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CHAPTER 1

CLUSTER DIAGRAM
Cluster diagrams are graphs used to find the necessary data needed to start the preliminary
design of aircraft with historical figures.To plot the graph, data from similar kinds of aircrafts are
collected and fixing the cruise velocity the values are selected.the vales to be selected are Gross
take of Weight (WTO),Aspect Ratio(AR), Range (R), Thrust to Weight ratio (T/W)and Wing
loading (W/S).

Graph 1 Vcruise vs. WTO

Graph 2 Vcruise vs. AR

Graph 3 Vcruise vs. Range

Graph 4 Vcruise vs. T/W

Graph 5 Vcruise vs. W/S


Keeping the Cruise Velocity constant at 890 km/hr, the following values are chosen from the
Cluster Diagram,
Chosen Values from Cluster Diagram
Gross Take Off Weight,WTO

231000 kg (2266.11N)

Aspect Ratio,AR

7.62

Range,R

9620 km

Thrust to Weight ratio,T/W

0.294

Wing Loading,W/S

604.97 kg/m2

Fineness ratio,Lf/Df

10.11

CHAPTER 2

WEIGHT ESTIMATION
First Weight Estimation:
It is necessary to make the first estimate of the weight as it provides the basis for the preliminary
geometrical sizing of the aircraft. This method provides a quick estimation of the initial gross take off
weight which does not include any combat or payload drops.
The gross take off weight, WTO of the aircraft is broken into
1. weight of the payload, Wp
2. weight of the crew, Wcrew
3. empty weight, We
4. weight of fuel, Wf

WTO = Wp + Wcrew + Wempty + Wf


Weight of the payload includes the passengers weight in this case.
Empty weight includes structures, landing gear, fixed equipment weight and avionics.
For the ease of calculation empty weight and the weight of fuel are expressed as fraction of gross
take off weight.
WTO = ( Wp + Wcrew ) / 1 ( We / WTO ) ( Wf / WTO )
In the above equation the unknowns are the empty weight fraction and the fuel weight fraction.
2.1 Determination of Empty Weight Fraction (We / WTO ):
Empty weight fractions are determined from the historical trends plotted using data collected
from already existing aircraft of the particular type.

Empty weight fraction value varies from 0.3 to 0.7 where the highest weight fraction applies to
the flying boat and the lowest for the military aircrafts and the empty weight fraction diminishes
with increase in aircraft gross take off weight.

Empty Weight Fraction


We /WTO = AWC TO Kus

Sailplane- unpowered

0.86

-0.05

Sailplane-powered

0.91

-0.05

Homebuilt

1.19

-0.09

Homebuilt- composite

0.99

-0.09

GA- single engine

2.36

-0.18

GA- twin engine

1.51

-0.10

Agricultural

0.74

-0.03

Twin turboprop

0.96

-0.05

Flying boat

1.09

-0.05

Jet trainer

1.59

-0.10

Jet fighter

2.34

-0.13

Military bomber

0.93

-0.07

Jet transport

1.02

-0.06

K us = 1.04 for variable sweep wing


= 1.00 for fixed swept win

Fig 1 Empty weight fractions trends


The above graph shows the trend lines of various types of aircraft from which the values of A
and C are computed from the slopes of these trend lines. The negative exponential power is due
to the fact that the empty weight fraction decreases with increase in gross take off weight.
Since composite materials are used for the construction of major parts of the aircraft 0.95 is
multiplied to the obtained empty weight fraction.
2.2 Estimation of Fuel Weight Fraction:
The total weight of the aircraft fuel consists of the fuel used to complete the required mission and
the reserve fuel which also includes the trapped fuel.
Fuel weight fraction is calculated using approximations for specific fuel consumption and
aerodynamics.
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Mission Profile for Transport Jet Aircrafts:


Mission profile is a pictorial representation of different phases the aircraft has to undergo to
complete the required mission

Fig 2 mission profile without loiter

Fig 3 mission profile with loiter


1-2 indicates taxi phase ; 2-3 indicates take off phase ;
3-4 indicates climbing phase ; 4-5 indicates cruise phase ;
5-6 indicates loiter phase (in case of fig 2); 6-7 indicates landing phase(in fig 1)
7-8 indicates landing phase( in fig 2)

In this manual, the gross take off weight is calculated without loiter phase
2.3 Steps for The Calculation of Gross Take Off Weight, WTO:
1. Determination of payload weight and the crew weight
According to the standards followed weight of 1079 N (110 kg) is allowed for each
passenger and the crew in which 196.2N (20 kg) is for the baggage carried
2. Determination of empty weight fraction (We /WTO) using table 1 mentioned according to the
type of the aircraft.
We / WTO = AW CTO Kus
Where WTO is the value chosen from the cluster diagram for the given cruising velocity.
3. Determination of fuel weight fraction using the mission profile which will be explained in
detail in the example to be followed.
4. The gross take off weight ( WTO ) is calculated using equation
WTO = ( Wp + Wcrew ) / 1 ( We / WTO ) ( Wf / WTO )
5. Using the obtained gross take off weight, empty weight fraction is calculated again until the
value of gross take off weight converges.
Following the above steps,
The problem given here is to design a 250 seater passenger high subsonic aircraft satisfying the
FAR regulations.
Determination of weight of payload and the weight of crew
Weight of the payload, Wp

= 242 * 1079.1 = 261.142kN

Weight of the crew, Wcrew

= 10 * 1079.1 = 10.791kN

Wp + Wcrew

= 271.933kN

Determination of empty weight fraction


The empty weight fraction, We /WTO = AWC TO Kus * 0.95
For jet transport A = 1.02 , C = - 0.06 , Kus = 1.00
From the cluster diagram ,WTO = 2266.110kN
We /WTO = 0.46185
Determination of fuel weight fraction
The Fuel weight fraction, Wf / WTO = 1.2 ( 1 - mff )
mff is the mission fuel fraction.
The mission fuel fraction is determined as follows

( W1 / Wto )

= 0.990 [ engine start up ]

(W2 / W1 )

= 0.990 [ taxi]

(W3 / W2 )

= 0.995 [ take off ]

Calculation for climb segment, ( W4 / W3 ):


Eclimb = (1/ c) climb (L / D) climb ln (W3 / W4 )..(3)
(L / D) max = 1 / [ 2 ( C do * K) 0.5 ]

C do

= 0.02 ( for Jet transport )

AR

= 7.62 ( from cluster diagram )

= 0.8

= 0.052242

(L / D) max

= 15.46838

Assume climb rate to be 1800 ft /min.


Let the cruising altitude be 36000 feet, so the time required to reach 36000 feet is 36000/1800
which equals to 20 mins ( 0.33 hr)
Eclimb

= 0.33 hr

Substituting the above values in (3)


( W4 / W3 )

=0.991 (climb phase)

Calculation for Cruise segment:


R = ( V/ sfc)*( L/D) cruise* ln ( W4 / W5)
R is the Range covered during cruise, in km.
V is the cruise velocity, in km / hr.
c for range is 0.33
Range covered during cruise = total range ( range covered during climb and descent )
Average climb speed is 592.64 km /hr and the time taken is 0.33 hr
Distance covered during climb

=592.64 * 0.33

=195.5712 km.

Let the descent rate be 970 ft/min and it descends from 36000ft, so the time taken is 0.618 hr.
Let the average descent speed be 518.56 km/hr and the time taken is 0.618 hr
Distance covered during descent

= 320.4700 km

10

Range covered during cruise

=9620 195.5712 320.47


= 9103.9588 km

( L/D)cruise
( L/D)cruise

= 0.98 ( L/D)max
= 15.1590

Substituting the above values in Range formula


( W5/W4)

=0.7643

Calculation for descent segment


Edescent = (1/ c) descent (L / D)descent ln (W5/ W6 ).(5)
Edescent is the time taken to complete descent, in hours
(L/D)descent = (L/D)max to cover maximum distance
c is 0.35 for descent, in lb/lbf-hr.
Edescent = 0.618 hr ; (L/D)descent = 15.46838
(W5/ W6 )

= 0.988 [ descent ]

(W5/ W6 )

= 0.992 [ shut down]

Mission fuel fraction, mff = (W1/ Wto )*(W2/ W1)*(W3/ W2 )*(W4/ W3 )*(W5/ W4)*
(W6/ W5)*(W7/ W6)
mff = 0.7239
Fuel weight fraction, Wf / WTO

= 1.2 ( 1 - mff )

Wf / WTO = 0.33132
From the cluster diagram, WTO is chosen to be 2266.11kN

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s.no

WTO(initial,kN)

We/WTO

WTO(final,kN)

1.

2266.11

0.46185

1314.76

2.

1314.766

0.47719

1420.09

3.

1420.090

0.47499

1403.96

4.

1403.960

0.47531

1406.28

5.

1406.284

0.47526

1405.92

6.

1405.920

0.47527

1405.92

We/ WTO = 1.02* (WTO)-0.06*0.95 = 0.4618


Using the equation WTO = 1314.766kN
Using this value the iteration is proceeded until the value of WTO converges as shown below
WTO = 1405.92kN
2.4 SECOND WEIGHT ESTIMATION:
In second weight estimation we choose an engine based on the WTO value obtained from the
first weight estimation and include the weight of the fuel to calculate the final WTO.
The procedure is illustrated below
Thrust to weight ratio , T/W = 0.294 ( from cluster diagram)
From this T = 413.362kN
Since we are employing two engines , thrust per engine
T = 232.516kN
For safety reasons, T = 1.2T
T = 279.019kN
So the engine selected to meet the above thrust requirement is GenX- 1B54
Weight of the powerplant , Wpp = 57.054kN

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W pp / W TO = 0.081158
Weight of the fuel , Wf = (Ne * r * c * Talt * 1.2)/ V
Where Ne is the no of engines
r is the range, km
c is the specific fuel consumption of engine, lb/lbf-hr
V is the cruising speed, km/hr
T alt is the thrust at the cruising altitude
Talt = To *( )1.2
To is the thrust produced by the engine at sea level , lbf
is the density ratio = / SL
Wf

= 423.718 kN

Wf/ WTO = 0.30136


WTO = (W pl+Wcrew+Wpp) /(1-Wf/ WTO-We/WTO Wpp/WTO)
WTO =2714.551kN

13

s.no

WTO

Engine selected

We/ WTO

Wf / WTO

Wpp / WTO

WTO (final)

(initial,kN)
1.

1405.99

GenX-1B54

0.4752

0.3014

0.08116

2714.55

2.

2714.55

GE90-110B1

0.4569

0.3275

0.05986

2788.96

3.

2788.96

GE90-115BL

0.4561

0.3188

0.05826

2604.47

4.

2604.47

GE90-110B1

0.4580

0.3188

0.06329

2701.72

5.

2701.72

GE90-110B1

0.4570

0.3291

0.06015

2825.57

6.

2825.568

GE90-110BL

0.4567

0.3294

0.05751

2761.68

Since the error involved is less than 3% between the last two iterations WTO = 2761.68 kN
WTO = 2761.68 kN
So the engine selected is GE90-115BL
Engine specifications:
Type

: axial flow, twin shaft bypass turbofan engine.

Compressor

: axial, 1 wide chord swept fan, 4 low pressure stage, and 9 high pressure
stages.

Turbine

: axial,6 low pressure stages, 2 high pressure stages

Length

:7290 m.

Diameter

: 3.429m

Dry weight

:81.256kN

Pressure ratio

: 42:1

Thrust
c

: 514 kN( at sea level)


: 0.34 lb/lbf-hr

CHAPTER 3

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Placement of Engines
Engines can be placed on the wings, above the wings, suspended on pylons below the wings or
mounted on the aft of the fuselage.
Buried engines:

These engines have the minimum parasite drag and the minimum weight

They pose the threat of damaging the wing structure in the event of blade damage
and in other similar kind of issues

Inlet efficiency is less

Accessibility during maintenance is difficult.

Podded engines:

Acts as vortex generators

When placed outboard this arrangement provides wing bending relief .

Ease of maintenance.

Reduce noise within the cabin.

The placement of pods in front of the wing prevents flutter of wing.

This type of arrangement increases drag.

The engines are prone to foreign object damages.

Aft fuselage engines:

This type of arrangement is preferred for smaller aircrafts to maintain adequate


clearance.

Drag is less due to the elimination of wing pod interference drag

Greater center of gravity travel range which causes balancing problem.

Vibration and noise reduction are difficult

Wing bending relief is not obtained in this arrangement.

So considering the advantages and disadvantages the engines are suspended by pylons under
the wings.

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CHAPTER 4
DETERMINATION OF WING PARAMETERS
Wings are the most important component which produces lift and also produces drag and
pitching moment. The important issue to be kept while determining the necessary wing
parameters is to produce lift at its maximum efficiency and to reduce drag and pitching moment
while satisfying the mission requirements
The parameters to be determined are
1. Wing planform area, S
2. vertical position of the wing i.e. high, mid or low wing position
3. Aspect Ratio, ARw

4. Span, b
5. Taper Ratio,w
6. Root Chord, Cr
7. Tip chord Ct
8. Mean Aerodynamic Chord, C

9. Twist angle
10. Sweep Angle,
11. Wing setting angle, iw

12. High Lift devices


4.1 Wing vertical location:
The vertical loction of wing can be of four types
1. high wing

2. mid wing
3. low wing
High Wing:

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Advantages:

facilitates loading and unloading of loads and cargo in the cargo aircraft

clearance is higher and thus prevents foreign particle damage to the engine.

High wing configuration increases the dihedral effect and lowers the stall speed since Cl
max will be higher

Disadvantages :

The frontal area is more and thus it produces drag.

Since the ground effect is low, it increases the take-off run distance

The landing gear length will be longer and requires more space to be stored while
retracted.

It requires the tail surface to be 20% larger when compared to low wing configuration

The weight of the wing is 20% greater when compared to low wing configuration

This type of configuration produces more induced drag as it produces more lift.

The lateral control of this configuration is weaker as it is more dynamically stable.

Low wing:

The aircraft take off performance is improved due to the influence of ground effect.

Landing gear is shorter and thus reduces weight

The wing has less induced drag

This type of configuration has more lateral control since the aircraft has less lateral
dynamic stability.

The wing has lesser downwash on the tail thus increasing the effectiveness of tail.

17

The tail is lighter when compared to high wing configuration

This configuration facilitates the use of wing carry through structure to effectively
transmit the loads and thus this type of configuration is usually selected for passenger
aircraft

Disadvantages:

Since the wing has two separate sections it produces less lift and has higher stall speed.

The take off run is increased due to less lift produced

This type of aircraft requires long landing length.

This type of configuration has negative effect on dihedral effect.

Mid wing:

The aircraft structure is heavier due to the need of reinforcing wing root at the
intersection of the fuselage

The wing is costlier to manufacture.

The mid wing is aerodynamically streamliner and it an attractive option compared to the
other two configurations.

In general high wing configuration is preferred for cargo aircrafts where as low wing
configuration for passenger aircrafts.
4.2 OVERVIEW OF WING PARAMETERS:
Aspect Ratio, AR:
Aspect ratio is defined as the ratio between the span wing span to the wing Mean Aerodynamic
Chord (MAC).
AR = b/ MAC
For the rectangular or simple tapered wing planform area, S is defined as

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S = b* MAC
AR = b*b / (MAC*b) = b2/S

As the Aspect ratio of the wing is increased the aerodynamic characteristics such as Cl,
Cd , Cm of 3-d wings gets reduced to 2-D characteristics.

Fig 4

Effect of increase in AR

As the aspect ratio of wing is increased the stall angle of the wing gets reduced to the
value of the stall angle of the airfoil section. This is the reason to have the tail with low
AR as it has higher stall value and it is more effective in recovery even if the wing stalls.

As the AR is increased the wing becomes heavier as the moment arm gets larger which
results in higher bending stress at the root section which requires the root to be large
enough to withstand the stress. So as the weight of the wing increases the manufacture
cost also increases.

The increase in AR facilitates an increase in the maximum lift to drag ratio.

As the AR is increased the induced drag is reduced as it follows the relation below
CDI = CL 2 / ( * e * AR )

19

The effect of wing tip vortices on the horizontal tail is reduced as the AR is increased.

As the AR is increased the aileron arm is also increased as they are placed outboard of
the wings which results in high lateral control but because the stiffness is reduced it
results in aileron reversal problem, so an optimum value of AR is to be selected
TYPICAL ASPECT RATIO FOR DIFFERENT AIRCRAFT TYPES
Aircraft type

Aspect Ratio , AR

Hang glider

4-8

Sail plane

20-35

Home- built

4-7

General Aviation

5-9

Jet trainer

4-8

Subsonic Aircraft

6-10

Super sonic

3-5

Tactical missile

0.3-1

Hypersonic

1-3

Span, b:

The span is the distance between the tip of one wing to the tip of other.

Increase in the span results in the reduction of induced drag but it has several constraints
also. There is the concern about wing bending as it affects the stability and results in the
flutter of the wing.

Increase in span results in the increase in the weight of the structure which in turn
increases the manufacturing cost.

Increase in span results in the reduced Reynolds numbers of the section which in turn
reduces the lift produced by the wing.

20

Taper Ratio, w:
Taper ratio is defined as the ratio of length of chord at the tip to the length of chord at the root.
The reason for providing taper to the wing is to reduce the lift produced at the tips and to obtain a
lift distribution near to the ellipitical lift distribution. The taper reduces the lift produced at the
tips the tips which in turn reduces the induced drag. The use of taper to the wings also results in
the reduction of the weight. Taper ratio for low swept wing is around 0.4 -0.5 whereas for a
highly swept wing it is around 0.2 0.3.This is because the swept wing diverts the air towards
the tip which results in the production of lift at the tips. So to make the lift distribution nearlt
ellipitical taper ratio has to be reduced.

Fig 5 Effect of taper ratio on CL


Sweep Angle, :
The angle between the wing leading edge and the longitudinal axis (y axis) of the aircraft is
called as the leading edge sweep angle, lew. Similarly the angle between the quarter chord line
and the longitudinal axis is the quarter chord sweep, c/4 . In the same way trailing edge sweep is
also defined.

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Fig 6 leading edge sweep , lew

Fig 7 quarter chord sweep, c/4

Fig 8 trailing edge sweep, tew


The features of swept wing

Improving aerodynamic features of the wing i.e. lift, drag and pitching moment bby
delaying compressibility effect.

The main reason incorporating this feature is to increase the critical mach number of the
wing.

Wing maximum lift coefficient decreases with the increase in sweep as followed by the
relation ,
CLmax = Clmax [0.86 0.002] where Clmax is the maximum lift coefficient of the

airfoil.

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Thus it increases the stall speed.

An increase in the wing sweep tends to reduce the wing curve slope, CL.
CL = 2AR/ ( 2+(AR2(1+tan2c/4 M2+4)0.5)

Swept wing tend to produce negative rolling moment due to the changes in the velocity
vector normal to the leading edge between the left and the right wing sections.

Tip stall is a very serious issue in swept wing. If the outboard section of the wing stalls,
the loss of lift is behind the aerodynamic centre of the wing while the lift maintained at
the inboard section of the wing ahead of the aerodynamic center produces a pitch up
moment moving the aircraft into deeper stall. This when combines with the pitching
moment produced by tail becomes a very serious issue.

The aircraft pitching moment is increased as the aircraft cg is in front the aircraft
aerodynamic center as the aerodynamic center tends to move behind with the increase in
sweep.

For low subsonic aircraft which travels at a speed less than mach of 0.3 as it tends to increase
the cost of manufacture while availing little benefit of sweeping the wing.
Twist Angle, t:
The main reasons for introducing the twist angle are

To avoid tip stall

To modify the lift distribution near to the elliptical distribution.

The twist can be provided in form of geometric twist or aerodynamic twist. In geometric twist
if the tip is at lower incidence than the root , it is said to be wash out or negative twist. If the tip
is at higher incidence than the root, it is known positive twist or wash in. If the whole wing
sections is composed of different airfoils each with a different zero lift angle , it is known as
aerodynamic twist.

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The disadvantage of incorporation of the twist is that it results in the production of lower lift
since the incidence angle is decreasing towards the tip. The twist angle must not be high enough
such that it produces negative lift towards the tip.

