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Summer/May 2012 Master of Business Administration - Semester 3 MB0050: Research Methodology (4 credits) (Book ID: B1206) ASSIGNMENT- Set 1

1. a. Distinguish between Double sampling and multiphase sampling.


Double sampling: A standard form of sample design for industrial inspection purposes. In accordance with the characteristics of a particular plan, two samples are drawn, n1 and n2, and the first sample inspected. The batch can then be accepted or rejected upon the results of this inspection or the second sample be inspected and the decision made upon the combined result. Multiphase sampling: It is sometimes convenient and economical to collect certain items of information from the whole of the units of a sample and other items of usually more detailed information from a sub-sample of the units constituting the original sample. This may be termed two-phase sampling, e.g. if the collection of information concerning variant, y, is relatively expensive, and there exists some other variant, x, correlated with it, which is relatively cheap to investigate, it may be profitable to carry out sampling in two phases. At the first phase, x is investigated, and the information thus obtained is used either (a) to stratify the population at the second phase, when y is investigated, or (b) as supplementary information at the second phase, a ratio or regression estimate being used. Two-phase sampling is sometimes called "double sampling".

b. What is replicated or interpenetrating sampling?


In replicated or interpenetrating sampling, the total sample is made up of a set of replicate subsamples, each of the identical sample design. Replicated sampling may be used for studying variable no sampling errors, such as the variability in the results obtained by different interviewers and coders, and for facilitating the calculation of standard errors. The essential feature for either use is that each subsample provides independent comparable estimates of the population parameters.

2. What are the differences between observation and interviewing as methods of data collection?
Observation: Observation, as the name implies refers to situations where participants are observed from a safe distance and their activities are recorded minutely. It is a time consuming method of data collection as you may not get the desired conditions that are required for your research and you may have to wait till participants are in the situation you want them to be in. Classic examples of observation are wild life researchers who wait for the animals of birds to be in a natural habitat and behave in situations that they want to focus upon. As a method

of data collection, observation has limitations but produces accurate results as participants are unaware of being closely inspected and behave naturally. Interviewing: Interviewing is another great technique of data collection and it involves asking questions to get direct answers. These interviews could be either one to one, in the form of questionnaires, or the more recent form of asking opinions through internet. However, there are limitations of interviewing as participants may not come up with true or honest answers depending upon privacy level of the questions. Though they try to be honest, there is an element of lie in answers that can distort results of the project.

3. How case study method is useful to Business Research?


While case study writing may seem easy at first glance, developing an effective case study (also called a success story) is an art. Like other marketing communication skills, learning how to write a case study takes time. Whats more, writing case studies without careful planning usually results in sub optimal results? Savvy case study writers increase their chances of success by following these ten proven techniques for writing an effective case study: Involve the customer throughout the process. Involving the customer throughout the case study development process helps ensure customer cooperation and approval, and results in an improved case study. Obtain customer permission before writing the document, solicit input during the development, and secure approval after drafting the document. Write all customer quotes for their review. Rather than asking the customer to draft their quotes, writing them for their review usually results in more compelling material.

Case Study Writing Ideas Establish a document template: A template serves as a roadmap for the case study process, and ensures that the document looks, feels, and reads consistently. Visually, the template helps build the brand; procedurally, it simplifies the actual writing. Before beginning work, define 3-5 specific elements to include in every case study, formalize those elements, and stick to them. Start with a bang: Use action verbs and emphasize benefits in the case study title and subtitle. Include a short (less than 20-word) customer quote in larger text. Then, summarize the key points of the case study in 2-3 succinct bullet points. The goal should be to tease the reader into wanting to read more. Organize according to problem, solution, and benefits: Regardless of length, the time-tested, most effective organization for a case study follows the problem-solution-benefits flow. First, describe the business and/or technical problem or issue; next, describe the solution to this problem or resolution of this

