sineera. of all the hagiographic legends that have come down to us. injustice is. of Leipzig. under the various headings enumerated. expressed thej latest word hagiographic criticism. quotes our classification He proposes to add a seventh category. however. which we have adopted this group would be included in our fourth category. Harnack. must frequently happen that the editor has merely registered a version which in that case the work must circulated before his day classified under one of the previous headings. 8* . and it . It would indeed require endless investigations. if somewhat summarily carried out. 1904. a justly celebrated collection which for a long period. only right to say that modern requirements. has rendered the greatest service. in in the eyes of most scholars. pp. scarcely dispense ourselves from passing in rapid review. 464-65. vol. altchristlichen Litteratur bis Eusebius. and it on our part to attempt to it It however. would be a grave depreciate fails is it. and might leave to the reader the task of applying the principles enunciated to the numerous examples before him. We can. workers to arrive at a strict classification. Die Chronologie der ii. 1 be We might refrain here from entering into fuller explanations. that of a class solely dummy Acts drawn up From the historic standpoint upon the model of celebrated Passions. : we refer to Dom Ruinart's Acta This fine work well-conceived. Every one to-day agreed in demanding better authenticated to to come up texts according to strict philological methods. with approval..

But his selections are not all sincere in the sense that we can accept them as pure historic sources without any alloy of fiction or fantasy. 1 Die Chronologie. of which the historic value can only be determined by It has been customary to place all Ruinart's texts on the same level. I feel Acta sincera lends itself easily to misno difficulty in allowing that all Acts collected by the learned Benedictine are "sincere" in the sense that he set himself to exclude the from his collection all the fabrications of forgers. is sincere. like many other poets. pp. Let us admit also that. ii. vol. 463-82. . xxiii. John Chrysostom is reflected in his panegyrics no less than in his homilies. taking them in the mass. and. Save for the recent revision by Harnack. to attriIt would be easy bute to them an absolute authority. in regard to a poem or an oratorical passage is too often accepting his as poems forgotten when we are dealing with narratives by un- known authors. 476-80. vol. 1 it may be said that the lists of authentic records internal criteria...n6 more THE LEGENDS OF THE SAINTS precisely. or on various points of discipline in which the Acta sincera are cited promiscuously without any one having realised the necessity of some sifting process with a view to the special use that was to be made of them. to quote a whole series of writings on the history of the primitive Church. the title of conceptions. Prudentius. pp. from our modern standpoint. but who would ever dream of though they were an historic text ? The candid and loyal soul of St. but ought we therefore to neglect to take into account the oratorical temperament and must we give to his sermons the same value as to a legal report ? But what every one would freely admit Clearly not. for a re-classification of the documents selected by Ruinart seems not to be so keenly felt. See also Analecta Bol- landiana.

Simeon. therefore. pp. vol. Nowhere does he lay down any criteria for distinguishing between them.. 409-10. Ptolemaeus and Lucius. In the case of others he has availed himself of authors. Geschichte der altchristpp. Geschichte der altchristlichen Litteratur i. 2 i. . tionnaire de theologie Catholique. Malchus and Alexander. 237-45 Dicbis Eusebius. . pp. Thus he quotes Eusebius for Jacob. vol. Alexandrinus. must be considered in groups. Concerning a small number of saints (Irenaeus. Dictionnaire d'archeologie chretienne et de liturgie. The Acta sincera are composed of one hundred and seventeen documents 2 of a very unequal value which it is manifestly impossible to subject to a uniform critical examination. Dionysius. the martyrs under Diocletian.. Leonides and companions. 1 117 little late years give evidence of very Except for a few insignificant correc- tions they are simply the reproduction of Ruinart's It has not been sufficiently noted that the learned Benedictine had somewhat vague ideas concern- ing the classification of hagiographic texts.. G. and which. tables. Apollonius. vol. orators or poets. pp. Bishop of Jerusalem. historians. 807-34 lichen Litteratur in den ersten drei jfahrhunderten. whether whose writis ings are sufficiently well known and whose credibility recognised. Soteris) Ruinart has been compelled to restrict himself to putting together a few scattered fragments with which to make compilations of the kind entitled by the Bollandists Sylloge. and his solitary rule appears to have been to give concerning every martyr the most ancient and most respectable record he could find.THE CLASSIFICATION OF TEXTS drawn up of serious labour. . Mamas. The Acta Firmi et i. Rustici were added by the Verona editor. 320-34 . Priscus. He 1 Preuschen in Harnack. Alexander Bishop of Jerusalem. the Palestinian martyrs and Romanus. Kruger. Maximus. Bishop of Jerusalem.

.. Bibl. Asterius of Amasea for Euphethe Forty Martyrs mia and Phocas St. martyr. while it is to be feared that not a few will have to remain in the limbo to which critics have been forced to relegate them from lack of information by which to judge of their merits or de. upon which the future efforts of criticism Already a certain number will have to be directed. p. John Chrysostom for companions. 7531. . Augustine for the merits. is erroneous. n. 2 The recension given by Ruinart. Drosis Domnina and and Julianus St. . Quirinus and Cassianus St. 1 Gordius. Juventinus and Maximinus Palladius for Pota. n. : 1 The attribution to St. . Justinus. . Vigilius for Sisinnius and companions. Basil xxii. Theodora and Didymus RuPaulifinus for Apollonius and Theodorus. hag. vol. Agnes. There remain the separate Passions to the number of seventy-four. Vincentius. the Scillitan Martyrs. diana. the Martyrs of Lyons. . Pelagia. n8 THE LEGENDS OF THE SAINTS quotes Prudentius for Hippolytus. 132. Romanus. Vitalis and Agricola. Julitta and St. ought to . Sozomen for Eusebius and companions and Basil of Ancyra Theodoret for Cyrillus and companions. Agnes.. ceived provisional recognition. 7527. be replaced by Bibl. . Ambrose for Laurentius. Eulalia.. See Analecta Bollanlat. Lucianus. confessor . Gregory of Nyssa for Theodorus. Laurentius. nus of Nola for Felix Socrates for Macedonius and companions. Scholars are generally agreed in giving the place of honour classification —corresponding to the two categories our —to certain celebrated documents of which first in unhappily the list is far from long Polycarp. hag. . Basil for Barlaam. 2 Perpetua. the martyrs of Saragossa. twenty African martyrs misena St. St. Others have reof these have been definitely classed. and finally St. lat.

Jacob and 119 Marianus. pp. De quelques versions orientals du conte du tresor de Rhampsinite in the Bulletin de V Academie de Saint-Peter sbourg vol. 2 an authentic work by Eusebius. Felicitas and her Petrus Bal- seven sons. vol. 38.. and simply retains the Epistle of Ignatius to the Romans which belongs to them it is evident that the Acts of St. Concerning this tale see A. 299-316. that is is to say the fourth variety of hagiographic texts. Afra. 744-46. 5 The historical romance category. 4 May. . pp. to them the Acts of Didymus and Theodora 3 of Genesius the Comedian. 4 while the existence of the hero of the narrative is not vouched for by any historical milianus. To be compared with the Acts of Alexander and Antonina.. Schiefner. Cyricus and Julitta. Analecta Bollandiana. vol. pp.. xix. . 1 Vain efforts their entirety. as well as the Acts of Theodotus of Ancyra of which the kernel is a tale related by Herodotus. collection. Maxi- and Cassianus Tingitanus. Fructuosus. xiv. 1869. The Let us pass at once to the other extreme. slenderly represented in Ruinart. vol. 5 Analecta Bollandiana.. 320-28 .THE CLASSIFICATION OF TEXTS Cyprianus. 362. 2 3 have been made to rehabilitate the Ignatian Acts in See Analecta Bollandiana. p. p. xxiii.. 1 Procopius of which the great importance was not at first discerned. i. Acta SS. xvi.. 115. vol. as it was not recognised as being a fragment of the book of the martyrs of Palestine. vol.. vol. p. by no means our placing on the list No one will resent Symphorosa. Passio Nicephori and the Passio Bonifatii belong to We may add the category of imaginative romance. 478. p. If one puts the setting out of the question. xxii.. Ignatius of Antioch should be classed among the pearls of the Nor must we forget the Passion of St. xvii. Marcellus document.

Ferreolus. vol. 27-28 Analecta Bollandiana. The most important class are of the contents of the third undoubtedly the Passions of Pionius. 1 The 2 The Acts of St. Mont- anus and Lucius. Dativus and his companions. Nuove vol. Euplus. Victor. Petrus. pp. 3-19. Franchi. note agiografiche in Studi e Testi. Felix.. Arcadius or to Leo and Paregorius. Lucianus and I can see no sufficient reason for according Marianus. The remaining documents of the collection must remain for the time being in the third category. It is scarcely possible to hesitate as to adding to them the following Passions: Achatius. a higher place to the Martyrs of Agaunum. Pollio. Possibly it may be thought that they have not been placed in sufficiently justifiable to I do not think it would be show them greater honour.ISO THE LEGENDS OF THE SAINTS samus. strict classification. good company. . Maximus and Crispina. pp. Andreas and his companions. Is it necessary to add that this class subdivides itself into numerous varieties determined both by the quality of the primitive document and the capacity of the editor ? Nor must it be forgotten that in the case of the majority of these documents critics have not yet been able to arrive at a unanimous conclusion. See vol. Felix no longer exist in their primitive form. among the Passions which have as their principal source an historic document of the first or the second rank. owing to their not having been submitted to any searching study let us add that some of them.. Firmus and Rusticus. Agape and Chionia. 460.. . Vincentius. i. to Dona- and Rogatianus. ix. p. xvi.. lend themselves with difficulty to a tianus . Tarachus and Probus. P. by reason of their mixed character. 1 Saturninus. 2 Irenseus. xxii.e. portion concerning the journey to Italy is an interpolation.

and the Egyptian martyrs. vii. Roman section. pp. Die Chronologie. Franchi in Nuovo bullettino di archeologia cristiana.. Le Christianisme dans Vempire perse sous la dynastie sassanide. vol.THE CLASSIFICATION OF TEXTS Philippus. Astorius and his companions. Les versions grecques des actes des martyrs persans sous Sapor II. p. vol. 224-632. 1904. . Delehaye. 17. 1905. Paris. in the class Pherbute. p. One can scarcely discuss Dom Ruinart's collection without mentioning the enterprise of 1 Le Blant. vol. Franchi in Nuovo bullettino. Patricius Bishop of Prusa. rejects these Acts. Paris.F. H. Sadoth and Bademus) constitute a separate group which might be included cussion. 6 J. Analecta Bollandiana. xxiii. The judgment of Harnack in Die Chronomore favourable. Claudius. Cyrillus. 6 under dis- Previous to the publication of their various Armenian and would be premature to pronounce on the original form and consequently also on the documenrecensions (so far unprinted) both in Syriac it tary value of these narratives. Schmidt in Fragmente einer Schrift des Mdrtyrerbischofs Petrus von Alexandrien in Texte tend Untersuckungen. pp. N. 5-19. Trypho and Respicius. 22-26.. 5 4 pp. vol. 5 The Acts concerning the Persian martyrs (Symeon. 478.. v.. Serenus. x. 158-65 Harnack. 1904.. 22. Julius. x. Labourt. Genesius Arelatensis. It is not impossible that a thorough study of their origin and composition might result in the deposition of some of them from the rank that has : so far been assigned to them. Marcianus and Nicander 3 and Sabas Gothus. 2 C.. pp. p. vol.. 3 logie is far P. 96-98. 63-82. 1892. Instituts. 4 To these may be added the following Acts which have been much less studied Epipodius and Alexander. Faustus and Januarius. to whom J. Fuehrer in the Mittheilungen des k. deutschen arch<eologischen . 1 Phileas 121 and Philoromus. P. pp. 2 Quirinus.

4. Paris. 1 Ruinart. 1893. . Extrait des Memoires de V Academie des Inscriptions et Belles lettres. Les Actes des martyrs. such is the method I propose to follow in by civil seeking out those grains of truth scattered through certain documents which. 4 Ibid. 2 Les persecuteurs et les martyrs aux premiers siecles de notre ere. Paris. vol. often so hard to Yet it recognise.. such is. or that had been brought to light by recent discoveries. 4 I admire as highly as any one the vast erudition of Le Blant and the exemplary patience with which he has pursued the vestiges of antiquity. 1 we owe a "Supplement Ruinart's This learned scholar did not propose in any sense to enlarge volume by introducing into it historical texts that the erudite Benedictine had overlooked.. in accordance with the opinion of Tillemont cannot be wholly rejected even though they may offer some disquieting features". He tried to show that various narratives not included in although re-cast and the Acta sincera " have retained certain genuine portions added to in varying degrees He calls these derived from original documents". 2nd part. 3 method by which he proposes furnished and the following to identify them is : the " A systematic collating of these pieces with the information and criminal law." possessing a certain value as con- taining fragments of the truth. through a mass of insipid literature. with the text of the most authentic Acts and with the data solidly established by witnesses from the past. 3 1. in my opinion. 1882. and likely to misSupplement aux Acta sincera de Dom Les Actes des martyrs. p. a clear means of establishing the degree of credibility to which hagiographic narratives may be entitled. p. xxx. p. must needs be said that the very conception underlying his work has been a false one. 2 — — " interpolated Acts. 5.122 THE LEGENDS OF THE SAINTS to the Acta Sincera".

St Cecilia. It would be entirely a mistake to deduce from this solitary fact that he had worked on a historic record. Agnes. Cosmas and Damian. p. St. Les persecuteurs et les martyrs. conclude that the author lived at a time when the ancient formulae had not yet fallen into disuse.THE CLASSIFICATION OF TEXTS lead investigators. St. in order that an interpolated or paraphrased narrative should possess any value it must be derived from some historical source the pedigree of which can be clearly ascertained. as we possess them to-day. are all versions of earlier Acts which have undergone. p. in point of fact. Observe to what conclusions one might be drawn if one wished to make capital out of the antiquity of their various parts. Agatha. Purely literary accretions may go back very far without imparting the least credit to the stock on which they are grafted. and that his narrative was derived from a contemporary chronicle of events. In all ages centos from Virgil have been composed.. in more points than one. 1 2 Les Actes des martyrs. 123 For. but more often it would be truer to infer that he had studied a classical model which had supplied him with felicitious expressions and technical phrases. Urban. no doubt. 127. etc. From the correct legal phraseology to be met with in certain Passions we may sometimes. In point of fact in discovering in Le Blant has frequently succeeded documents of a debased period or devoid of historic value details which reveal a condition of things going back to classical antiquity but he has been mistaken in concluding that " these writings have preserved. 1. "des retouches evidentes". features of the If we followed him on these lines. SS. we lost originals "} ought to infer from certain superficial indications that the Acts of St. as he expresses it. 2 . .

279. . however. The new Ruinart which we should like to compile would only contain the historical records belonging to the first three categories set out at the beginning of this chapter. But. 1 Les Actes des martyrs. who in his novels has affected the knowledge of a Will posterity be specialist in certain technical details. after having taken much away from him. it must be obvious persecutions ". as we have seen. p. and that we should be building up the history of the persecutions upon a foundation of sand. forced to conclude that his stories possess a foundation of truth and that he has merely made a free use of original documents ? No texts " that frequently is doubt Le Blant has done good service by showing the information furnished by secondary in agreement with that supplied by classic documents." 1 but he was mistaken in supposing that " if these latter had not come into our hands we should have obtained much useful information from the rest concerning the principal features in the history of the On the contrary. to all that classic we had not the check provided by the texts. the first thing to be done is to realise clearly the place to be given to every document in the hierarchy of hagiographic records. is no reason for giving up the idea of the really primitive supplementing Ruinart. This. we should have no means of discerning if elements in documents without intrinsic value.i3 4 I THE LEGENDS OF THE SAINTS might quote more than one contemporary of our own.

narratives derived from them and revised more than once. It is a long and infinitely delicate task in which the inexperienced critic. The three Monuments testifying to the cultus Eusebius legends of St. entries in the martyrologies. unfamiliar with hagiography. and to establish the degree of credibility to which each witness is entitled. Nor is it all plain sailing when. Contemporary records. THE "DOSSIER" OF A Documents concerning St. Ephysius and to St. how to classify the documents. to weigh evidence. the cause of a saint is founded on a One must know comparatively well-furnished record. preserved for us an ex- A providential accident has saint of the persecution ceptionally complete series of documents concerning a under Diocletian. Procopius Analysis of the three legends The Synaxaries Latin Acts of St.CHAPTER V. Where lacking they have sometimes undergone such marked modifications under the combined efforts of legend and legend writers that one can only make use of them with extreme caution. by rare good fortune. Procopius Adaptations to St. meets with many a disappointment. to interpret them at their proper value. — Procopius of Caesarea —Account — given by — — — — — It is often an arduous task to establish the claims of a saint of the first centuries to the historical honours of public wor- documents are not entirely ship. historical 125 . SAINT. John of Alexandria Conclusions.

in the Greek menologies. The shortest and best known is usually read between the eighth and ninth book of the Ecclesiastical History The other. In following step by step the traces of his cultus in literary monuments we shall arrive at an exact ap- documents concerning him. pp. Two versions have come down to us of Eusebius's tractate. the distant echoes of legend. of whom Eusebius. aries 1 work. everything that tradition is in the habit of distributing with niggardly eral saints is hand between sevround a single name. Procopius is the first of those martyrs of Palestine. 6949. more developed. the only fragment. 113-22. has only come down to us in its entirety in a Syriac translation. to penetrate to the West. Procopius. 2 Bibl.. has related the valiant resistance and the intrepid calmness in the face of death. like other chapters of the same But the Latin Passionhave preserved this fragment of Eusebius's book. It will then be easy to extend to analogous cases the conclusions to which this examination will have preciation of the value of the led us. i 26 THE LEGENDS OF THE SAINTS proofs of the existence of a local cultus. xvi. Concerning all this see Analecta Bollandiana." honoured by the Greek Church on 8th July. hag. at once historian and eye-witness of the great persecution. lat. Of the Greek text there only remain fragments and abstracts. 1 St. The chapter concerning Procopius in the longer recension has not been found. The following are the words in which the Bishop of Caesarea relates the history of Procopius and his martyrdom. and inscribed on the same date in the Roman Martyrology. The here united is saint in question St. the " great martyr.. 2 " The first of the martyrs of Palestine was Procopius. n. vol. so far as is known. ..

Sent with companions from Scythopolis to Caesarea he had scarcely passed the city gates when he was conducted into the presence of the governor. But the martyr of God despised his entreaties. proclaimed that there are not several gods. terpreter spirits in was reader and inthe Syriac language. before his martyrdom. We . .' he said. Meditation on the Divine Word so filled his being that he remained absorbed in it day and night Filled with goodness without any sense of fatigue. taken up his residence at Scythopolis where he filled three ecclesiastical functions. But he. but one alone. 1 The word of God was his sole study. Listen. in a strong voice. he edified every one by his discourses. He lived on bread and water. to this verse of Homer reply. but his soul drew from the Word of God so great a vigour given body itself was refreshed by it. it He had reduced his body until he had so to speak the appearance of a corpse. and of profane sciences he had Born at Elia. he had but a mediocre knowledge. and even before he had had a taste of chains or prison walls he was at once urged by the judge Flavian to sacrifice to the gods. had ordered his life so well that from childhood he had been vowed to chastity and to the practice of filled all man the virtues. the creator and author of all things. and gentleness. condition of the text renders the sentence very difficult to can only give the general sense of the passage. This answer made a vivid impression on the judge. and cast out evil He by the imposition of hands. ' ' x The translate.: THE "DOSSIER" OF A SAINT a 127 with Divine grace. Finding nothing to say in " he tried to persuade Procopius at least to sacrifice to the Emperors. regarding himself as the least of men. who. and only ate food every two or three that the days sometimes he prolonged his fast during a whole week.

Happily. evidence Caesarea The value of this not actually lessened Caesarea Palestine. one single king. ii. Procopi. In Ccesarea Cappadocice. so far as St. and. and he passed happily to eternal life by the shortest road. shall see directly the sort It made our own day. dom that took place at Caesarea. It is perhaps scarcely right to quote in evidence the inscription of his name in the Eastern martyrology. under the formula. They do not therefore in themconcerned. Procopius was in the enjoyment of all the honours accorded to martyrs. on Eusebius's book. We as the process was called in the Middle Ages. instead of to mistake which runs through the Hieronymian martyrology and was wholly attributable to the editor. the day that the Latins call the nones of July. the judge ordered him to be led to the place of execution. in by the erroneous a reference to in Cappadocia.128 It is THE LEGENDS OF THE SAINTS not good to have several masters . in the first This was the first martyryear of our persecution. was not long before St. in the case of the Palestine martyrs. But the Oriental This is annals depended.. which has come down to us in the pilation.' iroXvicoipavii) 1 • Owe ayadbv els Koipavos icrrui els jSatnAeus. They cut off his head. . on the 7th of the month of Desius. of success it achieved. 204. He is figures pseudo-Hieronymian comon 8th July." Comment would but weaken the impression by this noble and sober narrative. let there be one single chief. as though he had uttered impreca- tions against the emperors. At these words. in no one would dream of putting it into a better style. selves testify to the existence of a living cultus. Procopius 1 is we Iliad.

. 190. Vita S. Procopius. as 2 Antonini Itinerarium. 1470. Zeno. for the detailed study of which there On some other occasion we propose is no room here. 46. p. p. Pilgrims journeyed to Caesarea to venerate his holy remains. of the legend must be is dis- The and the most ancient. 4 Catalogue codicum hagiographicorum grcscorum 5 p. There are in existence a whole series of different most part unpublished. restrict ourselves to a study of this 1 latter. repre- 4 sented by the text of the Paris manuscript. however. Sabce. 9 . Proattested in the sixth century. hag. 5 The Latin version presupposes a Greek version varying some- what from the one that we still possess. Three main tinguished. sCyrilli Scythopolitani. c. We shall. Paris. 3 copius must soon have become popular and have spread In proof of far beyond the boundaries of Palestine. blossoming of legends which early dethis we find the veloped around the memory of the martyr of Caesarea. and by a Latin Passion which has come down to us in a manuscript belonging to Monte Cassino. 327. Cotelier. But the following are the results to which this work of versions. also set honour the existence of which was up Devotion to St. 2 Scythopolis. technical point of view and to classify to discuss from a the various texts in their relations to one another. p. 1 over which they erected In 484 it was restored by the Emperor a basilica. n. 349. of the legend of St. 6950. Bibl. bibliothecce nationalis Parisiensis. ed. the home of the martyr. and of which we shall attempt to trace out the principal a shrine in his phases.THE "DOSSIER" OF A SAINT 129 have other proofs establishing the antiquity of the honours rendered him. Geyer. for the classification has led us. Chronicon paschale. 75. lat. versions first. 149.

1-27. St. Tomus vol. a violent attack upon the faithful. 897. Petersburg. lished the one which is most widely spread.. 556-76. ff. functions of lector and exorcist. two texts will henceforth be referred to as the first legend of St. Papadopoulos-Kerameus has pubversions.. 2 and the other in Latin by Lipomani. The persecution breaks out. met 'Avd\€Kra UpoffoXvjxiTiKris <rraxvo\oyias. a monster of cruelty. 107-15. printed from a manuscript in the convent of Vatopedi on second legend to in The be met with number of manuscripts. and in order to analyse the legend we have made use of the Greek manuscript Paris. 3 and after him Mount Athos. A. pp. and the judge. Procopius. v. . pp. 4 We need not at this point take into consideration the various panegyrics of the saint. literary qualities the reader must judge for shall : We The narrative opens with an imaginary edict by Diocletian. for Rome.. 1558. it is seven St. in various more or less copy is abridged. 1898. Flavianus. vitis. vol. The title of third legend will be reserved for the group consisting of two closely allied versions of which one has been published in Greek by the Bollandists. ii. begin by summarising the first legend of As far as bulk is concerned. which are usually derived from one or other of the preceding categories. 1 Unhappily this particular by Surius. arrives at Caesarea. 1 The Blessed Procopius was a native of Elia and performed the His ministiy v. July. is a large developed M.130 THE LEGENDS OF THE SAINTS from our immediate point of view the divergences are The group thus composed of the of no importance. De probatis sanctorum 8th July. Procopius. of its or eight times as long as Eusebius's narrative himself. sextus vitarum sanctorum patrum. 2 3 4 Acta SS.

acting with such madness.: ! : THE "DOSSIER" OF A SAINT with so 131 much success that the attention of Flavian us was quite naturally drawn to him. Accordingly Flavianus summons him to his presence. Socrates. As soon as he appears the people are unable to restrain their fury and roar like " There is the man who despises our gods. if you do not wish to suffer death. 9* . Flavianus. Plato. Among the arguments he brings forward are the views of the philosophers. " My name Are you alone ignorant in Emperor. at your mature age." This harangue by Flavianus is followed by a long speech from the martyr. How can you teach others. who exhorts him to recognise God the Creator. accordance The judge of the divine commands of the with which those who refuse Procopius." to sacrifice to the gods must themselves be tortured and put astonishment at seeing you. The judge is seated on the judgment-seat when Blessed Procopius is led in. Hermes Trismegistus. therefore. wild beasts and tramples under foot the decree of the emperor". who all proclaimed the unity of God. when you your? to death I cannot express my your senses? How dare you pretend that God was born of a woman and was crucified Who would not scoff at such an invention ? I warn you. Aristotle. inspired by the devil. After various arguments in favour of Christianity the orator is interrupted by the judge who mingles threats self have lost with his exhortations. asks the martyr : " What is your name ? " The martyr is replies : " I am a Christian. It hoped that the tortures undergone by those is to be who have preceded you may teach you a little sense. Galen and Scamandrus. Homer. to forsake this foolish error and to sacrifice to the gods and respectfully adore the image of the emperor.

iron hooks till he is past recognition. The dialogue continues while more red-hot skewers are driven into the martyr's At length Flavianus invents a fresh ordeal. hung up and whipped with thongs of ox hide. and incense is flung upon it. and they with by being covered with break his bones. Then the judge commands a certain person off. his body is scraped. after which the judge orders the tortures to be begun. The martyr is but this time with less calm. The saint does not cease speaking judge with reproaches and replies insults. named dead. the executioners apply burning coal to his back and reopen all Flavianus reproaches him his wounds by driving red-hot nails into his flesh. The invectives fade away into a lengthy dissertation. is Three days the later there a second interrogatory. angel and heals his wounds. in for course of which having had recourse to magic in order to kill Archelaus and to efface the Then he orders him to be scars of his own wounds. The martyr is made to stretch out his hand filled with burning coal. his The martyr is strung up. " you Procopius remains will have sacrificed to the gods. to and overwhelms the which the judge by fresh tortures." declares Flavianus. There the martyr recites a long Christ appears to him in the guise of an prayer." He weeps. nor he sparing of insults. but it resolute and his hand never moves.i 33 THE LEGENDS OF THE SAINTS replies. . "If you throw the He orders a little altar to burning incense on the altar. be set up. wounds are made more painful salt and rubbed with a rough The executioners tear the flesh on his face hair-cloth. Archelaus to cut the martyr's head but the man's hands are suddenly paralysed and he falls down The exasperated Flavianus sends Procopius to prison. loaded with chains. flesh.

