## Are you sure?

This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?

with Eurocode 8/NS-EN1998-1

Course: June 4th 2009, Norwegian Steel Association

CONTENTS

– – – – – – – – – – Shear Force at Ground Level Seismic Class Effect of Soil Type Natural periods Design Spectrum Load factors and combinations Seismic mass Distribution of forces within building. Capacity control Exemption Criteria

Earth quake in structures

•

• • •

Essentials giving greatest contribution to Fb: Natural period of structure (T). Energy dissipation in structure, (q). Soil Type (S).

**Let’s start with the ’basics’
**

• Earth quakes are dynamic fenomenons and are solved in accordance with this. • F = m*a > 0 (Sir Isac Newton, 1666). • F = ms*Sd(T)*λ (Eurocode + NA, 2008)

0 1.0 Dominerende variabel last 0.6 Lager 0.0 – 0.0 1.6 Butikker 0.3 Kontorer 0.0 – 0.Load factors for earth quakes: Accident Limit State Permanente laster 1.8 (se nedenfor) Andre variable laster 0. 1.0 Jordskjelv last 1.0 Load factors for permanent variable loads: (valid for seismic mass) Boliger 0.0 For krefter i konstruksjonen For brudd i grunnen.3 Forsamlingslokale 0.8 .8 (se nedenfor) 1.

Material factor.(1)) .3. Steel • γm = 1.1 (NA.1.6.

0) .2: Shear forces at ground level or at the top of a rigid basement.3.pkt 4. Sd(T) = design spectrum λ = correction factor (0. • • • • F = ms*Sd(T)*λ ms = the seismic mass of the structure = dead load + permanent loads + % of live loads. otherwise 1.2.85 for T < 2*TC and more than 2 storeys.3.

ref pkt 3.2.5 (4)P Design Spectrum – principal shape Most buildings are within: (Tb+Tc)/2 and (Tc+Td)/2 .2.

5/q – 2/3)) ag*S*2.5/q ag*S*2. S .T 0 < T < TB TB < T < TC TC < T < TD T > TD Sd(T) = Sd(T) = Sd(T) = Sd(T) = ag*S*(2/3 +(T/TB)*(2.5*(TC/T)/q ag*S*2.5*(TC*TD/T)/q .Sd(T) = Design Spectrum ag .

0> ag = 0.5 – 4> ag40hz = peak value of ground acceleration < 0 – 3. usually < 0.7 – 2.8* ag40hz* γ1 = design ground acceleration S = Soil factor.7 and greater> T = Natural period of the structure. governed by soil factor S 2 orthogonal directions is considered. .Parameters that must be determined: • • • • • • • • q = construction factor < 1.0 – 1. dependent on the ground conditions < 1.0 m/s²> γ1 = Factor for seismic class < 0.5 s – 1. TC og TD in the design spectrum (Sd(T)).5 s> TB.

The map indicates automatic registrations performed by av NORSAR of earth quakes and other seismic activities (explosions etc.) the last 110 years. ILL: NORSAR .Earth quake in Norway the last 110 years.

ag40hz = peak value for ground acceleration .

ag40hz = peak value for ground acseleration .

γ1 = Factor for seismic class (≈ ’pålitelighetsklasse’) .

.

Then calculate design ground acceleration: • ag = 0.8* ag40hz* γ1 .

Effect of Soil under and around building: • Illustrated by a case in Iceland. .

2000 Selfoss Þorlákshöfn Thjorsa-bridge Hella Hvolsvöllur 0 10 20 30 40 50 Scale in Kilometers .June 17 . June 21 .5 .5. Thjorsa Bru Reykjavik M6.Example of increase of earthquake actions Case study in Iceland.2000 Hveragerði Keflavík M6.

Accelerometer WEST SIDE 50 mm expansion joints EAST SIDE 50 mm expansion joints Lava rock. 18-20 m thick Bedrock Approach span Bedrock on the east side Lava rock on alluvial deposits on west side . 8-10 m thick Lead-rubber bearings Thjorsa-River Pier Back wall with wing walls Alluvial deposits.Thjorsa Bru – Different type of soil on each side.