issue; finally, describe how the customer benefited from the particular solution (more on this below). This natural story-telling sequence resonates with readers. Use the general-to-specific-to-general approach: In the problem section, begin with a general discussion of the issue that faces the relevant industry. Then, describe the specific problem or issue that the customer faced. In the solution section, use the opposite sequence. First, describe how the solution solved this specific problem; then indicate how it can also help resolve this issue more broadly within the industry. Beginning more generally draws the reader into the story; offering a specific example demonstrates, in a concrete way, how the solution resolves a commonly faced issue; and concluding more generally allows the reader to understand how the solution can also address their problem. Quantify benefits when possible. No single element in a case study is more compelling than the ability to tie quantitative benefits to the solution. For example, Using Solution X saved Customer Y over $ZZZ, ZZZ after just 6 months of implementation; or, Thanks to Solution X, employees at Customer Y have realized a ZZ% increase in productivity as measured by standard performance indicators. Quantifying benefits can be challenging, but not impossible. The key is to present imaginative ideas to the customer for ways to quantify the benefits, and remain flexible during this discussion. If benefits cannot be quantified, attempt to develop a range of qualitative benefits; the latter can be quite compelling to readers as well. Use photos. Ask the customer if they can provide shots of personnel, ideally using the solution. The shots need not be professionally done; in fact, homegrown digital photos sometimes lead to surprisingly good results and often appear more genuine. Photos further personalize the story and help form a connection to readers. Reward the customer. After receiving final customer approval and finalizing the case study, provide a pdf, as well as printed copies, to the customer. Another idea is to frame a copy of the completed case study and present it to the customer in appreciation for their efforts and cooperation. Writing a case study is not easy. Even with the best plan, a case study is doomed to failure if the writer lacks the exceptional writing skills, technical savvy and marketing experience that these documents require. In many cases, a talented writer can mean the difference between an ineffective case study and one that provides the greatest benefit. If a qualified internal writer is unavailable, consider outsourcing the task to professionals who specialize in case study writing.

4. Would case studies be considered as scientific research? Why or why not?


Case studies are a tool for discussing scientific integrity. Although one of the most frequently used tools for encouraging discussion, cases are only one of many possible tools. Many of the principles discussed below for discussing case studies can be generalized to other approaches to encouraging discussion about research ethics. Cases are designed to confront readers with specific real-life problems that do not lend themselves to easy answers. Case discussion demands critical and analytical skills and, when implemented in small groups, also fosters collaboration (Pimple, 2002). By providing a focus for discussion, cases help trainees to define or refine their own standards, to appreciate alternative approaches to identifying and

resolving ethical problems, and to develop skills for analyzing and dealing with hard problems on their own. The effective use of case studies is comprised of many factors, including: Appropriate selection of case(s) (topic, relevance, length, complexity) Method of case presentation (verbal, printed, before or during discussion) o format for case discussion (Email or Internet-based, small group, large group) o leadership of case discussion (choice of discussion leader, roles and responsibilities for discussion leader) Outcomes for case discussion (answers to specific questions, answers to general questions, written or verbal summaries) Research methods don't seem so intimidating when you're familiar with the terminology. This is important whether you're conducting evaluation or merely reading articles about other studies to incorporate in your program. To help with understanding, here are some basic definitions used. o o Variable: Characteristics by which people or things can be described. Must have more than one level; in other words, to be able to change over time for the same person/object, or from person to person, or object to object. Some variables, called attributes, cannot be manipulated by the researcher (e.g., socioeconomic status, IQ,score, race, gender, etc.). Some variables can be manipulated but are not in a particular study. This occurs when subjects self-select the level of the independent variable, or the level is naturally occurring (as with ex post facto research). Manipulation: Random assignment of subjects to levels of the independent variable (treatment groups). Independent variable: The treatment, factor, or presumed cause that will produce a change in the dependent variable. This is what the experimenter tries to manipulate. It is denoted as "X" on the horizontal axis of a graph. Dependent variable: The presumed effect or consequence resulting from changes in the independent variable. This is the observation made and is denoted by "Y" on the vertical axis of a graph. The score of "Y" depends on the score of "X." Population: The complete set of subjects that can be studied: people, objects, animals, plants, etc. Sample: A subset of subjects that can be studied to make the research project more manageable. There are a variety of ways samples can be taken. If a large enough random samples are taken, the results can be statistically similar to taking a census of an entire population--with reduced effort and cost.