Fig 9 effect of negative twist on lift distribution


The criterion to be followed in selecting the twist angle is
| t| + i w => | o |
Where o is the zero angle of attack.
For aircrafts usually only negative twist is provided. Typical value is between -1 to -4 degree.
Dihedral Angle, :
If the wing tip is higher than the x-y plane , it is said to have positive dihedral or simply dihedral.
If the wing tip is lower than the x-y plane , it is said to have negative dihedral or anhedral

24

The reason for incorporating this feature is to improve the lateral stability. Lateral stability is
mainly the tendency of the aircraft to return to the original trim level condition when disturbed
by gust and rolls around the x axis. The lateral static stability is represented by Cl which is the
change in lift co efficient with change in aircraft sideslip angle. For lateral stability this
derivative is negative which is due to positive dihedral.
Typical Values of Dihedral Angle for Different Aircraft types
Wing

Low wing

Mid wing

High wing

Unswept

5-10

3-6

-4 to -10

Low subsonic swept

2 to 5

-3 to +3

-3 to -6

High subsonic swept

3to8

-4 to +2

-5 to -10

Supersonic swept

0 to -3

1 to -4

0 to -5

Hypersonic swept

1 to 0

0 to -1

-1 to -2

4.3 DETERMINATION OF WING PARAMETERS:


Following the same example
Planform area, S = WTO / (W/S)
Where W/S and WTO (from 2nd weight estimation) are known
AR = b2 / S (to determine the span, b)
Where AR is known from cluster diagram

25

Fig 9 typical trapezoidal wing


The dimensions of the length of root chord, length of the tip chord and MAC aerodynamic chord
is calculating assuming the wing to be a trapezoidal wing.
Root chord, Cr = 2 S / b ( 1 + )
Tip chord , Ct = w * Cr
2
C = ( 2 / 3) * Cr * ( 1 + w + w ) / ( 1 + w )

Distance of the MAC from the aircraft centerline


Y = ( b / 6 ) ( 1 + 2w ) / ( 1 + w )
Position for aerodynamic centre is 0.25 MAC for subsonic aircraft
Position of the aerodynamic centre is 0.4 MAC for supersonic aircraft.

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Fig 10 position of the MAC


Geometrical Wing Parameters:
Planform area, S

465.342m2

Span, b

59.55m

AR

7.62 (from cluster diagram)

Taper ratio,w

0.201

Dihedral angle,

5 deg

Root chord, Cr

13.014m

Tip chord , Ct

2.616 m

8.968 m

11.586m

4.4 Airfoil Selection:

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Fig 11 typical airfoil

Chord of the airfoil is the straight line from the leading edge to the trailing edge of the
airfoil.

Mean camber line is the line equidistant from the upper and lower surfaces of the airfoil.

Airfoil camber is the maximum distance between the mean camber line and the chord line
expressed as percentage of chord.

Thickness to chord ratio is the ratio between the maximum thickness of the airfoil to the
chord of the airfoil

The trailing edge of the airfoil is not perfectly sharp as it is difficult to manufacture, so the
trailing edge has finite thickness.
Requirements for the Selection:
1. highest possible lift co efficient
2. proper design lift co efficient
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3. lowest minimum drag co efficient


4. highest lift to drag ratio
5. highest lift curve slope
6. lowest pitching moment co efficient.
4.4.1 Overview of airfoil parameters:
Thickness to chord Ratio:

t/c affects the maximum lift and stall characteristics by the effect of nose radius

high AR and large nose radius provides higher stall angle and greater Clmax

thickness also affects the structural weight. The airfoil at the root can be thicker than the
tip without causing much drag for accommodating landing gear and to reduce the
structural weight and hence the cost.
Figure 11 effect of t/c on Clmax

For low speed aircraft which requires high lift coefficient like cargo aircraft, (t/c) max is between
15% to18%.
For high subsonic aircraft, (t/c) max is 9% to 12%.

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For supersonic aircraft, (t/c) max is 6 % to 9 %.


Note on NACA airfoils:
Basically there are three groups of airfoils

four - digit NACA airfoils

five digit NACA airfoils

6 series NACA airfoils

Four digit airfoil:


These airfoils are generated by two parabolas. One parabola from the leading edge to the
maximum camber and the other parabola from the maximum camber to the trailing edge. This
type of airfoil generates more drag compared to other airfoils.
The nomenclature is as follows

1st digit gives the maximum camber in % of chord

2nd digit gives the position of maximum camber in tenths of chord.

Last two digits gives the thickness of the airfoil.

For example, NACA 2415 airfoil has a maximum thickness of 15% with a camber of 2% located
at 40% from the airfoil leading edge.
Five digit airfoil:
These airfoils are generated using one parabola from the leading edge to the maximum camber
and a straight line that connects the end point of parabola to the trailing edge. The maximum
camber has been shifted forward to produce greater lift.
The nomenclature is as follows

1st digit multiplied by 3/2 gives the design lift co efficient in tenths

30

Next two digits divided by 2 gives the position of maximum camber in tenths of the
chord.

Last two digits gives the thickness of the airfoil.

For example, NACA 23012 airfoil has a design lift co efficient of 0.3,maximum thickness of
12% and maximum camber located at 15% behind the leading edge of the airfoil.
Six digit airfoil:
These airfoils were used to maintain laminar flow over a large portion of the airfoil and thus
maintain Cdmin when compared to other two series of the airfoil.
The nomenclature is as follows

6 denotes the series

2nd digit shows the location of minimum pressure in tenths of the chord

The suffix and the digit next to the - denotes the range where low drag is maintained

Final two digits specify the thickness.

For example, NACA 641- 212 airfoil, 6 denotes the series, with the minimum pressure location
of 0.4C,low drag maintained between 0.1 to 0.2 with the thickness of 12%.
Supercritical airfoils:
The key elements in the design of the supercritical airfoil are

A relatively large leading edge radius is used to expand the flow at the upper surface
leading edge, thus obtaining more lift

To maintain supersonic flow along a constant pressure plateau, by slowing the flow going
into the shock , a relatively weak shock compared to the amount of lift generated used to
bring the flow down to subsonic speed

Another means of obtaining lift without shock is to use aft camber

31

To avoid flow separation, the upper and lower surfaces at the trailing edge is nearly
parallel, resulting in finite thickness trailing edge.

The major disadvantage is this kind of airfoil produces a large zero lift pitching moment.

The nomenclature is as follows

The first two digits denote the design lift co efficient in tenths

The last two digits denote the thickness in %

For example, SC- 0612 airfoil has a design lift co efficient of 0.6 and thickness of 12%
Wing incidence, iw:
Wing incidence is the angle between the fuselage reference line and the wing chord line of the
airfoil at the root.
The conditions to be satisfied in selecting the incidence angle are

The wing must be able to generate desired lift co efficient during cruise

Minimum drag must be obtained from the wing and fuselage during cruise.

Figure 1 setting of wing incidence angle

32

The wing incidence angle corresponds to the ideal lift co efficient (Cli) in the Cl vs. graph.

4.4.2 Steps involved in selecting the airfoil: (along with example)

The first step in selecting the airfoil is to calculate the design lift co efficient (Cl design)
Cl design = WTO / ( 0.5* *V2*SW )
Cl design = 0.55 ( approx 0.6)

airfoils taken into consideration which produces the desired design lift co efficient are
1. 641- 412
2. SC 0612

In the figure shown below the center of the drag bucket indicated the ideal lift co efficient of the
airfoil and the right end of drag bucket indicates the design lift co efficient.

Fig 13 location of design lift co efficient

Sweep angle is calculated using the formula given below to satisfy the selected Mach
Number

33

( 1 M dd )/ (1 M dd =0 ) = (1 / 90 )
Where
Mdd is the drag divergence Mach number
M dd =0 is the drag divergence Mach number at = 0
For NACA 6 series airfoil, M dd =0 = 0.66
For Super Critical airfoil , M dd =0 = 0.78
For NACA 6 series airfoil
c/4w(deg)

Mdd

30

0.77

38

0.82

45

0.84

48

0.86

For Super Critical airfoil


c/4w(deg)

Mdd

30

0.85

33

0.86

35

0.87

43

0.89

It is to be noted that the drag divergence Mach number must be 0.05 greater than the
cruise Mach number.
So with a sweep of 43 deg we obtain the desired Mach number with Supercritical airfoil.
34

So we choose the SC -0612 airfoil.


Specifications :
Design lift coefficient

0.6

Thickness

1.1%

Max Cl

1.364

Stall angle

14 deg

Max L / D

25.94

Zero lift angle

-4 deg

zero lift pitching moment co efficient, C mo

-0.013

4.5 Selection of high lift devices :


High lift devices are used to produce additional lift by employing the following methods

Increasing the airfoil camber

Boundary layer control from improved pressure distribution and re energizing or


removing low energy boundary layer

Increment in the effective wing area.

Factors involved in the selection are

Incremental drag

Mechanical complexity

Maintenance cost

Development

Structural weight

A high lift devices tends to cause the following changes in the airfoil features
35

Lift coefficient is increased

Maximum lift coefficient is increased

Zero lift angle of attack is changed

Stall angle is changed

Pitching moment coefficient is changed

Drag coefficient is increased

Lift curve slope is increased.

Two main groups of high lift devices


1. leading edge high lift devices such as leading edge flap, leading edge slat and

Kruger flap modify the pressure distribution over the top surface of the main wing
body
2. Trailing edge high lift devices such as plain flap, split flap, slotted flap, double

slotted flap, triple slotted flap and fowler flap when deflected downward increase
the camber of the wing.
In designing the high lift device for a wing, the following items has to be determined

High lift device location along the span

The type of high lift devices

High lift device chord, Cf

High lift device span, bf

High lift device maximum deflection, max.


Types of high lift devices and the corresponding CL
s.no

High lift devices

CL

36

1.

Plain flap

0.7

2.

Split flap

0.7-0.9

3.

Fowler flap

1-1.3

4.

Slotted flap

1-1.3

5.

Double slotted flap

1-1.6

6.

Triple slotted flap

1-1.9

7.

Leading edge flap

0.2 0.3

8.

Leading edge slat

0.3 0.4

9.

Kruger flap

0.3 0.4

Placement of the high lift devices in the wing chord :


Plain flap 30% of wing chord
Split flap 25% of wing chord
Slotted flap 35 % of wing chord
Fowler flap 40 % of wing chord
Leading edge devices extends 15% to 20% of wing chord.
The span occupied by the high lift devices is about 70 % of the semi span of the wing.

4.5.1 Steps involved in Determination of high lift devices:

The take off speed of the aircraft is assumed and it is usually between 270 km/hr to
345 km/hr.

The Stall velocity of the aircraft is found using Vto = 1.2 Vs

37

The maximum lift co efficient produced by the aircraft is found using


CLmax

= WTO/ (0.5* Vs2*SW)

The landing speed of the aircraft is found using


V ls = 1.3 VS

CLI

The landing lift co efficient is found using


= Wlanding

/ ( 0.5** V

ls

* SW),[ aircraft lands with reserve fuel except for

emergency landing]

The lift produced by the wing is calculated using


CLW = 0.98 (Clmax r + Clmax t)/ 2
Where Clmax r and Clmax t is the maximum lift coefficient produced by the root airfoil
and tip airfoil respectively.

Difference in lift produced by the aircraft and wing helps us to determine the
required high lift devices.

Following the above steps


Lets assume the take off speed, Vto of 300 km/hr i.e. 83.33 m/s
Vs = 69.4441 m/s ; CLmax = 2.009;

V ls = 90.2733 m/s ; CLI = 0.9

CLW = 1.2958; Clmax = 0.7132


So we can use split flap to obtain the remaining lift coefficient.
C f /C = 0.20
f

= 45 deg (for take off)

=55 deg (for landing) to reduce the lift of 0.9

38

4.6 Placement of Aileron:


The aileron is placed at 20% of the chord of the wing.
C aileron / C = 0.20
So the rear spar is placed at 0.80C.
So the font spar is placed at 0.20C.
4.7 Volume of space available in wing for fuel:
Vwf =0.54[(S2 / b) (t / c)root {1+w w0.5 + w w / (1 + w )2}]
Where
w = (t/c)r/ (t/c)t
Density of fuel = 800 kg/m3
Substituting the data in the above equation
Vwf = 315.85m3
Weight of fuel that can be accommodated inside the wing = 2478.754kN.
But the weight of the fuel estimated = 930.995 kN
So the fuel can be accommodated without any external devices.

4.8 Winglets:
Winglets are near vertical extension of the wing tips which increase the effective aspect ratioof
wing with less added wing span. This could reduce the strength of the wing tip vortices and
hence lower the induced drag. The winglet converts the wasted energy at the tip into apparent

39

thrust which in turns helps in less consumption of fuel. But the use of winglets leads to the
increase of parasite drag.

Fig 14 Winglet Shape definition


Where
Cwr is the root chord length of the winglet
Cwt is the tip chord length of the winglet
lw is the length of the winglet
w25 is the sweep at the quarter chord of the winglet
Prescribed values for the design of winglets:
Root chord length , Cwr / Ct

= 0.5 -1.0

40

Taper ratio, Cwt / Cwr

= 0.3 1.0

Sweep angle, w25

= 24deg 50deg

Length, lw / Ct

= 0.5 2.0

Cant angle

= 0deg 84 deg

Toe out (twist) angle

= 0 deg 4 deg
The winglet parameters

Length, lw

2.0928 m

Cant angle

50 deg (assumed)

Sweep angle, w25

50 deg (assumed)

Toe out angle

2 deg.

Taper ratio

0.8

Sweep angle chosen is 50 deg as it uses the same airfoil as that of wing, increase in sweep angle
increases the critical Mach number.
As a result of which the span of the wing is increased to 61.8418 m and thus the aspect ratio is
increased to 8.21

CHAPTER 5
DETERMINATION OF FUSELAGE PARAMETERS
The fuselage must be strong, rigid and light to avoid fatigue and failure of the pressurized cabins
low stress level must be chosen Drag of the fuselage must be low as it represents 20 to 40% of

41

the zero lift drag. Larger fuselage results in higher fuselage consumption decreased range and
increased takeoff weight.
Circular cross section of the conventional fuselage has an optimum enclosed volume, minimal
structural weight and minimum wetted area. Circular shell will react to the internal pressure
loads by hoop tension. Usually the cahin altitude is maintained at 8000 feet. Circular cross
section is efficient and lowest in structural weight. Non circular sections impose bending stress
in the shell structure. Sometimes a small radius arc is provided on the upper deck to provide
adequate head room whereas in some design the upper and lower radii arc is blended with a short
straight section.
Fineness ratio which is the length to diameter ratio plays an influential role in the design of
fuselage. Low fineness ratio results in drag penalty but can be stretched in future to meet the
needs. High fineness ratio is a long thin tubular structure which will suffer from dynamic
instability and is not flexible for future stretch.
The geometrical parameters to be determined for the fuselage are

Length of the fuselage , Lf

Diameter of the fuselage , Df

Typically for a 3 class arrangement 8% of seats are allotted for the first class, 13% of seats are
allotted for the business class and remaining for economy class.

Typical seat pitch values


Class

Seat pitch, mm

Seat pitch, inches

First class

950 - 1050

38 42

Business class

900 - 950

36 38

42

Economy class

775 - 850

31- 34

Charter class

700 - 775

28 - 31

Fig 15 Seat Pitch

Allocation of flight attendants:

One attendant per 30 to 40 passengers in economy class.

One attendant per 20 to 25 passengers in business class.

One attendant per 10 to 15 passengers in first class.

Allocation of facilities:

10 to 60 passengers each galley in which lower value dictates to the business class and
the higher value for the economy class.

15 to 40 passengers each lavatory which follows the same allocation as mentioned above.

Size of Galley = 762*914 mm (30*36 inches)

43

Size of toilet = 914*914 mm (36*36 inches)


The nose and the tail of the fuselage has to be streamlined to provide a smooth and reduce drag
shape.
Nose fineness ratio

= 1.5; Tail cone fineness ratio = 1.8 to 2.0


Dimensions of the seats
First class

Economy class

a, cm

50

43.5

b, cm

120

102

l ,cm

5.5

h, cm

107

107

m,cm

20

22

n ,cm

81

81

44

Fig 16 Dimensions of seat ( for clear diagram refer Egbert)


class

k , cm

p / p max

/ max

(cm/cm)

(deg/deg)

First class

43

71/102

15/45

Economy

45

69/95

15/38

class

45

Fig 17 Dimensions of seat ( for clear diagram refer Egbert)


Emergency exits:
Emergency evacuation of the cabin plays an important role in deciding the fuselage layout. The
manufacturers should demonstrate to the airworthiness officers that all the passengers can
evacuate in 90 seconds or less in case of emergency
Requirements of emergency exits
Seats less than

Type 1

Type2

Type 3

Type 4

10

20

40

80

110

140

180

Dimensions of emergency exits:

46

Type 1: 24 wide * 48 high inches ( 610*1219 mm)


Type 2: 20* 44 inches (508*1118 mm)
Type 3: 20* 36 inches ( 508* 914 mm)
Type 4: 19* 26 inches ( 483* 600 mm)
Type A: 42*72 inches ( 1067*1829mm)
Type A exit is equivalent to passenger or service loading door. For more than 179 seats a pair of
additional type A exits allows an extra of 110 seats, a pair of type 1 exits will allow a extra of 45
seats. Above 300 seats, all exits must be of type A. Above 600 seats will require six type A exits
on each side of fuselage.
Flight deck:
The length of the flight deck varies from 110 inches (2.75m) for smaller aircrafts to 150
inches(3.75m) for larger aircrafts where the latter type can accommodate a third operator if
needed.

5.1 Steps for determining the geometrical parameters with the example
Total passengers = 242
Cabin attendants = 8 (as per the guidelines mentioned above)
No of passengers in economy class = 80% of 242=198
No of passengers in first class

=20% of 242 = 44

Single aisle is chosen for the cabin design.

Seating arrangement:

47

Economy class = 6 abreast [3+3 ] = 33 rows


First class

= 4 abreast [2+ 2] = 11 rows.

class

Economy

Seat

Aisle

toilets Galley

pitch(inches)

width(inches)

Total
length(m)

34

20.5

28.2988

38

28.5

10.6172

class
First class

The total length of cabin = 39.116 m


For better accommodation the economy class is divided in two sections in which the first section
contains 17 rows and the next contains 16 rows
50 ft i.e 15.24 m is accounted for the front and aft of the cabin width
2.54 m for the 2 crew cockpit
Emergency exits
First class

1 type III

Economy class

2 type III

48

Total length of fuselage, Lf

56.896 m (initial)

Diameter of the fuselage, D f

5.7 m (initial)

Length of nose, l nose

8.5 m

Tail cone ratio , l tail / D f

1.8 m

Length of tail con e , l tail

10.26 m

Total length of fuselage

= 39.116+8.55+10.26+6.096

Total length of fuselage, Lf

= 63.962m (final)

Diameter of the fuselage, D f = 6.33m (final)

49

CHAPTER 6
DETERMINATION OF HORIZONTAL PARAMETERS
The empennage is composed of horizontal tail and the vertical tail. The two primary functions
are trim and stability. The first and primary function of horizontal tail is longitudinal trim or
equilibrium or balance. The function of vertical tail is to provide directional stability.
The tail parameters to be determined are
1. Plan form area ,S ht
2. Aspect Ratio , AR ht
3. Span ,b ht

4. airfoil selection
5. Root chord length , C rht
6. Tip chord length , C tht
7. Taper ratio , ht
8. Tail setting angle , ht
9. Mean aerodynamic chord , Cht
10. Sweep angle , ht

The parameters given above have the same characteristics as that of wings. The major
differences which are encountered in the determination of tail parameters will be given below.
The different types of tail configuration are

Aft tail and one vertical tail

Aft tail and twin aft vertical tail


50

Canard and aft vertical tail

Canard and twin wing vertical tail

Triplane i.e aft tail as aft plane, canard as fore plane, wing as fore plane

Tailless i.e delta wing with one vertical tail

No formal tail

Planform area, Sht:


The tail volume co efficient, VHT plays an important role in determining the planform area of the
horizontal tail.
VHT = lt * Sht / C * SW
Where
lt is the tail arm, m
Typical values of VHT
Aircraft type

VHT

Glider and motor glider

0.6

Homebuilt

0.5

General aviation- single prop driven

0.7

General aviation- twin prop driven

0.8

General aviation with canard

0.6

agricultural

0.5

Twin turboprop

0.9

Jet trainer

0.7

Fighter

0.4

Fighter with canard

0.1
51

Bomber/ military
Jet transport

1
1.1

Tail arm, lt:


Tail arm is the distance between aircraft centre of gravity and the aerodynamic centre of the
horizontal tail. This serves as the arm for the tail pitching moment about aircraft centre of gravity
to maintain the longitudinal trim. Tail area is responsible in production of the lift and the tail arm
influences this parameter. As the tail arm is increased the tail area is decreased and the vice
versa.
Generally lt / Lf = 0.5
Differences between the ARw and ARt :
1. Elliptical distribution of lift is not required for the tail
2. Lower AR for tail than Wing. Lower AR results in smaller bending moment
3. For a single prop driven engine the tail span should be longer than the propeller

diameter as it avoids being fully immersed in the downwash region making the
tail inefficient.
Typically it follows the relation
AR ht = (3/5) AR w
The value is between 3 to 5.