(g) 0.50 0 5 Time .00 -0.29 hz. 8-10 m thick East side Thjorsa River Sand and fine gravel. 18-20 m thick Dolerite (bedrock) 0.21 hz.(s) 10 15 0 5 Time .50 0.Accelerations measured in 2000 for the same quake.50 0. greater Sd(T) -0. less Sd(T) Vertical Vertical Insignificant Sd(t) 0.00 -0.50 E-W E-W 0.50 0.50 0. 83 m West side Lava rock.00 WEST SIDE N-S EAST SIDE N-S Acceleration .(s) 10 15 Insignificant Sd(t) .

.

Effect of ground types (S-faktor) .

.

.E Possibility of great pore overpressures Lateral forces on Piles Partly freestanding piles. Possibility for lique-faction (Soil type S2 ) Plastified and soft clay and silts (Soil type S1 ) Mix of several Soil Types A .Geotechnical advice needed when: • • • • • • • • • Geotechnical advice or values not given by Eurocode. Structural interaction soil and building Foundation flexibility in analyses.

T .Natural periods of the structure.

T The basic equation: T = α * √(M/K) • • • • M = Seismic mass: Masses from permanent loads + % variable K = stiffness: Some contribution from the load bearing structure and some from the ”non load bearing” structure .Natural periods of the structure.

2. (4) og (5).2.085 for steel frames C = 0.050 for other systems Second approximate equation: T1 = 2 ⋅ d d is the horizontal displacement in meter on the top floor when the forces of gravity are applied as horizontal forces THE EQUATIONS USUALLY DETERMINE FOR A SHORT PERIOD. T (CONSERVATIVELY) .075 for concrete frames C = 0.(3).3. T1 = Ct ⋅ H 3 / 4 where C = 0.3.Approximate equations for the first natural period: point 4.

√ d .Natural period. flexibility of foundation T1 = 2 . T. √(M1/K1) T1 = Ct . π . H3/4 T1 = 2 .

Which modes shall be calculated? X-direction Y-direction Rotation Several periods are calculated when: - The sum of the swing mode masses < 90% of total mass The swing form has mass > 5% of total masse .

• Buildings in seismic class .2D or 3D analyses to calculate T required for: • Non Regular buildings •Buildings designed in DCM ( 2 < q < 4) • Buildings with foundations partly on rock and deposits.

and 5 % .rule) Accurately determine the T-values Test against the excemption criteria .Natural periods for non-regular structures: • • • • Use computer programmes (2D or 3D) Calculate all required swing modes (90 %.

5/q*(TC*TD/T) .5/q*(TC/T) ag*S*2.Calculate the following : Sd(T) = Design Spectrum 0 < T < TB TB < T < TC TC < T < TD T > TD Sd(T) = Sd(T) = Sd(T) = Sd(T) = ag*S*(2/3 +(T/TB)*(2.5/q – 2/3)) ag*S*2.5/q ag*S*2.

Point 3.2.2.5 (4)P Respons Spectrum (in principle) .

3.2.4 – Reinforcement factor δ • • δ = 1+x/ Le x = the distance of the structure in question from the mass centre of the overall structure in the level measred at right angles to the relevant seismic load. measured at right angles to the direction of the seismic load in question. Le = the distance between the outer strucural parts withstanding applied loasds. • .Udesired eccentricity (Torsion) point 4.3.

Shear force at foundation level or at the roof level of a rigid basement F= m*Sd(T)*λ .

.point 4.3.3.2.3 The distribution of shear forces on the floors of the building.

The distribution of shear forces on the floors of the building. • Will also be given by a 2D or 3D dynamic analysis .

05 g = 0.q ≤ 1.1 g = 0.5 => Simplified design rules may be used Limiting conditions Very low seismiscty: Condition: .49 m/s2 .ag S = γI * agR * S < 0.Sd(T)< 0.How and when do we design for earth quakes? Low seismicity: Condition: .98 m/s2 .5 => Do not require earth quake design .q ≤ 1.

49 m/s² with q < 1.05g = 0.05g = 0.2.7) • Light timber structures • when ag*S <0. •Very low seimicity.1 (5)P Excemption criteria.ref NA.e.3.5.49 m/s² • when Sd(T) < 0. γ1 = 0. Not necessary to determine sufficient capacity for seismic loads: • Structures in seismic class I (i. in sum As ic ’bas at g th n esig rd s fo iple rinc p r d fo nte cou ac are ’ .