. that the martyr died by the sword. He had in his hands. it prayer. that he lived a holy life. to 1 1 Analecta Bollandiana. that we have summarised. not his own sufferings that up a lengthy fatal blow. not the mere summary by Eusebius contained cal History. but his developed text. vol. Flavianus at length The Blessed Procopius is led outside the town to be He begs for an hour's reprieve. pp. but the obstinacy of Flavianus. relying for its effect on long speeches supplemented by commonplace sentiments and descriptions of tortures. the instant healing of his the scene of the incense which life is wounds. and offers executed. in the EcclesiastiIt was there he learned that Procopius was a native of Elia. It is Barlaam. The Passio Procopii.. not easy. that he performed ecclesiastical func- he omits all reference to Scythopolis. the vision enjoyed by the martyr in tions —as — prison. and finally borrowed from the of St. cannot be pretended that the hagiographer was compelled to write in this way for lack of information It concerning the saint. eyes. after which he submits to the The Christians carry off his body and give decent sepulture. Everything that he adds is pure invention. pronounces sentence of death.THE "DOSSIER" OF A SAINT is 133 draws tears from his Thunderstruck. Here we are indeed far removed from the discreet simplicity of Eusebius and the pious enthusiasm which pervades his narrative. is a piece of cold and clumsy rhetoric. the episode of Archelaus miraculously struck down at the moment when he is about to decapitate the saint. for example. as. xxii. the assumption is that it was at Jerusalem that the judge was named Flavianus. 134-45. beneath these borrowed plumes.

134 THE LEGENDS OF THE SAINTS the martyr recognise commended by Eusebius. like a second But he too and vengeance. we still have the lector. His mother brought him to Antioch in order to recommend him to the kind notice of the emperor. at that time called a noble lady named Theodosia who had a son named Neanias. there lived at Jerusalem. and before he started to take up his new appointment urged upon him to seek out the Christians and to punish them severely. Now Elia. and we have place a mail-clad warrior. was to tread the road to Damascus. his departure. In later legends the transformation is carried of the clerk of Scythopolis in his them the austere figure lost. the simple-minded Christian nourished on Holy Scripture. We must now summarise the second legend. Diocletian initiated a terrible persecution against the Christians. And in order to convince him of the folly of the Christians. the exorcist and the ascetic. As he was leaving Thus Neanias takes Saul. capti- vated by his good looks and by his zeal on behalf of the heathen deities. a pagan like herself. his sword by his side farther. an entire stranger to rhetorical methods and dialectical subtlety. notably its longer than predecessor. despatching edicts to all parts. True. and thence he proceeds to Antioch where he receives from the senate a sort of profession of idolatrous faith. The latter. forthwith created him Duke of Alexandria. Diocletian gave him a summary of the life of Christ with commentaries of his own. The conThe emperor himself goes to Egypt where he defeats the usurper Achilles. tents of the copy sent to Elia are given. much In is wholly and his lance at rest. breathing hatred .

. among he consoles her by giving her permission to select a new son for herself from among the senators.000 of them. but the voice continues. makes various " Thou shalt be to me a vessel of election. changes his name to Procopius and heals all his wounds. With the help of Emanuel. tears it into a thousand fragments. and a voice from a cloud was heard " Whither goest thou. was completed three figures appeared upon it with the names in Hebrew. charging him to examine Neanias and put him to death with torture should he persist in his Neanias learns the contents of the emperor's letter. and favoured by a vision of Christ who baptises him.: THE "DOSSIER" OF A SAINT 135 Apamea. and the poor. and he heard the words " I am Jesus crucified. impiety. and declares The governor orders him to be himself a Christian. There he is visited by angels. : " thou shalt conquer ". put in chains and escorted to Csesarea." and again. home to his mother and broke up distributing the precious metal terrified He all then returned the family idols. an earthquake accompanied by lightning made itself felt. Neanias ? " At the same time a crystal cross became visible. Neanias protestations. this miraculous cross Neanias put to flight a body of as it As soon Agarenians. the Son of God ". The converted Neanias journeys with his soldiers to Scythopolis. he is led back to prison. killing 6. His mother denounces her son to Diocletian. Oulcion presides at the trial and condemns Neanias to be hung up and his flesh torn with iron hooks. and there commissions a certain Mark to make him a gold and silver cross similar to the one this sign By seen in his vision. Michael and Gabriel. At the same time he despatches a letter to the governor named Oulcion. When the executioners are exhausted and all the martyr's bones are exposed.

pomp. He confirms the new converts in their faith. Is it necessary to bring evidence to prove that this is version of later date than that which we have en- titled the first is legend it ? It is clear that this longer story derived from and marks a definite step in the legendary development. after which the martyr returns to to prison. The first is that of the conversion of the soldiers. the mother of Procopius. and later they are martyred before his eyes. . people imagine that the constancy of the martyr has given way and But that he is about to sacrifice to the gods. is so touched by too is converted and suffers death with them. and Flavianus takes his The martyr is summoned all before and there follow almost the scenes described in the earlier legend.the history of twelve matrons rank who. a malignant fever and dies. embrace the Christian religion and die after enduring inexpressible we next have Theodosia. He is therefore conducted to the temple with far much faith. him conduct them to the bishop Leontius who baptises them. The governor attributes the healing of the martyr to the Procopius immediately requests power of the gods. As a counterpart to this narrative concerning the soldiers of senatorial tortures. Neither the setting nor the . The impious judge and the to be taken to the temple.136 THE LEGENDS OF THE SAINTS there is The next day a fresh interrogatory. who go to visit Procopius The martyr persuades his jailer to allow in prison. from denying his Christian in pieces Neanias breaks the idols sign of the cross. the spectacle of their constancy that she the governor Oulcion contracts Not long afterwards place at Caesarea. his tribunal. in their turn. by the virtue of the Here two long episodes occur.

The second legend of great antiquity. and of Eusebius's narrative one can recall only vague remin- iscences seen in the names of is Elia. . Procopius. reminiscences.THE "DOSSIER" OF rhetoric of the first legend A SAINT 137 went so far as to alter the physiognomy of the martyr in any essential details. Paul. nothing remains of him. It was current in the eighth century. Concilia. Scythopolis. histories. the vision of Constantine. 229-32. it necessary to investigate further before relegating It is among compositions of the a medley of stock incidents and The conversion of St. It preserved at least the memory of his ecclesiastical functions. iv. pp. vol. and we have in his stead a young heathen soldier and magistrate miraculously converted to Christianity. that suffice to betray the methods He has joined together two of Neanias which took place under the governorship of Oulcion and that of Procopius with Flavianus as judge. His name was originally Neanias.. Polycarp and other narratives which many it were tedious to recall further. the Acts of St. have furnished the compiler of this history with the main incidents. Save for his name. 1 lous cross The episode of the miracu- was quoted as evidence 1 in favour of the Hardouin. and inspired sufficient confidence to be produced before the Fathers of the second council of Nicaea. The introduction of Neanias into the legend has completed the metamorphosis of St. and it required nothing less than a vision to impose the name Procopius upon him. What is the origin of the Neanias legend is it ? It is impossible to say. Caesarea and Flavianus. In the later version the lector and exorcist disappears entirely. nor purest fantasy. This detail alone should of the hagiographer.

There are even in existence two versions of this recension. . nor succession of incidents is has the new editor thought it necessary to tone down His efforts appear to the absurdities of his model. however. Let us admit at once that between the second and The third legend there are no essential differences. It date has not yet been printed. 130. p. pp. of which the one that would appear to be the less widespread. 311-29. Procopius is 1 Analecta Bollandiana. Each time the editor comes across an historical or geographical name he uses it as a text on which to build up an erudite little dissertation into which he of St. and with the other documents was 1 reproduced in a large number of copies. 2 See above. vol.138 THE LEGENDS OF THE SAINTS may be read in the veneration of images. illustration of the methods of a school of hagiographers which has enjoyed much popularity. have been concentrated upon the style. earlier in point of We These two vides the text of the Acta Sanctorum. xvi. can. Without any inconvenience sess in we may pass over the details peculiar to each and restrict ourselves to the features they pos- common.. and all the conventions of old-fashioned rhetoric are pretentiously displayed throughout the pages in which the Passion supposed to be related in a more I will quote only a single instance in attractive form. as the Council. third legend are not sufficiently disversions of the tinct to require separate treatment here. gather a sufficient idea of it from the 2 The second protranslation published by Lipomani. the same in both cases. Acts of In its third disguise the legend has enjoyed a notoriety no was incorporated in the collection of Metaphrastes.

7. Unfortunately in is instance the editor's learning at fault. In all earlier texts the town had been said to be Elia. the mother of Procopius. Thus." The mention this of Caesarea furnishes yet further oc- casion for a display of erudition. He therefore hastens to add that the Emperor went there make solemn sacrifice to the God. A who then wielded 2 the imperial sceptre. a title derived from the neighbouring Acta SS.. Hadrian. 6. reminds him that at Daphne. and that it was there the the title disciples of the new faith first received of Christians. n. where he was busy with the construction of a temple. for he Paneas or Philippi with Caesarea Stratonica in Palestine. re- named it Elia. July. and which confuses Caesarea was formerly called Tower of Straton. The Phoenicians named 1 it Paneas. there was a celebrated sanctuary of Apollo. Nor was it possible for him to forget that Antioch played an illustrious to part in the history of the primitive Church. This city had previously borne the names of Jerusalem and of Sion. n. 5. But after it had been taken by the Romans as a punishment for its crime towards Christ.. near the town. " The judge commanded that the saint should be conducted to Caesarea. p. 55. . The writer has no idea of passing the fact over in silence. 1 few lines farther on the question arises as to the native town of Theodosia. This is how the new editor deals with the theme " Theodosia occupied a leading position in the city. when be relates that Diocletian arrived it at Antioch. ii. and he flounders in his error.. 2 Ibid.: THE "DOSSIER" OF A SAINT drags all 139 the reminiscences that the name recalls to his mind. vol. We refer to that town of Caesarea which we are accustomed to call of Philip.

. 2 We need not proceed further with the accumulation It has not of proofs of the pedantry of our author. martyred at Caesarea. that is to say the officer of the second and third legend. July. 245. this third legend that there copies. pp. followed by the commemoration of Procopius. 4 Synaxarium ecclesice Constantinopolitancs p. 27-29. Procopius for warrior martyr. In certain synaxaries one may the date 8th July. ii. pp. 5 is own name " Procopius Procopius " who suffered in his ? Whence comes 1 this qualification We know of no Hist. styled But there he no longer bears of Palestine.. we have recalled that ourselves were we to pass an interesting story that has reference over in silence and he proceeds to relate. 805. 3 is This latter further celebrated on 22nd November. It is of diminished the popularity of his narrative. Eccl. future ages in the character of a The inevitable result of transforming Procopius read.i 4o THE LEGENDS OF THE SAINTS And as mountain range Paneos. town. under lector into Procopius soldier has been to duplicate the individual. 808. 5 Ibid." but Persia ". Christ and the woman who suffered from an issue of blood. n. 2 . . vol. 563-64. 18. 4 In some copies the commemoration of St. the passion of the great martyr Procopius. 249. 3 Synaxarium ecclesice Constantinopolitance pp. in the words of to it " 1 the well-known legend of the sculptured Eusebius. 23rd November. group representing. we should reproach . . according to tradition. exorcist. Acta SS. Procopius repeated on the following day. 247. and on that is occasion a slightly abbreviated version of Eusebius's account is read.... viii. .. all still exists the greatest number of and it served definitely to instal St.

From it is derived the very exact commemoration contained in the historic Latin martyrologies. vol. were in command of the soldiers converted by Procopius. impossible to ascertain its origin in any very we precise way. qui ab Scythopoli ductus Caesaream. Procopius who is made to figure in these various disguises.THE "DOSSIER" OF A SAINT Persian 141 It is martyr of the name of Procopius. 1897. according to the legend. and of the officers Antiochus and Nicostratus. only inscribe and add commemorations of his mother Theodosia. The Latins 2 have also studied the Acts of St. sources. There is nothing in this document by which one may distinguish Procopius the Persian from Procopius of Caesarea. 1 The synaxaries of recent date and the menaea which have borrowed their historical sections. See Analecta Bollandiana. Procopius the officer. Concerning cultus of the saint in Servia see C. 679 contains an Ylepcrrjv. Procopius. and we have seen that the original narrative of Eusebius has been preserved as a separate document St. Das Christliche Element in der topographischen Nomenclatur der Balkanlander in the Sitzungsberichte der kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften. ad primam responsionum eius confidentiam. xxiv. the The literary monuments all have their origin in Greek The others are of comparatively recent date. pp. vol. cxxxvi. of the twelve matrons put to death with her. UpoKoirioy rbv of which the author countries. Jirecek. 2 1 will not discuss here the cultus of St. who. in their passionaries alone. and we can but chronicle another of the of the many aberrations compilers of synaxaries. a priest of Jerusalem. n x i-> PP» 36-37- 3 The following is the text of Adon : "In Palasstina natalis sancti Procopii martyris. 3 have explained further that the We rbv dprvpa Hesychius. Procopius in Slavonic iy/cca/mov els is 1 The Vatican MS.. Those who are in the habit of handling this class of volume will entertain no doubt whatever that it is the one and only St. obvious that but it is are here in the presence of a blunder. irato judice Fabiano (read Flaviano) . 473-82..

388-89. was called Theodosia.143 first THE LEGENDS OF THE SAINTS legend of St. and a few names of places designed to connect the saint with Sardinia. they have further transformed his history into a sort of passe-partout^ a specimen biography which has been made to fit the lives of various obscure saints the librarian. 362-77. Ephysius of Cag- Apart from a few petty incidents clumsily tacked on to the text. The same account occurs in Usuard. Sollerius. Ed. The portion of the second legend that was read at the Council of Nicaea was translated by Anastasius But it is almost certain that a complete translation must also have existed. concerning first liari. and the character of the saint perverted. but the name of the city has become that of the mother of the martyr who. Like Procopius. Analecta Bollandiani. Both are equally described as noble ladies of Elia and as having for husband a Christian named Christopher. Procopius served in the place to furnish Acts for St. There is of course no question of a mission to Alexan- dria in the legend of Ephysius. vol. Procopius. the story such as we know it has scarcely been revised. 1 ". For the illustrious martyr has not been spared a single one of the indignities to which clumsy hagiographers have subjected those saints on whom they have bestowed Not satisfied with composing on special attention.. 1 whom all information is lacking. his behalf a history in which facts are completely travestied. pp. iii. . capite caesus est pp. We are justified in inferring this from a study of the Latin adaptations of the Acts of St. in the original legend. and in particular nothing has been done to give it a greater appearance of probability. Procopius was probably known to the West through a Latin version made in Southern Italy. The second legend of St.

.. May. He lands at Arborea. vol. " And seeing that I. vi. an entirely unknown personage. Like Oulcion in the original legend. is shortly struck down by a His place is taken by Flavianus. It is from Cagliari that he writes to Diocletian and to his mother to announce his conversion. Barlaam. The sentence is carried out apud Caralitanam civitatem in loco qui dicitur Nuras. I have faithfully and truly recounted it in the hope that it will be profitable alike to our contemporaries and 2 1 to posterity. and in a short time makes himself master of the whole island. The emperor despatches to him one of his officers named Julicus. not indeed of Egypt. oratu ipsius beati martyris : Ephy sifide liter veraciterque descripsi prcesentibus atque posteris p rofu tu ram? Analecta Bollandiana. Julicus fatal fever. whose acquaintance we have already made. By the power of the sign of the cross Ephysius scatters the Saracens and then sets sail for Sardinia. who entrusts him with the duty of persecuting the Christians. . subjects him to cruel tortures. The vision occurs at a place called Vrittania. at the request of the blessed martyr Ephysius himself. after which he condemns him to have his head cut off. and it is at Gaeta that a silversmith named John supplies him with a crucifix. p. Mark. 377. who. which however does not enable us to believe for a moment in the good faith of the biographer Cuius passionem ego presbyter Marcus^ dum a principio usque adfinem oculis meis vidissem. 1 and with the following declaration. 732. Archbishop of Cagliari. p. the priest." Acta SS. This savage judge does not forget to inflict on the martyr the ordeal of St. vol. The history ends with a short narrative concerning a St Juvenalis.THE "DOSSIER" OF A SAINT 143 Ephysius is taken to Antioch by his mother and introduced to Diocletian.. but of Italy. iii. on Ephysius's refusal to apostatise. had beheld his passion with my own eyes from the beginning unto the end.

now time to summarise the preceding pages. 170-71. . Bishop of Caesarea. . vol. summoned him before their tribunal bore the sively names of Oulcion and Flavianus the conversion of the soldiers. Procopius for his benefit. and applying to him the legend in all its details and in its most complete and fabulous form. . vol. pp. of the shrines at Caesarea and at Scythopolis supply an incontrovertible proof of venwith the main outlines of his Of itself this narrative eration. May.. . Daniel. John. the church of St. In this case also the martyr was called Neanias in his pre-Christian days and his mother was born at Elia. while it was the Emperor Maximian who entrusted to him the duty of exterminating the The two prefects who succesfaithful of Alexandria. however. Procopius fully established together life and the manner of his would not be sufficient death. Thanks to the testimony of Eusebius. Ecclesia Venetce antiquis monumentis Venice. and the same is true.. 1 illustrates. 1749. 1 this unknown martyr some history some needed. pp. which was Johannis For brought there from Constantinople in 1215. there is St. 2 Flaminius Cornelius. martyr {sancti Alexandrini martyris). instead of being of the martyr all recur. the existence of is the martyr St. of the inclusion of the saint in the Hieronymian Martyrology. Acta SS. of the twelve matrons and of the mother Leontius. of Alexandria. and no better plan was forthcoming than that of despoiling St. to establish the fact of a traditional cultus.i 44 THE LEGENDS OF THE SAINTS in At Venice. figures on this occasion as Bishop preserved the body of a ducts . The existence. iv. as has been already explained. iv. . 304-7. and it is 2 in the latter city that John meets with It is his death.

saint's parents. the conversions he 10 . One may say briefly that throughout the Middle Ages St. his state of his qualities. copius. Theodore. Mercurius. Even in our own day he saints. and adventures. Procopius. On the other hand. Demetrius and others and that the only literary monuments in which we can inform ourselves concerning most of them are documents of the same class as those which constitute the legend of Procopius. and suffered death by the sword. Procopius was venerated in the character attributed to him by the second still legend. We have the good fortune to be able to verify these details. his life his he endured. in the It 145 rapidly supplanted has left no trace Greek menologies in which the place which one would have liked to see assigned to it on 8th July is invariably filled by one or other of the legendary forms. Menas. this : The historic residue a Christian named Pro- was martyred under Diocletian by order of the judge Flavianus. thanks to the single historical source which acquaints us with the personality of St. and which a providential accident has preserved for us. a native of Jerusalem. Let us now see how much of — them the historian must is reject or retain. and to confirm their accuracy.— THE "DOSSIER" OF A SAINT The narrative of Eusebius was by legends throughout the East. Of the three legends with which we are familiar it is the most historical version that has enjoyed the least popularity. belongs to the category of warrior It is important to remember that the type is one common to a number of well-known heroes George. the comparison of our legend with all Eusebius's book establishes without a doubt that the other details are a pure invention. Thus the names of the life. the tortures imprisonment.

vol. John of Alexandria. And Such yet the legends we have been dissecting first had their origin in a historical work of the quality. these are elements of far greater value to the student. and one is that they are not wholly lacking in the credentials of some very celebrated saints. which we may arrive of the historical existence of a saint and the legitimacy of his cultus. his miracles. among the documentary evidence concerning St.146 THE LEGENDS OF THE SAINTS brought about. the text of a martyrology based on the Church. alas. ii. whose credit has been seriously compromised by the clumsy tactics of their biographers. 1 are the results hagiographers are capable of pro- ducing when they have good documents to work upon. liturgical traditions of a A few lines written by a contemporary. they have felt justified in giving free rein to their imaginations ? In the dossier of St.. or a basilica dating from thankful to be able to affirm ancient times. of the twelve matrons and of the two officers as being the simple inventions of hagiographers. the legend fills the lowest place.. . but we must exclude from the Greek liturgical books the names of Theodosia. Procopius. in the absence of all guidance. Such testimony is not to be found. p. and it if we had no other document to add to we should find ourselves reduced even when dealing with so illustrious a martyr to a series of notes of interrogation. July. Ephysius of Cagliari or St. Not only must the impossible Oulcion be expunged from the list of 'Roman magistrates. therefore. in no sense depends on the The certitude at popularity of his legend. all these are mere fabrications. The very exist1 Acta SS. the visions with which he was favoured. 576. In what terms shall we qualify their productions when.

. it appears that his body was stolen from the chapel of a monastery in Constanti- nople as little known as the saint himself. vol. 171. p. iv. IO . by a title which basis is is patently spurious. As for the martyr John.THE "DOSSIER" OF A SAINT 147 ence of the former and the antiquity of the cultus paid to him are only guaranteed. Saintship on this insecure unhappily by no means without precedent in the annals of Sardinian hagiography. 1 Flaminius Cornelius. 1 His incom- petent biographer has only succeeded in accentuating our suspicions concerning his identity. Ecclesice Venetce. as we have seen.


;

CHAPTER

VI.

PAGAN SURVIVALS AND REMINISCENCES.
I.

Rites and symbols

— Incubation — Collections of Miracles Literary borrowings from pagan sources— Unavoidable analogies — Superstitions.
Suspicious
Practices

common

to Christianity

and

to ancient religions

The

subject on which

we

are about to enter

is

fertile

in surprises, and, let us confess at once, in regrettable

confusions.

It

has borne, and

still

bears, the brunt of

an over-ingenious
religious

criticism, eager to

connect certain

phenomena which come

specially within the

range of hagiography with certain pagan beliefs and

By means of a subtle exegesis, frequently based on a very wide learning, students try to discern beneath the surface of Christian legend remains of the
practices.

older mythologies

and

links with an earlier worship
rival

they point out, between
similitudes

religions, analogies or

which they maintain can only be explained by the fact of their having been borrowed. There are men indeed who do not hesitate to assert that in the struggle between Christianity and idolatry victory was not always on the side where it has been assumed to be, and, as might be supposed, it is the cultus of the saints that supplies arguments in support
a

of this paradox.
i 48

PAGAN SURVIVALS AND REMINISCENCES
It

149

were unfair to try and discredit the study of by insisting unduly on the exaggerations of those who have sinned in these matters by over-refinement or by superficiality. The problem before us, in spite of the obscurity in which it is involved, is worthy of serious examination. A material but wholly external link between the new religion and the old consists in the common possession of a certain number of rites and symbols which we are accustomed to regard as our own special property, and which we are consequently surprised to discern existing in polytheism and bearing much the same meaning. In point of fact it would be very surprising if, when
rites

or of comparative religion

seeking to propagate her doctrines in

the midst of

Grseco- Roman civilisation, the Church had adopted for

her intercourse with the people a wholly

unknown

language, and had systematically repudiated everything that until then had served to give expression to
religious feeling.