Taper Ratio, ht :

52

Taper Ratio of the tail influences the aircraft lateral stability, control, aircraft performance, tail
efficiency, t and the aircraft weight and the centre of gravity. The main reason for tail taper
ratio is to reduce the weight of the tail.
Typical values for general aviation aircrafts is 0.7 to 1.
Typical values for transport aircraft is 0.4 to 0.7.
Tail incidence , ht :
Tail incidence angle is used to nullify the pitching moment about the center gravity at cruising
flight.
ht = CLt / CLt
CLt = Clt / (1 + Clt / * ARht )
Where
Clt is the lift curve slope of the tail airfoil section.
CLt is the lift coefficient of the tail.
Airfoil selection:
Requirements of empennage airfoil:
1. Since the CG moves during the cruising flight, the airfoil section must be able to create

both negative (-L ht) and positive (+L ht) lift, so the airfoil must be symmetrical.
2. The airfoil should have a low base drag co efficient.
3. Tail lift coefficient must be less than the wing lift co efficient
4. Horizontal tail airfoil section must be thinner than the wing airfoil section. Typically

around 9% thicknesses.

Sweep angle, ht:

53

Sweep angle influences the aircraft longitudinal and lateral stability and control, aircraft
performance and the aircraft center of gravity. As an initial value it is taken 5 deg greater than
the leading edge sweep angle of the wing.
Dihedral angle, ht:
The tail dihedral is same as the wing dihedral. The other dihedral angle which comes into play is
the longitudinal dihedral which has an effect on longitudinal static stability.
Tail vertical location:
The vertical location of the tail has two options
1. At the fuselage aft section
2. At the vertical tail
The wing influences the horizontal tail via downwash, wake and the trailing vortices. The wing
wake degrades the tail efficiency and decreases the tail dynamic pressure.
Three major regions for horizontal tail installation:
1. Out of wake region and downwash which is the safest and the best region.
2. Inside the wake region but out of wing downwash which is not recommended

3. Out of wake region but affected by the downwash which is the safe region from deep
stall and pitch up but tail is not efficient.

54

Fig 15 horizontal tail installation regions


Tail setting configuration:
There are three horizontal tail setting configuration
1. fixed horizontal tail
2. adjustable tail
3. all moving tail
Fixed horizontal tail is attached to the fuselage hinged with a longitudinal control surface
elevator to change the pitching moment of the aircraft. This design is easier and cheaper.
Whereas the in the all moving tail the whole of the horizontal tail plane is moved and it does not
employ an elevator. The trim drag of the fixed horizontal tail is greater than the all moving tail.
The all moving tail is also known as variable incidence tail plane.

Figure 16 various tail setting configurations

55

6.1 Procedure for Determining the Horizontal Tail Parameters:


Following the same example
VHT = l * S ht / MAC * S
VHT = 1.1

Assume

Tail arm , lt = 30 m ( as lt / L f = 0.5 approx)


Substituting the values in the formula for V H
S ht = 139.12 m2
Geometrical Parameters of Horizontal Tail
Plan form area ,S ht

139.12 m2

Span ,b ht

23.59m

Root chord length , C rht

7.863m

Tip chord length , C tht

3.932 m

Taper Ratio, ht

0.5 (assumed)

Sweep angle ht (leading edge)

50.562 deg

Sweep angle ht (quarter chord )

48.554 deg

Sweep angle ht (trailing edge)

41.427 deg

Dihedral angle, ht

5 deg

AR ht

4.572
Tail setting angle is determined in the Stability Section

56

Airfoil selected for tail section is NACA 63 009


Max C l

0.9

Cmo

-0.008

Stall angle

13 deg

Cdmin

0.004

CHAPTER 7
57

DETERMINATION OF VERTICAL TAIL PARAMETERS:


The same parameters determined for the horizontal tail plane must be determined for the vertical
tail also with the suffix vt used in the naming convention.
Planform area, S vt :
The vertical tail volume co efficient ,VV plays an important role in determining the plan form
area of the vertical tail.
VV = S vt*l vt / b*SW
Typical values for VVT
Aircraft type

VVT

Homebuilt

0.04

General aviation- single prop driven

0.04

General aviation- twin prop driven

0.07

General aviation with canard

0.05

agricultural

0.04

Twin turprop

0.08

Jet trainer

0.06

Fighter

0.07

Fighter with canard

0.06

Bomber/ military

0.08

Jet transport

0.09

Increasing the area will improve the lateral-directional stability, control and trim required. It will
also improve the directional and lateral control. If the vertical is too large, the aircraft will be
lateral directionally too stable but the directional control requirement are not satisfied.
Vertical tail arm, lvt:

58

The vertical tail arm must be long enough to satisfy the directional stability, control and trim
requirements. An increase in the vertical tail moment arm improves the directional and lateral
control. Since the vertical tail arm decides the position of the vertical plane it should be such that
it is out of wake region of horizontal tail.
Initially it is taken as lvt / lht = 0.95.
Vertical incidence angle, ivt:
The vertical incidence should be zero to maintain the symmetricity about the respective plane to
maintain equilibrium condition. But for propeller driven aircraft, the propeller will create a
torque so to maintain the equilibrium the vertical tail plane must be set at some incidence angle.
Aspect Ratio, ARvt :
If AR vt is higher it weakens aircraft lateral control but it has higher directional control. The
bending moment and the bending stress at the tail root will be higher which in turn makes the
vertical tail plane heavier. If the AR vt is large then the induced drag will be higher. For a T- tail
configuration, high AR vt keeps the horizontal tail from wake. Higher AR vt results in high
aerodynamic efficiency.
Typically it is around 1 to 2.
Taper Ratio, vt :
The main reasons for giving taper to vertical tail is to reduce the bending stress on the tail root
and to allow the vertical tail to have a sweep angle. But an increase in taper ratio reduces the
lateral stability. Typically the value is around 0.5
Sweep angle, vt :
If the sweep angle is increased it results in directional control and for T-tail configuration the tail
arm is increased which improves the aircraft longitudinal stability and control. For initial design
assume a same value as that of horizontal tail.
Airfoil selection:

59

The airfoil must generate lift with minimum drag coefficient. To maintain symmetricity airfoil
must be symmetrical. The airfoil must be thinner so that the Mach number is less on vertical tail
compared to the wing. High value of lift curve slope is preferred as the derivatives of directional
stability depends on the slope.
7.1 Procedure for determining the Vertical tail Parameters:
vertical tail volume co efficient , Vv =(l vt * S vt )/ (b * Sw)
l vt / l ht = 0.95
l vt

= 28.5m

The formulae used for the determination of wing parameters are used here.
Vertical Tail Parameters
Plan form area ,S vt

87.51m2

Span ,b vt

13.23 m

Root chord length , C rvt

8.82m

Tip chord length , C tvt

4.41m

Taper Ratio, vt

0.5

Sweep angle vt (leading edge)

50.562 deg

Sweep angle vt (quarter chord )

46.373 deg

Sweep angle vt(trailing edge)

28.772 deg

Cvt
AR vt

6.86m
2.0

The same airfoil used for horizontal tail plane is selected i.e NACA 63 - 009

60

CHAPTER 8
WEIGHT ESTIMATION OF THE COMPONENTS
Till now we have estimated the weight of the aircraft with historical data but in this section the
weights of the individual components are calculated to find the accurate weight of the aircraft.
Basically four methods are followed for the estimation of weight of the components.
1. Cessna method
2. USAF method

61

3. GD (general dynamics) method


4. Torenbeek method
The overall idea for the designer is to obtain an optimum weight of the aircraft. Over weight of
the aircraft will suffer reductions in range, reduced climbing altitude, reduced maneuverability
and increased takeoff and landing distances. Two methods which are widely used which offer
reduction in weight are the use of composites and relaxation in inherent stability of the aircraft.

Fig 17 various factors which influence the weight of the aircraft


As the payload weight and the fuel weight has been already estimated, in this section the
estimation of the empty weight is done.
The empty weight consists of
1. fuselage weight ,Wfuse
2. wing weight ,Wwing
3. horizontal tail weight, Wht
4. vertical tail weight, Wvt

62

5. engine group weight ,Weg

The estimation of the weight of the aircraft is done following the same example
8.1 Fuselage weight, Wfuse :[all units in fps]
The weight of the fuselage depends upon the size and the aircraft layout. The ratio
of Wfuse / WTO = 7 12 %

W fuse = 0.021K f (Vd lh / ( wf + hf

) } 0.5* S

Where
Sf is the surface area of the fuselage, ft2
Sf = * D f * L f
Kf = 1.08 (for pressurized fuselage)
= 1.07 (for main gear attached to the fuselage )
= 1.10 (cargo airplane with cargo floor)
VD is the dive speed., knots

Airworthiness requirement for civil aircraft set a minimum margin of M= 0.05 between the
cruise speed and the maximum dive speed
Dive speed is approximately chosen from the graph shown below

63

Fig 18 selection of dive speed


For the calculation we assume the dive speed, VD = 450 knots
Substituting the values in the above formula
W fuse = 368167.24 N
8.2 Weight of Wing , W wing : [ all units in fps]
Wwing = 0.0017 WMZF [ b / cos1/2 0.75 1 + {6.3cos1/2 / b}0.5 * ( nult

0.55

[b * S / (trWMZF cos1/2 )]
Where WMZF = maximum weight of aircraft with out fuel.
tr is the thickness of the airfoil
1/2 is the sweep angle at half chord, deg
nult is the ultimate load factor = 3.75
formula for calculating chord at half sweep
tanLn = tanLm 4 / ARw ( n m ) * ( 1 w /1 + w )

64

where n = ; m =
1/2 = 40.17deg
Substituting the values in the above formula
W wing = 350751.056 N
8.3 Weight of Horizontal tail:( all units in fps)
Wh = K h Sht [{3.81 Sht 0.2 VD / 1000 (cos1/2 ht )0.5 } 0.287]
Where

K h = 1 (for fixed incidence tail)


= 1.1 ( for variable incidence tail)
Wht = 33111.59 N

The same formula is applied for vertical tail with a suffix v


K v = 1.0 (for conventional tail)
Wvt = 17667.83 N
8.4 Weight of the Engine Group, Weg : (all units in fps)
Weg = Wew + Wtr + Wess + Wfs
Where Wew is the engine weight
Wtr is the thrust reverser weight
Wess is the electrical start system weight

Wfs is the fuel system weight

Wtr

= 50.38 [ Wew /1000] 0.459

65

Wess = 38.93 [ Wew /1000] 0.918

Wfs

= 80( Ne + Nt -1)+ 15 (Nt)0.5* (Wf /Kfs)

Where

Nt is the number of fuel tanks, here it is 6


Kfs = 5.87 lbs/gal ( for aviation gasoline)
= 6.55 lbs/gal (for JP4)

Weg = 39,603.44lb = 176.224kN


8.5 Weight of under carriage: (all units in fps)

Wug = K gr Ag + Bg ( WTO )

0.75

+ Cg ( WTO ) + Dg ( WTO )

1.5

Where

Wug is the weight of under carriage, lb


K gr = 1.0 for low wing aircraft
= 1.08 for high wing aircraft
For nose wheel,
Ag = 20.0; Bg = 0.10; Cg = 0; D g = 2*10-6
For main wheel,
Ag = 40.0; Bg = 0.16; Cg = 0.019; D g = 1.5*10-5
Wng = 14279.53 N
Wmg =101027.21N

8.6 Weight of fixed equipment, Wfe: (all units in fps)


W fe = W fc + Wels + Wox + Wfur + Wpaint + Wbc + Wiae

66

Where
Wfc is the weight of the flight control
Wels is the weight of the electrical system
Wox is the weight of the oxygen system
W fur is the weight of the furnishings
Wpaint is the weight of the paint
Wbc is the weight of cargo and baggage handling equipment , lb
Wiae is the weight of the avionics
Wels = 10.8 ( V pax )

0.7

* 1 0.018 ( Vpax )

0.35

Where V pax is the passenger cabin volume = volume allotted per passenger* no of passengers
Volume allotted per passenger = 65 ft3 [ transport jets]
Wfc = K fc * ( WTO )

0.67

Where

K fc = 0.64 (for powered flight controls)


= 0.44( for unpowered flight controls)
Wox = 30 + 1.2 ( N p )
Where N p is the number of passengers

Wpaint = 0.0045*WTO
Wbc = Kbc *

Np )
67

Where K bc =0.0646 (with no preload provisions)


= 0.316 ( with preload provisions)
Wiae = 0.575* ( Wengine )

0.566

( R)

0.25

Where R is the range, nm


Wfe = 13148.38 N

CHAPTER 9
BALANCE DIAGRAM

68

Balance diagram is drawn to locate the C.G of the aircraft and to verify the shift the C.G is
within 5% to 15%.
Guidelines to construct the balance diagram
C.G locations of the Components:
For wing , horizontal tail and vertical tail are at 40 % of their respective M.A.C
For fuselage at 42% of its length
For the engine at 40 % of its length
Nose landing gear at 13% of fuselage length
Main landing gear at 55 % of the fuselage length
Engine group is about 2 m from the leading edge of the.wing.
All other components have at 42 % of the fuselage length.

For the crew the centre of the nose plane


For the whole aircraft at the quarter chord point of the MAC of wing
The shift has to be verified by finding the C.G for the following cases

Full fuel and full payload

Reserve fuel and full payload

Full fuel and zero payload

Reserve fuel and zero payload

Full fuel and half payload

Reserve fuel and half payload

69

Fig 19 axis system to draw balance diagram


The nose of the aircraft is taken as the reference point. The distance from the nose to the leading
edge of the wing is denoted by Xle and the calculations are preceded for each case.

Components

Weight(N)

C.G Locations (m)

Wing

350751.056

Xle +12.71

Fuselage

368167.24

26.86

Horizontal Tail

33111.59

Xle + 41.617

Vertical Tail

17667.83

Xle + 42.192

Powerplant

176224.19

Xle + 2

Nose Wheel

14279.53

8.32

Main Landing gear

101027.21

31.81

Fixed Equipment

13148.38

26.86

Fuel

926674.38

Xle + 11.366

Payload

2794091.4

27.5

Crew

2158.2

3.2

Gross Weight

2447301.014

Xle + 11.366

The moment equilibrium is applied at the nose and the distance of leading edge of the wing from
the nose tip is calculated.

70

Xle = 18.16 m
The C.G location for the aircraft is at 28.992m from the leading edge

C.G locations for different cases


Cases

C.G Locations(m)

Full Payload + Full Fuel

28.992

Full Payload + Reserve Fuel

29.002

Zero Payload + Full Fuel

29.652

Zero Payload + Reserve Fuel

29.652

Half Payload + Full Fuel

29.26

Half Payload + Reserve Fuel

29.26

% shift of C.G =(most forward point of CG most Aft point of CG)/ MAC
= 7.3%

CHAPTER 10
DETERMINATION OF LANDING GEAR PARAMETERS
The parameters to be determined are
1. wheel base
2. wheel track
3. load on each gear

71

4. tyre selection
5. stroke length
6. oleo length and the diameter
The basic landing gear configurations are
1. bicycle
2. tail dragger
3. tricycle
4. quadricycle
5. multi-bogey
Bicycle arrangement:
This type of arrangement has two main wheels fore and aft of the C.G and a outrigger
wheels on the wing to prevent the aircraft from tipping sideways. This is the oldest of the design.
Advantages are design simplicity and low weight. Since the wheels are placed at equal distances
about the C.G , they carry similar loads.

Tail dragger:
This type of arrangement has two wheels forward of the C.G and a auxiliary wheel at the
tail. The main gears in front of the C.G carries most of the load. As the aircraft is always at an
high attitude the tail has to be lifted up during take off. This type of landing gear is directionally
unstable during ground maneuver i.e turn.
Tricycle arrangement:

72

This type of arrangement has two main wheels aft of C.G and an nose gear at forward of
C.G. this is the most widely used arrangement nowadays. The nose gear carries 5% 15% of the
load and the main gear carries 85%- 95% of the load. The nose gear configuration is
directionally stable on the ground as well as during taxing.
Quadricycle arrangement:
This type of arrangement is similar to the arrangement in cars with wheels on either sides of thr
fuselage. This type of arrangement requires a flat attitude for take off and landing as it is very
hard to rotate the aircraft during landing and taxiing.
Multi bogey:
As the aircraft becomes heavier it is necessary to employ multiple wheels to carry the loads,
which lead to Multi-bogey arrangement. When multiple wheels are used in tandem, they are
attached to a strut element called a bogey or truck. Aircrafts weighing above 50,000 lbs
employ multi bogey arrangement.

73

Fig 20 types of landing gear arrangements


The tip back angle is the maximum aircraft nose up attitude with the tail touching the ground and
the strut fully extended. This angle prevents the aircraft tipping at the tail during take off and this
should be greater than take off rotation angle. Typical take off rotation angle ( to) is 10 to 15 deg

74

so the tip back angle ( tb )should be around 15 to 20 deg. The tip back angle regulates the most
forward and the most aft position of centre of gravity in tricycle configuration.

Figure 21 tip back angle and the take off rotation angle
The overturn angle is the aircraft tendency to overturn when taxied around a sharp corner and
this angle should not be greater than 63 deg.
Wheel base:
The wheel base plays an important role in distributing the load between the main gear and the
nose gear. It is the distance between the nose gear and the main gear from the side view. Due to
ground controllability, the nose gear must carry load greater than 5% and not more than 20%
which implies that the landing gear must carry 80% to 90% of total weight.
Wheel track,T :
It is the distance between the left and the right of the main wheels. The minimum value for the
wheel track must satisfy the overturn angle required and the maximum value should satisfy the
structural integrity requirement. The wheel track should be such that it should satisfy the
following requirement that the overturn angle must be greater than or equal to 25 deg.
10.1 Loads acting on the gears: (all units in SI)
Maximum static load:
On nose gear : Fnmax = Bmmax*WTO/ B

75

On main gear: Fmmax = Bnmax*WTO/ B

Minimum static load:


On nose gear : Fnmim = Bmmin*WTO/B
On main gear : Fmmin = Bnmin*WTO/B

Figure 22 For the calculation of loads


Dynamic load :
On the nose gear, Fndyn = al* WTO * Hcg /g*B
On the main gear,Fmdyn = at* WTO * Hcg /g*B
Where Hcg is the distance from the ground to the C.G of the aircraft
al is the landing deceleration, 3 m/s2
at is the take off acceleration, 4 m/s2
g is the acceleration due to gravity, 9.81 m/s2
The load carried by the nose gear, Fn = Fnmax + Fndyn

76

The load carried by the main gear, Fm = Fmmax +Fmdyn


The nose gear must withstand both the maximum static and dynamic loads.