5. What are the contents of research reports?

The researcher must keep in mind that his research report must contain following aspects: 1. Purpose of study

2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

Significance of his study or statement of the problem Review of literature Methodology Interpretation of data Conclusions and suggestions Bibliography Appendices

These can be discussed in detail as under: (1) Purpose of study: Research is one direction oriented study. He should discuss the problem of his study. He must give background of the problem. He must lay down his hypothesis of the study. Hypothesis is the statement indicating the nature of the problem. He should be able to collect data, analyze it and prove the hypothesis. The importance of the problem for the advancement of knowledge or removed of some evil may also be explained. He must use review of literature or the data from secondary source for explaining the statement of the problems. (2) Significance of study: Research is re-search and hence the researcher may highlight the earlier research in new manner or establish new theory. He must refer earlier research work and distinguish his own research from earlier work. He must explain how his research is different and how his research topic is different and how his research topic is important. In a statement of his problem, he must be able explain in brief the historical account of the topic and way in which he can make and attempt. In his study to conduct the research on his topic. (3) Review of Literature: Research is a continuous process. He cannot avoid earlier research work. He must start with earlier work. He should note down all such research work, published in books, journals or unpublished thesis. He will get guidelines for his research from taking a review of literature. He should collect information in respect of earlier research work. He should enlist them in the given below: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Author/researcher Title of research /Name of book Publisher Year of publication Objectives of his study Conclusion/suggestions

Then he can compare this information with his study to show separate identity of his study. He must be honest to point out similarities and differences of his study from earlier research work. (4) Methodology: It is related to collection of data. There are two sources for collecting data; primary and secondary. Primary data is original and collected in field work, either through questionnaire interviews. The secondary data relied on library work. Such primary data are collected by sampling method. The procedure for selecting the sample must be mentioned. The methodology must give various

aspects of the problem that are studied for valid generalization about the phenomena. The scales of measurement must be explained along with different concepts used in the study. While conducting a research based on field work; the procedural things like definition of universe, preparation of source list must be given. We use case study method, historical research etc. He must make it clear as to which method is used in his research work. When questionnaire is prepared, a copy of it must be given in appendix. (5) Interpretation of data: Mainly the data collected from primary source need to be interpreted in systematic manner. The tabulation must be completed to draw conclusions. All the questions are not useful for report writing. One has to select them or club them according to hypothesis or objectives of study. (6) Conclusions/suggestions: Data analysis forms the crux of the problem. The information collected in field work is useful to draw conclusions of study. In relation with the objectives of study the analysis of data may lead the researcher to pin point his suggestions. This is the most important part of study. The conclusions must be based on logical and statistical reasoning. The report should contain not only the generalization of inference but also the basis on which the inferences are drawn. All sorts of proofs, numerical and logical, must be given in support of any theory that has been advanced. He should point out the limitations of his study. (7) Bibliography: The list of references must be arranged in alphabetical order and be presented in appendix. The books should be given in first section and articles are in second section and research projects in the third. The pattern of bibliography is considered convenient and satisfactory from the point of view of reader. (8) Appendices: The general information in tabular form which is not directly used in the analysis of data but which is useful to understand the background of study can be given in appendix.

6. Write short notes on the following:


a. Median: The median is defined as the middle value in a set or distribution. There is no arithmetic involved in finding the median unless the set or distribution has an even number of values, in which case the two middle values (sometimes defined as lower median and upper median) are averaged to find the median. b. Standard Deviation: standard deviation (represented by the symbol sigma, ) shows how much variation or "dispersion" exists from the average (mean, or expected value). A low standard deviation indicates that the data points tend to be very close to the mean, whereas high standard deviation indicates that the data points are spread out over a large range of values.

Summer/May 2012 Master of Business Administration - Semester 3 MB 0050: Research Methodology (4 credits) (Book ID: B1206)
1. What is the significance of research in social and business sciences? According to a famous Hudson Maxim, All progress is born of inquiry. Doubt is often better than overconfidence, for it leads to inquiry, and inquiry leads to invention. It brings out the significance of research, increased amounts of which makes progress possible. Research encourages scientific and inductive thinking, besides promoting the development of logical habits of thinking and organization.The role of research in applied economics in the context of an economy or business is greatly increasing in modern times. The increasingly complex nature of government and business has raised the use of research in solving operational problems. Research assumes significant role in formulation of economic policy, for both the government and business. It provides the basis for almost all government policies of an economic system. Government budget formulation, for example, depends particularly on the analysis of needs and desires