Within the limit imposed by the conventions of race and culture, the method of interpreting the emotions of the heart cannot be indefinitely varied, and it was natural that the new religion should end by appropriating to itself a whole ritual which only required to be sanely interpreted to become the language of the Christian soul aspiring to the one True God. All external signs which did not implicitly involve the recognition of polytheism would find grace in the eyes of the Church, and if on the one hand she showed no undue haste in adapting them officially to her use, on the other hand she did not protest when they made their appearance
as a

means of expressing the

religious instincts of the

people.

Certain attitudes of prayer and reverence, the

150

THE LEGENDS OF THE SAINTS

use of incense and of lamps burning night and day in the sanctuary, the offering of ex-votos as a testimony
to benefits received, are such natural expressions of

and gratitude towards a divine power, that it would be strange if their equivalents were not met with
piety
in all religions.
It is therefore

an

uncritical

proceeding to

fall

back on

the hypothesis of a direct borrowing, when

human nature,
I

acting under the influence of religious feeling, affords

an adequate explanation. 1
are persons

Nevertheless

know

there

who

in our places of pilgrimage cannot

watch

the faithful

mounting the steps of the shrine on

their knees, without reflecting that the

ascended the steps of the Capitol in Others are quick to recall that renowned fresco in the Naples museum in which one may see a priest of Isis standing before the cella of the temple and preby Seneca in De Providentia, most curious examples in illustration of this. v., 5-6, offers one of the The following are the terms in which the philosopher expresses the
a

Emperor Claudius the same manner. 2

The

prayer of Demetrius, given

conformity of his will to that of the gods: " Hoc unum de vobis, di immortales, queri possum, quod non ante mihi voluntatem vestram
Prior enim ad ista venissem, ad quae nunc vocatus fecistis. adsum. Vultis liberos sumere ? vobis illos sustuli. Vultis aliquam partem corporis ? sumite. Non magnam rem promitto cito totum relinquam. Vultis spiritum ? Quidni ? nullam moram faciam, quo minus recipiatis quod dedistis. A volente feretis, quicquid petieritis. Quid ergo est? maluissem offerre quam tradere. Quid opus fuit Sed ne nunc quidem auferetis, quia nihil auferre? accipere potuistis. Nihil cogor nihil patior invitus, nee servio Deo eripitur nisi retinenti. sed adsentior, eo quidem magis quod scio omnia certa et in seternum If the reader will compare this prayer with the dicta lege decurrere." Suscipe of St. Ignatius, the eloquent outpouring which closes the volume of Spiritual Exercises, he will be surprised at the resemblance between the two. Yet it is scarcely temerarious of me to affirm that in the moment of composing it St. Ignatius was in no way inspired

notam

;

by the recent reading of Seneca. 3 Dion Cassius, lx., 23.

PAGAN SURVIVALS AND REMINISCENCES
pyx
but
containing water from the sacred Nile. 1
little

151

senting to the adoration of the congregation a form of

With

alteration this scene

might be made to repreCicero
tells

sent an exposition of relics or a benediction in accord-

ance with our existing

rites.

us that at

Agrigentum

was a much-venerated statue of Hercules of which the mouth and chin were worn
there

away by the many worshippers who pressed their lips The bronze foot of the statue of St. Peter in to it. Rome has not withstood any better the kisses of the
faithful. 2

Yet modern Christians have undoubtedly learnt nothing from the Sicilian contemporaries of Verres, any

more than the pilgrims dragging themselves on knees in the fulfilment of a vow, or a Catholic
out
rites inherited

their
priest

blessing his congregation with a reliquary are carrying

from the Romans under the Empire. What is true is that the same thought, under analogous circumstances has found expression after an interval of Concerning centuries in identical actions and attitudes. this point it appears to me that no further discussion is
called for.
It

must however be confessed that there are

certain

rites

of a markedly pagan character sometimes brought

which is distinctly open to suspicion. The curious ceremony which consists in dipping the images of saints into water, too obviously 3 for recalls the sacred bath of the mother of the gods it to be possible that there is no connection between In the same way, it has been thought the the two. Church preserved for many centuries a survival of the
to our notice, the origin of
1

C. A. Bottiger, Isis-vesper in Kleine Schriften, vol.
3

ii.,

Dresden,

1838, pp. 210-30. 2 Verr., iv., 43.

Ovid, Fasti,

iv.,

337-46.

152
rite

THE LEGENDS OF THE SAINTS
of incubation, a superstitious usage widely practised

in

the sanctuaries of

^Esculapius,
it

Amphiaraus and
consisted in sleep-

Serapis.

In

its

essential features

ing in the temple, after due preparation and certain
prescribed ceremonies, with the object of being favoured
in a

dream by an apparition of the

divinity,

and ob-

taining either a revelation as to the future or the heal-

ing of some disease.

We
tion,

possess very

full

information concerning incuba-

thanks mainly to the inscriptions at Epidaurus. 1 The object aimed at was the dream in which the god revealed himself and bestowed health, or, more freThe quently, indicated the treatment to be followed. somewhat complicated ritual which usually served as preparation was only a condition for propitiating the
divinity.

Among

the documents which have been collected on
2

the subject of Christian incubation

a

first

place must

be accorded to the miracles of SS. Cosmas and Damian and SS. Cyrus and John. It would be difficult to deny that a number of their features do recall incubation as The it was practised in the temples of ^Esculapius. saints appear to the patients during their sleep and either
cure
is

them

or prescribe remedies.

Nevertheless, there

nothing to show that at these Christian shrines the practice of incubation was systematically organised as

it

was at Epidaurus, or that we have in fact anything more here than isolated occurrences. Without wishing to contest the fact of the survival, in certain basilicas, of a rite that undoubtedly had its
1

Collitz-Bechtel,
;

Sammlung
Tb

der griechischen Dialekt-Inschriften,

n. 3339-41

P. Cavvadias,

lepbv rod 'Ack^ttiov eV ETriSaipy,

Athens,

1900, pp. 256-67. 2 L. Deubner,

De

incubatione capita quatuor, Leipzig, 1900, 138

pages.

1 of the most celebrated collections that of the miracles of St. Vie de St. is miniscences and even of formal adaptations. 133 we must not lose sight of the very documents which give us information concerning it. The Paralytic and the Dumb it tells share the couch of 1 how the saint ordered a paralytic to a dumb woman. St. The fundamental The Woman. and which in consequence can only be used with the utmost special character of the circumspection. ecclesiastique. and editors of the Menaea 3 felt they could not admit the bad. p. One andria. attributed to Timothy of Alexfive Tillemont who was only the first is acquainted with an mir- incomplete edition of the work containing but acles. . 62-8g. Menas. the second rather less so. putting is aside the burlesque treatment. and idea of this imaginary miracle. narrative in question without notable modifications. 760. Greek hagiographic examples be no lead it literature is notably all less rich than the Latin in collections of this kind. the third and fourth not and the fifth in the highest degree scandalous". Pa'isios grand (in Russian). anything but Christian. does contain greatly surpass their grotesque But the others in and improbable doubt that a close study of their origins to the identification and there can would of a number of pagan refeatures. 2 3 Memoir es pour servir a Vhistoire At the date nth November. 2 declared that " altogether extraordin- ary. Tillemont was not the first person to be scandalised. vol. Pomjalovskij. pp. v. and it was as the le Published by J. 1900. It is an admitted fact that the larger collections of miracles bequeathed to us by the Middle Ages are compilations in which the most varied materials are mixed up at random. Petersburg..PAGAN SURVIVALS AND REMINISCENCES superstitious side. story bears as its title.

also in Melusine. 203. is that the story is to be found with identical details in the result of this order. pp. 2 may be read in a closely similar form on one of the stelce at Epidaurus.. Crusius in Melusine. c. it is necessary to remind them of several well-authenticated examples of identical miracles in the one and in the other which must be derived The miracle of the from one and the same source. Lawrence by Gregory of broken Tours.154 THE LEGENDS OF THE SAINTS under the influence of surprise and emotion. In gloria martyrum. and only be after a thorough inquiry into the sources rum Cosmcz 481-83. P. Perdrizet in the Revue des etudes anciennes. v. 5 The editors will 1 of volumes of miracles have freely availed it themselves of both borrowing and adaptation. related on the still viously grotesque character. Vienna. 97-100. brise in 3339. (1905). Cosmas and Damian. pp. Sammlung der griechischen Dialekt-Inschriften.. that the one recovered the use of his limbs and the other her powers of speech. Archiv fur Religions wissenschaft. ser. attributed to St. vol. 2 3 Wangnereckius-Dehnius. Syntagmatis historici de tribus sanctoet Damiani nomine paribus partes duce. history of the same stelce. not to have some connection with the Id/juara of the god. v. volume of miracles of SS. pp. 1660. See O. .. 78-79. ii. 1 As for those who resent the idea of any literary interdependence between Christian miracles and the official records of the marvellous cures wrought through the invocation of ^Esculapius. Menas. vol. This anecdote recalls too vividly certain comic cures attributed to ^Esculapius. 4 5 he miracle du vase 305-9. What proves moreover that it has no personal connection with St. pp. goblet. 3 The marvellous . xxx. is an adaptamore ancient narrative 4 it also has been tion of a taken over by Christian chroniclers in spite of its obdecapitated head. n. igoo. viii. p. Collitz-Bechtel. vol.

It is however quite certain that the extent of its diffusion throughout the Christian world has been greatly exaggerated. nor do we know whether the Church ever formally sanctioned the rite in certain places. batur quodam pondere ? vigilans animus . Adves- perascente autem die. Qui Finis venit universal carnis. the martyr. ut asserebat. l4f Post quam trinam vocem visio * mar- quae mentis eius oculis apparebat. somno. Vigilo. nee dormiebat. he was neither asleep nor yet could keep fully awake. continued to retain all the characteristics of pagan incubation. tyris. sed depressus. evanuit. atque ibi post laborem quievit. gravaatque ante eum : idem beatus martyr Eutychius vigilas cui respondit : adstitit. stratum fieri sibi juxta sepulcrum martyris voluit. while attempting to give it a Christian character. nee perfecte vigilare poterat. but . related " by St. as it appears to have been practised in cer- tain basilicas.— PAGAN SURVIVALS AND REMINISCENCES 155 from which these miracle books are derived that they can be made use of as historical documents." On a certain day as he was making the round of his diocese he came to the church of blessed Eutychius. it is impossible to ascertain what really belongs to them. Gregory as follows die : Quadam dum parochias suas ex more circuiret. In point of fact the majority of examples that are quoted have no more real connection with incubation than the story of Redemptus. Cum nocte media. Towards midnight. dicens ait : Redemte. It is therefore very difficult to decide to what extent incubation. ut solet. As night was coming on. so he declared. and it is consequently only with prudent reservations that they can be quoted in evidence of the custom we are discussing. pervenit ad ecclesiam beati Eutychii martyris. Bishop of Ferentino. he had a bed made for himself beside the martyr's tomb. finis venit universae carnis. finis venit universal carnis. and there after his labour he lay down to rest. As far as investigations have gone at present.

without expecting any vision. sleepest thou ? To whom he answered. should be carried on with far greater discernment and a more critical spirit than is generally to be met with among folk-lorists who have undertaken the duty of collecting documents for the historian. as often happens. the end of all flesh has come '. Save for the apparition. In general the study of superstitious practices of which the existence has been proved at certain shrines dedicated to very popular saints. Redemptus.. the end of all flesh has come. In other instances we hear of sick persons who refuse to quit the tomb of the saint until they are cured. which was quite accidental. the appearance of the martyr which had been perceptible to his mental vision van' ' ' ' ished. frequently compelled to pass the night in the humble little chapels of the villages they pass through on their apostolic journeys. saying.. seemed by some heavy weight. Thus there is the ancient rite which consisted in passing through his active some aperture —a stone with a hole to be crushed mind oppressed with drowsiness. I am awake '. They fall asleep and the cure comes to them. ." Dial.156 THE LEGENDS OF THE SAINTS Note that the bishop. When lo the said blessed ! martyr Eutychius stood before him. while they are sleeping. The end of all flesh has come. There was neither rite nor religious observance involved. but the ceremonial as a whole and the institution itself are not found. After which triple utterance. Whereupon he said. iii. and not a few among them possess a quite remarkable gift for establishing far-fetched resemblances. 38. the incident was one which might Bishop and priest are still occur in missionary lands. In all these instances there are certain details in common with those of incubation. with or without a vision. merely had his couch prepared in the basilica of the martyr. The accuracy of their information is often more apparent than real.

xxvii. and that there is a wide distinction between a vain observance the efficacy of which depended upon a pierced stone. inserting his head he makes such 2 petitions as his needs suggest. and a practice mainly founded on a belief in the virtue of relics. even in the first ages of Christianity and beneath the roof of our most venerable basilicas. St. accedit super sepul- crum.: PAGAN SURVIVALS AND REMINISCENCES in it 157 be cured of certain diseases. But he who desires to pray. Dymphna. Folk-lorists may be excused for discovering reminiscences of the custom in certain churches in which the tomb of the saint is raised from the ground in such a way as to allow of pilgrims passing beneath. the connection between such rites is extremely remote. and when the little orifice is exposed to view. Peter's in Rome itself has not escaped. cancellis. This is how Gregory of Tours deor the hollow of a tree in order to — scribed the " tomb of the apostle in a celebrated chapter. collocatum valde reseratis rarum Sed qui orare ille desiderat. opening the grating with which the spot is enclosed. be admitted that even if it exists at all. 2 altare Hoc enim sepulcrum sub habetur. quae necessitas confessionis " (the sion ") for 1 window or orifice of the " confesits it to be necessary to explain purpose H. In gloria martyrum. however. Gaidoz. there and everywhere. as for example at Gheel in Campine where lunatics make the round of the choir by passing beneath the archway above which stands the shrine of St." . Paris. comes right over the tomb. Un viextx rite medical. quibus locus sic fenestella ambitur. 3 " For this tomb placed beneath the altar is considered to be a very rare thing. 85 pages. It must. 1 But folk-lorists have gone much further than this. and have been determined to discover examples of the suspected practice here. et parvula patefacta immisso intror- sum promit efflagitat" 3 Archaeologists are too familiar with the " fenestella capite. 1892.

The sepulchre of St. Gregory of Tours touched with his aching tongue " per Far from recalling pagan rites. and which are in direct opposition to Christian beliefs or Christian ethics. 1 which also had its " fenestella. terror-stricken at St. 3 general rule they have no direct relation with public worship. n." 2 2. Pierre vol. The incident of the Count of Toulouse.. tomb of these acts of devotion at the shrine of a saint inspired by a relics. 1896. who suddenly left having seen 1 Montpellier in 12 12.. 2 St. 1-50. Martin's bird flying on his left hand. cit. 47 " Viderat enim quandam avem quam indigenae vocant : . iv. See. —All these examples are quoted by Gaidoz. for example.158 its THE LEGENDS OF THE SAINTS position was affected by the arrangement of its surroundings and the shape of the "confession. 43 Bouquet.. As a are an inheritance from our pagan ancestors. . de Vaux-Cernay. 4 i. and their accidental association with established religious practices or even their connection with the name of a saint confers on them no sort of authorisation." . in the Zum heidnischen Ritus Abhandlungen der pp. xxxvi. p. Martini. Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin. xix. Nevertheless we are far from denying the survival. Albigensium. the vestiges of ritual nudity in various superstitious practices. op. lignum cancelli". 4 In Gloria confessorum. tions against The greater number of the supersti- which the Church has perpetually made war with changeful tactics and varying degrees of success." and in no sense whatever by any superstitious custom. of a certain number of cus- toms of which the origin is extremely remote. has been quoted with equally the little Martin which reason with still less.. 3 De virtutibus S. Hist. " Through the bars of the grating. Venerandus at Clermont. Weinhold's studies on pp. among Christian nations. 36-37. k. desire to approach as closely as possible to the t are distinctly redolent of the spirit of primitive Christianity.

howWhat does ever. 1897." in volatu et cantu avium et ceteris In a collection of portents published by D. ad sinistram volantem. Irene. PP.. Martini. et perterritus fuit valde. Les inscriptions copies de Fards in the Recueil de ennes et assyriennes. in which one would be surprised at meeting with the names of saints. Anne. Bassi and E. need not detain us for the moment. 175-76.PAGAN SURVIVALS AND REMINISCENCES of religions. a la philologie et a Varcheologie egyptiSee also W. A. logical The same may be said of 2 all astro- practices l and incantation formulas. Nicholas. Thecla. Ipse enim auguriis 1 more Sarracenorum. Pleyte pp. vol. Boeser. Barbara. Catalogue codicum astrologorum grcecorwn. one may find the following invocations recommended Stephen. Pietschmann. George. They would appear to be the saints whose names had been given to the stars from which the portents were derived. pp. avem sancti Martini. R. Leyden. 1899. 158-69. Codd. spem habebat. the Holy Cross. . Catherine. Demetrius. the Blessed Virgin. Brussels. Cos: mas and Damian. 1903. travaux relatifs xxi. Parasceve. interest us is to know in what instances and to what extent hagiographic monuments reveal the existence of an actual link between polytheism and any public and normal manifestation of Christian piety.441-86. Anastasia. did we not know that absurdity and incoherence is the characteristic note of all manifestations of popular credulity. and P. This aspect of the question. 2 In Egypt the names of the Seven Sleepers of Ephesus and the forty martyrs of Sebaste have more than once been found inserted in magic formulas. Ital.. Michael. Manuscrits coptes du musee d'antiquites des PaysBas. Pantaleone and Gregory. but is 159 has no reference either to hagiography or to the history connected with the history of superof stitions just as definitely as the " sinistra cornix " Moeris in Virgil.

160

THE LEGENDS OF THE SAINTS
II.

Saint-worship and hero-worship
translations

— Relics — Fortuitous coincidences.

— The centre of hero-worship — Solemn

debate at this point has to be transferred to a vast arena, for it is the veneration of saints itself which is denounced as being a prolongation of idolatrous

The

admit that, in its first beginnings, the religion of Christ was pure and undefiled, and rejected everything that could obscure the concepBut when the faithful ceased tion of the one True God. to be an elect few, and when the Church was, so to speak, invaded by the populace, she was forced to relax her severity, give way before the instincts of the mob, and make concessions to the polytheistic ideas that were
paganism.
critics
still

The

stirring in the brain of the people.

By

the introduction of the cultus of the saints, the

Church opened the door to a clearly marked current of There is no essential difference, so it is affirmed, between the saints of the Church and the Beyond question the two heroes of Greek polytheism.
paganism.
cults

resemble

each other

in

their

manifestations,

but they are also identical in their spirit, and we are 1 Such clearly here in the presence of a pagan survival. is the thesis that is developed by the folklorists with

much

self-complacency.

cannot neglect the details of the parallel. Nothing could be more instructive, if only that it enables
1

We

" Christianorum
;

quoque

religio

habebat atque habet suos semideos,

suos heroas
tione, p.

57

:

sanctos scilicet martyresque." L. Deubner, De Inciiba" Die Heiligen der christlichen Kirchen vor allem die der

griechischen Kirche, stellen die gerade Fortentwicklung des griechischen Heroenkults dar. Die Heilige sind die Heroen der Antike."

G. Wobbermin, Religionsgeschichtliche Studien, Berlin, 1896, See also E. Maass, Orpheus, Munich, 1895, p. 244.

p.

18.

PAGAN SURVIVALS AND REMINISCENCES
legends. 1

161

us to appreciate the exact value of certain hagiographic

Among

the Greeks, heroes are mortals

made

superior

they have received from the gods. Privileged beings, holding a position midway between divine and human nature, they can lay
to the vulgar herd
gifts

by the

claim to some portion of the power of the immortals,

and they are enabled to intervene
affairs.

effectually in

human

These

heroes, the mortal sons of

some

divinity, great

warriors, benefactors of

were specially

humanity or founders of nations, honoured in the city with which they were

connected either by birth or by their exploits.

They

became

its

protectors and patrons.

Every country,

indeed every town, had its heroes to whom monuments were erected and whom the people invoked in their
prayers.

The

centre of devotion to a hero
in

was

his

tomb,
it

which was sometimes erected
agora, the centre of public
sheltered
7]pwov.
life.

the middle of the

In most cases

was
as

by a

building, a sort of chapel

known

A

great

number of tombs of heroes adorned

the celebrated temples, just as the tombs of saints are

honoured

in Christian churches. 2

body of the hero could not be venBut erated a cenotaph was erected to his memory. no means were neglected to secure the veritable rethe actual
Concerning hero-worship see F. A. Ukert, Ueber Ddmonen, Heroen und Genien in the Abhandlungen der k. sdchsischen Gesell1

When

Preller, Griechische schaft der Wissenschaften, vol. i., pp. 138-219 Mythologie, vol. ii. W. Schmidt, Der Atticismus, vol. iv., Stuttgardt, 1896, p. 572, and above all F. Deneken, Heros, in Roscher, Lexikon
;
;

der griechischen
2

und romischen Mythologies
67
ff.

vol.

i.,

col.

2441-589.

On

this special point see K.

Th. Pyl, Die griechischen Rund-

bautetif Greifswald, 1861, p.

II

i6 2

THE LEGENDS OF THE SAINTS

mains, for the people had faith in the power of a hero's bones and ashes, and when the precious object which

was to serve as a protection to the city could be discovered, it was seized upon and conveyed thither with the greatest pomp and with ceremonies which undoubtedly
1 recall the translation of Christian relics.

The most
translations

celebrated account of one of these pagan
is

that of the transference of the remains

2 of Theseus to Athens, under the archonship of ApThe hero rested in the island of sephion (B.C. 469).

Scyros, but the spot of his interment was carefully An oracle arrived in kept secret by the inhabitants.

from Delphi, recommending the Athenians to go and take possession of the bones of Theseus and cherish them in their own city with all Cimon, son of Milthe honour that was due to them. tiades, proceeded to lead an expedition against Scyros, took possession of the island and instituted a search
the
first

instance

for the

tomb.

A

further prodigy revealed the exact

spot

he was simply to dig at the place that an eagle would point out to him with beak and talon. In the coffin was found the skeleton of a tall man with spear Cimon carried his precious burden on and sword. board his trireme, and the remains of the hero made a triumphal entry into Athens amid sacrifices and every
:

demonstration of joy. of the town near the

He was laid
site

to rest in the centre

of the gymnasium,

and the

tomb of
and
for slaves

the hero, who, in his life-time

had been kind

helpful to the humble,

became an inviolable refuge and other needy persons anxious to escape

from the exactions of the mighty. A great sacrifice in his honour was established on the eighth of the
1

Lobeck, Aglaophamus,

p.

280; Rohde, Psyche,
8.

vol.

i.,

pp. 161-63.

2

Plutarch, Theseus, 36; Cimon,

PAGAN SURVIVALS AND REMINISCENCES
month of Pyanepsion
in

163

memory

of his return from

Crete, but he was also commemorated on the eighth of other months.

This page of Plutarch might be adapted, with but few alterations, to more than one mediaeval translaIn the majority of cases these solemn tion of relics. journeys of relics are preceded in the same way by miraculous incidents accompany heavenly warnings
;

the discovery of the sacred remains

;

the people pro;

vide a brilliant and enthusiastic welcome
shrines are erected for their reception,

magnificent
their pres;

and

ence

regarded as a protection to the country finally an annual feast-day is inaugurated in honour of the
is

happy event. Nor was this an

isolated case.

The

translations of

the ashes of heroes were of frequent occurrence in Greece. 1 Thebes recovers from Ilion the bones of

Hector, and presents to Athens those of CEdipus, to Lebadea those of Arcesilaus, and to Megara those of Aigialeus. Rarely are these disinterments ventured

upon without an authorisation
oracle.

or

command from some
it is

In spite of these divine interventions

fre-

quently necessary to have recourse to cunning in order to gain possession of a sacred tomb, and the incident of Lichas possessing himself of the body of Orestes 2 forms a curious counterpart to certain expeditions in search of the relics of a saint.

Not

infrequently also

it

Ages, that a
discovery of

new human

cultus

happened, as in the Middle sprang up at some fresh

bones.

Whenever

these were of

1 Pausanias is our leading authority on this point. The most important documents have been quoted by Rohde, Psyche, vol. i., p.

161,
2

and by Deneken previously
Herodotus,
i.,

cited.

67, 68.

II *

i6 4

THE LEGENDS OF THE SAINTS

assumed to be the skeleton of a hero, and sometimes an oracle would be consulted as Thus it was that the Syrians learnt to his name. from the god of Claros that the body of a giant found in the dry bed of the Orontes was that of a hero of the same name, of Indian origin. 1
large size they were
It
is

not only in the honours paid to the mortal

remains of heroes that we may trace an analogy between pagan practices and devotion to relics. Just as, in our own churches, objects that have belonged to
saints or that recall their

memory

in

some

special

way

are exposed for the veneration of the faithful, so in the temples visitors would be shown divers curiosities

whose connection with a god or hero would command
their respect.

In Rome were to be seen the bones of found at Joppa which were said to be those of a whale In the monster to which Andromeda was exposed. other places might be seen the cithara of Paris, the lyre of Orpheus, the ships of Agamemnon and ^Eneas. And as the eager credulity of travellers rendered the neocoroi and the periegetai as ingenious as our modern vergers and ciceroni, in the end no relic was too improbable for them to profess to exhibit Leda's egg, the white sow with her thirty little ones sacrificed by JEneas on the site of Alba, the anvil which Jupiter suspended to Juno's feet, and the remains of the clay out of which Prometheus had created man. 2 No single detail will be lacking from the parallel when we have pointed out that, like ourselves, the ancients were not without experience of duplicated
:

1

Pausanias,
Ukert, op.
i.,

viii.,

29, 4.