Following the steps above and as per the balance diagram


Bnmin = 20.672 m
Bnmax= 21.332 m
Bmmax = 2.989m
Bmmin= 2.329m
Fn = 39112.53kg = 383.694kN
Fm =230007.85kg = 2256.377kN.
We are employing two wheels for the nose gear and each wheel carries 191.846kN
The load calculated for the main gear gets equally distributed between two sides and we are
employing six wheels on each side which accounts to a total of 12 wheels. Each wheel carries
188.031kN
10.2 Braking kinetic energy:(all units in fps)
The braking kinetic energy , K.E braking = 0.5*Wlanding*Vstall2
Sometimes there is a need for emergengy landing, so consider Wlanding to be 90% of the WTO
K.E braking = 387*106 ft-lb/s
The western design employs brakes only on the main gear whereas the soviet design employs
brakes in both nose and landing gear.
Here we will employ the brakes in the main gear. So the K.E braking is 32.25*106 ft-lb/s per wheel

77

Figure 2 wheel diameter for braking


From the above graph, the wheel diameter should be around 22 inches.
10.3 Tyre selection :
Pressure recommended for different runways
Surface
Aircraft carrier

PSI
200+

Major military airfield

200

Major civil airfield

120

Tarmac runway,good foundation

70 90

Tarmac runway, poor foundation

50 70

Temporary metal runway

50 70

Dry grass on hard soil

45 60

Wet grass on soft soil

30 - 45

78

Soft sand

25 - 35

From the tyre data book,


Dimensions of Wheel Rim
Type of gear

Diameter

Width

Nose Gear

0.5334m

0.5334m

Main Gear

0.55m

0.34m

Dimensions of Tyre Selected


Type of gear

Size(inches)

Diameter

Width

Nose Gear

48*15.00 21

1.22 m

0.38m

Main Gear

50 * 15.75- 22

1.28m

0.4m

10.4 Pressure calculated:


Foot print area , Ap = 2.3 (d*w)*( d/2 Rr)
Where d is the diameter of the tyre , inches
w is the width of tyre, inches
Rr is the rolling radius = 2/3 of tyre radius
Ww = Ap * P Where Ww is the load carried by each wheel, lb
P is the pressure required, PSI
For nose gear , P = 87.6 PSI

79

For main gear , P = 77.64 PSI


10.5 Stroke :
Stroke is the required deflection of shock absorbing system to absorb the shocks of bad
landing. The most widely used shock absorbing system is oleo pneumatic shock absorbing
system. This type of shock strut absorbs shock by forcing a chamber of oil into the chamber of
compressed air and nitrogen and then compressing both gas and oil together. To improve the
efficiency of the device the orifices change its size as the oleo compresses.
The stroke is calculated using the formula,
E = LS + t L St
Where
E is the kinetic energy
is the efficiency of the shock absorber (for oleo 0.80)
S is the stroke to be calculated
t is the tyre efficiency (for tyre 0.47)
St is the tyre deflection = d/2 Rr
E = (0.5*Wlanding*V2)/ g
V is the vertical velocity at touch down, 10 ft/s
*S*N + t*St*N = V2 /2g + (1 N) ( S +St)

Where N is the design reaction factor (0.7 1.2)


With 1.2 most widely used for transport aircrafts.
From the above formula ,

80

stroke ,S = 10.77 inches


For safety purpose add 1 inch to the above value
S = 11.77 inches = 0.29 m
Typical value is 8 to 12 inches.
10.6 Oleo sizing :

Figure 24 oleo strut


Static position is approximately 84% of stroke. The total length of the oleo including the stroke
distance and the fixed position of oleo is 2.5 times of stroke.
The static position of oleo = 9.668 inches = 0.25 m
Length of oleo, loleo

= 29.45 inches = 0.74 m

Diameter of oleo, Doleo = 0.04*(Loleo)0.5

where
Loleo is the load carried by each oleo, lb
For nose gear,
81

Doleo = 8.31 inches = 0.21m


For main gear
Doleo = 8.22 inches = 0.21m
10.7 Calculation of wheel track:
For a jet aircraft a clearance of 1.5 m is allotted at the inlet of the engine
Hcg = 6.2 m

We are assuming a value of 30 deg in the above fig


From the above fig, tan 30 = (T/2 )/ Hcg
Wheel track, T = 7.14m

82

Figure 25 for track calculation


From the right hand side figure,
Tan 1 = AC / FC
1= 8.6 deg
Sin 1 = DE/AD
DE = 4.334 m
From the left hand side figure,
Tan ot = 4.334/ Hcg
ot = 35 deg
This satisfies the overturn angle criterion that it should be greater than 25 deg
So the minimum track length is 7.14 m but the fuselage diameter is 6.33 m, so the landing gear
cannot be attached to fuselage. But take into consideration the space available while the landing
gear is retracted.

83

CHAPTER 11
DRAG POLAR
Drag force is the summation of all forces resisting the motion of the aircraft. Usually drag force
is represented in form of non dimensional parameter,CD which is known as the drag coefficient.
This drag coefficient take sin to account every configuration which contributes to the drag. The
mathematical model of variation of CD vs. CL is given by
CD = CDO + KCL 2
The above equation clearly represents that the parabolic variation of CD vs.CL.
The first term CDO is the zero lift drag co efficient
2
The second term is the induced drag co efficient,CDi = KCL The constant K is the induced drag

correction factor which can be easily calculated using the formula


K = 1/(*e*AR)

Figure 26 typical variation of CD vs. CL

84

Zero lift drag coefficient, CDO:


This represents the drag associated with the frictional characteristics, shape and protuberances in
the aircraft structure not associated with production of lift. It increases with aircraft velocity and
it is the main factor in determining the maximum speed of the aircraft.
Induced drag coefficient, CDi:
This represents the drag produced by the aircraft wings as a result of induced vortices on a finite
aspect ratio wing. It first decreases with speed with its contribution highest at low velocities and
decreases with increase in speed.

Figure 27 drag classification


Induced drag coefficient can be easily calculated from the given expression but the calculation of
the zero lift drag is a tedious procedure. It has to be kept in mind that this calculation proceeded

85

is applicable for subsonic aircraft and the same smplified expression cannot be used for
supersonic flights.
11.1 CALCULATION OF CDO
CDO is the summation of all contributing components and each and every component of the
aircraft have only positive contribution to CDO
CDO = CDOf +CDOw + CDOht + CDOvt + CDOn+ CDOhld + CDOlg
Where CDOf is the zero lift drag produced by fuselage
CDow is the zero lift drag produced by wing
CDOht is the zero lift drag produced by horizontal tail
CDOvt is the zero lift drag produced by vertical tail
CDon is the zero lift drag produced by nacelle
CDOhld is the zero lift drag produced by high lift devices
CDolg is the zero lift drag produced by landing gear.
11.1.1 Fuselage:
The zero lift drag for the fuselage is given by
CDO f = C f * fld * fm * ( Swetf / S )
Where Cf is the friction coefficient
Cf = 0.455*( log Re ) -2.58 ( for turbulent flows)
Cf = 1.327 / [( Re)0.5]

( for laminar flows)

Reynolds number, Re = *V*l /


Where is the viscosity coefficient at that altitude
.
86

Mostly aircraft fly under the combined conditions of laminar flow and turbulent flow. But its
better to overestimate the values rather than underestimation in this case.
fld is the function of fuselage fineness ratio (Lf/Df)
fld = 1+ 60 /[ (Lf/Df)3]+ 0.0025(Lf/Df)
fm is the function of mach number
fm = 1- 0.08M1.45
Swetf is the wetted area of the fuselage
S is the wing reference area (mostly the gross area)
Swetf = *Df*Lf*[1- 2/(Lf/Df)]0.67*[1+ 1/( 2)]
Following the same example,
For cruise flight
At 11km
= 14.17 *10-6 ; = 0.364kg/m3 ; V = 250.92 m/s
Re = 4.12 * 108
Cf = 0.001758
fld = 1.083
fm = 0.9365 ( M = 0.85)
Swetf/S = 2.37
CDOf = 0.004227

87

11.1.2 WING, HORIZONTAL TAIL, VERTICAL TAIL:


The zero lift coefficients of wing is given by
CDOw = C fw * ftc * fm * ( Swetw / S ) * ( Cd minw / 0.04 )

0.4

The zero lift coefficient of horizontal tail is given by


CDOht = C fw * ftc * fm * ( Swetw / S ) * ( Cd min ht / 0.04 )

0.4

The zero lift coefficient of vertical tail is given by


CDOvt = C fw * ftc * fm * ( Swetw / S ) * ( Cd min vt / 0.04 )

0.4

Cfw, Cfht, Cfvt is defined in the same way as that of fuselage. The only difference is instead of lf
we use the MAC of the respective surfaces under consideration.
Cdmin is the minimum drag coefficient of the respective airfoils of the surfaces.
ftc is the function of thickness to chord ratio
ftc = 1+ 2.7 ( t/c ) max + 100 (t/c)max
Swet of lifting surfaces is given by
Swet = 2.0*[1+0.2(t/c)]*S
Following the same example,
For wing ,

CDOw = 0.00492

For horizontal tail,

CDOht = 0.00173

For vertical tail,

CDOvt = 0.000961

88

11.1.3 Nacelle :
As it is similar to the shape of the fuselage, the same formula can be applied. The diameter of the
nacelle is about 10 % larger than diameter of the engine and the fineness ratio is around 1.5 to 2.
Following the same example
CDOn = 0.00623
For cruise
CDO = CDOf + CDOw + CDOht + CDOvt + CDOn
CDO = 0.0168
11.1.4 Landing gear:
The zero lift drag coefficient due to landing gear comes into the picture only during
take-off and landing because during cruise they are retracted into their respective locations.
CDOlg = CDlg (Slg/S)
Where CDlg is the drag coefficient of each wheel = 0.3 (for landing gear with fairing)
= 0.15 ( for landing gear without fairing)
Slg is the frontal area of each wheel = diameter of tyre * radius of tyre (in meter)
Following the example,
CDOlg = 0.3 [ 12*1.28*0.40 + 2*1.22*0.38]/ 465.342
CDOlg

= 0.0045

89

11.1.5 Trailing edge high lift devices:


The zero lift contribution of high lift devices is also obtained during take off and landing. It is
given by
CDOthld = (Cf /C)* A* f B
Where
Cf / C is the ratio of high lift device chord to the wing chord
f is the deflection angle corresponding to take off or landing
Flap type

Split flap

0.00014

1.5

Plain flap

0.00016

1.5

Single slotted flap

0.00018

Double slotted flap

0.00011

Fowler flap

0.00015

1.5

Following the same example


For take off , f = 45 deg , Cf/C = 0.20 , A= 0.00014,B = 1.5 (as we are using
split flaps)
CDOthld = 0.00845
For landing , f = 55 deg
CDOthld =0.0114

11.1.6 Leading edge high lift devices:

90

The zero lift drag contribution of the leading edge devices is given by
CDOlhld = (Cle/C)*CDOw
Where

Cle/C is the ratio between average extended slat chord to the average wing chord
CDow is the zero lift parasite drag of wing

Since we are not employing any leading edge devices, the zero lift drag due to leading edge
devices is not added.
Induced drag coefficient,CDi = 0.05172
For landing , CDO =0.0298
For takeoff, CDO = 0.03275
Drag polar equations
For cruise,

CD = 0.0168 + 0.05172 CL 2

2
For take off , CD = 0.0298 + 0.05172CL

2
For landing, CD = 0.03275 + 0.05172 CL

In the same way the drag polar curves are constructed for takeoff and landing configurations.

CHAPTER 12

91

PERFORMANCE OF THE AIRCRAFT


The performance aspects of the aircraft to be studied are under unaccelerated flight
conditions and accelerated flight conditions
Under unaccelerated flight the following are studied

Steady level flight

Steady Climb

Descent and Glide

Range and Endurance

Under accelerated flight the following are studied

Take off performance

Landing performance

12.1 Unaccelerated flight


12.1.1 Steady level flight:
Under the steady level flight performance the maximum and the minimum level of speed for
each altitude is estimated.
The equations of motion for steady level flight are
TD=0;LW=0
1
1
2
2
W = L = ( ) V S wC L ; TR = D = ( ) V S wC D
2
2

Velocity ,V = (

2W 2
)
SC L

92

TR = W (

CD
)
CL

Steps involved:
1. Choose the altitude and find out the density of the corresponding altitude.
2. Choose a particular velocity
3. Calculate CL for that particular altitude and velocity chosen using

CL = (

2W
)
SV 2

4. Calculate the CD for the calculated CL using the drag polar equation found for cruise

(project Phase I)
5. Calculate the Thrust required(TR) using

1
2
TR = ( ) V S wC D
2

6. Then choose a different velocity and repeat from step 2 to step 5


7. Thrust available (TA) is calculated using

TA = TSL (

)
SL

Where TSL is the thrust produced by the engine at sea level


is the density at altitude chosen

SL is the density at sea level


Thrust available is constant for the particular altitude.

Following the above steps

93

2
CD = 0.0168+ 0.05172 CL ( at cruise condition)

Velocity (m/s)
100
120
140
160
180
200
220
240
260
280
300
320

TR at 11000 m (kN)
376.88
274.4
214.13
179.086
158.934
148.24
144.288
145.372
150
158.161
168.61
181.34

TA=152.73kN

Similarly the plot has been carried out for different velocities at different altitudes.
The point of intersection of the thrust Available (straight line) and the thrust required curve gives
the maximum and minimum velocity at that altitude.

94

The altitude where the thrust required and the thrust available curve becomes tangent to one
other gives the service ceiling of the aircraft.

12.1.2 Steady Climb:


Under steady climb performance, the following are evaluated for the aircraft

Maximum rate of climb

maximum angle of climb

maximum attainable ceiling

Maximum angle to climb, max :


The maximum angle to climb is given by
Sin max = T / W

( 4*C DO * K )

0.5

max = 8.68
Velocity Required to attain maximum angle to climb, Vmax :

Vmax = [ 2 / * ( K / CDO )0.5 *( W / S) * cosmax ]0.5


Vmax =122.0366 m/s

Service Ceiling and Absolute Ceiling:


Service ceiling:
The altitude at which the climb rate is 100ft/min for the aircraft is known as service ceiling.
Absolute ceiling:
The altitude at which the climb rate is 0 ft/min for the aircraft is known as Absolute ceiling. It is
also the maximum altitude the aircraft can achieve.

95

Steps involved:
1. Choose the sea level altitude to start with and note the density for the altitude.

2. The rate of climb, R / Cmax of the jet aircraft is given by

R / Cmax = [{( W / S ) * Z / 3* * CDO }0.5 ( T / W)

1.5

* 1 Z / 6 3 / 2( T / W)

L / D)

2
max

*Z ]

3. The value of Z is found using

2
2
Z = 1 + 1 + 3 / ( L / D ) max * ( T / W )

0.5

4. All the other values are known from the project phase I
5. Substituting all the values in the formula given in step 2 R / Cmax is calculated for that

altitude.
6. Increase the Altitude and calculate the R / Cmax for each altitude and tabulate the values

using which the graph is plotted to indentify the service and absolute ceiling.

Following the above steps

Altitude (m)

R/C (m/s)

R/C (ft/min)

24.166

4639.98

1000

21.379

4208.413

5000

12.10

2381.8608

10000

2.582

508.436

11000

0.7787

153.2855

96

11100

0.2797

55.06

11200

0.18405

36.23

11300

0.0789

15.53

11400

-0.05

-9.138

R /C m a x v s . a ltitu d e
5000
4000

R/C max

3000
2000

R /C m ax

1000
0
0
-1 0 0 0

2000

4000

6000

8000

10000

12000

a l ti tu d e (m )

From the graph


Service ceiling = 11000 m; Absolute ceiling =11350m
12.1.3 Gliding flight:
The following are determined for the gliding flight performance,

Minimum descent angle

Maximum range

Equilibrium glide velocity

Rate of descent
97

Minimum descent angle, min :

tan min = 1/ ( L / D) max

min = 3.37

Maximum range covered over the ground, Rmax :


tan min = h / Rmax
Rmax

=187.074km

Equilibrium glide velocity, V( L / D ) max :


V( L / D )

max

V( L / D )

= [2 / * ( K / CDO )

max

0.5

* ( W / S ) ]0.5

= 71.76 m/s

Rate of descent, Vvmin :


Vv = [2 / * ( C L 3 / C D 2 ) * (W / S ) ]0.5

CL 3/2 / CD = 0.25* (3 / K *CDO ) 0.33


C L 3 / CD 2

= 213.0140

Vvmin

= 3.718 m/s

0.75

= 14.595

12.1.4 Range, R:
Range is the total distance traversed by the aircraft on a full tank of fuel.
Steps involved:
1. Calculate (CL0.5/CD)max using
98

(C

0.5
L

/ CD )

max

= 0.75* ( 1/ 3* K * C DO 3 )

0.25

[for maximum Range]

2. The range of the jet aircraft is given by


R = 2 / c * (2 / S ) * C L 0.5 / C D * (W o 0.5 W 10.5

From the above mentioned steps,


(CL0.5/CD)max = 25.608
R = 9390.87537 miles = 15154.587km
12.1.5 Endurance, E:
Endurance is the total time the aircraft can fly on a given amount of fuel.
Endurance of the jet aircraft is given by
E = 1/ c * ( L / D ) * ln (W TO / W Landing )
L
For maximum endurance the aircraft must fly at ( ) max .
D
L
( ) max = (1/4*K*CDO)0.5
D

For the aircraft under consideration,


L
( ) max = 16.95
D

E = 16 hours
12.1.6 Level turn:
Under level turn the following are determined,

Minimum turn radius

Velocity for minimum turn radius


99

Load Factor corresponding to minimum turn radius

Minimum Radius Speed usually occurs at full flap configuration gives the highest lift harvest for
the lowest speed input
Minimum turn radius, Rmin :

Rmin = 4* K * ( W / S ) / g * * (T / W ) * [ 1 4* K * C DO * (T / W

0.5

Rmin = 1451.1651m
Velocity corresponding to minimum turn radius, VRmin :

VRmin = [4* K * ( W / S ) / * ( T / W ) ]0.5


VRmin = 119.3139 m/s

Load factor corresponding to minimum radius, nRmin :


2
nRmin = 2 4* K * C DO / ( T / W )

nRmin = 1.0522

The two categories in turn are

Maximum sustained turn rate( MSTR)

Sharpest sustained turn (STR)

The conditions to be satisfied for the above mentioned turn to take place are
n nmax ; CL CL max
The maximum constant altitude turning rate that can be sustained by the aircraft is known as
Maximum Sustained Turn Rate. This will result in bleeding of speed and eventually reduction in
turn rate.