of the people, and the availability of revenues, which requires research. Research helps to formulate alternative policies, in addition to examining the consequences of these alternatives. Thus, research also facilitates the decision making of policymakers, although in itself it is not a part of research. In the process, research also helps in the proper allocation of a countrys scare resources. Research is also necessary for collecting information on the social and economic structure of an economy to understand the process of change occurring in the country. Collection of statistical information though not a routine task, involves various research problems. Therefore, large staff of research technicians or experts is engaged by the government these days to undertake this work. Thus, research as a tool of government economic policy formulation involves three distinct stages of operation which are as follows:

Investigation of economic structure through continual compilation of facts Diagnoses of events that are taking place and the analysis of the forces underlying them; and The prognosis, i.e., the prediction of future developments
Research also assumes a significant role in solving various operational and planning problems associated with business and industry. In several ways, operations research, market research, and motivational research are vital and their results assist in taking business decisions. Market research is refers to the investigation of the structure and development of a market for the formulation of efficient policies relating to purchases, production and sales. Operational research relates to the application of logical, mathematical, and analytical techniques to find solution to business problems such as cost minimization or profit maximization, or the optimization problems. Motivational research helps to determine why people behave in the manner they do with respect to market characteristics. More specifically, it is concerned with the analyzing the motivations underlying consumer behavior. All these researches are very useful for business and industry, which are responsible for business decision making. Research is equally important to social scientist for analyzing social relationships and seeking explanations to various social problems. It gives intellectual satisfaction of knowing things for the sake of knowledge. It also possesses practical utility for the social scientist to gain knowledge so as to be able to do something better or in a more efficient manner. This, research in social sciences is concerned with both knowledge for its own sake, and knowledge for what it can contribute to solve practical problems.

2. What is the meaning of hypothesis? Discuss the types of hypothesis?


A hypothesis is an assumption about relations between variables. It is a tentative explanation of the research problem or a guess about the research outcome. Before starting the research, the researcher has a rather general, diffused, even confused notion of the problem. It may take long time for the researcher to say what questions he had been seeking answers to. Hence, an adequate statement about the research problem is very important. What is a good problem statement? It is an interrogative statement that asks: what relationship exists between two or more

variables? It then further asks questions like: Is A related to B or not? How are A and Belated to C? Is a related to B under conditions X and Y? Proposing a statement pertaining to relationship between A and B is called a hypothesis. Scientific hypothesis: People refer to a trial solution to a problem as a hypothesis, often called an "educated guess because it provides a suggested solution based on the evidence. Experimenters may test and reject several hypotheses before solving the problem. According to Schick and Vaughn researchers weighing up alternative hypotheses may take into consideration:

Testability(compare falsifiability as discussed above) Parsimony (as in the application of "Occam's razor", discouraging the postulation of excessive numbers of entities) Scope the apparent application of the hypothesis to multiple cases of phenomena Fruitfulness the prospect that a hypothesis may explain further phenomena in the future Conservatism the degree of "fit" with existing recognized knowledgesystems.

Working hypothesis: A 'working hypothesis' is a hypothesis that is provisionally accepted as a basis for further research in the hope that a tenable theory will be produced, even if the hypothesis ultimately fails. Like all hypotheses, a working hypothesis is constructed as a statement of expectations, which can be linked to the exploratory research purpose in empirical investigation and are often used as a conceptual framework in qualitative research.In recent years, philosophers of science have tried to integrate the various approaches to evaluating hypotheses and the scientific method in general, to form a more complete system that integrates the individual concerns of each approach. Notably, Imre Lakatos and Paul Feyerabend, Karl Popper's colleague and student, respectively, have produced novel attempts at such a synthesis.

3. What is frequency Distribution? What are the types and general rules for graphical representation of data?
Represent the class-marks along the x-axis. Represent the frequencies along y-axis. Join these points, in order, by straight lines. The point at each end is joined to the immediate higher (or lower) class mark at zero frequency so as to complete the polygon. Method II: Represent a histogram of the given data. Join the mid points of the tops of the adjacent rectangles by straight lines. The mid points at each end are joined to the immediate higher (or lower) at zero frequency so as to complete the polygon.