2

The documents have been
cit.,

collected
;

by Lobeck, Aglaophamus,

p.
ii.,

52.

pp. 202-4

Friedlander, Sittengeschichte, vol.

chap,

Die Reisen.

seems scarcely necessary to insist that heroworship among the Greeks never possessed the same 1 J. translations. 1 Would it not appear as though the critics had established their case now that we have had to admit the existence among the Greeks of a cultus which in every detail recalls that paid to our saints. p. its relics. with its varied manifestations. From the veneration with which their mortal remains were treated and from the confidence of Christians in their intercession arose the cultus of alas. heroes were to be found on more than one spot. La legende a"Enee in the Revue de Vhistoire des religions. Can is further parallels be is that the veneration of saints and spurious or even needed to prove merely a pagan survival ? and yet it will not stand for a second before the judgment of history. vol. its —indeed. 165 and were surprised to discover at Memphis the hair which Isis had torn out in her despair at the death of Osiris and which they had already been shown at More remarkable still the tombs of certain Coptos. Thus that of /Eneas was pointed out not only at Berecyntus in Phrygia. vi. The quence of the high dignity of those witnesses to Christ as proclaimed by our Lord Himself. apparitions forged relics. A. are a direct consetheory plausible. . we may frankly say. men who had known the baptism of blood. with. and on the shores of the Numicius near Lavinium. 67. inventions. excesses which have whom It it compromised the memory of those to was intended to pay honour. with occasionally excesses. but of reverence for the martyrs and the honours paid to the martyrs from the outset by the early Christians. . too natural exaggerations. 1882. but also at ^Enea in Macedonia. Hild. The cultus of the saints is not an outcome of hero-worship. a cultus with relics..PAGAN SURVIVALS AND REMINISCENCES relics.

what- may be the analogy of the facts or the similitude M. n. Upon these grounds Demetrius came His words are these to replace the tutelary god of Thessalonica. Sosipatris. to beg of them the healing of the sick. xviii. to place perilous journeys and difficult undertakings under their protection or to bestow on them visible proofs of gratitude for benefits received. Er ist gleichsam die Personifikation griechischen Polisgedankens. oder die Fleischwerdung des antiken Wie Apollon und Herakles fiihrt er den Beinamen Sosipolis. 1 In the same way. and that the patron saint should receive all those honorary titles which in earlier days had fallen to protecting heroes : Sosipolis. " Der Typus einer solchen Paganisierung des Christentums ist nun vor allem der heilige Demetrius. sdchsischen Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften. i8gg. P. But it had an analogous starting-point and developed under the influence of general ideas which are not without some affinity with those which urged swarms of the faithful towards the tombs of the martyrs. It was not necessary to remember the gods and the heroes in order to turn in perfect confidence to the martyrs.. vol. Gelzer maintains that St. Hence it necessarily arrived at practically identical consequences. Philopolis and the like. and the history of these two cults represents a logical and parallel development without however any interdependence. there ever 1 is no real reason for supposing that the earliest narratives of the finding of relics. 5. Moreover it was certain to come about that the tomb of a martyr should be regarded not only as an honour but as a safeguard to the town that possessed it.54- ." Die Genesis der Byzantinischen Themenverfassung in the Abhandlungen der kgl.: 166 THE LEGENDS OF THE SAINTS definitions theological foundation same exact and was never expressed in the which always place an infinite distance between God and man favoured by God.

viii. In sort ancient ecclesiastical writers made no of difficulty about admitting the existence of analogies between the cultus of martyrs and that of heroes. I see no reason whatever for connecting them with unconscious reversions to paganism. We have already pointed out sufficiently the popular tendency towards material and tangible things to account for these aberrations. A statue or the body of a saint which appeals to a man's eyes. The markedly rapid development of the cultus of saints and may well be explained by human mind was already prepared martyrs point of fact. and which are to be found more especially in countries where passions are strong and imaginations keen. he declares.PAGAN SURVIVALS AND REMINISCENCES of the details. however. are told that the ideas disseminated through society to a ready ac- by hero-worship predisposed the mind tion ceptance of the rSle of saints in the Christian dispensa- and of their value as intercessors before God. were inspired translations. impresses him far more vividly than 1 Grcec. Theodoret made use of the fact as the startingAlthough point of his controversy with the pagans.. guard against exaggeration. I see no reason whatever for contesting the statement. iv. other people should take exception to our practices. which need to be continually kept in check. the fact that the to accept it. Schulze. affect.. 1 As for certain exaggerations which from time to time have made their appearance to the detriment of the religious spirit. If identical state of mind under We we must. pp. curatio. you who possess heroes and demi-gods and deified men. date from the fourth century. Indeed. 902-3. They are the natural outcome of an similar circumstances. vol. . were neither forgeries nor imitations. you should be the last to complain. 167 by the records of pagan of which the earliest These narratives.

the date. . I mysteries which appeal only to his as should not therefore regard the manifestations of Neapolitan piety mere paganism. and the legend. 4 vols. Throughout the work he makes no allowances for them. We will examine briefly closely. not to mention other religions. for titles demonstrated by examples that too much value must not be attributed to exterior resemblances or fortuitous coincidences when We believe we have sufficiently any question arises regarding the continuity that may have existed between certain Christian practices and the Graeco-Roman faith. 1889-91. is not only very wearisome to read.. III. in hagiographic matters. show that he is quite incapable of understanding the character of the people and their exuberant devotion. Das Heidentum in der Romischen Kirche. Gotha. The author is intimately acquainted with the Neapolitans.168 THE LEGENDS OF THE SAINTS faith. 1 though I am far indeed from proposing them as a model to be imitated. Trede. there is question of going back to the origins of a traditional cultus. three essential elements must be studied the place. but his prejudices. which he is never able to set aside. The matter has to be investigated somewhat more and wherever. was only after the complete triumph of Christianit became possible to establish her sanctuaries on the very sites of ancient temples that were either disused or had been wrecked. Pagan survivals in worship — Holy places — Christian transformations —Adaptation of names —A method ascertaining primitive — Sacred sources. The Christians had not awaited the final abandonment of pagan monuments It ity that to erect magnificent buildings in accordance with the 1 The work by Th. but is the outcome of a very superficial study. : the various questions connected with these points.

vol. 2 Acta SS. p. celebrated for its oracle which the heathens came in crowds to consult and by which even Christians were sometimes led away. Cyrus and John which until then had lain in the Church of St. De inctibatione. 1083 . We are fairly well instructed concerning the methods adopted by the Church to combat superstitions attached In most cases she did so by to certain localities. but the den of superstition attracted greater crowds than the house of God.. Cyril put a stop to these idolatrous gatherings by causing the bodies of SS. 80- 98. vol. Jan. and how in order to house it he commanded a church to be built in the immediate vicinity of the temple of Apollo of which the oracle was forthwith reduced to silence. and to supply Christian nourishment to the religious instincts of the people. pp. Cyril there was a little town named Menouthis near Canopus. which was at that time both a centre of We and a scene of debauchery.. enraged at receiving no reply from it. p. 405. idolatry The documents on this point have been Memoir es.. about twelve miles east of Alexandria. . attacked the ancient religion on In its 169 many cases they own ground and contested its pre-eminence. Deubner.. iii. and by fostering there a new cultus of her own in order to distract popular attention. caused the relics of the martyr to be returned to Antioch. 1 collected by Tillemont. ii. for example. how Caesar Gallus (351) caused the body of the martyr Babylas to be conveyed to Daphne. know. 2 It is true there was a Christian church at Menouthis dedicated to the apostles that had been built by Theophilus of Alexandria. 1 In the time of St.PAGAN SURVIVALS AND REMINISCENCES requirements of their liturgy. erecting a basilica or a chapel. Julian.

F. Gregory of Tours relates 1 how. to which. Then. Moreover the storms ceased to rage at the time of the 2 festival. just as they were starting for home. 1886.. 6775- . for example. vol. ii. they were always caught The Bishop of Javols arrived on in a violent storm. Lenormant. cakes and Every year the people would arrive with waggons. p. the scene and exhorted the crowd to abstain from evil practices. Hilary of Poitiers on the shores of the lake. i. lake was abandoned and the objects that formerly had been flung into its waters were offered to the basilica. he built a church in honour of St. by flinging stuffs. the tions anew. which henceforward was consecrated to God various objects into the water. 2 . under the inspiration of God. But his preaching was in vain. as he says. bringing food and drink with them. to be transported in solemn state Such were the beginnings of one of to Menouthis. pp. 61 G. slaughtering cattle and giving themselves up for three whole days to feasting. See. the most famous shrines of Christian Egypt. We have less reliable information concerning the substitution But it has long been adthat took place on the Mons Garganus. mitted that the legend of the sanctuary contains echoes of the oracle of Calchas so celebrated on this spot. Paris. there was a large lake on a mountain named Helanus. in the Gevaudan district. 1883. Die Culturentwicklung Sild-Italiens. A travers VApulie et la Lucanie. In this particular instance we see that the Church did not take possession of the sacred spot.170 THE LEGENDS OF THE SAINTS at Alexandria. Breslau. 1 Gothein. as the dedication feast. the country folk made Mark some sort of libation. but that she In gloria confessorum. transported thither certain relics of the saint and began his exhortaThis time he was more successful. The fourth day. threatening them with divine wrath.

. . Because it has sometimes been possible to note an analogy between the Christian earlier title. v. When such a course possible. L'art pa'ien sous les empereurs . chretiens. Certain learned men have in- vented an ingenious theory in order to supplement. en Grece in the Archives des Missions scientijiques. e -profane trasportate 5 « ad uso e " 1744. PP. vol. in many instances. title of the transformed temple and its they have felt justified in attributing to the Church a systematic Christianisation of pagan sanctuaries supposed to be based upon a very accommodating consideration for new converts. or built with their very stones. the new churches were placed under the patronage of saints 1 Marangoni. 1 The classic examples of this latter category are the Pantheon in Rome and the Parthenon at Athens. 259-98. pp. second series. 1874. and it has been possible to draw up long lists of churches erected upon the foundations of heathen temples. Paris. 469-533 P. and she consecrated them to the one true God whenever circumstances rendered by competition. the silence of history. 1868. Recherches sur V emplacement et le vocable des eglises chretiennes adomamento Rome. other less illustrious temples replaced at a later date by Christian churches the In the case of many memory of their primitive destination has been less carefully preserved. Delle cose gentilesche delle chiese. or indeed simply installed in the ancient edifice. Allard. pp. The history of the liquidation of the property of vanquished paganism has been related many times.2 5 6 " 8 7 L Petit de J ul ^ e ville. In order to permit them the illusion of not having wholly broken with the past. Paris.PAGAN SURVIVALS AND REMINISCENCES ruined it 171 once the temples were definitely forsaken she was too wise to abandon to secular usages sites that had frequently been selected with great discrimination.

Demetrius on the site of a temple of Demeter it is the name It is true that of the goddess but slightly modified. but it was again there was also a church of St. In those instances in which saint in order to uproot we have historical proof of the action of the Church. It is somewhat more difficult to prove that these resemblances have been generally sought after. favouring the cultus of a some superstitious practice. and if certain critics have put it to strange uses. Thus. . whether the analogy be phonetic : or symbolic the archaeologists make capital out of it.. at Eleusis we find a church of St. -Ibid. and find little difficulty in pointing out some resemblance between the new patrons and the old. we have no reason to suspect any link between either the name or the legend of the saint and those of the pagan divinity he supplanted. graphical indications might be collected by this process. But its efficacy is entirely illusory. cit." Te(op<yio$} In other places St. others have regarded it with well-merited suspicion. 493. by their name or legend. 505.172 THE LEGENDS OF THE SAINTS who. George has taken the place of Theseus or Hercules. and the proof should certainly be forthcoming whenever it is proposed to link the name of the saint with that of the It is clear that most valuable topodeity he displaced. who was disguised under the name of the " holy agriculturist.. but on those occasions it is as the vanquisher of wild beasts that he is substituted for the victor over the Minotaur or the destroyer of the Lernean hydra. the goddess of agriculture. op. 2 Thus. 504. pp. recalled the divinity who had previously been honoured on the same spot. George. Remember the martyr-bishop 1 Petit de Julleville. Demeter. 492. pp.

or that this latter group of which the origin and true history will probably always evade research have assumed in popular imagination a new and . like Cosmas and Damian. most improbable that in early days she should have lent herself to such dangerous equivo- and indeed cations. Cyrus and John have ended by becoming types of healing saints. for example. the one a soldier. enticing the populace from the shores of a sacred lake. however. Cosmas and Damian. I am far from denying that here and there popular devotion may occasionally have become tinged with the still vivid memories of ancient superstitions and that they have often profoundly modified the physiognomy of certain saints that. brought to Menouthis to combat the oracle of the goddess and Hilary of Poitiers. SS. 1906. Harris who has searched all hagiographic literature for replicas of Castor and Pollux has strangely overlooked Cosmas and Damian. resemblance as Some may be Pagans were in the habit of noting the seen from various texts of the miracles of SS. 96-104. Dr. has been supplied in his later book. Thus there is St.] . Cambridge.PAGAN SURVIVALS AND REMINISCENCES Baby las opposed to Apollo . pp. 77. whom there exist in Greece a large built on the summit of hills and 1 A put the reader on theory to which we Elias. or disinterested physicians. De incubatione. R. confessor and pontiff. the other a monk. nothing authorises transpositions of names leaving the thing unaltered. as far as one to affirm that the Church has systematically encouraged these facts are concerned. 173 Cyrus and John. — — definite character as kindly genii eager to help hu- manity in imitation of the Dioscuri. They have been collected by Deubner. 1 But. dedicated to number of chapels mountains. it is few examples are necessary to his guard concerning this seductive have referred. . [The omission. The Cult of the Heavenly Twins. p.

as Pau- At Athens. A. sun-worship became almost completely absorbed in Apollo-worship. op.i 74 THE LEGENDS OF THE SAINTS have admitted that Elias usually takes the writers place of his namesake Helios. the church of St. 1 The assimilation It is specious. 4 Pausanias. 452. p. 505-6. 1864. im neuen. Wachsmuth. The history of the pro- phet as to it is related in the Bible. up heaven in a chariot of his apparition at the side of Christ in the Transfiguration. C. 89. pp. Paris. 23 . op. Petit de Julleville.. 1864. p. but there is nothing to prove that the divinity in question was Helios. Bonn. 3 Petit de Julleville. a fact which upsets the play upon words that is supposed to account for the numerous chapels erected to St. for sanias tells us it : 69 Trapacr/cevrjv i<rTi not obvious that there must be rwv Tro/jbiroiv} Is some connection of the church. 2 F. but it is not borne out by the facts. . i. the titular saint alte Griechenland cit. the god of the is sun. Elias. Paraskeve occupies the site of the Pompeion. 488. ii. his being carried fire. Moreover in order to draw conclusions from these titles they ought at least to be primitive and to belong to a time anterior to the moment when the dedication But in point of fact of the sanctuary was altered. Das Lenormant. cit. natural patron of high places". pp. shrines of Helios were the most numerous. not on the heights of Greece that the Moreover. 4. Elias has taken the place in many instances of some pagan divinity. a building dedicated 3 to the organisation of religious processions. several of those quoted are of more recent date. 514.. Athena christians. Monographie de la vote sacree Eleusinienne. Mommsen. Tlapaaicevrj.. between 1 St. example.. 2 "made It is him the probable enough of that the invocation of St. p.

1874. de Gubernatis. have built up regular romances on the strength of some hagiographic text. Aidoneo e San Donato. and that we are in the presence of a simple coincidence the importance of which has been exaggerated by certain archaeologists. Trapao-fcevi]. no one would have dreamt of bestowing her name on the little edifice to which Pausanias refers. pp. .. Paraskeve can only have bestowed her name upon the chapel at a comparatively recent date. and liturgical documents of the tenth and eleventh centuries prove that her cultus. Donatus took the It may place of Pluto. Need we add that even had her memory been held in honour from the most remote times. starting from a vague resemblance between names combined with certain topographical data. whose name. bears a resemblance to " Aios DonaI should be the first to concede that we possess tes ". epirotica in the Rivista Europea. for she was unknown to the ancients. an.. 425-38. of processions which took place on the same spot ? And yet we are in a position to affirm. If the author makes use of the it word the irapaa-Kevrj in this connection was certainly not name by which the building in question was known to the people.PAGAN SURVIVALS AND REMINISCENCES 175 and the preparation. or. and moreover that various scraps of mythological lore have been made use of in order to supply him with a 1 E. Donatus. that no such connection exists. King of the Molossi. what comes to the same thing. without fear of error. vol. v. every one is ready to admit. were posterior to that period. In point of fact St. studio di mitologia ii. and still more her popularity. Among these productions we may class the attempt of a mythologist 1 to prove that St. of Aidoneus. be observed that various scholars. no really authentic records concerning St.

this subject expressed in his vol. previously quoted. withOccasionally even. who were early regarded as the patrons of direct inheritors of were the altars some tutelary deity whose attracted the multitude. to quote the name of some god or pagan hero specially honoured in each of the Greek towns which later were This to become the centres of Christian pilgrimages. der christlichen Kirche. . Christian "canalisation" religious emotion. 1 The instances.176 THE LEGENDS OF THE SAINTS But the erudite fiction which seeks to identify him with the god of the infernal regions merits biography. The wave of popular devotion would merely have been slightly deflected from its earlier course. are of the irresistible stream of by no means we are willing to admit. Tubingen. Anfange des Heiligenkults in See Analecta Bollandiana. Lucius. with the assistance of texts and documents. But all this does not justify us in formulating a general law which. 487.. more especially those cities. would have a very important bearing on the study of comparative religions. abandoning the temple of the idol in order to flow past the Christian basilica. of a species of rare in history. only amounts to saying that one local cult replaced 1 Exception might be taken on more than one point to the ideas on recently published by G. The concourse of pilgrims could thus be easily explained by the renown attached to the spot. It would not be difficult. if true. as little consideration as the traditional narrative. xxiv. Anrich. the phenomenon may have been spontaneously produced. out any intervention from the leaders of the Church. At the back of more than one learned disquisition on the origins of devotion to the saints one may discern the idea that the great martyrs and thaumaturgists of the ancient world. p. Die posthumous volume by E. 1904.

In later centuries pilgrims from the whole world flocked Rome to the tomb of the prince of the apostles. The number of wells placed under the patronage of some saint is very considerable. References to it may be found in A. xxi. which was it all the more difficult to uproot as the object of could neither be destroyed nor removed at will. 150-60 . 1893.-lxvi. Bertrand. La religion des Gaulois. 23-31. . 191-212 . and we do not propose to undertake the task. 1 It would be difficult to draw up anything like a complete bibliography on this subject. C. important work by R.. Hope. 1890.PAGAN SURVIVALS AND REMINISCENCES another just as one 177 note everywhere that one religion succeeded to another. historiques. pp. 222 pages. lxv. We is duction of the cultus of the saints refer to water-worship. ? Yet would any one seriously suggest that direct heir of Jupiter Capitolinus St. 12 . in The Antiquary. pp. Peter is the A chapter of popular hagiography connected with the christianisation of centres of superstition by the intro- suggested by the passage from Gregory of Tours already quoted. Bulletin archeologique du comite des travaux Paris. On the Capitoline in Rome there was a temple dedicated to the lord of heaven. Legendary following volumes Lore of the Holy Wells of England. although we cannot refrain from inquiring whether the majority of commended for accuracy and definiteness. Holy Wells : Their Legends and Superstitions. We shall not embark upon the task. 1897. 1 Consult also the 1898. incongruous and ill-classified as it is. and the also the book by the same author. vol. Certain devoted students of local history have drawn from the fact conclusions which cannot all be equally It would be a wearisome undertaking to attempt a synthesis of this mass of material. who there received through to many centuries the incense of kings and people. pp. 1897. But it does not follow that there may was any bond of connection between the hill two. London. pp.

the common people never miss an opportunity of baptising the noteworthy spots in their locality. remote times. and quite naturally they bestow upon them any name that happens to well dedicated to St. Dates of festivals Alteration of object Difficulty of proving coincidences A method for ascertaining dates of pagan festivals Examples. and it is obviously false to assert that the memory of a saint could only be connected with them by an act of ecclesiastical authority. Martin occupy their minds. . Celebrations which attract a large concourse of people are necessarily fixed for specified days. IV. any sense witnesses to the struggle of the Church is This in clearly not the case. of superstitious worship. As we have already shown. is not necessarily a holy well it merely testifies to the popularity of St. To this second category belong all those to which the heathen were in the habit of offering their prayers and their gifts. Martin. It would be extremely prove that all these springs were the objects. One must therefore distinguish carefully between the wells which only attract attention by their name. — — — An important element is in seeking to establish the first beginnings of a cultus the correspondence of dates. difficult to A . will agree that there is Every one nothing does itself nothing more or pilgrimage . difficult to alter than the date of a forcibly than in fair in the tenacity of popular custom the faithful display more observance of festivals.— 178 THE LEGENDS OF THE SAINTS names of saints are attached the wells to which the are in against paganism. and those which have been a centre of devotion or superstition.

the only thing for them to do was to change the purpose of the gathering. K. with ceremonies recalling the worship of Adonis. R.. it was impossible for them to prevent the people coming together. Gregory Thaumaturgus organised annual reunions for his people in honour of the martyrs. and thus facilitated the transition from worldly pleasures to purely spiritual joys. Gregorii Thaumat.PAGAN SURVIVALS AND REMINISCENCES One may be will certainly 179 perfectly certain that if a Christian people it has retained anything whatever of a pagan festival be the date. In this way St. Liibeck. they were invited to keep the feasts of the martyrs which Generally speaking. 1 where the bishops had to combat some definitely idolatrous festival and to uproot some celebration of immemorial antiquity. however. John the Baptist. has been rendered superfluous by a work by M. in which he thought he could distinguish traces of a pagan festival in honour of the return of Spring. 954. 1904. the principal conclusions of which have now been accepted by M.. When. 1902) has devoted a monograph to the interpretation of a narrative by an Arab prisoner of war. 1904). Adoniskult und Christentum auf Malta (Fulda. 2 The Bishop of Javols would never have triumphed over the superstitions that were rife in his diocese. Wiinsch himself {Berliner Philblogische Wochenschrift. Migne. pp. 1455-59). Hilary on the shores of Lake Helanus on the day appointed by the liturgy. The author believed that the narrative referred to the feast of St. What It was far otherwise 1 Vita S. p. it be said that when it was simply a question of affording some compensation to converts compelled to renounce all pagan rejoicings. Any discussion of the subject. by name Suliman. Das Friihlingsfest der Insel Malta (Leipzig. G. may were celebrated on the anniversary of their death.. P. and thus sanctify the day. Wiinsch in the close of the sixteenth century a Christian festival in the island of Malta. as must frequently have happened. vol. who describes towards 2 M. xlvi. 12 * . had he been content to celebrate the feast of St.

says Gregory : of Tours. Mark's Day are a Christian continuaThe tion of the Robigalia observed on 25th April. leaves no place for reasonable doubt. the liturgical divergencies in various localities. Mysterienwesen. and the identity of the object of the festival. Chris- tian Worship (Eng. 2 date. But the solution in other cases is often far less easy The number of pagan festivals being to arrive at. But if all are agreed as to the importance of this class of proof. Duchesne. the chances of a purely fortuitous coincidence are proportionately great. p. 1 Hence the coincidence of the dates becomes an element of the first importance for those who are anxious to establish any bond of continuity between the pagan and the Christian feast-day.180 THE LEGENDS OF THE SAINTS he did do was to celebrate it on the day of the heathen festival in hac solemnitate quae dei erat. 1 and it seems See above. very considerable. pp. they are far from agreement as to the difficulty of demonstration. 2 Anrich. tr. 231 . all complicate the problem of the date to such an extent as to render the assimilation almost always illusory. . 261-62. it Precise details are in- dispensable and subject is may well be asked it. Thus it may freely be admitted that the greater Litanies of St. p. Leipzig. taken in conjunction with the similarity of the rite. Where it is merely a question of establishing a parallel between some Christian solemnity and a festival of the Roman calendar the problem is simple enough and one can arrive at definite conclusions. 1894. the multiplicity of feasts in honour of the same divinity. the difficulty of bringing them into agreement.). whether the differences of a nature to afford The between the various calendars. 170.