100

The aircraft to make sharpest turn or the turn with minimum radius of curvature whilr holding
the altitude constant is the Sharpest Sustained Turn Rate.
Steps Involved:
1. The value of Z and Vmin drag is calculated in common to both turn using

Z = ( T / W ) * ( CL / CD ) max ; Vmindrag = (2W / S )0.5 * ( K / CDO )

0.25

2. The load factor(n),turn rate ( ) and the radius of turn (R) are calculated for both the

categories for different altitudes using the formulae given below

For maximum sustained turn rate,


n = ( 2Z 1)

0.5

= g * ( 2Z 2 )

0.5

/V

R = V 2 / g *1/ ( 2Z 2 )

0.5

For sharpest sustained turn,


n = ( 2Z 2 1)

0.5

/Z

= g * ( Z 2 1) / Z 0.5 *V
R = V 2 / [ g * ( Z 2 1) ]

Following the above mentioned steps,


At sea level
N

101

MSTR 2.47

0.1809

678.04

STR

1.4070

0.1447

449.044

0.0934

1682.849

0.0800

1343.979

At 5000 m

MSTR 1.808

STR

1.33

At 11000 m
n

MSTR

1.0566

0.0149

2083.493

STR

1.0522

0.147

1964.583

12.2 Accelerated Flight:


Under accelerated flight the Takeoff and Landing performance are studied.
Regulations FAR 25 specify that:

Aircraft should lift off 10% above the stalling speed

Aircraft should climb initially at 20% above the stalling speed

102

Aircraft speed during a regular approach should be 30% above the stalling speed

During take off the aircraft should clear an imaginary 11m obstacle

During landing aircraft should cross the run way threshold 15m above the ground

The above mentioned conditions should be taken into account to estimate the run way length

12.2.1 Take off Performance:

ground run

transition length

Steps Involved:

103

1. The stalling velocity of the aircraft is calculated using


Vstall = [2 / * (W / S ) *(1/ C Lmax )]0.5

2. The velocity for lift off, is calculated using


VLO = 1.1Vstall
3. 70% of the lift off velocity is calculated which is to be used to find the ground roll

distance i.e. 0.7 of VLO


4. The ground roll distance is calculated using

Sg = { 1.21( W / S ) } / { g CLmax [( T / W ) ( D / W) r( 1 L / W) ]}0.7 VLO +1.1N (N


= 1 for small aircrafts; N = 3 for large aircrafts)
5. The radius of take off and the angle for take off is calculated using
R = 6.96 ( V stall ) / g ; = cos 1( 1 h / R)
2

6. The transition length is calculated


Sa = Rsin
7. The total take off distance is calculated
STO = S g + Sa

Following the above steps


Vstall = 65.375m/s ; VLO = 78.45m/s; 0.7 of VLO = 54.915m/s
S g = 3395.07m ; R= 3032.2404m ; = 4.8; S a = 253.7313m
STO = S g + Sa = 3648.8013m

104

12.2.2 Landing Performance:

Hf

Point of touch down


approach

flare

ground run

Steps Involved:
1. The stalling velocity of the aircraft is calculated using
Vstall = [2 / * (W / S ) *(1/ C Lmax )]0.5
2. The velocity required for landing, VLA is calculated

VLA = 1.3Vstall
3. 70% of the lift off velocity is calculated which is to be used to find the ground roll

distance i.e. 0.7 of VLA


4. The velocity for touchdown, , VTD and velocity for flare, Vf is calculated as

105

VTD = 1.15 Vstall

; Vf = 1.23 Vstall

5. The ground roll distance, Sg is calculated using

S g = 3 * VTD + { W *VTD2 / 2 gCLmax * [1/ (Trev + D + r ( W L) 0.7VLA )]}


6. The radius for landing, R and the angle for landing, is calculated using

R = ( Vf ) / 0.2g ; a 3 (for transport aircraft)


2

7. The height at which the flare phase begins, H f is calculated using

H f = R (1 cosa )
8. The approach distance, S a and the flare distance, S f is found using

Sa = 50 hf / tan a ; S f = Rsin a
9. The total landing distance, SLA is

SLA = Sg + Sa + Sf
Following the above steps,
Vstall = 65.375m/s; VLA =84.9875m/s; VTD = 75.18m/s; Vf = 80.411m/s
Sg =1483.29 m; R=3295.5805m; H f = 4.5164m; S a =204.6184m
S f =172.4773m

SLA = 1860.38m

12.3 V-n diagram:

106

The restrictions on the speed and the load factor (n) for the aircraft is given in form of V-n
diagram in which the load factor is plotted against the velocity. The operating limits represented
by the V-n diagram are the limits dictated by the airframe.
Steps Involved:
1. The maximum limit load factor on the positive side is found by velocity constraint and

the CL max using which n max is found for different velocities

For velocity constraint,

V 2
T
V 2
[(
)

* CDO ]}
n max =
W W max
W
2K ( )
2K ( )
S
S
{

For velocity constraint,


C
1
* V 2 * L max
n max = 2
W
( )
S
2. The graph is plotted using the tabulated values with velocity along X-axis and n max along

Y axis. The point of intersection of the two curves gives the positive limit load factor.
3. To find the maximum velocity the aircraft can travel, the thrust required and the thrust
available curves are plotted with velocity and the maximum velocity is found.
4. The negative limit load factor is half of the positive limit load factor .
5. The positive ultimate load factor is 1.5 times of positive limit load factor and the negative
ultimate load factor is 1.5 times of negative limit load factor.
Ultimate limit load factor = limit load factor * 1.5
6. For the construction of V-n diagram on positive side and negative side the following

formula is used

107

n = 0.5* S/W CLmax v2


Where for the positive side + CL max is used
For the negative side- CL max is used which are the function of airfoil chosen
7. The Vstall is identified using the + CL max and - CL max on the positive and negative side using

Vstall = [2 / * (W / S ) *(1/ C Lmax )]0.5

8. For the construction of gust V-n diagram, the gust velocities vary linearly from 20000ft.
At 20000ft and below,
66ft / sec at VB (velocity at maneuver point)
50ft / sec at VC (cruise velocity)
25ft / sec at VD (dive velocity or maximum velocity)

At 50000ft and above,


38ft / sec at VB (velocity at maneuver point)
25ft / sec at VC (cruise velocity)
12.5ft / sec at VD (dive velocity or maximum velocity)
So a graph has to be plotted and the gust velocities for that particular altitude must be
identified from the graph.
9. The gust lines are constructed using the formula( all in SI units)

n = 1 + [ aKUV / 2( W / S) ]
Where K = 0.88/ 5.3+ ; = 2 ( W / S ) / Cag

108

10. The gust lines are plotted in the graph with velocity along x- axis and load factor (n)
along y axis.
Following the above steps,

CLmax constraint

V(m/s)

n max

100

1.588

120

2.28

140

3.13

150

3.574

Velocity constraint
V(m/s

n max

)
100

2.07

150

2.89

200

3.44

210

3.505

220

3.54

240

3.5543

241

3.5507

250

3.51

260

3.44

280

3.16

300

2.62

320

1.49

328

Using the above tabulated


values,

positive

factor

= 2.5

Negative
r

limit

limit

load

load

facto

= -1.25

Ultimate positive load factor


= 3.75

109

Ultimate Negative load factor

= 1.875

To find Vmax :

T (kN)

T vs V (at sea level)


800
700
600
500
400
300
200
100
0

TR
TA

50

100

150

200

250

300

350

V (m /s)

From the above graph, Vmax = 323.69 m/s


For positive side
n = 0.5* S/W CLmax v2 = 1.5862 * 10-4V2

For negative side


n = 0.5* S/W CLmax v2 = 6.9878* 10-5V2

V(m/s)

V(m/s)

80

1.01516

120

1.0062

100

1.5862

130

1.18

110

1.9193

140

1.36

120

2.2841

150

1.57

130

2.6806

140

3.1089

110

The equation for gust lines is


for VD,

n =10.003129V

For VC ,

= 10.0069V

For VB

= 10.009V

111

CHAPTER 13
STABILITY ANALYSIS OF THE AIRCRAFT
While designing the aircraft it is necessary to prove that the stability of the aircraft is within the
acceptable limits. Basically stability means the ability of the body to return to its original
position if disturbed by some external forces. This stability in the aircraft design is divided into
two major categories

Static stability

Dynamic Stability

Static stability means when the aircraft is disturbed from the original flight path, forces will be
activated in such a way the aircraft returns to its original position

112

Fig 1. Different types of static Stability

Positive static Stability means to return to its original position after the restorative forces act on
the body.
Neutral static Stability means the body will obtain equilibrium in the disturbed position after the
restorative forces act on the body.
Negative static stability means the body continues to be moving away from the original position
as the restorative forces act on the body or in other words the body has no stability.
Dynamic stability means the way in which the restorative forces act on the body with respect to
time. In other ways it is the property which dampens the oscillations set up by the statically
stable aircraft.

113

Fig 2 Different modes of Dynamic stability.


The assumptions in the Analysis of Aircraft Stability and Control:

The flow is incompressible

Airframe is rigid i.e the distortion or deformation of airframe due to aerodynamic forces
and loads not considered.

The relationships between various parameters are generally linear which implies the
disturbances are assumed to be very small

The longitudinal motion is independent of lateral and directional forces.

Under Static stability of the Aircraft we have three different categories

Longitudinal Static stability

Lateral Static stability

Directional Stability.

Longitudinal stability:
Longitudinal stability refers to the tendency of the aircraft to return to trim condition after a
nose up or nose down disturbance.
The criterion for longitudinal stability

114

Cmomust be positive

Cm
must be negative

Lateral Stability:
Lateral stability refers to the ability of the aircraft to generate the rolling moment to stabilize
the rolling effect.
l
Cl
=
0.5* *V 2 * S w * b
The criteria for lateral stability is

Cl
must be greater than zero.

Directional stability:
Stability about the aircrafts vertical axis i.e. the sideways moment is known as
directional stability or weather cock stability.
Cn
=

N
0.5* *V 2 * S w * b

Cn
The criteria for directional stability is must be positive for directional stability.

Stick fixed stability:


Stick fixed stability is concerned with the calculation of the trim angle and the stability of
the aircraft held at a constant location. Here there is no freedom for the control surface to move
and there are fixed at a particular position.
Stick free stability:
In stick free stability the control surface is allowed to float. So when the aircraft
encounters a vertical gust its pitch angle is altered and the elevator which is free to move seeks

115

some momentary equilibrium position from its original position before disturbance. This will
have an effect on the stability characteristics of aircraft.
Neutral point:
Neutral point is the location of C.G where the stability becomes zero and it is usually the
aerodynamic centre where the lift vector acts. It gives the most aft position of C.G of the aircraft
beyond which the C.G moves the aircraft becomes unstable
Maneuver point:
The position of C.G where the stick force required to accelerate the aircraft becomes zero
is the stick free maneuver point.
The position of C.G where the elevator angle required to accelerate the aircraft vanishes is
known as stick fixed maneuver point.
It is always behind the neutral point of the aircraft.

13.1 Longitudinal Stability


13.1.1 Steps involved in determining stick fixed longitudinal stability of the aircraft:
1.

Cm
Cm
must be evaluated which is equivalent to
since CL is proportional to .
CL

Cm X cg X ac
Cm
at *Vht *ht

=
+(
) fuselage +
(1)
CL
CL
aw

2. Xcg can be found out from the balance diagram( from the phase I) and X ac is assumed to

be around 0.25 C
3. (

Cm
)
is found from the formula given by Gilruth
CL fuselage

K f *W f 2 * L f
Cm
(
)
=
C
CL fuselage S w *( L )W * C

4. at and aw are the slope of the lift curve found from the equation

116

a=

1+

CL
CL

* AR

5. ht is around 0.90 to 0.80


6. Vht is the tail volume co efficient computed from the formula

Vht =

7.

lt * St
Sw * C

is evaluated from the formulae given below

C
2*( L ) w
=

* AR

8. Using the above known values the derivative

Cm
is found to be negative if positive
CL

some changes in the design has to be made.


9. The stick fixed neutral point ( No)is found as it making

Cm
is zero from the equation
CL

mentioned in step 1
10. From the stick fixed neutral point, the static margin for the aircraft is calculated within
which the movement of C.G of the aircraft should be restricted.
Static margin = No Xc.g
11. Using the stick fixed neutral point the C.G of the aircraft for different cases is evaluated.
12. Using the newly found C.G of the aircraft for different cases,

Cm
for each case is
CL

evaluated.
13. The zero lift pitching moment co efficient is evaluated using
Cmo = at *Vht *ht *(iw + o it ) where iw is known from phase I, o =

2* CLW

* AR

And it is found using the method given below.

117

14. Steps for finding, it:

During the trim condition, Cm = 0 and substitute CL for cruise

Substitute Cm=0 in the equation Cm = Cmo + (

Use the value of

After evaluating Cmo substitute in the equation given in step 14 and determine the

Cm
)* CL
CL

Cm
found from step 9
CL

tail setting angle it


15. Substitute it in the equation of Cmo in step 14 and Cmo is found
16. Using the equation below the variation of CL vs. Cm is evaluated for different cases

Cm = Cmo + (

Cm
)* CL ; Cmo = at *Vht *ht *(iw + o it o e )
CL

Following the above mentioned steps,


Xcg = 0.31 C ; X ac = 0.24 C ; aw = 4.8433 rad 1 ;at = 4.09 rad 1
Vht= 0.6290;

Cm

=0.4049; (
)
= 0.08589; ht = 0.90
CL fuselage

Cm
= -0.13003
CL
So the aircraft has longitudinal static stability.
Substituting

Cm
= 0, No = 0.42
CL

Static Margin for different cases


Full payload+ Full fuel

0.2295 C

Full payload+ reserve fuel

0.225 C

118

Zero payload+ Full fuel

0.228 C

Zero payload+ Reserve fuel

0.231 C

Half payload+Full fuel

0.22605 C

Half payload + Reserve fuel

0.22603 C

(CL)cruise = 0.2 , Cmo = 0.026006 , it = 0.0610 rad 1 ;

e =0.5 using

Se
=0.207( Perkins and Hage)
S ht

For the design condition i.e are formulated as follows for different elevator deflection,
Elevator deflection, e (rad)

Equations

-5

Cm = 0.19072 0.23991* CL

-10

Cm = 0.3332 0.23991* CL

-15

Cm = 0.4757 0.23991* CL

-20

Cm = 0.6186 0.23991* CL

-25

Cm = 0.76076 0.23991* CL

25

Cm = 0.6642 0.23991* CL

20

Cm = 0.5217 0.23991* CL

15

Cm = 0.3792 0.23991* CL

10

Cm = 0.2367 0.23991* CL

Cm = 0.0942 0.23991* CL

Graph for Cm vs.CL for different elevator deflection

119

For different cases where C.G varies equations are formulated. For eg. Equations for first three
cases are formulated as follows
Cm = 0.0483 0.52991* CL
Cm = 0.0483 0.53401* CL
Cm = 0.0483 0.53791* CL

For different values of CL ranging from -0.2 to 2.2 Cm is evaluated and graphs are drawn

120

13.1.2 Determination of Stick- Fixed Stability Characteristics:


Cmo = at *Vht *ht *(iw + o it o e )
For different values for e , Cmo is evaluated as follows

e (deg)

Cmo

-25

0.76076

-20

0.61826

-15

0.4757

-10

0.3332

-5

0.19072

0.0483

-0.0942

10

-0.2367

15

-0.3792

20

-0.5217

25

-0.6642

121

13.1.3 Estimation of elevator control power (

Cm
):
e

Elevator control power is the rate at which the pitching moment changes with the deflection of
the elevator.
Cm
= at *Vht *ht * o
e
Cm
e

= -0.02858 rad 1

13.1.4 Extreme elevator deflections:


Steps Involved:
1. The value CL during cruise is identified and (

Cm
) min is found from the stick fixed
CL

stability analysis.
2. The above values are substituted in Cm = Cmo + (

Cm
)* CL assuming trim condition where
CL

Cm = 0 and (Cmo ) minimum is obtained.


3. (Cmo )cruise is obtained from the previous section.

4. Substituting the above obtained values the formula below

e max = [(Cmo )min imum (Cmo )cruise ] / (Cm e )


Maximum down elevator deflection is found.
5. For maximum up elevator deflection, CL during landing and (

Cm
) max is obtained from
CL

stability analysis.
6. Repeat step 2 assuming trim condition (Cmo ) maximum is obtained. Repeat step 3

122

7. Substituting the above obtained values the formula below

e max = [(Cmo )max imum (Cmo )cruise ] / (Cm e )


Maximum up elevator deflection is found.
Following the above steps,
e max

= 4.4 deg ( maximum down elevator)


= 19.1deg ( maximum up elevator)

13.1.4 Stick Fixed Maneuver point ( N m ):

Nm = N
0

63* *

Cm

* g * lt
e
2* *(W )
S
N m =0.52

13.1.5 Steps involved in determining the Stick free longitudinal stability:


1. Free elevator factor, F has to be evaluated using the formula
Ch
Ch
Ch

F = 1 ( t ) , where
= -0.003 deg 1 ;
= -0.005 deg 1
Ch
t
e
e
2. Evaluate

Cm
using the formula for stick free longitudinal stability
CL

Cm X cg X ac
Cm
=
+(
)
CL
CL
C

fuselage

at *Vht *ht

(1)*F and all the other parameters


aw

are same as in stick fixed longitudinal stability.

123

3. Determine the stick free neutral point, N 0 ' by keeping

Cm
= 0 in the formula given in
CL

step 2
4. Evaluate Cmo as given by the formulae in stick fixed longitudinal stability
5. Formulate equations for Cm in terms of CL as given below for different elevator angle

deflections (all angles in degree)


Cm = Cmo + (

Cm
C
)stickfree * CL + ( m ) * e
CL
e

6. Graphs are plotted for the above formulated equations


7. In a similar way for different cases (

Cm
)
is calculated and the graphs are plotted
CL stick fixed

for Cm vs. CL
13.1.6 Stick force , Fs :
Ch
C

C
W
Fs = K * *V 2 *0.5 *( A + h * t ) K *( ) * e *( m )stickfree (at sea level)
Cm CL
t
S
e
Where
K = G * Se * Ce *ht ; G = 1.5, ht =0.90,

Ce
=0.20
C

K= -24.929
A=

Ch
C
*( o iw + it ) + h * eo
t
e

A= -0.05230
(

2*(W / S )*(Ch / e )*(Cm / CL )stickfree


Ch
* t )trim =
A
t
*V 2trim *(Cm / e )

124

Ch
* t )trim =0.04637
t

Cm
) stickfree = -0.3073 (for full payload +full fuel)
CL

Ch
Ch
Cm
= -0.002 deg 1 ;
=-0.005 deg 1 ;
= -0.02858 deg 1
C e
t
e
Substituting the given values in the equation for Fs
Fs =-7048.3914+0.09054*V2
For different values of Velocity , Fs is calculated and graph is plotted.

From the graph the trim velocity, Vtrim = 270 m/s. The slope of the curve at this point is the
measure of stick force to produce a change in speed.

125

13.1.7 Steps involved in determining the Directional Stability of the aircraft:


1. Contribution of the wing to Directional Stability:
(

Cn
) wing =-0.00006*() 0.5

Where, is the sweep back angle in degree


2. Contribution of fuselage and nacelle to Directional Stability ( all units in SI):

S
L
0.96* K
Cn
h
w
) fuselage &nacelle = (
)*( f ) *( f )*[( 1 ) *( 2 )]0.5

57.3
Sw
b
h2
w1

Where, h1 and w1 is the height and width of fuselage at Lf/4


h2 and w1 is the height and weight of fuselage at 3Lf/4
K is found from K vs. (d/Lf) i.e fineness ratio of fuselage ( Perkins and
Hage)
3. Contribution of Vertical Tail to Directional Stability (all in SI units)
(

Cn

) verticaltail = av *Vvt *vt *(1


)

Where
Vvt =

Sv * lv
; = 0.9
S w * b vt

vt (1 +

4. (

( Sv / S w )

) = 0.724 + 3.06*
(Perkins and Hage,Pg.71)

1 + cos c /4w

Cn
C
C
C
) = ( n ) wing + ( n ) fuselage &nacelle + ( n ) verticaltail

5. The variation of Cn vs. is found using the relation

Cn = Cno + (

Cn
)*

126

6. Evaluate Cno = av *Vvt *vt * r * r and for various rudder deflection angle r , Cno is

evaluated
7. For a particular rudder deflection angle r equation is formulated which gives the

variation of Cn with respect to sideslip angle and graph is plotted


Following the above mentioned steps
(

Cn
C
C
C
) = ( n ) wing + ( n ) fuselage &nacelle + ( n ) verticaltail

Cn
) =-0.003 deg 1

Variation for r vs. Cno

r (deg)

Cno

30

-0.06075

-30

0.06075

20

0.0405

-20

-0.0405

15

-0.0303

-15

0.0303

10

-0.02025

-10

0.02025

-0.010125

-5

0.010125

The equations formulated are

r (degree)
-30

equation
Cn = +0.06075 0.003*
127

30

Cn = 0.06075 0.003*

-20

Cn = 0.0405 0.003*

20

Cn = 0.0405 0.003*

15

Cn = + 0.0303 0.003*

-15

Cn = +0.0303 0.003*

10

Cn = 0.02025 0.003*

-10

Cn = +0.02025 0.003*

+5

Cn = 0.01025 0.003*

-5

Cn = +0.01025 0.003*

For different values of (25 deg to -25 deg), Cn is evaluated and the graphs are plotted to show
the variation.

vs. Cn

Cn

0.15

-30

r = 30 deg

0.1

r =20 deg

0.05

r = 10 deg
r = 5 deg

0
-20

-10

-0.05

10

20

30

r = 0 deg
r = - 5 deg
r = -10 deg

-0.1

r = -20 deg

-0.15

r = - 30 deg
128

Under cross-wind conditions,


( r ) floating =

(Cn / )
V
* ; = sin 1 ( crosswind ) ; where Vcrosswind =7.5m/s
(Cn / r )
VT .O

( r ) floating =-8.979 deg


13.1.8 Steps involved for determining Lateral Stability of Aircraft:
1. Contribution of the wing fuselage interface to lateral stability
(

Cl
) wingfuselage

= 0.0006 deg 1 (high wing)

=0

(mid wing)

=-0.0008 deg 1

(low wing)

2. Contribution of vertical tail to lateral stability (all units in S.I)


(

S
Z
Cl
)verticaltail = av *( v )*( v ) *vt
Sw
b

3. Contribution of Wing interference on vertical tail to lateral stability


(

Cl
) wingonverticaltail =-0.00016 (high wing)

=0

(Mid wing)

= 0.00016 ( Low wing)


4. Contribution of wing to lateral Stability

129

Cl
C
C
) wing =0.0002() + ( l )tip shape + ( l ) sweepback

Where
(

5.