8*q < 1.5) Ved ikke-regularitet i oppriss reduseres q til 0. Carry out design and sizing acc to Gjennomføre dimensjonering iht NS-EN Steel Standard without additional requirements. .1) • DCL is a straight forward first attemt to design for earthquakes. (pkt 4.2.3. DCL: • • • 1. (Only if q≤1.Structures with small energy dissipation.0 Elstic analyses without accounting for nonlinearities.5.5 ≤ q ≤ 2.

- sahoo2014
- Testing and Long Term Monitoring of a Curved Concrete Box Girder Bridge
- Synoptic Description of Earthquakes
- 2design Aspect
- Res 13100801
- Development of New Attenuation Equation for Subduction
- 13_1957
- JEE_0803
- Ch 9 - Role of Codes and Empirical Procedures
- low cost housing
- 1.3 Ejemplo Italia
- Quake
- PLAXIS 2D 2010
- Explanation
- 2003 08 Seismic Demand Bridge PEER
- writing assignment 2 narrative
- 02-Stability of CW
- Notations
- Agust_22_2016_Email_PRR_w._Attachments.pdf
- STAS 1242-2-83-ENG
- Sistem Inteligent de Monitorizare Multiparametrică a Unei Zone Seismogene
- Dams_Bray.pdf
- natural disasters paper
- Magnitude Scaling of the Near Fault Rupture Directivity Pulse
- earthquake final
- Environemtal Science Notes for Engineers
- Georisk2011 Final Program
- IJERTV2IS60302
- Salton.public.091410.2Pages
- Seismic Analysis of a Three-Span Deck Girder Bridge

Skip carousel

- Tsunami Safety Checklist
- Seismic Vulnerability of Oregon State Highway Bridges (ODOT)
- Are You Ready for an Earthquake?
- CADRE06-05 (Conway) (2)
- The Asian Tsunami
- Haiti Progress Report 2010
- Transforming Earthquake Detection and Science Through Citizen Seismology
- Starting on the Road to Recovery
- tmpA47E.tmp
- Haiti Progress Report 2010
- Coastal Hazard Early Warning Systems in Pakistan
- Washington D.C. Afro-American Newspaper, February 20, 2010
- tmpF482.tmp
- GMAT Practice Test
- Oregon’s earthquake risk and resiliency (Oregon Department of Geology and Mineral Industries)
- Southeast Region - Apr 2010
- Asian Journal April 3, 2015 Edition
- nationalatlas1970_specialsubjectmaps-physical.pdf
- tmp4935.tmp
- 2015 Disasters in Numbers
- tmpA216.tmp
- Teachers Without Borders Emergency Education Poster
- Coastal Hazard Early Warning Systems in Pakistan
- Community Education for Natural Disaster Preparedness
- Keeping Recovery on Course
- Luther/Wellston OCC guidance
- Seismic Pounding Effect between Adjacent Buildings
- Linear Static Analysis of Regular Space Frame with & Without Fixed Base
- tmp9F2A
- OCC Earthquake Response 3-7

- Massa Ticino Leo11
- Las Poutilhe
- PI 290 issuu (1)
- controlli-accettazione
- Ricette Prodotti Del Benessere
- Carosi Colazione Aprile
- Bagne
- Analisi Granulometrica Degli Inerti Parte i
- 88_-_bon_jovi_-_always.pdf
- Gato
- sheet_music_-_piano_score_bon_jovi__-__its_my_life.pdf
- Ricette Definitive Crosara 10-7-17071720171050
- Ricette Demo O.busi New091620151546
- PastryLive2013 Web
- DM_avio_010206
- Moule a Financiers
- ricette_sigep2013
- Sc Tecnica Fornitore 10043862 Stf
- Dolce for No
- 42 Tab Ganaches
- Libretto MDL FCI x Sito1
- GZRic Panettone
- 20110413-58-65-S22_Lievitazione_Pane
- 8_Egg_IT4
- Nozioni Informative
- LinkStudPSR_Design Manual to BS8110
- Lievito Madre
- DPPATE02
- 33204-L26 Durabilità AggressioneChimica
- Dolce for No

Sign up to vote on this title

UsefulNot usefulClose Dialog## Are you sure?

This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?

Close Dialog## This title now requires a credit

Use one of your book credits to continue reading from where you left off, or restart the preview.

Loading