The link he suggests between the two feasts is of the slenderest. 2 Coincidences are far more difficult to establish it when becomes a question of comparing our own calendar with that of the Greeks or Asiatics. 373).. 207. 13th August. asks himself whether the date of the feast of St. 313-14. is more probable than the other. vol. Thus we find that the gods and the heroes was celebrated at Athens not only on a special date but on the corresponding date of each month. ii.. and with very varying systems of festival of the festivals. igoo. pp. and 13th August is undoubtedly the date of the death of St. Dec. cit. 3 These repeated commemorations increase very materially the possibilities of a coincidence. has not been fixed by that of the pagan festival Diance in Aventino (Marquardt. See also A.. 3 Chr. p. op. . p. op. 1857. Eccles. 1 This last theory. The selection of the date would appear to have been the result of a calculation having as its basis 25th March. . he culte chez les Romains. Feste der Stadt Athen. Hippolytus. pp... had no influence on the choice of that day as the Feast of the Nativity of our Lord. certainly the older celebration. that being presumed to be the date of the death of Christ. 1898. A. 5 2 Marquardt. ii. Hippolytus. In point of fact this last was kept not on the 2nd of February but on the 15th. 1-5. Ueber die Gebtirtstagsfeier bei den Griechen. Paris. Amer. vol. 179-83. which makes the cycle of the feasts of the infancy of our Lord depend upon Easter. Mommsen. pp. Leipzig. 1 Duchesne. - Dufourcq in Etudes sur les Gesta martyrum. 181 which was celebrated on 25th December. Petersen. People have also professed to see in the Feast of the Purification a Christianised version of the Lupercalia. pp.PAGAN SURVIVALS AND REMINISCENCES probable that the natalis invicti. which rests only on an ingeni- ous identification of date. Leipzig. 247-54 Thurston. pp. Rev. 6l -57 6 1898. and it becomes obvious that we must cit.

Christian Legends. particularly remarkable ingenuity of which they give evidence. (1906). have already pointed out how inconclusive is the reasoning which professes to recognise. p. in spite of the saying so. in The Month. on the corresponding date of each month. 202-7 : . See H. 1907.. Analecta Bollandiana. Rendel-Harris. which would fall. 1906. pagan festival if their authors will forgive my unfortunate. 1 The efforts already made in this direction have always appeared to me. It is equally dangerous to attempt to deduce the unknown date of a from Christian data presumed to have some sort of connection with it. 1. pp. the primitive We name of the tutelary divinity of the same place. either the The following is the argument by 1 8th or the 19th. Thurston. 62. would seem to point to the existence from the very earliest times of a monthly festival in honour of the two heroes. J. gestatten uns in ihrem Gedenktag die Zeit des ursprunglichen Gotterfestes mit Sicherheit zu erkennen und dadurch das Wesen des Festes und der Gottheit zu ermitteln. London. Cambridge.J. drawn from the survival of the worship of the Dioscuri. in the Christian titles of certain ancient shrines. 14. p. This is how he expresses himself: "Die christlichen Heiligen die an die Stellen von Gottern gesetzt worden sind. . 1904. in accordance with common usage. vol. which we arrive at this unexpected discovery. cviii. The following is a recent example. Usener is of a different opinion. S. then the dates of their feasts are collocated in : the following fashion 1 M.. H. A series of deductions. The Dioscuri in the The same author has recently published on this subject 1903. a new work which is scarcely an improvement on its predecessor The Cult of the Heavenly Twins." Archiv fur Religionswissenschaft. no. 2 vii.— i8z THE LEGENDS OF THE SAINTS jump fall not hastily at conclusions because two feasts happen to on the same day. 2 We start with the assertion that a whole series of saints are merely Castor and Pollux in a Christian disguise .

Mark and Marcellianus. St. — Judas-Thomas and SS. 19th December. St. Add to this the fact that no Dioscuri are to be met with in the martyrologies for 19th April. admitting even which as that there may have been some sort of link a matter of fact there was not between the Dioscuri and the saints already enumerated. let us suppose that their feasts were all celebrated on the same day of the month. xxiii. for on that date the lector.PAGAN SURVIVALS AND REMINISCENCES 183 1 1 — Dioscorus. have shown elsewhere that not one of the above saints has anything whatever in common with the Dios1 Nearly all of them are clearly defined historical curi. Protase. — 19th April. Castor. — 8th June. This saint is the second in the group of Timotheus and Polyeuctes inscribed in the Syriac martyrology for 20th May. . vol. But putting aside all these difficulties. 8th August. 19th May. Polyeuctes. for it fixed for the 18th of every month? — — is obvious at a glance that the date of the 1 1 8th in the Analecta Bollandiana. 19th June. St. Gervase and 1 St. Should we be justified in concluding that in all probability the festival of the Dioscuri was Far from it. Florus and Laurus. St. The of St. the 18th. — Polyeuctes. 8th December. and it is only by the commonplace blunder of a copyist that the names have been repeated among the martyrs the date of the memory Egypt. Polyeuctes. 1 St. Dioscorus. I personages. — Castulus. of the 19th. — SS. — SS. 8th September. was celebrated in 19th of May is not martyrdom of St. 427-32. while their cultus is regularly established and rests on a traditional basis.. pp. It is the 18th May that must be meant.

with which the The appears. 18th August. and you will then discover in the martyrology an authentic feast of the Dioscuri and their sister. We have here a further example of the necessity of not being satisfied with a mere coincidence of dates. . No single Latin martyrology makes any mention of Florus and Laurus. This fortuitous collocation does not go back . We shall have something to say later concerning the 1 Harris.184 THE LEGENDS OF THE SAINTS 1 Julian Calendar does not correspond with the 8th in the Greek. and does not appear in any other place. 1907.. whereas no Greek synaxary names Helena on 18th August she is always associated with Constantine on nth May. pp. pp. had it been celebrated monthly. pp. Helena. It was the accidental result of a compilation composed of Greek and Latin elements that brought Helena and the Greek martyrs together at the same date in the martyrology. in accordance festival of Castor and Pollux. Florus and Laurus are merely the Dioscuri under another name. Helena is also commemorated on this same day. Syrian or Asiatic calendars. cit. a simple observation which should suffice to eliminate from the ancient calendar the supposed festival of the Dioscuri corresponding to 1 8th August. and compare The Month. cit. is the sister of Castor and Pollux. 428-29 See also Analecta Bollandiana. op. is the date of their feast. however. further than the sixteenth century. who are only known to Greek tradition. It so is not quite so simple as it happens that the collocation of Florus and Laurus with Helena is entirely fortuitous. for St. would in the first instance have been fixed. in the fable. Give Florus and Laurus their correct names. 1 One of the arguments brought forward to prove that SS. 1-19. 225 ff. . vol. March. matter.

Slgnla Vrsa Signi Symphori templum Venerl Pelaglce a solo fecit et signum ipsins decs posuit Falcone et Claro cos. Legenden der heiligen Pelagia.. I must confess that the argument would make but a feeble impression upon me. 1879. C. Usener. Not at all. One solitary date has been verified in connection with the worship of the Pelasgic Venus. In order to establish a connection between St. specially honoured on 8th October. in the year 193 of the Christian pointed out that Poseidon is mentioned in the same votive inscription. But it is May. L. It might at least be expected that the first thing to prove would be that the goddess was honoured on 8th October. and that in point of fact month was dedicated to Poseidon. Euploia is the title of the Aphrodite of Cnidus.4443. Pelagia. and Aphrodite. . 1 among other reasons. mats. 3066. k. I. the dedication of a temple and statue to the goddess at Nigra Corcyra (Curzola) on 1st era. 3 and that has reference to a local festival. in the following terms : @ea> %€/3a(TTq) Kaicrapt /cal IIocreiSfovL aa-fyaXeicp kcli 2 'AcfrpoSeLTy EvirXoia. H. on the date of the festival. p. iii. even if it could be proved that the God of the sea had his festival on the 8th of the month the 8th of each in Cilicia as well as at 1 Athens. 2 L G..— PAGAN SURVIVALS AND REMINISCENCES 185 theory which has resulted in fixing 7th January as the date of the festival of the " Epiphany of Dionysus " in Bithynia. Bonn. xxi.. much emphasis has been laid. 3 C. supported by the text of an inscription at Aegae in Cilicia.

: Pelagia and allied legends — — Legend of St. In order to convey some idea of the discoveries that may still be made in this direction. Gregory has brought 1 2 together so visions many quaint narratives.186 THE LEGENDS OF THE SAINTS V. Pagan legends Christian adaptations Three cases Examples Legend of St. Lucian of Antioch — — — to be considered St. stories of saints. and revelations with which. I will quote a page from the collection. Livrada. We least celebrated among them must follow them upon their own ground and attempt to outline the — — methods which should be applied to this branch of research. with charming candour. pious anecdotes. See above. . in which St. of the tains his deacon Peter. and indeed when we ourselves were treating generally of the origins of our hagiographic narratives sufficient we quoted examples of such adaptations to leave no room The further our researches in for doubt on the point. those which in their entirety or in certain portions appear to reflect pagan traditions. 1 the domain of comparative literature can be carried. pp. and it is in fact mainly through such legends that they have attempted to connect a certain number of the saints and not the with paganism. are those which have most attracted the attention of critics. and people will be surprised to discover in mediaeval lore so many remnants 2 of classical antiquity. 30-35. the greater will be the number of these parallels. The legends which offer the most vulnerable points. we have nothing to say against their view. he enterThe thirty-sixth chapter of book iv. If people merely wish to assert that among a series of legends certain features are to be found that were already in circulation among the nations of classical antiquity. justly celebrated in the Middle Ages.

therefore. L. 204. Radermacher.PAGAN SURVIVALS AND REMINISCENCES 187 But whether such material was used in its raw state or whether it was first given a Christian colouring. religious element which is responsible in these cases. the expression of an ancient cultus. Stephen had died and saw his soul conducted to hell. 363 Festschrift Theodor Gomperz dargebracht. It is impossible to be mistaken in this matter. De his qui quasi per errorem educi corpore. lxxvii. whether Christian form. thoroughly illustrates the title. it is the stream of literary activity carrying along with to be solved it the debris of earlier ages. his namesake and neighbour." said the judge. surviving under a One must. Gregory The saint had gathered it from the Stephen who related it as his own experience. p. Without speaking of St. and one of his friends. p. no reason for talking of pagan inIt is not the filtration or even of pagan survivals. as a general rule. The friend of St. p. 1902. Augustine.. P.. died (Migne. Aus Lucians Liigenfreund in vol. he might have read it in Plutarch." Forthwith the soul of the dead man was returned to his body and the blacksmith. Gregory was an unscrupulous person who boasted of being the hero of a tale that he had read in some book. Psyche. lips of a certain . in other words. "it was Stephen the blacksmith. Brought before " the judge who presided there " he was refused admittance. in the first place. L. One of the incidents related by St. ii. there is. 2nd edition. was taken in his stead. These may well date from classic times Dialogues bears the curious videntur e title. " That is not the man I sent for. See E. . vol. Vienna. re- put aside all legends that are independent of any passionaries ligious observance. 384). or still better in Lucian's Philopseudes. in which Cleomenes relates in similar fashion how having been taken to Hades before the tribunal of Pluto he was sent back to earth again.. Rohde. the blacksmith Demylus. The problem is whether a Christian it is legend perpetuates in any sense a religious incident appertaining to paganism. In hagiographic collections such as menologies and and in compilations such as synaxaries and martyrologies there are many names and documents which represent merely a literary tradition.

it may happen that legends dependence upon pagan antiquity is been purely literary may end by giving birth to In its origin the History of the Seven a cultus. Seven Sleepers is a continuation of a religious episode of the polytheism of Greece. In the first place. and whose relics are in request. left whose admitted to have the sphere of literature to pass into the 1 domain The heroes of this wholly imaginative end by being honoured as saints of whom the work burial-place is shown. a legend possessing pagan features have for its subject an authentic saint whose cultus dates from a period anterior to the legend and is quite independent of it. p. July.. that the fabulous element has become mingled with the history of the saint merely in virtue of that inevitable law which connects legendary incidents totally devoid of any special religious interest with the name of any illustrious personage.188 THE LEGENDS OF THE SAINTS without our having to discuss the possible influence of paganism.. Sleepers was a pious romance which. Similarly. ficially created cultus does not bury its roots in the distant past of Buddhism any more than that of the of liturgy. The problem suggested by these It may be circumstances is not always easy to solve. x may But it is also possible that the Acta SS. little by little. attained to similar honours. vi. by a regularly observed festival or by relics offered to the veneration Such cases may come under three of the faithful. after long But their artidelays. 376. In the second place. categories. eventually. Our business is with saints whose cultus is proved by a church erected in their honour. the principal personages of a Buddhist romance. . vol. Barlaam and Joasaph.

214. just as the Dis Manibus Sacrum was written quite guilelessly at the head of Christian inscriptions on tombs without people seeing in the fact anything save the obligatory prelude to an epitaph.PAGAN SURVIVALS AND REMINISCENCES saint has inherited the attributes of 189 some local deity together with the honours paid to him. 2 feasts It is whose difficult to see in these appellations anything further than the expression of a date. G. 1881. p.. 1 Indeed the history of the saints supplies many examples that allow us to appreciate the exact value of certain facts which at first sight would appear to be dependent on religion and worship but which in reality are only connected with them by a very slender thread. and implying. Demetrius. . if we press them. Thus the star of 26th October became the star of St. that of nth November was named after St. and have become either mere embellishments or conventional practices We formulae devoid of objectionable meaning. doctrines that were clearly polytheistic. M. Kroll and A. Philip. Becker. have by degrees wholly lost their original significance. Olivieri. pp. like and I should not to assert that the Byzantines believed that the 1 F. D. Menas. Die heidnische Weiheformel. Gera. ful little genii that painters The grace- and sculptors love to set climbing among the festoons and vine-branches are mere decorative motifs. Codices venetos descripserunt. must not indeed forget that a great number of and expressions and stories. No point is more difficult to unravel in practice. that of the 14th was the star of St. The Byzantines sometimes named saints stars after the corresponded with their rising. : 65-67. 2 Catalogus codicum astrologorum grcecorum II. Brussels. beyond doubt religious in their origin. igoo.

The majority of the hagiographic legends that are adorned with mythological rags and tatters appertain in all 'probability to saints who have nothing else in 1 2 3 Cumont. vol. pp. Nicholas just as we should speak of the When sailors referred to the autumn gales as the " Cyprianic winds " the expresequinoctial Michaelmas term. 3 sion no doubt testified to the popularity of St. Vand. iv. 159.. 393. putting aside certain superstitious customs. 1 It seems to me clear that.. London. i. however. The p. 4 When the origin of the shrines of St. See above. . 1896. . 21 . George has become better known we shall perhaps be enabled to replace him on the historical footing which hagiographers have done so much to undermine. 397. iirel is e</>' rbv icaipbv iiriaicfrTrTeip (pi\e? ov r<xvTf\v 01 Aifives &yew is ae\ r))v kopr)]v v^vofi'iKaffi. ill. Cf. i. George merely because of his legend.. 159. 20. but in no way implied any practice of piety.igo THE LEGENDS OF THE SAINTS saints ruled over the stars or that they attributed to them in the firmament functions from which the gods had been deposed. xeijuwj/a 01 vavrai Procopius. and it is highly temerarious to affirm positively that in his person ''the Church has converted and baptised the pagan hero Perseus". 2 they talked of the star of St. Hartland. Catalogus.. p. p. Bell. S. 38. Legend of Perseus. 1903. Cyprian. vol.. . etc. been able to prove hitherto that his cultus among Christians was a mere prolongation of some pagan devotion. Thv . Dindorf. raise doubts concerning the existence of St. Hence istic it does not follow because some character- belongs both to mythology and to the legend of a saint that therefore the saint must be regarded as It would scarcely be logical to a deity in disguise. bfxoivifxws rrj Travrjyvpe 1 irpoffayopeveiv €iu>6a<Tip. 4 E. No one has. .

St. 3 L. but the phenomenon is due to little by accidental circumstances.04. 1 For a long time sailors also had their own special ways of honouring St. 154. Die Volksgriisse der Neugriechen in the Sitzungsberichte der k. wish each other a good crossing in the Nicholas be seated at thy helm". 2 The "May schaft. 1887. Certain the survival of a pagan ritual or' belief. Radermacher. One might therefore describe these saints as the successors of Poseidon. yesterday idolatrous and superstitious. Nicholas 2 and St. pp. but of ascertaining by a careful study of all the narratives concerning the saint 1 Deubner. p.PAGAN SURVIVALS AND REMINISCENCES common versal igi this is not a univery well-authenticated saints have developed in certain shrines such special features that in the cultus paid to them it is difficult to deny deities. 19. Phocas. 3 and of attributing to them powers which remind one of the heroes of antiquity. none the less preserves his in- We have still to consider a third case. It is no longer a question of decidsaint ing whether an authenticated has assimilated some of the characteristics or even the general physi- ognomy of an earlier deity. vii. Whatever have been the primitive history of SS. and saint even when heir to a pagan god the dividuality. vol. formula. and the honours paid to them at certain of their shrines undoubtedly betray points of contact with pre-existing forms of worship. Phokas in the Archiv fur Religionswissensailors of JEgins. St. Cosmas and Damian they were represented at an early age as the successors of the Dioscuri. little may No doubt the figures of the holy protectors took the place of the sea god. 445-52. that of the legend which reveals purely and simply the continuity of a religious tradition. to-day Christian. De incubatione. . pp. Curtius. Pretissischen Akademie.. 76-78. E. with pagan Yet law.

4 5 Migne. 2 and the interpretation which we shall suggest is very different from that which has been current for some searching as it is ingenious.192 THE LEGENDS OF THE SAINTS whether he himself is not a god or pagan hero raised to the altars after a decent transformation. He died at Nicomedia. and his body was conveyed to Drepanum. Eccles. vol. 1. Hist. it will suffice to examine thoroughly one or two individual cases over which scholars have already exercised their wits and to measure the results of a criticism as gations. pp. We years past.. order to realise the difficulties of mythological investi- upon the analysis of legends of saints. xxiv. ix. pp. 4 and a celebrated legend 5 incorearlier period. Bonn.. 3 a panegyric by John Chrysostom. Pelagia.. 397-416. a town on the coast of Bithynia which was re-named Helenopolis by Constantine in honour of his mother. P. Lucian is Among St. The distinctions we have sought to establish mayseem to some over-subtle. St. 1899. nothing more firmly established than his cultus.. Legenden der heiligen Pelagia. H. 519-26. 168-80. porated in the menology of Metaphrastes. cxiv. witnessed to by the basilica of Helenopolis as well as by literary documents.. the principal testimonies to the history of Lucian we have that of Eusebius. 6. Usener. vol. 7th January.. but dating undoubtedly from a much 1 2 3 Id. 1879. G. St. pp. based propose to restrict ourselves to the legends of St. Die Sintfiuthsagen.. Nothing could be better authenticated than the fact of of his martyrdom. one of the most celebrated martyrs of the fourth century. .. 312. Ibid. Bonn. 62 pp. but to ourselves they appear indispensable unless we wish to be satisfied with superIn ficial resemblances and far-fetched comparisons. Lucian l and St.

p. 15. that while still alive he was flung into the sea. the precise number he had spent in prison reaaape^ koX Serca ra<. vol. to? iracras After the first few days he announced to his disciples them the Feast of the Theophany and would die on the following day. writes the chronicler. And he remained in the sea fourteen days.. and to have died immediately after depositing his precious : burden. so that he should be deprived for ever of the honours of Christian burial. In the first place. taken from Studi e documents di storia e diritto. Luciani. the author of the passion relates that the martyr suffered torture entire days : by hunger for fourteen rj/xepas. had commanded that he should be cast into the waves with a heavy stone fastened to his arm..PAGAN SURVIVALS AND REMINISCENCES 193 We Lucian need not stop here to discuss the l life of St. in its general features. 1897. Migne. 1 No this all marvellous inci- legendary themes The dolphin. 3 Others affirm. 12.. vol. 4 one can fail to recognise in dent one of the most popular of of classic antiquity. On the fifteenth day a dolphin is supposed to have brought his sacred body back to land. he repeated three times " I am a Christian. but it is necessary to dwell upon certain details of the legends which have been made use of in support of the theory which it is our intention to examine. work we possess on the Acts of St. exasperated by his constancy. 24-45... The best Pio Franchi. cxiv. the friend of man. This prophecy came true in the presence of the emperor's representatives. n. G. 16. 409. The Emperor Maximian. filled with amazement at his prolonged that he would celebrate with : endurance. oA-a? rj/juepas. Lucian is that of Di un frammento di una Vita di Costantino. pp. n. P. 2 reacrape^ koX Sirca. xviii. n. 4 Ibid. 3 Ibid. 2 Passio S. 13 ." and expired.

upon his back. vol. and that this decorative design may of itself have sufficed to set popular imagination working. tratus. 1889. Ibid. pp. p. i. 2 St. 1 ff. Hesiod. Marx. In point of fact we pp.. tain the precise circumstances under which St. . 1887. Stuttgart. living or dead. and there nothing surprising dolphin further in the fact that so poetic a legend should have passed into the realms of hagiography. Batiffol. vii. Lucian came classical associated with this reminiscence of a myth. even should we fail to ascer- Arianus and others... 1894. 211-35 2 s 4 O. Thiere des klassischen Alterthums. is who the more than one poetic fable and of a whole host of works of art. p. . and in no sense a mysterious. 1 Melicertes. La Passion de saint in Compte-rendu du Congres scientifique interii.. Sept.. 181-86. Lucien d'Antioche. 5 This explanation combined with the mythical tradition which had not been lost at that period and which the sight of the dolphins would recall. 757 . vol. 670. Innsbruck. Callis- This circumstance alone is sufficient to prove that the dolphin episode in the legend before us is purely adventitious and has only an accidental. p. national des catholiques. Ibid. ii. connection with its history.. Keller. But it has the disadvantage of being a pure hypothesis suggested to be by the 1 necessities of the case. Brussels. 3 St.— 194 THE LEGENDS OF THE SAINTS bears him. A. March. 192. Acta SS. Feb. It has been suggested that dolphins may have been carved on the sarcophagus of the martyr.. Etude d'hagiographie arienne. 4 The plays a part in the lives of St. Arion in subject of — this latter case also the dolphin expired on the sand is were all popular types. 5 P.. vol. p. Synaxarium ecclesice Constantino- politance.. 308. Griechische Mdrchen von dankbaren Tieren. is not lightly to be set aside. Martinian. p. vol.

suggested conclusions of a far more radical nature to our school of mythologists. .. at The translation of the sacred remains Helenopolis. Lucian? Because his feast coincided with the feast of Dionysus which was observed in Bithynia on the 15 th of the month of Dionysius. Note. And why is it connected with the memory of St. yet his basilica is situated. 2 In the Syriac Martyrology. not in that town. op. cit. Putting aside. Nov. And what meaning Therefore it was a pagan pp. to the 15th of October. however. recurs in connection with the name of St. the 1 persistence with which the number Lucian. Lucian. 39-43. let us study the legend saint expired after fifteen days of suffering the dolphin brought his body to shore on the fifteenth day he died the day after the Epiphany which was the The 15th of the month of Dionysius. and later on the inhabitants explained the anomaly by the St. 13 * . but across the gulf. 2 has the dolphin ? It is one of the attributes of Dionysus. logitim Hieronymianum See De Rossi-Duchesne.. they say. The presence of the dolphin in the Nicomedian legend has.. A second explanation has been brought forward which possesses the merit of being at least founded on fact 1 Lucian was martyred at Nicomedia. and observe is that at Helenopolis his feast is celebrated on the eve which precisely the 15th of the month of Tishri. lii. ii.. Franchi. PAGAN SURVIVALS AND REMINISCENCES 195 possess no information concerning the decoration of the sarcophagus of St. p. suggestive as it is. vol. in feast which the people 1 P. MartyroActa SS. familiar device of a miraculous intervention of which tradition furnished 1 them with so many examples.. probably left no impression on popular memory. the fact that among the Greeks his feast has been transferred 5 itself.