Cl
C
C
) sweepback =-0.5* ( n ) wing ; ( l )tip shape is found from Perkins and Hage

Cl ( Cl ) wingfuselage Cl
C
C
)verticaltail + ( l ) wingonverticaltail + ( l ) wing
(
)=
+(

6. Effective Dihedral, = (

Cl
) wing /0.0002

Following the above mentioned steps

Cl
)=0.00144 deg-1

Effective Dihedral, = 2.14 deg-1

13.1.9 Lateral Control:


The common way of determining the lateral control effectiveness is by the use of the non
dimensional parameter

Pb
. The lateral control deflection is the measure of lateral control power
2V

available.
Aileron Rolling power relation is given by
Pb
2*(1 )( K 23 K13 ) + 3 ( K 2 2 K12 )
= 2* a *[
]
2V
+3
Where K 2 is the distance to the point of starting of the aileron on half span
130

K1 is the distance to the end of the aileron on half span

is the taper ratio of the wing.


Pb
=0.006306 deg-1
2V
P = 0.006306 * a * (2V / b)
Substituting for different aileron deflection angle ( a ) and for different velocities, P is found
V(m/s)

a = 5deg

a =7.5deg

a =10deg

100

0.1058

0.1588

0.2117

120

0.1269

0.1905

0.2546

140

0.1481

0.2223

0.2963

160

0.1692

0.2541

0.3386

180

0.1904

0.2858

0.3810

200

0.2116

0.3172

0.4233

220

0.2327

0.3493

0.4657

240

0.2539

0.3811

0.5080

260

0.2750

0.4128

0.5504

V v s. a
0 .6

P(rad / s)

0 .5
0 .4

a = 5deg

0 .3

a = 7.5 de g

0 .2

a = 10 deg

0 .1
0
0

50

100

150
V (m / s)

200

250

300

131

13.1.10 Dynamic Stability of the aircraft


Steps involved:
1.

Mass moment of inertia about the three principal axis is calculated by taking into account
the c.g position of each component from the reference axis.
I xx = M*(Y2+Z2); I yy = M*(Z2+X2); I zz = M*(X2+Y2)
2.

Parameters required for the dynamic Stability analysis like Time constant (), Relative

density factor () and Radius of Gyration about the three axes K x, K y, K z are calculated.
3.

The stability derivatives required for the determination of co efficients of the quartic

equation to study the dynamic stability is evaluated.(Refer Perkins and Hage)

4.

Using the above determined stability derivatives the constants A , B , C , D and E are

determined using the formulae provided which are the co efficients of the quartic equation which
is given by the form
A4 + B3+C2+D+E = 0.
5.

The roots of the quartic equation are found using Quartic Calculator.

6.

Based on the roots, the modes of the dynamic response are studied using the time period and
damping factor evaluated.
7.

Steps from 2 to 4 are used seperately to study longitudinal dynamic stability and the
lateral directional dynamic stability.

Following the steps mentioned above, keeping C.G of the aircraft as reference

132

components

Mass(kg)

Z(m)

Y(m)

Ixx(kg-m2)

nose wheel

1455.6095

2.107

6462.104139

main wheel

10298.39042

2.137

11.586

1429438.886

fuselage

37529.79001

2.038

155877.8811

wing

35754.43996

-0.809

11.586

4822912.008

H.T

3375.289501

4.929

6.11

208009.442

V.T

1801.002039

11.818

251537.1731

payload

28482.07339

2.038

118298.6968

F.E

1340.3037

2.038

5566.876361

Pilots

220

2.038

913.75768

Fuel

94462.22018

0.809

11.586

12741997.26

Engine

17963.72987

1.147

11.586

2435001.637

I xx = 22176015.72kg-m2

components

Mass(kg)

X(m)

Z(m)

Iyy(kg-m2)

nose wheel

1455.6095

19.226

2.107

544512.2547

main wheel

10298.39042

4.267

2.137

234536.1407

fuselage

37529.79001

26.86

2.038

27232105.17

wing

35754.43996

27.546

-0.809

27153230.21

H.T

3375.289501

30.381

4.929

3197412.426

V.T

1801.002039

30.708

11.818

1949848.352

payload

28482.07339

0.046

2.038

118358.9649

F.E

1340.3037

0.686

2.038

6197.617921

Pilots

220

24.346

2.038

131313.8552

Fuel

94462.22018

0.809

61823.72833

Engine

17963.72987

9.366

1.147

1599446.766
133

I yy = 62228785.49kg-m2

components

Mass(kg)

X(m)

Y(m)

Izz(kg-m2)

nose wheel

1455.6095

19.226

538050.1506

main wheel

10298.39042

4.267

11.586

1569914.287

fuselage

37529.79001

26.86

27076227.29

wing

35754.43996

27.546

11.586

31929341.02

H.T

3375.289501

30.381

6.11

3241416.274

V.T

1801.002039

30.708

1698311.179

Payload

28482.07339

0.046

60.26806729

F.E

1340.3037

0.686

630.74156

Pilots

220

24.346

130400.0975

Fuel

94462.22018

11.586

12680173.53

Engine

17963.72987

9.366

11.586

3987181.914

I yy = 82851706.75 kg-m2

Time constant, =

m
= 5.313 s;
* S w *V

Relative density factor, =

Kx =

m
= 164.228;
* S *C

I
I xx
I
= 9.4282 m; Ky = yy 15.7937; Kz = zz = 18.2239 m
m
m
m

134

Evaluation of Stability Derivatives: ( Refer Perkins and Hage)


CL /
CD /

= 4.84412 rad-1
= 0.10123 rad-1

Cm / CL

= -0.726618

Cm / (d )

= -0.020449 rad-1

Cm / (d )

= -0.0555 rad-1

Cm /

= -1.2397rad-1

Cm / ( d )

= -1.6825*10-3rad-1

Ch /

= -0.10299 rad-1

Ch /

= -0.2865 rad-1

Ch / (d )

= 2.1156*10-3rad-1

From the above known values


A =1;
1 CL
1 Cm
1
Cm
) + CD *(
) *(
) = 3.1472;
B = *(
2
h (d ) h (d )
C=
Cm
Cm
Cm
C
C
C
C
C
C
1
1
1 C
1
* CD *( L ) + ( L )2 *(
)*( L ) D *(
) *( m ) *(
) * CD L *( D )
2

2
2 h ( d )

h
( d ) h
h ( d )
2

C = 34.0313;
135

D =

Cm
CL CD Cm
C C
C 2 Cm
C 2 Cm
C C
(
)(
) D ( L )(
) L (
) L (
) D ( m )
2h (d ) 2h (d )
2h ( d )
2h (d )
h

D=

0.58310 ;
E =

CL 2 Cm
(
) = 0.65423
2h
The Quartic Equation is given by
4 + 3.14723+34.03132+0.58310+0.65423 = 0.

= i , in which real part represents the damping and the imaginary part
represents the frequency
The roots of the above equation are
1,2 = -1.5659 i 5.6135 9
3,4 = - 0.0076 i 0.1385
Phugoid oscillations are lightly damped and low frequency oscillations. So the Eigen value
chosen should have small real and imaginary part.
Short period oscillations are highly damped high frequency oscillations. So the Eigen value
chosen should have large real and imaginary part
For phugoid or long period motion
3,4 = - 0.0076 i 0.1385 is selected

Damping factor,

ph =

1
2 .
1 + ( ) ph

Damping factor = 0.055


Time period, Tph =

n ph 1 sp

; natural frequency, n ph =

ph

ph

136

Time period

= 44.957 s

For Short period mode


1,2 = -1.5659 i 5.6135
Using the same formulae,
Damping factor = 0.2686
Time period

= 1.12 s

2.1.11 Following the same steps for lateral directional dynamic stability
1. = 5.313 s; = 164.228; K x = 9.4282 m; K y = 15.7937; K z = 18.2239 m

2. Evaluation of damping derivatives


C nr

= -0.24409 rad-1

C lr

= 0.05 rad-1

Cnp

= -0.0025 rad-1
= 0.1719 rad-1

C n
C l

= -0.0825 rad-1

C lp

= - 0.45 rad-1

3. Based on the above derivatives (Refer Perkins and Hage for the formulae)
A = 1; B = 1.1916; C = 24.94727; D = 108.52602; E = 7.6138
5. The Quartic equation is given by

4 + 1.19163+24.94722+108.5260+7.6138 = 0
6. The roots of the above equations are
1

= -0.071322

= -3.318945

3,4

= 1.09933 i 5.563813

137

Aperiodic Roll is a very fast motion and very highly damped. The Eigen value is negative.
The Spiral Motion is unstable and the divergence will occur very slowly. The Eigen value is
positive and small.
The Dutch Roll is slightly low damping and slightly high frequency motion. The aircraft
performs alternately yawing and rolling motion.
7. The Aperiodic modes is given by the roots

= -0.071322 ( mildly convergent)

= -3.318945 ( heavily convergent)

8. The Dutch roll mode is given by the root (using the same formulae as mentioned above
for longitudinal dynamic Stability)
3,4

= 1.09933 i 5.563813

Damping factor = 0.1938


Time period

= 1.1285 secs

138

CHAPTER 14
STRUCTURAL DESIGN OF THE AIRCRAFT
In the construction of aircraft two types of structures are used

Monocoque structures which are unstiffened shells and has to be relatively thick to resists
the different kinds of load acting on it

Semi-Monocoque structures which are consist of stiffening members along with the skin.
This is the most efficient type of construction which is widely used now days.

Fig 1.Semi Monocoque Construction of Fuselage

Fig 2.Semi Monocoque Construction of Wing

139

Functions of different structural members:


Skin:

Reacts to applied torsion and shear forces, transmits aerodynamic forces to the
longitudinal and transverse structural members.

Acts with the longidutinal members in resisting the applied bending and axial loads

Acts with transverse members in reacting the hoop or circumferential load when the
structure is pressurized.

Ribs and Frames:

For the structural integration of the wing and fuselage

To maintain the aerodynamic profile of the structure

Spar:

Resists axial and bending loads

Form the wing box for stable torsion resistance.

Stiffener or Stringers:

Resist bending and axial loads along with the skin

Divide the skin into small panels and thereby increase its buckling and failing stresses

Act with the skin in resisting the axial loads caused by pressurization

14.1WING DESIGN
The first step towards the Structural Design is to find the lift Distribution of the wing.
The lift distribution of the wing is best approximated using Schrenks Curve which is the average
of the Elliptical Distribution of the lift over the wing and the Trapezoidal Distribution of the lift

140

over the wing. So the elliptical and the trapezoidal distribution of the lift over the wing should be
approximated.

14.1.1 Steps involved in plotting the elliptic lift distribution:


1. The area under the elliptic curve is given by
A = *b* w o / 8
This gives the lift produced by a single wing.
2. In steady level flight lift produced is equal to weight
*b* w o / 8 = W TO / 2
From the above w o can be calculated
3. Using the equation of ellipse the curve is plotted for different values of y

w y =(4 W TO/ *b)/ [ 1- (2y/b)2]0.5


Using the above mentioned Steps the elliptic lift is given by
w y = [52352.32426 ( 1 0.00112y2) 0.5]
elliptic curve
60000
50000
40000
30000

elliptic curve

20000
10000
0
0

10

15

20

25

30

35

14.1.2 Steps involved in plotting trapezoidal lift distribution:


1. The area under the trapezoid is given by
A = b ( w 1 + w 2)/4

141

This gives the lift Distribution


2. In the steady level flight lift produced is equal to weight
b ( w 1 + w 2)/4 = W TO / 2
3. The lift produced by any section of wing is directly proportional to the chord of the wing.
w 2 / w 1 = c t / c r = ( taper ratio)
w 1 = 2 W TO / b (1+ )
w 2 = 2 W TO / b (1+ )
4. Using the equation of trapezoid, the lift distribution is given by
w y = 2 W TO / b (1+ )*[ 1 + 2y/b*( 1)]
Following the above the steps the trapezoidal lift distribution
w y = 68437.25985 [ 1- 0.02683y]
trapezoidal curve
80000
70000
60000
50000
40000

trapezoidal curve

30000
20000
10000
0
0

10

15

20

25

30

35

Schrenks curve is the average of the elliptical lift distribution and trapezoidal lift distribution
So the lift distribution by Schrenks curve is given by
w y = 26176.162 [( 1 0.00112y2)0.5]+ 34218.6299 ( 1- 0.02683y)

142

lift per unit span (N/m)

lift per unit span vs. span


80000
70000
60000
50000
40000
30000
20000
10000
0

trapezoidal curve
elliptic curve
schrenk's curve

10

15

20

25

30

35

b(m)

14.1.3 Steps involved in plotting the Shear force diagram:


1. The different loads acting on the wing are identified and their distribution is evaluated
2. The loads whose distribution is to be known are the lift load, the wing structural weight
and the fuel weight. The point loads acting on the wing are engine weight and the landing
gear and their locations are identified.
3. The lift load distribution is obtained from the Schrenks curve, the fuel and the wing
structural weight is assumed to have trapezoidal distribution and the load acting depends
upon the thickness and the chord of the section of the wing.
4. The shear force diagram is obtained integrating the loads acting on the wing along its half
span taking into account the point loads at their positions with the tip of the wing as
origin.
Following the above steps, for 0 y 29.775

143

The lift distribution is given by


w y = 26176.162 [( 1 0.00112y2)0.5]+ 34218.6299 ( 1- 0.02683y)

Fuel weight Distribution:


The fuel load varies linearly as shown below

Y = 6.208m

Y = 20.876m

Y -2.76m

The weight of the fuel is proportional to the chord of that section.


The chord at any section can be computed using C = Croot [1+

( 1)
y]
b/2

W1 C1t1 1
=
; * lengthoffuel tan k *(W1 +W 2) = W wing
W2 C2t 2 2

The fuel weight distribution is given by


w y = 4854.7392 + 1862.6888 ( y 2.76)
3.3.2 Structural weight Distribution:
Structural weight varies linearly from the root to tip of the wing and the intensity of the load is
proportional to the chord of the section.
W1 C1t1
=
where point 1 and 2 represents the Root and the tip of the wing
W2 C2t 2

144

W1 = 24.74W2
1
* semispan *(W1 +W 2) = W wing
2

W2 =915.015N; W1 =22645.088N

structural weight distribution

w1
w2
Y = 29.775m
The structural weight distribution is given by
w y = 729.80y +915
At y = 6.665 m , the weight of the landing gear is taken into account
At y = 8.968 m , the weight of the engine is taken into account
So the shear force diagram plotted for the wing is

Shear force vs. Spanwise distance

Shear force(N)

1200000
1000000
800000
600000

400000
200000
0
0

10

15

20

25

30

35

Spanwise distance(m)

145

y (m)

Shear force (N)

9605004.42

6.665

562308.572

6.665

511794.967(with L.G)

7.165

540671.640

8.968

617816.536

8.968

536560.536 (with eng)

27.015

158845.485

29.775

For plotting the bending moment diagram, the obtained shear force is once again integrated.

Bending Moment(N-m)

Bending moment vs. Spanwise distance


5000000
0
-5000000

10

15

20

25

30

35
Y

-10000000
-15000000
-20000000
Spanwise distance(m)

146

y (m)

Bending
moment (N-m)

16574205.32

6.665

7697715.201

7.165

7486345.164

8.968

6377850.355

27.015 219209.8237
29.775 0

14.1.4 Design of the Spar:


Steps involved:
1. Plot the airfoil in the graph and identify the spar location. The front spar is placed near
the maximum (t/c) max of the airfoil and the rear spar is placed at 2/3rd of the chord
location.
2. Using the co ordinates of the airfoil chosen, the height of the front spar and the rear spar
is identified.

To identify the area of Flanges


3.

The maximum bending moment is identified from the bending moment diagram

plotted and is given by

147

M max = M 1 + M 2
Where M 1 is the bending moment at the front spar
M 2 is the bending moment at the rear spar
4. M 1, M 2 is proportional to the height of the front and the rear spar respectively i.e

M 1/ M 2 =( h 1 / h 2 )2
Where h 1 is the height of the front spar
h 2 is the height of the rear spar
5. For the material selected, the

yield

is identified for the material. Based on the yield , the

area of the flanges are calculated using the formula


A flange = M / yield * h
To identify the thickness of the web:
8.

The shear force experienced by the spar is again proportional to the height of the spars

Which is given by

V1/V2=h1/h2

Where V 1 is the shear force acting on the front spar


V 2 is the shear force acting on the rear spar
V 1 + V 2 = V max (identified from the graph plotted for shear force)
7. Based on the material selected the shear strength of the material is selected and based on

this shear strength the thickness of the web is calculated using the formula
= V/ A = V / h*t
Following the above steps,
h 1 = 1.468 m; h 2 = 1.061 m
Material Selected is 7075 T6
Area of the rear flange = 7.07 * 10 -3 m 2

148

Area of the front flange = 9.78 * 10-3 m 2


Thickness of the web = 0.0010317 m

14.1.5 Torque Distribution over the wing:


Before going into the construction of the torque diagram, the known quantities are C.G of the
aircraft, the centre of pressure of the aircraft and the shear centre which is assumed to be around
0.35 C
(torque) lift

=integration of lift distribution (Schrenks curve)*(S.C C.P)

(torque) structuralloading

Torque(N-

integration of structural load


distribution *(S.C C.G of wing)
(torque) fuel

=integration

of

fuel

weight distribution*(S.C C.G


of the fuel)

X (m)
0
6.665
6.665
7.165
8.968
8.968
27.015
29.775

m)
947973.4266
591379.3779
840532.6832
830465.3153
578187.3949
759930.8956
90377.8379
0

149

14.1.6 Steps involved in finding the thickness of the wing:


1. The torque produced by the various forces acting on the wing is calculated and the torque
diagram is constructed for the wing.
2. The aerofoil is assumed to be of 2 cell structure i.e from the leading edge to the front spar
is considered as one cell and from the front spar to the rear spar is considered as second
cell.
3. The total torque acting on the root airfoil is found from the torque diagram.
4. The total torque acting on the root airfoil is divided between the two cells and expressed by
the following equation.
T = 2Aq = 2 (A 1 *q 1 + A 2 * q 2)
Where A 1 is the area of the first cell
A 2 is the area of the second cellss

150

q 1 is the shear flow in the first cell


q 2 is the shear flow in the second cell
5. The area of the first cell, A 1= ( 0.23 * C r *h 1)/ 2
The area of the second cell, A 2 = ( 0.55 * C r * { h 1 + h 2})/2
Where the constant 0.23 denotes the position of the front spar from the
leading edge
The constant 0.55 denotes the position of the rear spar from the front spar.
5. The twist equation for the two cells are formulated.