Mark Class 1-5

Frequency 1 5 8 6

6-10 11-15 16-20

What people usually do is add an extra column showing the midpoints of each class like this: Mark Class 1-5 6-10 11-15 16-20 Frequency 1 5 8 6 Midpoint 3 8 13 18

Now what were going to do is plot a graph showing the frequency for each midpoint. For instance, the frequency for the midpoint value 8 is 5. The midpoint values are shown along the horizontal axis, and the frequency values are shown along the vertical axis like for a histogram:

The reason its called a polygon is because the line sort of forms a plane shape with the horizontal axis as one side of the shape:

4) Cumulative Frequency Curve (ogive): The Cumulative frequency curve for a grouped frequency distribution is obtained by plotting the points and then joining them by a free-hand smooth curve. This is also known as ogive. Method: Form the cumulative frequency table. Mark the upper class limits along the x-axis. Mark the cumulative frequencies along the y-axis. Plot the points and join them by a free-hand smooth curve. Plot the cumulative frequency curve for the data set below

Age (years) Frequency 10 5 11 10 12 27 13 18 14 6 15 16 16 38 17 9


Solution:

Age (years) Frequency Cumulative Frequency 10 5 5 11 10 5+10 = 15 12 27 15+27 = 42 13 18 42+18 = 60 14 6 60+6 = 66

15 16 17

16 38 9

66+16 = 82 82+38 = 120 120+9 = 129

4. List down various measures of central tendency and explain the difference between them?
The three most commonly-used measures of central tendency and difference between them are as following. Mean: The sum of the values divided by the number of valuesoften called the average.

Add all of the values together. Divide by the number of values to obtain the mean.

Example: The mean of 7, 12, 24, 20, 19 is (7 + 12 + 24 + 20 + 19) / 5 = 16.4. Median: The value which divides the values into two equal halves, with half of the values being lower than the median and half higher than the median.

Sort the values into ascending order. If you have an odd number of values, the median is the middle value. If you have an even number of values, the median is the arithmetic mean (see above) of the two middle values.

Example: The median of the same five numbers (7, 12, 24, 20, 19) is 19.

Mode: The most frequently-occurring value (or values).


Calculate the frequencies for all of the values in the data. The mode is the value (or values) with the highest frequency.

Example: For individuals having the following ages 18, 18, 19, 20, 20, 20, 21, and 23, the mode is 20.

5. Select any topic for research and explain how you will use both secondary and primary sources to gather the required information.
For performing research on the literacy levels among families, the primary and secondary sources of data can be used very effectively. More specifically the primary sources of data collection is suggested in this regard. Because personal data or data related to human beings consist of:1. Demographic and socio-economic characteristics of individuals: Age, sex, race, social class, religion, marital status, education, occupation income, family size, location of the household lifestyle etc.2. Behavioral variables: Attitudes, opinions, awareness, knowledge, practice, intentions, etc.3. Organizational data consist of data relating to an organizations origin, ownership, objectives, resources, functions, performance and growth.4. Territorial data are related to geo-physical characteristics, resource endowment, population, occupational pattern infrastructure degree of development, etc. of spatial divisions like villages, cities, talks, districts, state and the nation. The data serve as the bases or raw materials for analysis. Without an analysis of factual data, no specific inferences can be drawn on the questions under study. Inferences based on imagination or guess work cannot provide correct answers to research questions. The relevance, adequacy and reliability of data determine the quality of the findings of a study. Data form the basis for testing the hypothesis formulated in a study. Data also provide the facts and figures required for constructing measurement scales and tables, which are analyzed with statistical techniques. Inferences on the results of statistical analysis and tests of significance provide the answers to research questions. Thus, the scientific process of measurements, analysis, testing and inferences depends on the availability of relevant data and their accuracy. Hence, the importance of data for any research studies The sources of data may be classified into: a. Primary sources b. Secondary sources. Primary Sources of Data Primary sources are original sources from which the researcher directly collects data that have not been previously collected e.g.., collection of data directly by the researcher on brand awareness, brand preference, brand loyalty and other aspects of consumer behavior from a sample of consumers by interviewing them,. Primary data are first-hand information collected through various methods such as observation, interviewing, mailing etc.