Such is in brief the reasoning of these learned critics. It is to the legend of St. point of fact we knew from other sources that the great solemnity in honour of Dionysus was really celebrated on the 15th of the month. we find that Dionysus disappears completely from the scene. entseelter auf dem riicken eines gewaltigen delphin zum lande geb1 " racht. current in Bithynia. was one of the numerous replicas of the history of the dolphin bringing But we know nothing to shore the body of Melicertes.. coinciding with 7th January. which itself has not even been established beyond question. that we 1 are referred for the evidence of these state- ments. which would appear to contain an echo of the same tradition folk-lore in all countries ? phenomena of It — — Durch die legende des Lukianos wissen wir das die Bithynier die epiphanie des Dionysos am xv. One would of course be bound to discuss these if in weighty conclusions. Lucian itself of the kind." Usener. unter welchen Als mythischen bilde die erscheinung des gottes geschaut wurde. to leave us in the presence of one of the most ordinary seems suit perfluous to insist on the feebleness of the argument should rather be called the suggestion drawn from the number 15. The Arian commentary on Job. cit. 178. das war das bild Bithynischer epiphanie. .196 still THE LEGENDS OF THE SAINTS remembered and which they associated with this The dolphin of the legend Christian commemoration. des auf wintersonnenwende folgenden monats Dionysios feierten. vol. but. Lucian and Dionysus. p. Lucian a witness to the affection of the new converts for their ancient superstitions. it is What we can we no think of this logical structure save that destitute of any sound sort basis discern of link and that not only do between St. in studying the matter closely. and also that a legend of Dionysus. is of St. Wir wissen daraus auch.

to Venus. p. The legend principles. Lucian. xvii. are certainly surprising. to pay homage to Aphrodite.. Moreover. G. the day of the martyrdom of St. Lucian. bears another figure : 197 Hie namqae beatus duodecim diebus supra testas polli?ias extensus. tertia decima die est consummatus Thus the legend of St. Its authors profess to have discovered that the Church conthough admittedly under a very modified form. and when she quitted the white robe of the newly baptised she donned a hair shirt and a man's tunic. upon the thirteenth day. Touched by grace she begged for baptism. One day she entered the church while Bishop Nonnus was exhorting the faithful. of a most laborious inquiry. vol. owing to the splendour of her pearls and jewels. of St. Pelagia has been the starting-point the results. For.} PAGAN SURVIVALS AND REMINISCENCES as the passion of St. " For this blessed saint minute shells breathed his 1 after lying for last twelve days upon a bed of Migne." P. conducted on the same of which although accepted by many scholars who have not felt bound to investigate them further. Lucian involves no sort of upon the Christians of Bithynia. one of the most celebrated as also one of the most corrupt of the dancing-girls of Antioch. was. It would justify no one in suspecting the purity of their faith or in attempting to prove that they had more difficulty than reflection other people in forgetting Dionysus. neither his own legend nor any historical text has furnished any proof of the assertion. known also as Margarito. 471. to the goddess of carnal pleasure and animal fecundity. it re- mains to be proved that the great really did coincide with the festival of the god day after the Christian Epiphany.. so far. . Pelagia. and left Antioch in secret in order to hide herself on Mount Olivet tinued.

the prefect Olybrius. pp. 2 pp. 15-46. 117-20. St. on 8th October. lat. pp. little cell under the name of Pelagius. 1 The three legends are . . In the is first place. who preferred death by fire recalls the a brazen bull to the love of the emperor's son. 10-41. Margaret. Under this form. for having scorned the advances of the judge. Usener. a commemoration St. and it would certainly not be easy to draw from it any conclusions favourable to a mythological survival. martyrdom of a of Tarsus. The Greek Church celebrates her feast on 8th October. But its critics compare it with other legends with which it constitutes a whole. after which she life entered upon the reward of her of penance. 1886. The same day Pelagia. made of another Pelagia of Antioch. xii. Bibl.198 THE LEGENDS OF THE SAINTS There she lived for three years in a outside Jerusalem. of which the pagan origin and character are according to them clearly manifest. Bonn. in Pisidia. vol. if not the closing scenes. Published by H. grcec. with a history 2 of which the incidents.. Usener in the Analecta Bollandiana. whose heroic death was related by in John Chrysostom third in a panegyric preached in her honour. Marina of Antioch. 5303-10. The sources in Bibl. Acta Sanctce Marina et Christophori. 4 The different versions of the Passion of St. 1 Pelagia of Tarsus reappears at Seleucia on 22 nd August under the name of Anthusa. and taken by itself. recall the preceding version. commemorated by the Greeks on 17th July. hag. 3 and St. Margaret of Antioch by the Latins on 20th July. summarised in Synaxavium ecclesice Con- stantinopolitance 105-6. hag. a virgin martyr. 3 H.. the history of Pelagia offers no very improbable features. 4 suffered death like Pelagia of Tarsus. pp.

or Marina (12th Feb. 4 Euphrosyne of Alexandria (25th Sept. cxvi. She receives the name of Reparata. vol. 348 Ibid. p. Accused of having seduced a nun she suffers the penalty for a sin she could not have committed. She hides herself in a monastery where she passes under the name of Pelagius... 1 Maria. iv. pp. Her innocence is only established after St. vol. G. i.. 609 ff. commemorated on 8th October. Migne. Acta SS. cxv. p. her father. Oct.) convicted of infidelity. Jan.) adopts the name of Smaragdos and lives peacefully in a community of monks until at length she is recognised by St.. Margaret. 24.) ruled as abbot over a monastery of monks.. The re-open the doors of the cloister to her. Marina is driven from the monastery and forced to maintain the child.. She also was falsely accused by a woman before the tribunal of her father who was prefect of Egypt. also enters a monastery disguised as a man.. pp. and suffers a similar misfortune. . p.). ff. but only after her death is the discovery made that she has been the victim of calumny. One day the daughter of an innkeeper travelling in the neighbourhood accuses the supposed monk of being the father of her severity of her penances baby. 5 Theodora of Alexandria (nth Sept. A. . 2 Eugenia (24th Dec.PAGAN SURVIVALS AND REMINISCENCES It is igg easy to trace the connection of yet another group of saints with the preceding. Apollinaria (5th Jan. in Analecta Bollandiana. vol..) who hides herself under the name of Dorothea. vol. ii. Boucherie. vol. 257-61. P. her death. 196-205. 1 retires into a monastic house for men in 2 3 4 5 Acta SS. flies from her nuptial chamber disguised as a man. 3 It is also in Egypt that we meet with a St...

is only a logical development of the main idea. all that these legends are interconnected. lxi. ad Simplicianum. p. have included in it St. Migne. Pelagia is a maiden of fifteen who sees of which folk-lorists 1 K. be seen partly by the similarity in the names Pelagia. vol. Acta SS. denounced 1 for misconduct and rehabilitated It is clear after her death. some monks of the diocese of Tours and was the head of their monastery. Epist. 2 a quite historical personage. concerning whom both St. as : may Before indicating the series of deductions by means have succeeded in recognising Venus or Aphrodite in the person of St. in our opinion. Die Vita S. p. P. John Chrysostom 3 and St. let us try to determine the starting-point of the whole series of legends which we have just summarised. Pelagia. *De xxvii. who is not a saint. vol..: soo THE LEGENDS OF THE SAINTS She is order to do penance. Marina. however.. 1093. ii. But her history in no way resembles that of the penitent courtesan. who lived with placed by them at In gloria confessorum. 7. Hi. 1889.. L. xvi. vol. Nov. 38 . from mentioning Porphyria of Tarsus. Pelagia. Pelagius or Margaret recalling the surname of Margarito given to the courtesan of Antioch. P. ibid. Gregory of Tours.. virginibus. 579-85.. which. PP« 25-44.. 229. 2 Date furnished by the Syriac Martyrology.. Usener's list We refrain Papula quite superfluously. In the fourth century the Church of Antioch celebrated on 8th October the feast of a St. Vienna. xvi.. 1. Sometimes the theme is complicated by the further theme of calumny. p. Theodores. 33. and there is nothing in it to suggest anything in the nature of masquerading. or Andronicus and Athanasia who. He might. G. sMigne.. . pp. and partly by the theme a woman disguised as a monk and keeping the secret of her sex until death.. under the circumstances. Wessely. Ambrose 4 have furnished us with information. burden M.

the time to array herself in her finest robes. the penitent sinner ? The identity of dates. and after her baptism lived for long years in the strictest austerity. where she allowed no one to visit her. herself And the soldiers are waiting below for their victim she flings from the roof and preserves her virginity by a voluntary death. 201 To while escape from their outrages she begs for a delay. 8th October. profitably be recalled at this juncture. John Chrysostom may St. Suddenly she resolved to reform her life. thanks to her evil life. and. under the influence of grace. indeed the way in which St. and shutting herself up in a voluntary prison. who . having become so notorious. Pelagia of Antioch. and who came to Antioch from one of the most corrupt cities of Phoenicia. she wholly renounced her evil ways. The editor. the saintly doctor recalls the history of a celebrated actress whose name he does not give. But it may be taken as certain that the narrative known under the name of Pelagia's Repentance is neither more nor less than an adaptation of the incident related by St. Homily on Matthew. gives food for reflection. Should we then admit the existence of a second St. John Chrysostom. and the very sister of the emperor fell a victim to her seductions. She brought ruin to a large number of persons.PAGAN SURVIVALS AND REMINISCENCES her father's house in the hands of the soldiery. John Chrysostom speaks of her seems to imply the contrary. that her fame had spread as far as Cilicia and Cappadocia. An admirable passage from In his sixty-seventh St. wearing a hair-shirt. Nothing justifies us in assuming that this anonymous penitent became after death the object of an ecclesiastical cultus. She was admitted to the sacred mysteries.

whether or no unrecognisable. by means of fresh data. no doubt considered it too simple and therefore introduced into it the idea of the disguise with which more than one tale would have made him very difficult to familiar. or whether. and who had On the also had relations with the imperial family. and entered in the synaxaries for 8th October. as we are expressly told by St. Whenever they met with two traditions concerning one and the same saint which were not easy to reconcile. he proposed to write the legend of the venerated saint of Antioch. We know from illustrious examples both how quickly historical tradition concerning local saints may disappear beneath the action of legendary compo- sitions. hagiographers hesitate in making alterations that render their subjects almost However this may be. must not be maintained that no confusion has existed. it was inevitable that such identity should soon be assumed to exist. aspects she recalls the courtesan of Antioch. The similarity of the date is The three notices referring in itself sufficient to explain the . had penetrated as far as Cilicia. error. be produced in support of such a contento the three namesakes are the outcome of a very ordinary proceeding among compilers of synaxaries. also little and how in the mind of the so-called James there was any between his heroine and St. 1 The further legend of Pelagia of Tarsus in Cilicia appears to us to be the result of the double tradition In certain that surrounded the name of Pelagia. John Chrysostom. whose reputation. Pelagia of Antioch. identity 1 It the three saints bearing the tion. they had no hesitation in resolving him into two distinct people. It is decide whether the so-called James originally intended to write an edifying romance in which a heroine named Pelagia should play the leading part.202 THE LEGENDS OF THE SAINTS bestows on himself the name of James. nor can name of Pelagia.

. The version self-styled James. Nowhere does a pagan influence make itself felt. Apollinaria. the self-styled James. . which we regard as a somewhat commonplace phenomenon to be explained by the normal action of the legendary ferment. it is the fact that a traditional cultus may have the life crushed out of it this We have dealt at length with by legend. at once the most interesting most highly coloured. as in the case of St. who are simply literary replicas of the Pelagia of or else. If there is any item of religious interest to be deduced from all this. was the subsequent legend. PAGAN SURVIVALS AND REMINISCENCES 203 other hand. although mingled with elements drawn from the domain of general literature. soon disappeared interest taken in her legend. the theme of a woman hiding her sex was tacked on to other narratives having for their hero some historic personage. development. she recalls the primitive Pelagia whose cultus was established as early as the fourth century. This by degrees every vestige of historic fact even the account of the conversion became eliminated and the purely legendary residuum passed under various names. Pelagia of Tarsus was a virgin. thus degenerating into the primitive form of a tale strictly so called. The history of Pelagia in its highly successful and gave rise double form proved to an amazing wealth of legendary lore of which other examples may be found in hagiographic literature. as in her martyrdom. entirely in latter lost shadowy the at the outset. so too But the cultus in this instance was Christian. Euphrosyne and Theodora. Eugenia. thanks to which we have the saints Mary or Marina. and in that. is that which has enjoyed the by the and the greatest popularity. The true personality of the saint of Antioch.

. to the conviction that one and the same divinity reappears in 'the multiple variety of these legends like a trunk despoiled of its branches was profoundly impressed upon the soul of the people. though banished from its temples. the conclusion is arrived at that " this bird's-eye view must give rise. nothing is to be drawn from the dates of the festivals it is the whole of the argu1 Pelagia. It was necessary to tear from the hearts of the faithful the dangerous image which personified carnal beauty it was accepted as it was. even in the most prejudiced minds. Nothing. Legenden der heiligen Pelagia. is more simple." 1 Clearly the point now is to prove that Aphrodite or Venus is indeed no other than the heroine of our it legends. finally Epipontia. . and Marina is merely a translation. Euploia. After having glanced over the series of narratives of which we have given a summary. thus the image that sustenance for the out on every side. of which Usener. is not the interpretation accepted by those who profess to identify Pelagia with Aphrodite. fusion seems. p. epoque contained but one conception which could have produced all these legendary forms that of Aphrodite. in point of fact. Pontia. is the goddess of the sea. Thalassaia. 20 4 THE LEGENDS OF THE SAINTS Such. And this is the whole kernel of the demonstration and as. 20. continued to draw from its secret roots . but purified in the fire of repentance and suffering in order to render it worthy : of heaven. and she Aphrodite was known under a proquality : of titles which recall this Aigaia. however. new branches that were shooting The Hellenism of the Imperial . .. . as may be supposed.

94975 le- Usener. 364-65. 3 See T. Griechische Mythologie. 4 C. both supplied by Horace. in the very heart of Christianity. xxi.. H. Leipzig. p. op. 3369. 3 are to be discovered. PAGAN SURVIVALS AND REMINISCENCES ment. L. pp. 3066.. iii. if it had been less well known at Antioch. B. 1893. . if the title of Pelagia had been one of the popular epithets applied to Aphrodite. 3956. 68. But only one solitary example 2 of a Venus Pelagia and two of a Venus Marina. one that is really ingenious and intended to demonstrate an unequivocal trace of the worship of Aphrodite under one of its most monstrous developments.. the common home of the various versions. 102. 1 Is it 205 needful to add that I consider it a weak one? name of Pelagia had been a rare or unusual one among women.. Nothing on the subject 1894. G. What erudition wasted on a futile task ! cannot however neglect a further consideration produced in support of the theory we are combating. there might have been some excuse for this loose reasoning. 2 I. i. whereas there every reason to believe that Pelagia was quite a common name both at is Antioch and elsewhere. 4 Doubtless we shall be excused from dwelling on other comparisons which are intended to support the Thus Anthusa of Seleucia is compared with the Aphrodite Anthera of Knossos Porphyria of Tyre with the Venus Purpurina of Rome Margarita with the Venus Genitrix because Caesar main contention. p.. If only the or again. I. vol. cit. question of the date has been already discussed. . poets. p. Epitheta deornm quce apud poetas latinos guntur. C. Preller-Robert. Bruchmann. 5 dedicated to her a cuirass studded with pearls.-xxii. Leipzig. F. 1902. Carter.. Epitheta deoruni among the Greek qua apud poetas gracos leguntuv. 1 We Attention is specially The C. 185. pp. Cf.

St. from the diffusion of the picture of the Volto 1 Usener. The object of this to bring us back to the goddess of Amathus in Cyprus. assured her that if she did not do so she would grow a beard. In Rome it is St. Paula. pp.. could be regarded at will as and who wore the dress of a In the sacrifices woman with the beard of a man. who Aphrodite or Aphroditos. has retained the imprint of this formally within the Church but the cultus continues the bearded woman has been raised to the altars. etc. cit. 4 have already pointed out that the incident of sexdissimulation is a most ordinary theme in circulation in every literature and as for the supposed replicas of the Hermaphrodite. Galla 2 in Spain. case of Galla. v. 3 and in other places SS. Gregory.. Wilgefortis. op. 147-63. between lust and chastity. p. as men. 2 o6 THE LEGENDS OF THE SAINTS in the Pelagian drawn to legends to the contrast between pleasure and penance. Liberata. as has already been shown.. I Kummernis. . Feb. is of the most vulgar kind? Physicians. Gregory.. Ontkommer. It was the worship of the of Pelagia.... Ibid.. in order to induce her to marry again... 4 vol. -Acta SS. and so it came to pass. Can any one seriously bring forward the . p. iii. Dial. . told by St. p. 5 Paula is an obscure saint of Avila whose history is a repetition of that of Wilgefortis. vol. it is suggested. The legend . iii. whose history. July. pp. iv. This grotesque legend. is very far from possessing the mysterious origin which some people are anxious to attribute to it. Oct. It took its rise.. 13. however. 3 5 Ibid. offered at this shrine the men were 1 dressed as women and the women Hermaphrodite. they could not have been more ill-chosen.. and the ever-recurrent is theme of sex-disguise. St. 174. vol. xxiii. 50-70.

and often very transparent names Porphyria. Mercurios/' etc. and that not infrequently a real importance is attributed to them in the question of pagan survivals. no. Pallas and Phoebus. — — — In the preceding pages saints' it has been made clear that names play a certain role in the researches of mythologists. p. The sources are given by H. Achilleios. and is merely a coarse interpretation of an unusual iconographic type.. Marina. the names of Roman gods became equally popular. 1 VI. Tychon. p. Thus we have been assured that " the Greek nations of the continent. The Greeks conformed to the custom which became more prevalent as polytheism died out. particularly mis- leading. Hence the frequency with which one meets with the names of gods and heroes such as Hermes. 2 It is easy to show that assumptions based merely upon the Hellenes. Kiliae. 54. in the present instance. 3 as well as with derivatives from mythological names. on : whom name are. Apollo. Die Genesis der byzantinischen Themenverfassting. Deorum nomina homini- bus imposita. 3 Gelzer. Mercurius. Meyersahm. From very remote habit of bestowing the especially times the Romans were in the names of Greek divinities more upon slaves and newly enfranchised persons later. 1891. PAGAN SURVIVALS AND REMINISCENCES 207 Santo of Lucca. such as Apollonios. the Islands and Asia Minor turned with ardour towards the ancient gods of the they were content to bestow new Pelagia. Aphrodite. . 1 2 See above. Mythological names Other suspicious names Iconographic parallels The Blessed Virgin^" Saints on horseback".

. 5 Leipzig. June. 6 There is yet another class of I names which may well which express a quality or function such as Therapon. A study of the Acts of SS. is In Corfu (Corcyra) honour an obscure female saint named Corcyra. whose name recalls that of Venus.. 519. 3 It would be difficult not to believe that this St.. p. 4 Romulus to Rome. p. 560. Paraskeve. 2 This is not to say that in the calendar of saints we do not come across strange names which may give rise its to legitimate suspicions. p. Constantinopolitancz pp. 1892.. 1848. Vienna. who plays Sosipater entirely confirms this impression. xiv. It is almost always to saints with a excite distrust. 4-7. a part in the legend of the Apostles of Corcyra. 39. refer to those 1 2 H. 1 Pegasios. 6. is no other than St. 1886. or Sardus to Sardinia. Delle cose Corciresi. ed. L. 24-26. Sardiniam occupavit et ex suo vocabulo insula? examples. St. " Sardus Hercule procreatus. Danae ff. . a pagan name should not throw suspicion on the saint it. 633-36. xi. 2nd . for example. Gotternamen. and this fact should suffice to show that. in a general way. 3 Acta SS. P. Jason and Sosipater." Isidore. in Latin or Italian form. Byzas to Byzantium. in den christlichen Legenden. vol. are only mythological in appearance. 4 A. pp. . 1896. 358 A fact admitted by Wirth himself. lxxxii. Corfu. Usener. . pp. who bears Certain names. Panteleemon and others.-xx. moreover. Jason and paid to Kep/cvpa. Etyntol. Sosandros. vol. 5 and that she is simply the product of the brain of the hagiographer. Corcyra stands in the same relation to the Island as Nauplius to Nauplia.. etc. Compare Synaxarium ecclesia pp. Bonn.208 THE LEGENDS OF THE SAINTS Dionysios. Venera. Encyklopaedie der philologischen Wissenschaften.. Isidore's compilation is rich in • Migne. Several of these are the names of quite authentic saints. analogous Mustoxidi. v. vendredi.. Boeckh. . 6 nomen dedit.

or St. the existence of the saints who appear to be the personification of attributes is frequently only guaranteed by strange legends. Kummernis it offers an example of Ontkommer The homage paid to her was in reality addressed to Christ. I am well aware that people have denounced. as originally Lucca that people venerated before the transformation wrought in accordance with crucifix of was the the data of the legend. names in keeping with the role they are presumed to play. nor is it always the result of chance. 581. his mother Phaenarete has in point of fact been suspected by Buttmann. crco(j)pova<. the same stamp The cultus of other saints of may possibly have veiled a worship of difficult to specify a very different character. and con- nected by mysterious links with some pagan supersti1 Boeckh. in the case before us. to explain the greater number of them by myths. The matter could not be expressed better. writes Boeckh. guard and Soph- would fall under grave suspicion. But. this. ty)V aperrjv. for it is Socrates who makes men wise." activity attributed to them. Encyklopaedie. the all and with personages times possessed a meaning. for Socrates is 6 (paivwv . roniscos. "considering that nearly all names in reason. moreover. p. mania for transforming into myths whose names correspond with the " It would be quite easy. Liberata.PAGAN SURVIVALS AND REMINISCENCES marked reputation as 209 thaumaturgists that names of this character are applied. the father of Socrates. that people are quick to bestow on the saints they invoke. and it would be classical somewhat embarrassing should have to decide how the Greeks named their children in order to them from the danger of losing their identity seeing themselves reduced to a state of myth. 14 . and we know.

the more so because the arts afford after all only a narrow range of expression. so popular in Catholic countries . Need we recall the extraordinary pre- tension of a certain learned person to trace the type of the Virgin with the seven swords. and who possessed many famous shrines in the time of Justinian. certain scholars have been eager to mark the stages of a sort of Christian metamorphosis having its starting-point in absolute paganism. 923. but It it is. certainly cannot be asserted as a general principle. vi. 2 cannot bring this chapter to a close without touching cursorily on a point which will illustrate in some degree the ideas we have already developed. viii.back to the Assyrian goddess Istar ? 3 As 1 it Our 2 so happens the genesis of this representation of Lady of Seven Dolours. Gaidoz. curatio. very improbable that it is applicable Panteleemon whom Theodoret places among the 1 most celebrated martyrs of his day. pp. Just as. vol..y July. p. a simple confrontation with dedata has proved sufficient to shatter all the conclusions drawn from the vague analogy between certain Christian compositions and figures of admittedly finite historical pagan origin. to St. 3 H.. . 398. La Vierge aux Sept Glaives in Melu$ine r vol. as indeed of the devotion . and that. GrcBcarum affect. Acta SS.210 tion. 126-38. vi. vol. danger of assuming the existence of a real dependence from certain outward resemblances becomes particularly evident. for instance. p. iv. THE LEGENDS OF THE SAINTS Such an hypothesis cannot be wholly excluded. in the We domain of legend. Schulze. so certain Christian pictures and statues appear to them simply as the Christianised interpreIn such a matter the tation of an idolatrous idea. In point of fact it may be said that the few timid attempts in this direction that have hitherto been undertaken have been remarkably unfortunate.„ 1892. in almost every instance.

would very easily suggest the mother of God. But so far iwere they from needing a model from which to in represent the Blessed Virgin in that attitude. 1887. p. between the worship of the Madonna and the worship of Astarte. pp. 265-99. vol. He has even gone so far as to recognise in those pictures of the Virgin to be seen in our churches adorned with a long triangular embroidered robe a continuation of the sacred cone which represented the Eastern divinity. Orleans. indicative of a common origin. Astarte-Maria in Theologische Studien 3 und Kritiken.. 3 This channel of supposed to be found in statues representing goddesses in the form of a woman nursing her Surely every one can see that such a group child. . it We Low have evidence that Countries. 1 2 Analecta Bollandiana. 1888.. is 211 known its in all its details. and that does not date back farther it comes from the to discover Another writer has professed numerous analogies. 14. lxi. 1904. SeeMelusine. archaeologists of 4 It is more surprising that allowed themselves to eminence should have be mistaken concerning the significance of an 14 * . vol. 1 than the sixteenth century. pp.. vol. 333-52. that this is precisely the known of to us. iii.PAGAN SURVIVALS AND REMINISCENCES itself. p. and that it is no way surprising if here and there our forefathers were deceived by the resemblance. both the time and the place of origin having been accurately ascertained. 2 Again. J. Les Deesses-Meres d''Orleans. xii. 503 also G. Rosch. 4 type of the most ancient Madonna that painted on a wall of the catacomb Priscilla. an effort has been made to prove the descent of the Madonnas of the thirteenth century from the type of Gallic mother-goddesses "through the medium of Gallo-Roman types of a more skilful execution which already wear a virginal expression transmission is ". Baillet.

George. N. has no hesitait as the Blessed Virgin giving suck to the Holy Child. C. has also adopted the explanation. 2 and that the sight of an equestrian statue might suggest this iconographic type. und der hi. the dragon-slayer. pp. and restore to the worship of Isis and Horus. 1892. M.. It may well be that Coptic sculptors derived their inspiration from so widely spread a representation and in this way helped to create the popular type of the great martyr. Schmidt. piercing a crocodile with his lance. Menas with the two camels. Egyptian divinity. pi. . But it does not follow that he should therefore be regarded as a pagan divinity. Horus See J. Sinnbildliches. Gayet Les monuments coptes du musee de Boulaq in the Memoires de La mission archeologique du Caire. equally recalls Horus and his crocodiles.. xxxiii. Die Koptische Kicnst. pi. 49-60. 1876. vol. 1902. Ebers. would naturally induce upon the image of the saint what has come to be its consecrated form.. 196-204. and made into a sort of Egyptian stele representing Isis with Horus at her breast. G-eorg in Zeitschrift fur aegyptische Sprache. identical with the From who is is equally represented on horseback. 24. et saint Georges in the Revue Archeo- logique. his indispensable companions. vol. pp. side had served for a Christian epitaph to eliminate the stele from it the series of Coptic monuments. p.. a legend without sort of link with the any Christian artists to confer god Horus. Schmidt had only to turn round the stone of which the reverse still was predominant ". 58-62. xxxii. the legend of St. 1 vol.. 1895. But M. 2 Strzygowski. although with the proviso " that this representation must be- in tion in recognising long to the ner earliest times of Coptic evolution when the antique man- G. etc. vol. Leipzig. 372-99.. Ueber eine angebliche altkoptische Madonna- Darstellung in the Zeitschrift fur aegyptische Sprache. George. iii. killing a dragon. pp. St. 1 Apart from the fact that the great majority of warrior-saints are repre- sented on horseback. Clermont-Ganneau. xvii.S.2is THE LEGENDS OF THE SAINTS the fact that Horus is always represented on horseback. we must not rush to the conclusion that St. Der koptische Reiterheilige xl. xc. C.