For the first cell it is given by


2G 1 = 1/ A 1 * [ q 1 * a 10 + ( q 1 q 2) * a 12 ]
For the second cell it is given by
2G 2 = 1/ A 2 * [ ( q 2 q 1)* a12 + q 2* a 20]
6. The constants a 10 , a 12 and a 20 is found as following

From the above figure


S 1 = L 1 + L 2 ; S 2 ; S 3= L 3 + L 4

151

In which L 1,L 2,L 3, L 4 are measured using threads on the airfoil co ordinates shown.
Therefore
a 10 = S 1 / t ; a 12 = S 2 / t w ; a 20 = (S 3 / t) + ( h 2 / t w)
7. The values obtained in the above step is substituted in the equations given in the step 5 and
the twist in both cells is assumed to be the same
G 1 = G 2
8. Using the above mentioned condition q 2 is obtained in terms of t and q 1 and using the
torque equation q 1 is obtained in terms of q 2
9.Using the equation for critical shear buckling stress,
q 2 / t = cr = { * E * K s / [ 12 * ( 1 2 ) ] } * ( t / b ) 2 }
q 2 is obtained in terms of t
10. Substituting the q 2 obtained in step 8 in the q 2 obtained in step 9, a quartic equation is
obtained in terms of t which is solved using the quartic calculator available online.
Following the above procedure
Area of the first cell , A 1 = 2.56705 m2
Area of the second cell , A 2 = 9.23118m2
a 10 = 6.22724/t ; a 12 = 1692.3966 ; a 20 = 13.56546/t + 852.6689
2.4258
q1 + 659.2730q1 659.2730q2
t
1.46491
2G2 =
q2 + 275.6814q2 183.3203q1
t
2G1 =

Assuming twists in both cells are same, we obtain


q2 = (

2.4258
1.46491
+ 842.596)q1 / (
+ 934.954)
t
t

152

From the critical shear stress equation


q 2 = 1.53756*10 12 * t 3

Equating and solving the above two equations, skin thickness (t) = 0.002834m
Skin thickness (t) = 0.002834m
14.1.7 STRINGER DESIGN:
General Procedure
1. The first step towards to the stringer design is to find the spacing required for the
placements of the stringer in the upper and lower surface.
2. Using the spacing obtained in the above step the number of stringers to be placed on the
upper and lower surfaces are decided.
3.

The appropriate material required for the stringer and the stringer size are decided

4. Bending stress developed in the each stringer is calculated and stress obtained should be
less than the ultimate stress of the material. If the stress is more it indicates the failure of
the stringer and the area of the stringer has to be increased appropriately to develop stress
less than the ultimate stress of the material.

14.1.7.1 Spacing of Stringer:


Using the expression for critical bending stress of the material, the spacing for the stringer
placement is calculated.

cr

= { 2 * E * K b / [ 12 * ( 1 2 )]* [ t/b] 2 }

where E is the Youngs Modulus of the material, Pa


K b is the bending buckling co efficient of plates,( 8.5 for aircraft applications)
is the Poissons ratio of the material.

153

t is the thickness of the skin, m


b is the spacing of the stiffener, m
Using the above mentioned formula and substituting the required values,
The stringer spacing , b = 0.1408 m
14.1.7.2 Number of Stringers:
The root airfoil is plotted in the design software and the distance are measured between the
points from which the number of stringers are calculated. Usually there are more stringers on
the upper surface than on the lower surface and the placement distance can be modified
slightly according to it.
Following the above mentioned procedure,
For the upper surface 0.12 m stringer spacing is decided and 88 stringers are placed.
For the lower surface 0.14 m stringer spacing is decided and 72 stringers are placed.
14.1.7.3 Stinger Size And Bending Stress Calculation Of The Stringers:
Steps Involved:
1. The stringer size is chosen from chapter A3 of Analysis and Design of Flight Vehicle

Structures, Bruhn and the area of the stringer is calculated.


2. The x and y of the stringers is obtained using the design software and the centroid is
calculated .
X c = AX / A
Y c = AY / A
3. The moment of inertia about the three axis I xx , I yy , I xy are calculated using the
expressions given below.
I xx = [ A ( y Y c ) 2 ]
I yy = [ A ( x X c ) 2 ]

154

I xy = [ A ( x X c) ( y Y c) ]
4. The x and y component of the bending moment is calculated since the wing is placed
at the wing setting angle and the value of the bending moment at the root airfoil is read from the
moment diagram constructed.
M x = M cos
M y = M sin
5. The bending stress experienced by the stringers are calculated using the following
expression
ZZ =

M X IYY + M Y I XY
M I + M X I XY
Y + Y XX
X
2
I XX IYY I XY
I XX IYY IXY 2

6. After calculating the bending stress , it is checked with the ultimate strength of the material.
If the bending stress is greater than the ultimate strength of the material then the area of the
stringer has to be increased proportionately and again the bending stress has to be checked.
Following the above mentioned steps,
Tabulation for finding the Centroid:
Upper Surface of the wing:
Stringe
r

X(m)

Y(m)

Area(m2)

Ax(m3)
0.00001759

Ay(m3)

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11

0.0153
0.0614
0.14
0.23
0.33
0.43
0.541
0.65
0.76
0.87
0.98

0.11
0.21
0.3019
0.369
0.421
0.47
0.5105
0.5439
0.5742
0.6006
0.624

0.00115
0.00115
0.00115
0.00115
0.00115
0.00115
0.00115
0.00115
0.00115
0.00115
0.00115

5
0.00007061
0.000161
0.0002645
0.0003795
0.0004945
0.00062215
0.0007475
0.000874
0.0010005
0.001127

0.0001265
0.0002415
0.00034719
0.00042435
0.00048415
0.0005405
0.00058708
0.00062549
0.00066033
0.00069069
0.0007176
155

12
13
14

1.09
1.2
1.32

0.6466
0.6674
0.6866

0.00115
0.00115
0.00115

0.0012535
0.00138
0.001518
0.00164622

0.00074359
0.00076751
0.00078959

15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23

1.4315
1.54
1.65
1.762
1.874
1.987
2.102
2.212
2.323

0.704
0.719
0.7339
0.7478
0.7606
0.7729
0.7855
0.796
0.8065

0.00115
0.00115
0.00115
0.00115
0.00115
0.00115
0.00115
0.00115
0.00115

5
0.001771
0.0018975
0.0020263
0.0021551
0.00228505
0.0024173
0.0025438
0.00267145
0.00280381

0.0008096
0.00082685
0.00084399
0.00085997
0.00087469
0.00088884
0.00090333
0.0009154
0.00092748

24
25
26
27

2.4381
2.55
2.665
2.7764

0.8158
0.8202
0.8334
0.8412

0.00115
0.00115
0.00115
0.00115

5
0.0029325
0.00306475
0.00319286
0.00331947

0.00093817
0.00094323
0.00095841
0.00096738

28

2.8865

0.8487

0.00115

5
0.00344804

0.00097601

29

2.9983
3.1233

0.8553
0.86282

0.00115
0.00423

5
0.01322118

0.0009836

30F

3
0.00372266

0.00365235

31
32
33
34
35

3.2371
3.3516
3.4664
3.5792
3.6926

0.8685
0.8742
0.8801
0.885
0.8895

0.00115
0.00115
0.00115
0.00115
0.00115

5
0.00385434
0.00398636
0.00411608
0.00424649
0.00437264

0.00099878
0.00100533
0.00101212
0.00101775
0.00102293

36

3.8023

0.8937

0.00115

5
0.00450029

0.00102776

37
38

3.9133
4.0264

0.8969
0.9003

0.00115
0.00115

5
0.00463036
0.00476157

0.00103144
0.00103535

39
40

4.1405
4.2546

0.9084
0.9061

0.00115
0.00115

5
0.00489279
0.00502446

0.00104466
0.00104202

41

4.3691

0.9074

0.00115

0.00104351

156

0.00515694
42
43
44

4.4843
4.5952
4.7052

0.9081
0.9128
0.919

0.00115
0.00115
0.00115

5
0.00528448
0.00541098
0.00554081

0.00104432
0.00104972
0.00105685

45

4.8181

0.9121

0.00115

5
0.00566892

0.00104892

46

4.9295

0.9119

0.00115

5
0.00579795

0.00104869

47
48
49

5.0417
5.1562
5.2752

0.9125
0.9122
0.9118

0.00115
0.00115
0.00115

5
0.00592963
0.00606648
0.00619861

0.00104938
0.00104903
0.00104857

50

5.3901

0.9096

0.00115

5
0.00632626

0.00104604

51

5.5011

0.9094

0.00115

5
0.00645437

0.00104581

52
53
54
55

5.6125
5.7262
5.8414
5.9528

0.9081
0.9057
0.9035
0.9013

0.00115
0.00115
0.00115
0.00115

5
0.00658513
0.00671761
0.00684572
0.00697256

0.00104432
0.00104156
0.00103903
0.0010365

56

6.0631

0.899

0.00115

5
0.00710412

0.00103385

57
58
59

6.1775
6.2932
6.4092

0.8962
0.8926
0.8892

0.00115
0.00115
0.00115

5
0.00723718
0.00737058
0.00750386

0.00103063
0.00102649
0.00102258

60

6.5251

0.8856

0.00115

5
0.00763266

0.00101844

61
62

6.6371
6.7506

0.8811
0.8765

0.00115
0.00115

5
0.00776319
0.00789440

0.00101327
0.00100798

63

6.8647

0.8721

0.00115

5
0.00802803

0.00100292

64
65
66
67

6.9809
7.0974
7.2088
7.3233

0.8665
0.8607
0.8546
0.8477

0.00115
0.00115
0.00115
0.00115

5
0.00816201
0.00829012
0.00842179

0.00099648
0.00098981
0.00098279
0.00097486

157

5
0.00855301
0.00868031

68

7.4374

0.8407

0.00115

0.00096681

69
70

7.5481
7.6628

0.8329
0.8248

0.00115
0.00115

5
0.00881222
0.00894550

0.00095784
0.00094852

71

7.7787

0.8168

0.00115

5
0.00907522

0.00093932

72

7.8915

0.8082

0.00115

5
0.00920540

0.00092943

73

8.0047

0.7991

0.00115

5
0.00933880

0.00091897

74

8.1207

0.7894

0.00115

5
0.00946921

0.00090781

75

8.2341

0.7787

0.00115

5
0.00959801

0.00089551

76

8.3461

0.7674

0.00115

5
0.00972796

0.00088251

77

8.4591

0.7561

0.00115

5
0.00985584

0.00086952

78
79

8.5703
8.6804

0.7438
0.7319

0.00115
0.00115

5
0.00998246
0.01010884

0.00085537
0.00084169

80
81

8.7903
8.8998

0.7191
0.7058

0.00115
0.00115

5
0.01023477
0.01036437

0.00082697
0.00081167

82
83

9.0125
9.126

0.6921
0.6772

0.00115
0.00115

5
0.0104949
0.01062588

0.00079592
0.00077878

84

9.2399

0.6624

0.00115

5
0.01075468

0.00076176

85

9.3519

0.6467

0.00115

5
0.01088141

0.00074371

86
87

9.4621
9.5714

0.6314
0.6154

0.00115
0.00115

5
0.01100711
0.01112498

0.00072611
0.00070771

88
RF

9.6739
9.7605

0.5998
0.58693

0.00115
0.00213

5
0.02081914

0.00068977
0.00125192

158

Lower Surface of the wing:


Stringe
r

X(m)
0.0260

Y(m)

Area(m2)

Ax(m3)

Ay(m3)

3
0.0997

-0.1406

0.00115

2.99345E-05 -0.00016169
0.00011475

2
3

9
0.2074

-0.2614
-0.3544

0.00115
0.00115

9
0.00023851
0.00038168

-0.00030061
-0.00040756

0.3319

-0.4266

0.00115

5
0.00052957

-0.00049059

5
6
7

0.4605
0.5928
0.7238

-0.4832
-0.5282
-0.5656

0.00115
0.00115
0.00115

5
0.00068172
0.00083237
0.00098888

-0.00055568
-0.00060743
-0.00065044

8
9

0.8599
0.991

-0.5991
-0.6274

0.00115
0.00115

5
0.00113965
0.00129225

-0.000688965
-0.00072151

10

1.1237

-0.6537

0.00115

5
0.00144888

-0.000751755

11
12

1.2599
1.3956

-0.6777
-0.6997

0.00115
0.00115

5
0.00160494
0.00175915

-0.000779355
-0.000804655

13

1.5297

-0.7164

0.00115

5
0.00189140

-0.00082386

14

1.6447

-0.7536

0.00115

5
0.00207149

-0.00086664

15

1.8013

-0.7573

0.00115

5
0.00222421

-0.000870895

16
17

1.9341
2.07

-0.7702
-0.7863

0.00115
0.00115

5
0.0023805
0.00253494

-0.00088573
-0.000904245

18
19
20

2.2043
2.3388
2.4726

-0.7996
-0.8117
-0.8238

0.00115
0.00115
0.00115

5
0.00268962
0.00284349

-0.00091954
-0.000933455
-0.00094737
159

0.00299977
21
22
23

2.6085
2.7428
2.8798
3.1233

-0.8346
-0.8423
-0.8451

0.00115
0.00115
0.00115
0.00423

5
0.00315422
0.00331177
0.01322118

-0.00095979
-0.000968645
-0.000971865

-0.86283

3
0.00374980

-0.003652351

24

3.2607

-0.8752

0.00115

5
0.00390390

-0.00100648

25
26

3.3947
3.5298

-0.8866
-0.8866

0.00115
0.00115

5
0.00405927
0.00421555

-0.00101959
-0.00101959

27

3.6657

-0.8924

0.00115

5
0.00436988

-0.00102626

28
29

3.7999
3.9324

-0.896
-0.9001

0.00115
0.00115

5
0.00452226
0.00467417

-0.0010304
-0.001035115

30

4.0645

-0.9024

0.00115

5
0.00482988

-0.00103776

31

4.1999

-0.9053

0.00115

5
0.00498398

-0.001041095

32

4.3339

-0.9076

0.00115

5
0.00513762

-0.00104374

33

4.4675

-0.9089

0.00115

5
0.00528988

-0.001045235

34

4.5999

-0.9099

0.00115

5
0.00544513

-0.001046385

35

4.7349

-0.9093

0.00115

5
0.00559969

-0.001045695

36

4.8693

-0.9077

0.00115

5
0.00575333

-0.001043855

37
38

5.0029
5.1384

-0.9066
-0.9046

0.00115
0.00115

5
0.00590916
0.00606498

-0.00104259
-0.00104029

39

5.2739

-0.9019

0.00115

5
0.00621816

-0.001037185

40
41

5.4071
5.5456

-0.8985
-0.8943

0.00115
0.00115

5
0.00637744

-0.001033275
-0.001028445
160

0.00653142
42
43

5.6795
5.8162

-0.8897
-0.883

0.00115
0.00115

5
0.00668863
0.00684744

-0.001023155
-0.00101545

44

5.9543

-0.8762

0.00115

5
0.00700246

-0.00100763

45

6.0891

-0.8685

0.00115

5
0.00715564

-0.000998775

46

6.2223

-0.8594

0.00115

5
0.00731043

-0.00098831

47
48

6.3569
6.4912

-0.8488
-0.837

0.00115
0.00115

5
0.00746488
0.00762024

-0.00097612
-0.00096255

49
50
51
52

6.6263
6.761
6.8974
7.0316

-0.8236
-0.8101
-0.7952
-0.779

0.00115
0.00115
0.00115
0.00115

5
0.00777515
0.00793201
0.00808634
0.00824216

-0.00094714
-0.000931615
-0.00091448
-0.00089585

53

7.1671

-0.7613

0.00115

5
0.00839672

-0.000875495

54
55

7.3015
7.438

-0.7424
-0.7217

0.00115
0.00115

5
0.0085537
0.00870699

-0.00085376
-0.000829955

56
57
58

7.5713
7.7066
7.84

-0.7004
-0.6785
-0.6556

0.00115
0.00115
0.00115

5
0.00886259
0.009016
0.00916998

-0.00080546
-0.000780275
-0.00075394

59

7.9739

-0.6325

0.00115

5
0.00932707

-0.000727375

60
61

8.1105
8.2424

-0.6082
-0.5839

0.00115
0.00115

5
0.00947876
0.00963343

-0.00069943
-0.000671485

62

8.3769

-0.5584

0.00115

5
0.00978684

-0.00064216

63

8.5103

-0.5325

0.00115

5
0.00994163

-0.000612375

64
65

8.6449
8.7793

-0.5056
-0.478

0.00115
0.00115

5
0.01009619

-0.00058144
-0.0005497

161

5
0.01024696
0.01040106
0.01055493
0.01071133
0.01086646

66
67
68
69

8.9104
9.0444
9.1782
9.3142

-0.451
-0.4239
-0.3953
-0.3694

0.00115
0.00115
0.00115
0.00115

-0.00051865
-0.000487485
-0.000454595
-0.00042481

70

9.4491

-0.3403

0.00115

5
0.01101964

-0.000391345

71

9.5823

-0.3125

0.00115
0.00213

5
0.02081914

-0.000359375

RF

9.7605

-0.2772

-0.000591264

A=0.194432m2 ; Ax = 0.939154737m3 ; Ay = 0.019534231m3


X c = 4.9529 m;Y c = 0.11 m
Tabulation for calculating the moment of inertia:
Upper surface of the wing
stringe
r

Area(m2)

X(m)

Y(m)

Ixx(m3)

Iyy(m3)
0.02803

Ixy(m3)