Advantage of Primary Data: It is original source of data it is possible to capture the changes occurring in the course of time. It flexible to the advantage of researcher. Extensive research study is based on primary data Disadvantage of Primary Data:

Primary data is expensive to obtain It is time consuming It requires extensive research personnel who are skilled. It is difficult to administer

Methods of Collecting Primary Data: Primary data are directly collected by the researcher from their original sources. In this case, the researcher can collect the required date precisely according to his research needs, he can collect them when he wants them and in the form he needs them. But the collection of primary data is costly and time consuming. Yet, for several types of social science research required data are not available from secondary sources and they have to be directly gathered from the primary sources. In such cases where the available data are in appropriate, inadequate or obsolete, primary data have to be gathered. They include: socioeconomic surveys, social anthropological studies of rural communities and tribal communities, sociological studies of social problems and social institutions. Marketing research, leadership studies, opinion polls, attitudinal surveys, readership, radio listening and T.V. viewing surveys, knowledge-awareness practice (KAP) studies, farm managements studies, business management studies etc. There are various methods of data collection. A Method is different from a Tool while a method refers to the way or mode of gathering data, a tool is an instruments used for the method. For example, a schedule is used for interviewing. The important methods are

(a)Observation, (b) Interviewing, (c) Mail survey, (d) Experimentation, (e) Simulation and (f) Projective technique.

Each of these methods is discussed in detail in the subsequent sections in the later chapters. Secondary Sources of Data: These are sources containing data which have been collected and compiled for another purpose. The secondary sources consists of readily compendia and already compiled statistical statements and reports whose data may be used by researchers for their studies e.g., census reports , annual reports and financial statements of companies, Statistical statement, Reports of Government Departments, Annual reports of currency and finance published by the Reserve Bank of India, Statistical statements relating to Co-operatives and Regional Banks, published by the NABARD, Reports of the National sample survey

Organization, Reports of trade associations, publications of international organizations such as UNO, IMF, World Bank, ILO,WHO, etc., Trade and Financial journals newspapers etc. Secondary sources consist of not only published records and reports, but also unpublished records. The latter category includes various records and registers maintained by the firms and organizations, e.g., accounting and financial records, personnel records, register of members, minutes of meetings, inventory records etc.

6. Write short notes on the following:

a. Dispersion: Literally, dispersion means deviation, difference or spread of certain values from their central value. In relation to statistical series, it means, deviations of various items of the series from its central value. Definitions 1. According to AX. Bowley, "Dispersion is the measure of variation of the items." 2. According to Brooks and Dicks, "Dispersion is the degree of the variation of the variable about a central value." 3. According to Spiegal, "The degree to which numerical data tend to spread about an average value is called variation or dispersion of the data." Importance of Dispersion 1. Dispersion can control the various conclusions drawn from central tendency. 2. Dispersion measures the inequalities in the distribution of income and wealth. 3. Dispersion can evaluate the average profit, average sales, average cost etc. in industry, trade or business. 4. It is used to control price and output. 5. It removes the defects of the averages and presents doubtful conclusions in their true form. Properties of Dispersion 1. It should be rigidly defined and free from any ambiguity. 2. It should be simple to follow. 3. It should be easy for computation and free from complicated procedure of calculations. 4. It should be based on all the items of the series. 5. It should be capable of further algebraic treatment.

6. It should be greatly affected by the values of extreme items of a series. 7. It should not be affected by fluctuations of sampling. b. Mathematical averages The mean (or average) is just an average over your sample of numbers, such as (n1+n2+n3)/3. The average does not have to be a number in your sample set, but does have to be in between your sample. Standard deviation is how much the numbers in your sample set deviate from the average. As stated earlier approximately 68% of your sample be within the first standard deviation, 95% within the second, and 99% within the third standard deviation. Standard deviation is used to know how your data is distributed among your sample, it tells you how many of your population (sample) are within a specific range this is typically known as "Normal Distribution". Mathematical average is a way to know approximately where most of your sample lies. If you have 20 numbers and they are all different, we'd like to know approximately where most of those data points will be, at a minimum of 68% probability.