Analecta Romana. A. gen Menas in the Actes dxi sixieme congres des Orientalistes. Grisar. 627-57. 1 The classical origin of the type of St. 1899. Leiden. 159-64. entirely 2 with the personages represented in a similar attitude ? 1 1. Peter in consequence to be ranked dispute. vol. pp. pp. . Rome. Peter seated on a throne with the keys in one hand and the other raised in blessing is beyond But is St. 1885.PAGAN SURVIVALS AND REMINISCENCES 213 understudy to Horus. 2 H. Wiedemann.. Die Darstellungen auf den Eulogien des heiliiv.

Hagiographers. There is be forgiven them. But if it be futile to hope that we may draw them all back into the straight paths of historical criticism. and the conflict between science and piety more acute. and which day by day render the misunderstandings between history and poetry more serious. In . These erroneous will beliefs usually circulate in a 214 nebulous condition. critics in hagiographers — — Confusion between a probable Ill-con- To draw up a catalogue of the principal errors comever since the world mitted by hagiographers and has studied the lives of the saints would be indeed an no form of literature into which people rush so frequently without any sort of preparation. or to appreciate at its true value the quality of the praise bestowed upon them. it is less true that nothing more is needed in order to praise them worthily. have sinned greatly. and the only consolation left us is to believe that much onerous task.CHAPTER VII. Direct relation established between the history of a saint and his legend — Exaggerated confidence sidered appeals to local tradition and a truthful narrative topographical element — Excessive importance attributed to the — Legend held in utter contempt. alas. and if it be true that goodwill is sufficient to give pleasure to the saints. let us try at least to warn them against certain gross errors which have become accredited among them. CONCERNING CERTAIN HAGIOGRAPHIC HERESIES.

Thus there is no sort of immediate proportion between the legitimacy and popularity of the cultus of a saint and the historical value of the written documents which attest its existence. it 215 should suffice in to precise terms in with. refers A narrative will to a well-authenticated while the very existence of another saint will be held in doubt because the stories concerning him are improbable or even ridiculous. The various divisions of our own work go the saints run a continual risk show that of being compromised to by the literature written in their honour. it. Another. It is one and the same principle which may. One martyr whose cultus has never spread beyond the narrow walls of his basilica. lead to either of these equally absurd conclu- It will not take us long to demonstrate its falseness. whose tomb attracts pilgrims from the whole world. may live for us in authentic Acts of an incomparable beauty. we have attempted to most cases to reduce them order to expose their falsity forthspread error consists in not The first and most widely be accepted because saint. it separating the saint from his legend. much in earnest in singing Moreover the documents concerning them are exposed to all the perils of transmission. for the very reason that the people on the one hand and the hagio- graphers on the other are their praises.CERTAIN HAGIOGRAPHIC HERESIES the light of the principles which lay down. Dare I say that the value of the Acts of the saints is in inverse ratio to the celebrity of their cultus ? As . is only known to us from narratives whose interest is far inferior to that of the Arabian Nights but whose historical value stands on much the same level. according to the school that acts upon sions.

while retaining saint.216 THE LEGENDS OF THE SAINTS a general proposition this perhaps would not be quite it cannot be denied that legend having been mostlictive round the most popular saints. When we affirm that a particular saint has never existed we simply assert the fact that he is only known to us by a legend his career has become obliterated then of insufficient authority to prove his existence. It will may fact that. and the oft-repeated phrase. shows clearly that people implicitly attribute the highest qualities of the historian to every member of the fraternity. other evidence is therefore needed in order to establish the real existence of the object of the cultus. in the course of centuries. People seem to transfer to these pious writers something of the respect due to the saints themselves. historical tradition has been more difficult to preserve in much- accurate. in their patrons save the most fabulous justified We I are therefore looking with full confi- suspicion upon the legend. we know nothing fully either of their origin or reports. every other trace of we may reasonably entertain doubts on the subject. If it is a be. of all And this is true great pilgrimage centres. and yet bearing Some all the appearance of an authentic document. J Except in certain quite special cases. dence in the will not go so far as to maintain that one should admit the existence of a saint whatever his legend be remembered that we have come across more than one hagiographic narrative having reference to an imaginary personage. A second very common error is to place an exag- gerated confidence in the biographers of the saints. /^But frequented sanctuaries than elsewhere. ." without "We read in the Lives of the any one taking the trouble to specify the biographer referred to. Saints.

CERTAIN HAGIOGRAPHIC HERESIES If 217 one is insists upon knowing upon what grounds so much one faith is placed in the author of the life of a saint. the anonymous ones and the great majority of legends bear no name by which to authenticate them are allowed to benefit by the reputation for science and — — integrity which has been conferred poration of hagiographers. What is true is that in more circles the same monstrous error is found under another name it is the confusion between authenticity and veracity. his reputation or the dignity of his office he was one of the remarkable is of his day. People forget to add whether there any reason for believing him to have been wellinformed. St. as seen. scientific Not at all. probably told that by his piety. that. Eu: cherius is incontestably the author of the Passion of the Martyrs of Agaunum. and so on. We shall not be wandering from our subject if we call attention to the further illusion of those who pro- . the words some obscure scribe has placed on their lips after having evolved them laboriously from his own mediocre intelligence ? I shall be told that these remarks can only apply to readers wholly destitute of critical sense or of literary pretensions. on the done to the saints themselves. and with it to encumber the history of the later persecutions. at this juncture. as their authentic utterances. for instance. The first step is to prove that the Acts are authentic. the second is to make use of the Passion as though it were a document of the first value. on the whole corwe have injustice Need we dwell. by quoting. and capable of making the most of the sources he had at his command. wholly unmerited. a reputation. And while the men known writers are accepted thus uncritically.

" This fact is ad- mitted by the Bollandists ". who merely apply methods that are known to and at the Need we point out it command of every one. and that. this naive remark. they have been unable to deny the correctness of the narrative. their sources. their origin. would be paying too much honour to any group of men. and if the morality and the literary probity of their authors. How frequently have we not read concerning some strange miracle or some suspicious revelation for which the writer was anxious to gain credence. general rule they have abstained from attempting to solve insoluble problems. nor any of their successors As a have ever entertained any such pretensions. their style. nor Papebroch. possible to pronounce upon the talent. The after uninstructed reader would of course assume that having submitted the incident to a minute exa- mination. holding it to be a sufficient task to classify the hagiographic texts. or to contest the supernatural character of the event. to attribute to them a decisive authority in questions of infinite delicacy and not easily susceptible of hard and fast rulings ? Neither Bol- landus. to make known with all attainable exactitude. Should therefore some honest writer experience the desire of conciliating his public " by making it known that he has not neglected to turn over " the vast collection —the epithet is once more de rigueur —of the Acta . however learned.2i8 THE LEGENDS OP THE SAINTS admiration for that highly respectas the Acta Sanctorum and fess a sort of blind able collection known who it have developed the unfortunate habit of quoting though it as were the Gospel. in the face of the evidence. these " pitiless critics" crated phraseology —have allowed themselves to be that — this is the consedis- armed. to print them with scrupulous care.

But to infer from this editors responsible for all that contains. 16. Unfortunately what it is usual to dignify with the title of the tradition of a particular church. and the form of respect claimed on consider it its behalf to : straightway as a tradition of historical value an inadmissible pretension if it is hoped by these means to evade the necessity of weighing the evidence. is merely is the current version of the legend of the patron saint. But without going to this extreme. those who make all use of this argument are it. such as " The account of this incident has been published by the Bollandists ". Des devoirs des ecrivains Catholiques. there could not be men of more robust credulity. ists. "believed definitely in all the miracles and all the revelations they publish. 1886. de Smedt. Such persons should be sent back to their theology in order to learn not to use the word " tradition " in an unqualified sense save in dogmatic matters. p. with the popular tradition of their particular church. without knowing the rule of faith for confuse apostolic tradi- Christians." We now come to a third error which consists in setting the tradition of the church in which a saint is specially honoured in opposition to the solid conclusions of scientific research. some who. In order to do that it is essential to go back to the begin1 Ch. Among tion. I 219 must beg him at least not to it make the Let him content himself with a formula that can compromise no one. .* CERTAIN HAGIOGRAPHIC HERESIES Sanctorum. a considerable number think themselves justified in contesting the results of criticism by pleading respect for local traditions. : that the Bollandists guarantee its authenticity draw an unwarrantable conclusion. Brussels." is to " If the Bolland- writes one of their number.

but a well-informed contemporary. the event popular tradition often arises several and sometimes even unceremoniously dislodges the most solidly established historical tradition. Hartel. if unhappily history had not been wholly silent where she is concerned. vol. e Pio Franchi de' Cavalieri. . Procopius of Caesarea be- longed to the priesthood.— 220 ning." 2 3 21-22. Agnese nella tradizione p. 2 Concerning St. Current tradition describes Pope Xystus as dying on the cross. iii. as officially accepted. p. nella leg- genda. 840. as accepted throughout the East. who was not only a contemporary. 26. and every one is familiar with the verses on St. when fastened to the cross. as early as the fourth century.. every one of which would probably be disproved by history. main outline local tradition if not. Legend.. Laurence by Prudentius : Fore hoc sacerdos dixerat Jam Xystus adfixus cruci. then it is no use quoting tradition is that which goes back to in its . and soon he was universally known under the title of Procopius dux. Xystus Peristeph. first belongs to one of the three categories of hagioit graphic texts enumerated in an earlier chapter. that Xystus died by the sword. THE LEGENDS OF THE SAINTS If the history of the saint. lxxx. may be conceded that at least is an historical tradition it at all. the most contradictory reports. ii. centuries later. 1 Yet we know for a fact from a letter by St. Cyprian. Agnes there were current. 3 The 1 traditions of the various churches in France which claim apostolic descent only date from the " 'Twas this his bishop had foretold. transformed him at a later date into an officer... S. Epist. History informs us that St. Historical itself.

and recorded in a more The new editors. in most cases. xxxiv. the ancient and venerable narratives of an earlier period were collected from all parts. and it is simply first acceptance." l This manner of looking at the problem spond in any way with the actual facts.] Les actes des martyrs depuis Vorigine de Veglise i. what has to be proved in every in- dividual case. and consequently that we can count neither on the vigilance of the bishops nor on the sensitive ears of the faithful for the maintenance of historical traditions 1 concerning the martyrs. response to the eagerness of the faithful to listen to the acts of the martyrs in religious assemblies. vol. it is assumed that the Acts of the Martyrs were very generally read aloud at the liturgical Offices. that the Passions of a debased age were. circle to seek to authorise the it legend by the tradition of which was " itself the And yet the argument fifth is pressed : Are you unin aware." these writers say the churches in the to us. we know how Further. derived directly from " ancient and venerable narratives of an earlier century. . This period is. [Dom Gueranger. We know that in the very great majority of churches such was not the case.. would certainly have abstained from introducing into their narrative any important circumstances up to that time unknown to the people. ]>. 1856. on which their pretensions are based. Paris.CERTAIN HAGIOGRAPHIC HERESIES won 221 period at which these legends. quite easy to ascertain. arguing in a vicious source. " of what took place in and sixth centuries when. It is fails to corre- assumed. in fact." whereas rarely the hypothesis can be verified. chretienne jasqii* a nos temps. methodical and oratorical style? writing under the very eyes of the bishops.

but at the head of an The hagiographic legends of antiquity belong incon- testably to popular literature.! 222 THE LEGENDS OF THE SAINTS episcopal control over local hagiography Hence and the devotion of the people to a received version of the history of a saint constitute facts that require stration and can in demonno sense be accepted as an hypo- be taken for granted. have so encumbered .iijstorical merely because improbabilities. but what ascertain concerning their origin affords us faithful we have been and their able to development no guarantee of their historical value. Even in our own day. how many people are quite satisfied with those deplorable compilations known as the Petits Bollandistes or the in which history holds but an which the narratives serve as food Grande Vie des Saints inferior place. Could it be said 'that the priests and the faithful of the diocese of jealous guard over the Lyons kept d'Ars if memory of the cure they in any who represented way countenanced a him as being. contains no may say at once that mediaeval hagiographers intent on impressing their readers with what was marvellous and extraordinary. case of St. Not only do they bear no official hall-mark. we are able to demonstrate in the clearest possible way The the lack of this double conservative influence.. The found in them a means of edification and they required nothing further. In point of fact wherever we are in the position to trace the diverse phases of the genesis of a legend. not at home army ? biographer in his pres- bytery. Procopius which we have studied in detail thesis to is sufficiently conclusive on this point. but of for piety A ( I fouxth^error consists in accepting a hagiographic it narrative _as.

Teodoto e di S. neverthe- it has been put into operation by men who were de' Cavalieri. The less 1 process may appear somewhat naive . If people went no further than that we of. Theodotus with the longer version that has also been preserved. Unhappily the confusion between what is true and what is probable may frequently be recognised even in the methods of that higher criticism by means of which students have professed to disentangle the historical narrative concealed from our view beneath a confused mass of legendary. One may compare. 61-84. vi. 85- . the short Passion of St. Pio Franchi / martlrii di S. It would many other abridged is still in existence. others obviously abridged or even cut down to a short lesson. in what form the docuPassions of martyrs Many varying lengths. lore. for example. one might perhaps pronounce a very different judgment on the hagiographer and be easy to apply a similar test to narratives of which the original his work. Supposing it to be true that all it the improbabilities of a narrative are interpolations will : then suffice to exclude this extraneous element in order to bring the document back to its primitive condition. more favourable impression than the the developments which betray the methods a of the compiler having largely disappeared. vol. testi. Now the abridged texts frein texts of have been transmitted to us quently make originals. 1 On the evidence of the abbreviated version alone. pp. should have nothing to complain But we must ment has come down first examine to us. Ariadne in Studi e 87. some developed. that the absence of any extravagant element of itself creates a favourable impression.. Both have been published by M.CERTAIN HAGIOGRAPHIC HERESIES 223 their passionaries with fabulous tales.

quibus scatent. mihi res ecclesise Florentine inlustrare adgresso fortunate liceat". — at first sight. This blunder has been committed hundreds of times. I will only quote. Florence. A fifth error consists in classifying a document as historical merely because the topographical element can be certified as correct. the case of a scholar like Lami who by making a judicious selection from the fabulous legend of St. the specious plea that they contain " good parts Blant was guilty of the practice on a large scale Le when he was hunting up " supplements to Ruinart ". they frequently apply the in all unconsciousness. beguiling. et fabellis. method Thus they are guilty of doing so whenever they make use of suspicious documents on ". vol. . If these " good parts " are anything except portions of the original historical record which the compiler had before him. succeeded in compiling a reasonable history. and the document is found to ring true in this respect what more natural than to assume the excellence of the whole ? And 1 yet we may go very far astray by relying too i. Minias. himself: " Eius actis insinceris et apocryphis fides adhiberi ab homine cordato non potest . as an interesting example. purgare et ad verosimilem historiam redigere. tentare nunc juvat an Sanctcz ecclesice Florentines monumenta. but one that was as little veracious as its predecessor. How often does it not occur if that this is the one point capable of verification.. they are of no possible use as any one can see for rehabilitating the document. If it is 1 rare for historians ostensibly to indulge in practices of this kind. and it must be admitted that in many instances the argument to be drawn from topographical precision is. is This how he expresses ea defagcare.— 224 far THE LEGENDS OF THE SAINTS from simple themselves. 1758.

.

Date Due 1! .

we should be compelled. All that scientific criticism may assume from a narrative topographically correct. which in most cases simply means that he wrote at Rome. See also P. iii. we are free to assert that the whole legend had its birth in the imagination of a poet. This is how M. 1895. the "confirmation" supplied by the monuments. Bearing to justify this in mind it is easy to appraise the value of certain archaeological discoveries which have seemed what had hitherto been regarded as somewhat dubious acts of martyrs. But the authority of the narrative gains nothing thereby. Le Blant 1 — — Les persecuteurs et les martyrs. When the world has forgotten that Bourget wrote novels. the wanderings of whose heroes through Paris could be traced without difficulty. to accept his stories as real history. Allard. It has become possible to prove that these Acts have been written a fact that is in no way surprising in the vicinity of the sanctuaries whose origins they were supposed to relate. as before.CERTAIN HAGIOGRAPHIC HERESIES much on topographical tests! many wholly psychological It 225 would be easy to quote novels. according to and the problem as to whether or no David Copperfield is compiled from autobiographical memoirs would be solved by the fact that all the hero's journeys can be verified on the map. and after. Taken from the Correspondant. 15 . this theory. La maison des martyrs. according to the special knowledge he may display. is that the author had familiarised himself with the places in which his personages reside. Alexandria or Constantinople. Paris. There was much excitement some years ago over a discovery which was held to have rehabilitated the Acts of SS. John and Paul. p. and that he had seen the tomb or the basilica which he describes. 1 39 pages.

226

THE LEGENDS OF THE SAINTS
:

was placed on a text which was thought to be founded in part on original documents but to have been corrupted by the introduction of some wholly inadmissible details. Nevertheless the tradition of the martyrdom inflicted on the two saints in their own house continued to survive. Indeed the precise spot where they were executed was shown, and in the sixteenth century a marble slab was let into the pavement towards the centre of the church, bearing these words, Locus martyrii SS. Ioannis et Pauli in cedibus propriis. One of the Passionist
describes the circumstances
" Little reliance

fathers attached to this

church, the Rev.

Dom

Ger-

mano, whose intelligent initiative cannot be too highly praised, was anxious to ascertain whether the conformation of the ground was in accordance with the belief to which the inscription testified. He set about excavations and explored the soil beneath the church, and almost at once he made the discovery, beneath the high altar, of two rooms of a house, which from the materials out of which they were constructed as well as from their interior decoration, undoubtedly belonged to the beginning of the fourth if not to the end of the
third century.

Hence

it is

clear, as

the Passio relates,

that the church was built on the site of an ancient

house."
It is useless to

continue the quotation, for

we have

arrived at the one definite result of these excavations.

They have in no way solved the problem as to whether the hagiographic text was founded on original documents
in spite of its

containing

some

"

inadmissible de-

tails". Since then proof has been forthcoming that the story of SS. John and Paul does not depend on

any

historical source, but

is

merely an adaptation of the

CERTAIN HAGIOGRAPHIC HERESIES

227

history of SS. Juventinus and Maximinus, 1 and in spite

of

all

the interest that surrounds the " house of the

martyrs " none of the difficulties of the legend have been solved by it. Indeed the only solution to which no serious objection can be taken is that the patrons of the title of Pammachius are the holy apostles John and Paul transformed by legend at an early date
of Julian's court, after the pattern of other similar transformations with which we are by
into
officers

time familiar. have now pointed out to the reader various vicious methods in order to put him on his guard against over-confidence in hagiographic legends. have been exclusively occupied with the historical point of view, and it must be admitted that only too
this

We

We
by

often the history of the saints has been obscured

legend.

But

it

would be a fresh error to assume from
of the saints

this that the legends

legends in general

—are unworthy of attention.
make my meaning
clear.

I

refer here to

A com-

parison will at once

Let us suppose that an artist and an archaeologist are both standing before a religious picture, some great work by an Italian or Flemish master. The artist would rave enthusiastically of the beauty
of the conception, the
feeling.
skill

in

the composition, the

intensity of the expression, the depth of the religious

were one in whom the aesthetic would give vent, before the masterpiece, to a series of criticisms, possibly accurate in themselves, but which would have the effect of exasperating
If the archaeologist
is

sense

lacking, he

1

P. Franchi de' Cavalieri,

Nuove

note agiografiche in Stiidi e

testi,

vol. ix.,
xxii., p.

Rome,
488.

1902, pp. 55-65.

See also Analecta Bollandiana,

vol.

15

*

228

THE LEGENDS OF THE SAINTS
Here we have a fantastic landscape variance with what we know of the
;

his artist friend.

absolutely at

physical features of the country

there a style of archi-

tecture unheard of in that region, while the costumes

belong neither to the period nor to the people. His feelings would be outraged to see St. Lawrence wearing a dalmatic when before the tribunal, and he might possibly ridicule that charming scene in which St.
Peter preaches from a pulpit in a
St.

Roman

piazza while

Mark

sits at his feet

and takes down the sermon,

dipping his pen in an inkstand respectfully held for

him by a kneeling
This
is

disciple.

the sort of criticism which our archaeologist

might pass upon Fra Angelico,

Van Eyck

or Perugino.

doubt he would study with curiosity the robes worn by the holy women at the tomb, the weapons of the soldiers escorting our Lord to Calvary, and the buildings by the roadside, because he would recognise in them contemporary documents of the time of the painter, and he would perhaps grow indignant with
the art connoisseur, indifferent to these antiquarian
details,

No

and wholly absorbed

in that

which constitutes

the true
ideal.

value of the work, the expression of the

Which of the two is the more just appraiser of this legend in line and colour, the enthusiast who seeks to penetrate into the inspired soul of the artist, or the
unfortunate being
antiquities in a
I

who

experiences precisely the same

emotions before a great work of art as before a case of

museum ?

in

would not be so bold as to transfer this comparison all its rigour to the two camps that have grouped

themselves round the hagiographic literature of the Middle Ages, that of the simple readers and sincere

CERTAIN HAGIOGRAPHIC HERESIES
admirers, and that of the despisers of these legends.

229
It

must

be admitted that the pious chroniclers of the lives
rule,

been as happy as the painters, and that they have produced few master-pieces, few works even which, taken alone and judged on their own merits, would have attracted any
of the saints have not, as a general
notice or held public attention.

And

yet,

who can deny

that in spite of

all

the ignor-

ance of technique and the clumsiness of execution, there is exhaled, not indeed from each individual legend, but from out the store-house of mediaeval lore, something of that mysterious and

sublime poetry which

pervades the walls of our ancient cathedrals? Who will dispute the fact that these legends give expression

with unparalleled vigour to the beauty of Christian

and the ideal Let us not forget difference between wished to say and
faith

of sanctity?
that there
is

frequently a notable

what our worthy hagiographers what, in point of fact, they have
Their amplifications are often

succeeded in saying.

cold, the attitudes of their personages

awkward and

But the thought which inspires them is noble and elevating, and their eyes are fixed on that perfect beauty of which pagan antiquity was wholly ignorant, the beauty of the soul filled by the grace of God, while their very helplessness in reformal, their situations forced.

producing
the more.

it

in all its glory

only aids us to esteem
is

it

For a long time the Golden Legend, which

so

accurately representative of the hagiographic labours

of the Middle Ages, was treated with supreme disdain,

and scholars showed no mercy towards the worthy "The man who wrote the James de Voragine.

;

230

THE LEGENDS OF THE SAINTS

Legend," declared Louis Vives, "had a mouth of iron and a heart of lead." It would in fact be hard to speak of it too severely if it were conceded that popular works are to be judged according to the standards of historical criticism. But people are beginning to realise that this is an injudicious method, and those who have penetrated into the spirit of the Golden Legend are very far from
referring to
I
it

in scornful terms. 1

confess that,

when reading

it, it

is

from a smile. pathetic and tolerant smile and in no way disturbs the religious emotion excited by the picture of the virtues and heroic actions of the saints.
cult at times to refrain

somewhat diffiBut it is a sym-

In this picture God's friends are represented for us
as

what is greatest on earth they are human creatures lifted up above matter and above the miseries of our little world. Kings and princes honour and consult them,
;

mingling with the people in order to kiss their relics and implore their protection. They live, even here on

and God bestows upon them, with His consolations, something also of His power but they only make use of it for the good of mankind, and it is to them that men have recourse in order to be delivered from sufferings both of body and soul. The saints practise all the virtues in a superhuman degree
earth, in God's intimacy,
;

gentleness, mercy, the forgiveness of injuries, mortification, renunciation,

able,

and they render these virtues lovand they urge Christians to practise them. Their
in truth, the concrete realisation of the spirit
it

life is,

of the Gospel, and from the very fact that

brings

home

to us this sublime ideal, legend, like all poetry,
1

Analecta Bollandiana,

vol. xxiii., p. 325.

Paris. 235-36. 1 231 degree of truth than history 1 In a letter to Count John Potocki Joseph de Maistre quotes' with comments of his own. that forgiveness is only refused him who has not begged for See Count Joseph de Maistre. We : A saint. And listening. I who only offended against Thee once. had a vision in : ' ' ' ' ! quoted to ? The great point is to know it. Hast thou asked for pardon even once ? Such is Christian mythology It is dramatic truth which preserves its value and its effect quite independently of literal truth. ." i. pp.CERTAIN HAGIOGRAPHIC HERESIES can claim a higher itself. he heard the evil one say Why hast Thou damned me. cannot do better in order to elucidate our own " Listen and I will give thought than cite this eloquent passage It is taken from some ascetical work the you one of these examples. Lettres et Opuscules inedits. 1851.. vol. which he saw Satan standing before the throne of God. whereas Thou hast saved thousands of men who have offended against Thee many times ? And God replied. whose name I have also forgotten. and would indeed gain nothing by it. an example of what he calls " Christian mythology ". What does it matter whether the saint in question did or did not hear the sublime words I have title of which I forget.

.

Alexander. French Arcadius. judge. Alexander of Cologne. Agape and Chionia.. . 63. Aphrodite. St.. Athanasius. 35. Arabian Nights. Aquileia. 20. by Racine. 123. Passion of. Arion. Acts of. Athalie. iog. 118. Aliscans. St. St. 207. 215.. no. Asterius. 24. 33. Passion Agatha. 94. 40. 24.. See Pelagia of Tarsus. Amasea. 103. 75. iEsculapius. St. Arnold. Amphiaraus. Adar. Alexis.. Antonina. 200. Apuleius.. 131. 207. 5. 73. 118. St. 220. 164.. 72.. Accounts of eye-witnesses. Achilleios. 203. Anthera. Astarte. 221. 211. of. St. . Angelo. iEmilianus. 154. 85. 115-24. Agamemnon. 86. 112-13. Acta Sincera. Ambrose. Alexander's Oak.. St. 164. romance of.. 163. 25. 79. Aristides. Acta Petri. Arianus. Aristotle. 87. Andromeda. Alexander the Great. Aidoneus. 218. inscription 43. Ariadne. Passion of. 55. Alexandrinus. Andreas and companions. 207. 175. 120. Bishop of Jerusalem. 152. 199. 120. Anulinus. 34. Ambrose. 102. St. King. footprints of. 233 72. 164.. 152. of Metz.. of. g6. 105. Amis and Amile. Acta Sanctorum. 219. St. 118. 165. 118. Arcesilaus. Achatius. 194. 43. 194. (afifik Kvpos). Abercius. St. St. 17. 120. AbbAcirus Abraham.. See Venus. 101. Acheiropceetos.. of Padua. St.. 34. 132. Alexander Severus. of 121. Agathangelus. Apollonius. 90. ^Eneas. St. Agnes. ^sop. 221. 9. St. 34. 52. 163. Aldegonde. . St. 133. Amphibalus.. 85. 117. St. African Church. St. acts of. St. Astorius and companions. siege of. Apollinaria. 117. of Verulam.. Albanus. 123. 22. St. apology of. Aigialeus. 79. Adam. Archelaus. 18. 43. 95. 49. 205. Apollo. 104. 120. 117. 27. Antony. Aphrodite. 2g. 3. of Cahors..INDEX. Alban. 79. Anthusa. pro-consul. Apostolic descent of churches. 33. St.

Clothair. 182. 29. 53. Augustus Caesar. Castissima. 169. Bonce Memorice. by Pontius. Barbara. 186-92. 48. 48. St. 79. Passion of. 222. of Antioch. Acts of. 102. 43. 53. St. martyr. martyr. St.. Cataldus. 173. Blessed Virgin.. SS. of Meissen. Cross. Castor. Carthage.. 123. St. Bollandistes... Cecilia. Castulus. 24. Emperor. John. Bees. 137- Caesar Gallus.. Christian legends derived from Paganism. 151. Bollandists. 209.234 Augustine. 43. SS. Byzantine artists. St. Cyprian. St. 20. 62. Claudius. St.. Barlaam and Joasaph. St. 3.. 169. 20. 183. SS. Cesar. 184. INDEX 34. of Alexandria. 194. 71. 43. St. siege of. 225. Cephalophorous (or head-bearing) Saints. 71. Bernard. siege Byzas. 45. author of Exordium. St. 208. Bourget. Acts of. 73. 50. of Carthage. Bishop of. 1. 119. 219. St. Birds coming to life on spit. St. Commodus.. 80. 190. 90. vision of. St. go. 48. 18. St. Condianus. Basil of Ancyra.. Cimon. 27. Do Cyprian. Austremonius. misreadings of. 118. Buddha. 111. SS. 103. Corcyra. 104.. 123. Crucifixes.. St. St. Eu. 208. 27. father of St. 113. 81. Legend of the. Emperor. Basil. 79.. 50. Emperor. 221.. protective. Beleth. Caesarius of Heisterbach. 108.. 192. 46. Balaam's ass. Christianisation of Pagan shrines. siege of. Cassianus Tingitanus. of. Emperor. Birds of prey... Cassiodorus. Clementine Homilies and Recognitions. 34. 109. Castor and Pollux.. 101. 83. 24. 63. 54.. Bertulph. Caprasius. 218. King. life of.. Charlemagne. 99-100. son of Miltiades. 121. St. Senator and minata. 63. 57. Petits. St. 76. and see Volto Santo. Claudius. 29. Cornelius. St.. St. 170-72.. Bavon. Conrad. 143. Coincidences.. Cyprian. 102. Paul. Barnabas. 4. 154. Bollandus. Catherine. wrong interpreta- Crusades.. Emperor. 173. 190. Clare. St. 103. Cloud. tion of. 218. 20. Costos. Azazail. Cure d'Ars. miraculous. 34. 36. Buttmann. 95-97. Caracalla. See Caesarea. Benno.. 95. 24. 78.. Carved figures. 118. 222. St. 118. Deacon .. 34. Boniface of Tarsus. 106. Constantine. Catherine. St. 20.. 94. 54. in. Babylas. Cassian. 133. 8g. Chanson de geste of Amis and Amile. 10. Barlaam.. 109. 114. Cyprianic winds. sebius. St. 162.Cosmas and Damian. 30-31 . 57. Clement of Ancyra and Agathangelus. Byzantium. Cassiodorus. 81. 18. 152. Casilinum. Cicero. 27. St. St. 32. 118. Callistratus. 188.. St. 183. 191.. 150. Constantine.

142of. St. 201-3. judge. See Apollinaria. St. St. 175. Emperor. Pope. 72. St. Emperor. 47. 35. et merita. Duplication of Saints. 118. 145. 23. 118. Derelict vessels. 199. 106. Eleutherius. Euploia. 63. Elijah. 145. Dese Matres. Erminus. and companions. 84. 235 Elias. 104. Felicitas and Seven Sons. 157. I4 1 M4. 130-33. *44» 145Florian. 80-81. inscription of.INDEX Cyprianus.. Euphrosyne.. 173. St. 140. Didymus and Theodora. Dativus and companions. 105. 55. 12-14. romance of. Eucherius. feast of. 137. St. Damasus. 225. 199. Domnina. St. 51-52. Elizabeth. Digna 84. of. Cyrillus. Euphrosyne of Alexandria Smaragdos). 28. 103. Dioscorus. 121. 22. mosaics 82. 20. of Portugal. misreadings of. 43. 42. Eutychius. Expeditus. *34> x 40. 195-97. 119. 191. Emerita. 104. 102. Flavianus. St. 193-96. abbess. Acts 119. Felix and Adauctus. legend of. Dionysus. Felix.. 22. of. Donatianus and Rogatianus. Titulus de. 2. . David. 120. Dorothea. St.. Acts of. 185. St. 208.. 152. Eusebius. SS. of Cagliari. 46.. Passion Ephysius. St. 143. 105. 1. Distortion of Truth. 155. 3. Dives. Fasciola. translation of. 173. 29. relics on. 23. 146. 118. St. 189. 173-74. St. Drosis. of. Epimenides. Eusebius. Daphne. SS. of Gortina. St. St. Passion of. Dioscuri. 32.. (or 35. 125.. ng. 61. 49. Emeterius and Chelidonius.. 128. Exaggerations of popular mind. St... Acts 121.. SS. Dis Manibus Sacrum. 24. Dolphins. 53. Ennodius. Dionysius. Cyril.. St. 133. St. St. Cyrillus i6g. 104. 119. 101. month of. Dionysius. 102. 36.. 75. the. 134. 48. Demetrius. 183. Cyricus and Julitta. 90. 118.. i6g. 29. 42. Cyrus and John. 9. St. Ferreolus. 183. 29. Eugippus. Dionysus. 120. Eustace.. Epiphany of.. arrival of. 51.. definition Dorotheus of Tyre.. 195. Fable. St. 126.. Dymphna. 119. Epipodius and Alexander. part played by. Eulalia.. Cyril. Elizabeth. Drifting relics. St. 74. Denis. Acts of.. 117. Eugenia. St. Eagles in hagiographic legend. 118. fable of. Eusebia. St. at Ratisbonne. Decius. Florentius and Julianus. St. 182. Emmerammus. 120. 30-32. SS. 185. 91.. 217. 117. 120. Faustus and Januarius. 31. of Hungary. Diocletian. Droysen. 203. 139. of. St. Euplus. Dionysios.. 29.. 189. Euphemia. and companions. 211. Donatus.. *45» I 92. 42. 61. Enfances Vivien. martyr. 84... 121. Faust.. David Copperfield. 172. 48. 34.. St. * 118. Danae. 34. 120. King.. St..

prodigies of saints in. 52. 205. 41. fabricated. 139. Genevieve de Brabant. 108. 63. forgeries. Fursey. as historian. Hagiographer. 183. Interrogatory of martyrs. of. 1-2. 144. 61. 103. 29. the. 145. Abbot. statue of. cradle of tales. Isaac. Hesiod. 184. Hagiographers. Prefect of 21. ug. Fronto. St. 30. George. 82. 42. 84-87. Istar.India. Florentius. 102.. St. Helena. 179. 179. 77.. 229-30. Fra Angelico. 100. g3-g5. the comedian. rite of. Horace. 61.. Historical romances. 210... Honoratus. Ignatius. iog. Hermaphrodite. St.. Galen. 121. Hercules. 151. Hieronymian Martyrology. St. fidence in. Fructuosus. defini. St. at Venusium. Hagiographic document. 79. St... St.. Isis. Ignatius. of Loyola. SS. 161-67. 75. Incubation. 103. 7... St. erroneous interpretations of. Irene and Cyriaena. Horace. of Antioch. Pengueux. SS. 101. Hermes. 183. 25..biographerofSt. 180. 42. St. Hector. 212-13. Frodoberta. dangers of. 2g. 75. India. 170. Francis Xavier. Emperor. Fortunata. Irenasus. 210. St. 60. 118. 43. Bernard. 34. 30.. Iliad. authentic. Interrogatories. 131. Hagiographic fiction. martyrdom of. St. Geoffrey of Monmouth. . immersion of.. SS. 9. 90. exaggerated con. Gregory of Nyssa.. Hero-worship among the Greeks. 116. 216-19. 165. 120. 34. 64. of Mont Glonne.. 131. Florus and Laurus. 65-66. 112. Bishop of 226. St. of Pengueux. 115. 163. Infancy. Gervase and Protase. St. of Buzencais. Gregory of Tours. 228. St. St. Hervatus. 119. 207. Hippolytus. St. 1 14-15. 34. St. 55. 28. 67. Germano Dom. Hagiographer. Herbert. 206. g. 177. Gregory the Great.. Imaginary saints as objects of devotion. 184. 52. Hubert. Horus. Forgeries. 101. 173. Forty Martyrs. 105-6. Flores and Blanchefleur. Isquirinus. early pilgrimages to. 71. 72. epic poets of. 152-56. 67-69... 34. 99. 128. Hagiographic 114-15. 7g. Gallienus. Emperor.. 117. Pope. 172. ig4. romance. 77. 122.Inscriptions. 158. how written in the Middle Ages. Genesius Arelatensis.Interpolated Acts. 170. of Poitiers. house of. Images. 117. St. 157.. 190. Herodotus. ug.. 115.236 INDEX Hercules. ug. how Hadrian. Fortunatus. Hilary. Homer. George. Gregory Thaumaturgus. 118. 54. St. Golden Legend. 127. History. 206. 105-6. tion of. Acts of. Imaginative romances. 41. 114. Hermes Trismegistus.. 61. Harnack. 131. St. Genesius. definition 64. St. Gallus. 154. Holy Land. 24. Suelli. 172..

St. Justinian. martyrs of. 50. 117. St.. 103. spring festival at. Litanies. Margaret. Colombini.. Julianus. Margarito. of Arimathea. Jason and Sosipater. Bishop of. Licence in mediaeval writers. Marianus Scotus. 117. St. 50. of. 144. arrival of in Spain. Lucianus and Marianus.. ng. St. St.. 71.. 42. St. SS. 63. Marcianus and Nicander. no. Lycurgus. 118. 180.. 200. John. 27. 100. 46.. St. 20. Joshua. Marcellus. Lubentius. Margarita.. 181. St. 8-10. Mamertine Mar Benjamin. 35. Liberius. Jerome... 51. definition of. Livy. Jacob. Aurelius. 179. St. 196. arrival at Dietkirchen. Juvenalis. 100. Blessed. 101. courtesan. 116. 4. worship Magloire. 118... St. SS. Javols. 42. Josephus. 51. 33. Landoald. Legend. 52. 200-2. 64. Julicus. 163. 10. panions... St. 177. 31.. 104. Passion of. St. 147. SS. 50. St. John. St. officer.. 209. the Hospitaller. 118. Margaret. 211. St.. John. St. 26-30. James. 121-24. of Antioch. Legenda Aurea. 117... of. Bishop. 52. Mamas. 24. St. 203. 227. Legendary themes. SS. martyr. Malchus and Alexander. 192. Macedonius. Junianus. St. 144. See Volto Santo. 106. Lambert. St. St. St.. See Pelagia. 118. Bishop of Jerusalem.. 46. 205. Januarius. 35. 120.. Julius. 210. 102. 17. 206. Malta. Passion 121. 170. 119. Justinus. Job. self-styled. St. Lawrence. Marcus Lami. St. 21.. Leda. St. 108. Juno.. 120. St. 33. Arian 197. Liberata.. 164. Joseph. 130. ig8- Laurentius. of the Marches. Jupiter Capitolinus. 47. 224-26. Kummernis. the Baptist.. St. 118. monk. Leo and Paregorius... 164. Ludwin. 143. Julitta. Lipomani.. Chrysostom. St. John. com- Madonna. St. 80. Leobardus. Lucca. log. 22. Julian. 89. 206. 220. 227. Julian. and companions. Lucian. 146. legend of. John and Paul. 183. Lupercalia. Lichas.. St. 202. Marciana. James.. Louis. 104. 208. St. Lucianus. 118. 117. Lyons. 37. 225-27. 121.. (or Uncumber). 27. 154. 88. St.. Acts of. 31. Juventinus and Maximinus. visit to Calabria. 71. 224. Leonidas. commentary on. 118. Jupiter. 228.. St. 209. St. 179. 118. Emperor. St. 118. Jesuati. St. prison.INDEX 237 Le Blant. 169. Leaena. Judas's thirty pieces of silver. Kentigern. 34.. 117. and of. 164. St. John. 136. transmission James.. Judas Thomas. 52. Jacob and Marianus. 138. Leontius. 52... 50... 192^7. Julian. . 1x8. St.

193. 224. transformation of. 108. Martin. Martyrs. 144. St. 228. 35. 82. 23. 190. 135-37. Martina. 106. 118. 207. 115. Emperor. 120.. 164. Mark's Day. 1. St. Martyrology. CEdipus. 101. / Mark. 24.. Paraskeve. 118. 32.. Miraculous element in legend. Mary. Mary.. 103. Hermogenes and Eugraphus. Crispina. Maternus. Emperor. Myth. twenty African. 43. 119. Passion 120. 138. 48. King. Nicetas. St. 102.. Osiris. 198-200. 68. Menologies of Greek Church. Passion Palladius. 144. reputed girdle of. Martin. Melicertes. 29. Nicephorus Callistus. St. 135. Martius and Quintianus. 117. 55. 197. and the dumb woman. See Liberata. 77. 72. 23. 107. 33. Paralytic 153. Nicephorus. Pancratius. of. 121. 217. Numerian. martyr. 48. 208. 24. 28. 103. 119.. 210. 42. St. 104. St. 196. 174-75.. 62. 43.. 210. of Egypt. Maximus and 120. Father. Nonnus. Nauplius. 59. 180. Marina. legend of the. St. duplication of. Meinulf. St. of Antioch.. 109. 62.. Medard. Bishop of Prusa. Papadopoulos-Kerameus. 163. 194. Maurus. Olybrius. 24.. St. Ontkommer. St... 153-54. 218. 50. Odo Mary. definition of. St. Marina. 145. Maurilius. 43. 22. 227. Olive. Prefect. litanies of. 145. Mercurius.. 81.. 55. 204.. 163. 146. 178. 49. Bishop. 35. 49. 31. Hieronymian. Martin.. Maximus. 191.. St. 208. Mother Goddesses. Martinian. 192. 165. Maxentius. St. Mark and Marcellianus. Myth. 211. Names. 88. 208. Maximian.. St. Martin. 118. 119. of Glanfeuil. Dolours of. Paris. 207. Mar Mikha. 164. Mark. no. goldsmith. Neanias. St. Ogier the Dane. collection 113. Panteleemon. Oulcion. 106. 33. of Arethusa. 42. Metrical Lives of Saints. St.. 143. St. 27. Passio Bonifatii. 112. Nero. St. 119. 207.238 INDEX Minias. Martyrs of Palestine. Pammachius. 189. arrival at Rodenkirchen. Midas. Moses. . 128. 6. Maximilianus. Orestes. of. Emperor. Mark. St. Orpheus. Patricius. St. Martinianus. 105. Martyrs. St. Onesimus. St. Martyrs of Agaunum.. 46. St. 19.. St. Menas. martyr. 130. Menas. 121. Palladium of Troy. 59. 34.. Papebroch.. 194. 31. St. 113. 5. 101... 134-37. Passio Nicephori.. 183. Persian. Pope. 103. 61. Martial. of. 203. Montanus and Lucius. Pallas. 144. hagiographic. 101. Metaphrastes. 57. SS. tomb of. Ouen. Martyrs of Egypt. 63. 210. governor. *54. 144. Emperor. the Blessed Virgin.. St. St. St. Nicholas.. Passera Santa. 198. SS. Passio Cypriani. Menhirs at Carnac.

52. catacomb of. 31. St. Paulinus. Phsenarete. Perpetua and Felicitas. 211. Passion of. siege of.. St. Passion Petrus Balsamus. 118. St. 137. Pegasios. Priscilla. 30. Procopius. Pelagia. 222... St. 205.. Pedena. SS. Prometheus. Characteristics of. St. 177. 201. Romulus. Philomena. Polyeuctes. 208. 191. 207. of Nola. Paul. Sabas Gothus. 141- Procopius. Acts of.M. Romeo and Juliet. St.. Priscus. St.. cycle of of.. St. 183. SS. martyr. 101. 13034. 119. Proconsular acts. Praxedes. Girdle of B.. 142. 34. 86. 202-3. St. 164. Quintilian. 220. Ring of. 117. 120. St. Pausanias. St.. life of. second legend. 134-38. 24. 48. Rufinus. Procopius. Ruinart. Passion of. Peter the Deacon. 24.. 49.. St. 106. St. Bishop of Ferentino. Polybius. 118. I 37Paul.. 174. Pelagia. 180. 175.. 112.. St. Passion of.. 32. 126146. ig. 65. Pionius. 185. 208. 121. Pluto. . feast of. 121.. 220. St. Popular intelligence.. St. 111. 189. 142. Dom. Roman martyrs. 116. duplication of. 197-206. Petrus. Polycarp. 130. 3.. 126-28. 88. St. Procopius.. 209. by Gauls. Romanus. 118. Paula. Redemptus. Bishopric of. Procopius. 134. 207. Perugino. St. 192. 117. 115-24. Relics of the past.. Phoebus. 91. Ptolemasus and Lucius. 47. Rieul. See Margaret. 118. Poseidon. 4.. Rossi. Quirinus and Cassianus.. Passion of. Polycarp. St. 73. legends as related by Eusebius. Porphyria of Tyre. Saints identified with our Lord's 54. Polycrates. 118. 119. 109. St. Pindar. statue of. 202. Rumwold. 106. 211. St. Robigalia. St. Plutarch. St. 228. 27. 181. St. 76. Rome. Pelagia. Peter. 34. Acts of. 207. De.. 33. Placidus. Roman Legendarium. Pelagius. 163. Procopius.. Rock opening by miracle. St. 228. St. Pollio.. 72. - Philip. 198. 120. of.. 121. 52. 4. St.. Prato. 157. Paul. Phocas. St. Phileas and Philoromus. of Antioch. 224. 84. at. of. 239 Potamiaena. 190. 40. 151. 117. 155-56.. 35. Philippus. 40. 206. third legend. 34. SS. 102.. Phidias and Praxiteles. 131. 55. 118.. 138-40. 75. 42. Plagiarism. 145. 175. Passion life. 121. 92. Quirinus. 55.. 102-104.INDEX Patrick.. 42.V. Rosanna. 87. St. Peter. 39- legends Romance. Plato. 86. definition of. Acts of. 117. St. of Tarsus. apostle. 130. 198.. Remaclus. 120. Puns in hagiography. 43- Perseus. first legend. 45. Patroclus. Prudentius. 118. 118. 34. palace of. 43. Peter and Paul. St. 185. Purification. 114. SS. Passion of...

i6g. 152. . Sophroniscos. 117. 199. Toulouse. 4. Trypho and Respicius. SS. St. St. Theodora and Didymus. Supplement 24. Severus. 118. 71. legend of tree of. of Cracow. r. 72-74. 50. Sisinnius and companions. pictorial. translation of remains. Torture of martyrs. 83. St. Theodulus the Stylite. St. Sunbeam. Tarachus and Probus. 118. Tale. Acts of.. 75. Count of. Tacitus. Valencia. miraculous crucifixes in.. 119. Timycha. Symphorian. 118. Soteris. 139. Staff.. 18. Theodotus. Tillemont. Sosandros. 219-21. 118... duplication of. See Liberata. 30. 131. 120. 50. Theodosia. 29. 77. 71. illustrious birth of. 113. oral. Salonae.. 145. Acts of. 208.. Schiller. 27. written. St. St. 210. eagle summoned by. 29. 35. Seven Sleepers. Suetonius. 34. Stars named after saints. Tradition. Syrus. 31. 27. Stephen. 54. Theseus. Emperor. Sulpicius Severus. St. 130. of Pavia. St. Sebald. 36. Thierry. or Theodoric.. 223. 209. Theseus. 108. 108. 58. legend of. Sergius and Bacchus. Trajan. Theodore. St. 58. Sylloge. Scillitan martyrs. 54. St. Surius. Marcellianus and Theodorus. Serenus. 112. 158. St. Tradition.. 42.. 78. Stephen of Lusignan. siege of. Theodoret. standing erect. martyr. 208. go. 153. Theophilus of Alexandria.. 122. no. 167. 58. hanging cloak on. Theodorus. 4. Siceotes. 118. Therapon. 172. church of. 209. 87. Saladin. 54. 102. 68. legend of.. Timothy of Alexandria. 50. St.. Pythagorean. Scamandrus. St. 34... St. 188. Theoctista.. Sanctus. 17. 102. 203. 75. Simon Magus. 62. Theodora of Alexandria. Therapon. Passion Savinus. Theodotus of Ancyra. Tatiana. 57. Theodotus. 119. Uncumber. Stanislaus. Synaxaries of Greek Church. 118. Saints. 162. 29. 34. Theodore. San Salvador. Passion of. St. mediaeval use of term. 6-8.24° INDEX Symphorosa. 81. Tychon. 28. 122- Tradition. Sqrapis. Simeon. confessor. Saturninus. 34. Tiberius. 21. Solomon. St. Secundianus. 30. to Acta Sincera. Sardus. Emperor. 208. St. Segnorina. 121. Ulphus. 73. 74. 189-90. Servatius. 120. 121. 207. siege of. St.. d'Apoldia. 118. ballad of Fridolm. SS. 134. 101. meaning of. 118. Veranus. 117. 141. Bishop of Jerusalem. 224-25. Santa Maria del Grao. SS. 142. 22. 102. 88. 75. 32. Sozomen. 44. Thasos. Socrates. 153. i. St. 75. at Valencia.. definition of. 79. Sebastian. St.. 95-97- how fabricated. Theodore. 131... 117. 35. 52. Solon. 146. 76. 61.. Topographical element in legend. of. Tradition. 45. 44Sicily. Thecla.

Cross.. St. Ursius. 220. 19. 29. 101. 205. 63. 118. philosopher. Virgil.. 205. St. 197. no. Madelgarus. Westminster St. St. Zeno Emperor. 55. Vitus. 118. 35. Zeno of Elea. Virgil.INDEX Urban. 205. Wilgefortis. 41. tomb of. Pope.. 229.. Vidian. house of. Van Eyck. 241 Vita Leobardi. Emperor. St. 123.. 199. St. 158. 29. 123. 104. Voragine. St. 101.. James de. Vincentius. Acts Ursinus. Women 206. St. 16 . 207. Vincent. St. See Liberata. Vincent. St. 230. 63.. 35. ... St. 200. Zaccheus. Passion of. 118. of the legend of. Louis. 24. 209.. Vigilius. Vincent.. Abbey. Venera. Valerian.. Venus.. SS. Venerandus. St. of. 228. 129. Venus. St. 101. 120. 185. St. 101. the Pelasgic. 42. 185. Waldetrudis.. Genitrix. 204. 159. disguised as men. Venus throne of English kings. THE ABERDEEN UNIVERSITY PRESS LIMITED. at Brindjsi. Volto Santo of Lucca. Venus Purpurina. 38. St. 207. 31. 91. Vitalis and Agricola. Victor. 100. Xystus. Wood 36. 208. Vives.. 120. Ursmar.

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