0.00115

0.0153

0.11

7
0.02751

0.00115

0.0614

0.21

1.15E-05 6
0.02663

-0.00056

0.00115

0.14

0.3019

4.23E-05 9
0.02565

-0.00106

0.00115

0.23

0.369

7.71E-05 2
0.00011 0.02457

-0.00141

0.00115

0.33

0.421

1
0.00014

7
0.02352

-0.00165

0.00115

0.43

0.47

9
0.00018

5
0.02238

-0.00187

0.00115

0.541

0.5105

4
0.00021

5
0.02129

-0.00203

0.00115

0.65

0.5439

-0.00215
162

0.00024

0.02021

0.00115

0.76

0.5742

8
0.00027

7
0.01917

-0.00224

10

0.00115

0.87

0.6006

7
0.00030

1
0.01815

-0.0023

11

0.00115

0.98

0.624

4
0.00033

-0.00235

12

0.00115

1.09

0.6466

1
0.00035

0.01716
0.01619

-0.00238

13

0.00115

1.2

0.6674

7
0.00038

7
0.01517

-0.00241

14

0.00115

1.32

0.6866

2
0.00040

-0.00241

15

0.00115

1.4315

0.704

6
0.00042

0.01426
0.01339

-0.00241

16

0.00115

1.54

0.719

7
0.00044

5
0.01254

-0.00239

17

0.00115

1.65

0.7339

8
0.00046

6
0.01170

-0.00237

18

0.00115

1.762

0.7478

8
0.00048

9
0.01090

-0.00234

19

0.00115

1.874

0.7606

7
0.00050

2
0.01011

-0.0023

20

0.00115

1.987

0.7729

5
0.00052

6
0.00934

-0.00226

21

0.00115

2.102

0.7855

5
0.00054

7
0.00863

-0.00221

22

0.00115

2.212

0.796

1
0.00055

9
0.00795

-0.00216

23

0.00115

2.323

0.8065

8
0.00057

4
0.00727

-0.00211

24
25

0.00115
0.00115

2.4381
2.55

0.8158
0.8202

3
0.00058
0.00060

3
0.00664

-0.00204
-0.00196

26

0.00115

2.665

0.8334

2
0.00061

0.00602
0.00544

-0.0019

27

0.00115

2.7764

0.8412

-0.00183
163

0.00062

0.00491

28

0.00115

2.8865

0.8487

8
0.00063

1
0.00439

-0.00176

29

0.00115
0.00423

2.9983
3.1233

0.8553
0.86282

9
0.00239

4
0.01416

-0.00168

30F

9
0.00066

9
0.00338

-0.00583

31

0.00115

3.2371

0.8685

2
0.00067

6
0.00294

-0.0015

32

0.00115

3.3516

0.8742

2
0.00068

9
0.00254

-0.00141

33

0.00115

3.4664

0.8801

2
0.00069

-0.00132

34

0.00115

3.5792

0.885

1
0.00069

0.00217
0.00182

-0.00122

35

0.00115

3.6926

0.8895

9
0.00070

7
0.00152

-0.00113

36

0.00115

3.8023

0.8937

6
0.00071

2
0.00124

-0.00104

37

0.00115

3.9133

0.8969

2
0.00071

3
0.00098

-0.00094

38

0.00115

4.0264

0.9003

8
0.00073

7
0.00075

-0.00084

39

0.00115

4.1405

0.9084

3
0.00072

9
0.00056

-0.00075

40

0.00115

4.2546

0.9061

9
0.00073

1
0.00039

-0.00064

41

0.00115

4.3691

0.9074

1
0.00073

2
0.00025

-0.00054

42

0.00115

4.4843

0.9081

3
0.00074

3
0.00014

-0.00043

43

0.00115

4.5952

0.9128

1
0.00075

-0.00033

44
45
46
47

0.00115
0.00115
0.00115
0.00115

4.7052
4.8181
4.9295
5.0417

0.919
0.9121
0.9119
0.9125

3
0.00074
0.00074
0.00074

7.06E-05
2.09E-05
6.3E-07
9.07E-06

-0.00023
-0.00012
-2.2E-05
8.2E-05

164

1
0.00074
0.00073

48

0.00115

5.1562

0.9122

4.75E-05 0.000188
0.00011

49

0.00115

5.2752

0.9118

9
0.00073

0.000297

50

0.00115

5.3901

0.9096

5
0.00073

0.00022
0.00034

0.000402

51

0.00115

5.5011

0.9094

5
0.00073

0.000504

52

0.00115

5.6125

0.9081

3
0.00072

0.0005
0.00068

0.000605

53

0.00115

5.7262

0.9057

8
0.00072

8
0.00090

0.000708

54
55

0.00115
0.00115

5.8414
5.9528

0.9035
0.9013

4
0.00072
0.00071

8
0.00115
0.00141

0.000811
0.00091

56

0.00115

6.0631

0.899

6
0.00071

7
0.00172

0.001007

57

0.00115

6.1775

0.8962

1
0.00070

5
0.00206

0.001107

58

0.00115

6.2932

0.8926

4
0.00069

6
0.00243

0.001206

59

0.00115

6.4092

0.8892

8
0.00069

9
0.00284

0.001305

60

0.00115

6.5251

0.8856

2
0.00068

3
0.00326

0.001402

61

0.00115

6.6371

0.8811

4
0.00067

2
0.00371

0.001493

62

0.00115

6.7506

0.8765

6
0.00066

6
0.00420

0.001585

63

0.00115

6.8647

0.8721

8
0.00065

0.001676

64

0.00115

6.9809

0.8665

8
0.00064

0.00473
0.00528

0.001764

65

0.00115

7.0974

0.8607

8
0.00063

9
0.00585

0.001851

66

0.00115

7.2088

0.8546

0.001932

165

0.00062

0.00646

67

0.00115

7.3233

0.8477

6
0.00061

2
0.00709

0.002011

68

0.00115

7.4374

0.8407

4
0.00060

9
0.00774

0.002088

69

0.00115

7.5481

0.8329

1
0.00058

5
0.00844

0.002157

70

0.00115

7.6628

0.8248

8
0.00057

5
0.00918

0.002228

71

0.00115

7.7787

0.8168

5
0.00056

3
0.00993

0.002297

72

0.00115

7.8915

0.8082

1
0.00054

1
0.01071

0.002359

73

0.00115

8.0047

0.7991

6
0.00053

0.002418

74

0.00115

8.1207

0.7894

1
0.00051

0.01154
0.01238

0.002475

75

0.00115

8.2341

0.7787

4
0.00049

1
0.01324

0.002523

76

0.00115

8.3461

0.7674

1
0.01413

0.002565

77

0.00115

8.4591

0.7561

0.00048
0.00046

7
0.01504

0.002605

78

0.00115

8.5703

0.7438

2
0.00044

8
0.01597

0.002637

79

0.00115

8.6804

0.7319

5
0.00042

8
0.01693

0.002666

80

0.00115

8.7903

0.7191

7
0.00040

4
0.01791

0.002688

81

0.00115

8.8998

0.7058

5
0.01895

0.002704

82

0.00115

9.0125

0.6921

0.00039

2
0.02002

0.002718

83

0.00115

9.126

0.6772

0.00037
0.00035

7
0.02113

0.002722

84
85

0.00115
0.00115

9.2399
9.3519

0.6624
0.6467

1
0.00033

5
0.02225

0.002723
0.002715
166

1
0.00031

4
0.02338

86

0.00115

9.4621

0.6314

3
0.00029

0.002704

87

0.00115

9.5714

0.6154

4
0.00027

0.02453
0.02563

0.002684

88

0.00115
0.00213

9.6739

0.5998
0.58693

6
0.00048

0.002659

RF

9.7605

0.0493

0.004891

Iyy
0.02791

Lower Surface of the wing:


stringe
r

area

X
0.0260

Ixx

Ixy

0.00115

3
0.0997

-0.1406

7.22E-05 5
0.00015 0.02708

0.00142

0.00115

-0.2614

9
0.00024

6
0.02589

0.002073

0.00115

0.2074

-0.3544

8
0.00033

8
0.02455

0.002534

0.00115

0.3319

-0.4266

1
0.00040

7
0.02320

0.002852

0.00115

0.4605

-0.4832

5
0.00046

9
0.02186

0.003065

0.00115

0.5928

-0.5282

8
0.00052

2
0.02056

0.0032

0.00115

0.7238

-0.5656

5
0.00057

8
0.01926

0.003286

0.00115

0.8599

-0.5991

8
0.00062

6
0.01805

0.003338

0.00115

0.991

-0.6274

5
0.00067

1
0.01686

0.00336

10

0.00115

1.1237

-0.6537

1
0.00071

2
0.01568

0.003363

11

0.00115

1.2599

-0.6777

0.003345

167

0.00075

0.01455

12

0.00115

1.3956

-0.6997

4
0.00078

3
0.01347

0.003312

13

0.00115

1.5297

-0.7164

5
0.00085

6
0.01258

0.003253

14

0.00115

1.6447

-0.7536

8
0.00086

6
0.01142

0.003286

15

0.00115

1.8013

-0.7573

5
0.00089

0.003143

16

0.00115

1.9341

-0.7702

1
0.00092

0.01048
0.00955

0.003056

17

0.00115

2.07

-0.7863

4
0.00095

8
0.00868

0.002972

18

0.00115

2.2043

-0.7996

1
0.00097

8
0.00785

0.002875

19

0.00115

2.3388

-0.8117

7
0.00100

9
0.00707

0.002771

20

0.00115

2.4726

-0.8238

3
0.00102

5
0.00632

0.002664

21

0.00115

2.6085

-0.8346

6
0.00104

1
0.00561

0.002547

22

0.00115

2.7428

-0.8423

3
0.00104

7
0.00494

0.00242

23

0.00115
0.00423

2.8798
3.1233

-0.8451

9
0.00400

2
0.01416

0.002277

-0.8628

6
0.00111

9
0.00329

0.007534

24

0.00115

3.2607

-0.8752

6
0.00114

3
0.00279

0.001917

25

0.00115

3.3947

-0.8866

2
0.00114

2
0.00232

0.001786

26

0.00115

3.5298

-0.8866

2
0.00115

9
0.00190

0.001631

27

0.00115

3.6657

-0.8924

6
0.00116

5
0.00152

0.001484

28
29

0.00115
0.00115

3.7999
3.9324

-0.896
-0.9001

4
0.00117

9
0.00119

0.001334
0.001185
168

3
0.00117

8
0.00090

30

0.00115

4.0645

-0.9024

9
0.00118

8
0.00065

0.001034

31

0.00115

4.1999

-0.9053

5
0.00119

2
0.00044

0.000879

32

0.00115

4.3339

-0.9076

1
0.00119

1
0.00027

0.000724

33

0.00115

4.4675

-0.9089

4
0.00119

1
0.00014

0.000569

34

0.00115

4.5999

-0.9099

6
0.00119

0.000414

35

0.00115

4.7349

-0.9093

5
0.00119

5.47E-05 0.000256

36

0.00115

4.8693

-0.9077

1
0.00118

8.04E-06 9.78E-05

37

0.00115

5.0029

-0.9066

8
0.00118

2.88E-06 -5.8E-05

38

0.00115

5.1384

-0.9046

4
0.00117

3.96E-05 -0.00022
0.00011

39

0.00115

5.2739

-0.9019

8
0.00023

-0.00037

40

0.00115

5.4071

-0.8985

0.00117

7
0.00040

-0.00053

41

0.00115

5.5456

-0.8943

0.00116
0.00114

4
0.00060

-0.00068

42

0.00115

5.6795

-0.8897

9
0.00113

7
0.00085

-0.00084

43

0.00115

5.8162

-0.883

4
0.00111

7
0.00115

-0.00099

44

0.00115

5.9543

-0.8762

8
0.00110

3
0.00148

-0.00114

45

0.00115

6.0891

-0.8685

1
0.00108

5
0.00185

-0.00128

46

0.00115

6.2223

-0.8594

1
0.00105

3
0.00226

-0.00142

47

0.00115

6.3569

-0.8488

-0.00155
169

0.00103

0.00272

48

0.00115

6.4912

-0.837

1
0.00100

-0.00168

49

0.00115

6.6263

-0.8236

2
0.00097

0.00322

-0.0018

50

0.00115

6.761

-0.8101

4
0.00094

0.00376
0.00434

-0.00191

51

0.00115

6.8974

-0.7952

2
0.00090

8
0.00496

-0.00202

52

0.00115

7.0316

-0.779

9
0.00087

9
0.00563

-0.00213

53

0.00115

7.1671

-0.7613

3
0.00083

8
0.00634

-0.00222

54

0.00115

7.3015

-0.7424

6
0.00079

3
0.00710

-0.0023

55

0.00115

7.438

-0.7217

5
0.00075

2
0.00788

-0.00238

56

0.00115

7.5713

-0.7004

5
0.00071

-0.00244

57

0.00115

7.7066

-0.6785

5
0.00067

0.00872
0.00958

-0.0025

58

0.00115

7.84

-0.6556

4
0.00063

6
0.01049

-0.00254

59

0.00115

7.9739

-0.6325

4
0.00059

5
0.01146

-0.00258

60

0.00115

8.1105

-0.6082

3
0.00055

6
0.01244

-0.00261

61

0.00115

8.2424

-0.5839

4
0.00051

4
0.01348

-0.00262

62

0.00115

8.3769

-0.5584

4
0.00047

2
0.01455

-0.00263

63

0.00115

8.5103

-0.5325

5
0.00043

3
0.01567

-0.00263

64

0.00115

8.6449

-0.5056

6
0.00039

5
0.01683

-0.00261

65
66

0.00115
0.00115

8.7793
8.9104

-0.478
-0.451

8
0.00036

8
0.01801

-0.00259
-0.00255
170

2
0.00032

1
0.01925

67

0.00115

9.0444

-0.4239

8
0.00029

1
0.02053

-0.00251

68

0.00115

9.1782

-0.3953

4
0.00026

1
0.02187

-0.00246

69

0.00115

9.3142

-0.3694

4
0.00023

4
0.02324

-0.0024

70

0.00115

9.4491

-0.3403

3
0.00020

8
0.02464

-0.00233

71

0.00115
0.00213

9.5823

-0.3125

-0.00225

RF

9.7605

-0.2772

0.00032

0.0493

-0.00397

I xx

= 0.1121 m 3

I yy

= 1.6241 m 3

I xy

= 0.0237 m 3

zz

= 1806359273Y 30724010.12 X

Tabulation for finding the stress:


Upper surface of the wing:
stringe
r
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12

X(m)
0.0153
0.0614
0.14
0.23
0.33
0.43
0.541
0.65
0.76
0.87
0.98
1.09

Y(m)
0.11
0.21
0.3019
0.369
0.421
0.47
0.5105
0.5439
0.5742
0.6006
0.624
0.6466

stresss (Pa)
44967669.14
85651073.36
122818172.1
149756555.9
170448319.5
189911147.7
205824916
218842399.4
230583885
240727754.5
249642688.6
258229906.5
171

13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29

1.2
1.32
1.4315
1.54
1.65
1.762
1.874
1.987
2.102
2.212
2.323
2.4381
2.55
2.665
2.7764
2.8865
2.9983
3.1233

0.6674
0.6866
0.704
0.719
0.7339
0.7478
0.7606
0.7729
0.7855
0.796
0.8065
0.8158
0.8202
0.8334
0.8412
0.8487
0.8553
0.86282

266079763.2
273213209.3
279661125.7
285144187.4
290577137.7
295588247.2
300148747.1
304498326.5
308958603.8
312589115.5
316213529.4
319321367.9
320441458.3
325147522.7
327663455.5
330064422
332086341.5

30F
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55

6
3.2371
3.3516
3.4664
3.5792
3.6926
3.8023
3.9133
4.0264
4.1405
4.2546
4.3691
4.4843
4.5952
4.7052
4.8181
4.9295
5.0417
5.1562
5.2752
5.3901
5.5011
5.6125
5.7262
5.8414
5.9528

8
0.8685
0.8742
0.8801
0.885
0.8895
0.8937
0.8969
0.9003
0.9084
0.9061
0.9074
0.9081
0.9128
0.919
0.9121
0.9119
0.9125
0.9122
0.9118
0.9096
0.9094
0.9081
0.9057
0.9035
0.9013

334407554.4
336037493.4
337674268.1
339391142.5
340710567.4
341862475.6
342914052.2
343548056.5
344251184.4
346873546.6
345235599.2
345069935.3
344654215.8
345903297.6
347772335.2
344257337.6
343496109.2
343057718.7
342236622.6
341347121.6
339745260.5
338986471.3
337774633.3
336098160.6
334494470.2
332913951.6

172

56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
85
86
87
88

6.0631
6.1775
6.2932
6.4092
6.5251
6.6371
6.7506
6.8647
6.9809
7.0974
7.2088
7.3233
7.4374
7.5481
7.6628
7.7787
7.8915
8.0047
8.1207
8.2341
8.3461
8.4591
8.5703
8.6804
8.7903
8.8998
9.0125
9.126
9.2399
9.3519
9.4621
9.5714
9.6739

0.899
0.8962
0.8926
0.8892
0.8856
0.8811
0.8765
0.8721
0.8665
0.8607
0.8546
0.8477
0.8407
0.8329
0.8248
0.8168
0.8082
0.7991
0.7894
0.7787
0.7674
0.7561
0.7438
0.7319
0.7191
0.7058
0.6921
0.6772
0.6624
0.6467
0.6314
0.6154
0.5998
0.58693

331299176
329454576.8
327274334.3
325174191.4
322992729.3
320466368.1
317889895.6
315391693.5
312389111.7
309302771.6
306124636.9
302599882.8
299036603.3
295166340.3
291148792.4
287164891.7
282954107.1
278536060.9
273855153.6
268780455.5
263468507.3
258150461.3
252433746.3
246887596.9
240973986.5
234857992.6
228558627.6
221762810.2
215005518.1
207891131.3
200951578.6
193730762.4
186715269.6

RF

9.7605

180915637.2

Lower surface of the wing:


Stringe
r

X(m)
0.0260

Y(m)

stresss (Pa)

1
2

3
0.0997

-0.1406 -57754834.32
-0.2614 -107689744.6

173

3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23

9
0.2074
0.3319
0.4605
0.5928
0.7238
0.8599
0.991
1.1237
1.2599
1.3956
1.5297
1.6447
1.8013
1.9341
2.07
2.2043
2.3388
2.4726
2.6085
2.7428
2.8798
3.1233

-0.3544
-0.4266
-0.4832
-0.5282
-0.5656
-0.5991
-0.6274
-0.6537
-0.6777
-0.6997
-0.7164
-0.7536
-0.7573
-0.7702
-0.7863
-0.7996
-0.8117
-0.8238
-0.8346
-0.8423
-0.8451

-146442931.7
-176778492.3
-200748589.7
-219989365.5
-236108910.9
-250661939.2
-263054323.6
-274637174.3
-285299183.5
-295138853.5
-302797647.7
-318737698.7
-321208307.4
-327302522.9
-334726506.1
-340993726.4
-346770592.1
-352543189.3
-357796053.2
-361769260.7
-363751671.1

F
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43

6
3.2607
3.3947
3.5298
3.6657
3.7999
3.9324
4.0645
4.1999
4.3339
4.4675
4.5999
4.7349
4.8693
5.0029
5.1384
5.2739
5.4071
5.5456
5.6795
5.8162

-0.8628
-0.8752
-0.8866
-0.8866
-0.8924
-0.896
-0.9001
-0.9024
-0.9053
-0.9076
-0.9089
-0.9099
-0.9093
-0.9077
-0.9066
-0.9046
-0.9019
-0.8985
-0.8943
-0.8897
-0.883

-372499050
-378404657.1
-383891722.2
-384715540.3
-387920178.6
-390213231.1
-392700740
-394448448.4
-396462066.8
-398221361.1
-399568571.1
-400785570.2
-401362991.5
-401527108.9
-401891170.5
-401898137.5
-401618352.8
-401037791.6
-400161832.7
-399093965.7
-397182917.9

174

44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
RF

5.9543
6.0891
6.2223
6.3569
6.4912
6.6263
6.761
6.8974
7.0316
7.1671
7.3015
7.438
7.5713
7.7066
7.84
7.9739
8.1105
8.2424
8.3769
8.5103
8.6449
8.7793
8.9104
9.0444
9.1782
9.3142
9.4491
9.5823
9.7605

-0.8762
-0.8685
-0.8594
-0.8488
-0.837
-0.8236
-0.8101
-0.7952
-0.779
-0.7613
-0.7424
-0.7217
-0.7004
-0.6785
-0.6556
-0.6325
-0.6082
-0.5839
-0.5584
-0.5325
-0.5056
-0.478
-0.451
-0.4239
-0.3953
-0.3694
-0.3403
-0.3125
#REF!

-395239442.6
-392907163.7
-389991625.1
-386470155.7
-382455282.8
-377789856
-373081025.5
-367809058.1
-361991136.8
-355566674.9
-348643931.3
-340996631.9
-333084032.2
-324937841.2
-316370419.2
-307724117
-298602704.8
-289452632.8
-279826841
-270030483.4
-259831798.2
-249345141.8
-239084149.6
-228799876.6
-217899916.4
-208119413.2
-197021338
-186445435.2
-173070859.1

So from the above tabulation it is found that the stress calculated for each stringer and it is found
to be less than the ultimate strength of the material selected.

175

So the selected stringer dimensions are shown below.

14.1.8 SHEAR FLOW OF THE AIRFOIL: ( using K method)


General procedure:
1. The shear force acting on the root airfoil is obtained from the shear force diagram

constructed and the shear force obtained is resolved into x and y since the wing is
attached at a wing setting angle ()
176

V x = V sin ; V y = V cos
2. The root airfoil is considered as a 2 cell box and the cut is made at the origin and at
top of the front spar.
3.. K 1 , K 2 , K 3 are evaluated using the following relations given
I xy

K 1 = I xx I yy I xy 2

K2=

K3=

I yy
I xx I yy I xy 2

I xx
I xx I yy I xy 2

4.. The basic shear flow equation is given by


q = ( K 3Vx K 1V y )AX + ( K 2V y K 1V x) AY

Where A(X X c) and A(Y- Y c)have been already evaluated.


5. The shear flow due to torque and bending has to be added to the above obtained basic

shear flow for the closed cell. So the twist equation for cell1 and 2 are considered here
again and shear flow obtained in cell 1 and cell 2 are added as constants to the respective
twist equation. There force the equation will be in the form
2G1 = a1q1 + b1q2 const
2G2 = a 2q1 + b2q2 const
Constants are found by substituting thickness of the skin in q 1 and q 2 which
were evaluated in finding the skin thickness.
6. Assuming twist in both cells are equal one equation is framed and other equation is
framed by taking the moment contribution of the components of shear force.

177

7. Solving the two equations we get q 1 and q 2 which is added to the basic shear flow and

the shear flow is evaluated in the root airfoil section.


Following the above steps
K 1 = 0.13105 m 3
K 2 = 8.9496 m 3
K 3 = 0.6176 m 3
q = -85344.66581A ( X X c ) -6972868.162A (Y Y c)
The shear flow due to torsion and bending
q 1 = 29436.4041 Nm -1
q 2 = 34276.4386 Nm -1
Tabulation for Shear Flow of the wing:
Cell 1 of the root airfoil:
stringe
r

area

X-Xc

Y-Yc

A(X-Xc)

A(Y-Yc)

basic q

q(net)

0.00115

-4.9376

-0.00567824

484.6074951

28951.7966

0.00115

-4.8915

0.1

-0.01130346

0.000115
0.00033568

162.8106042

29273.5935

0.00115

-4.8129

0.1919

-0.0168383

5
0.00063353

-903.6281628

30340.03226

0.00115

-4.7229

0.259

-0.02226963

5
0.00099118

-2516.961474

31953.36557

0.00115

-4.6229

0.311

-0.02758597

5
0.00140518

-4557.086939

33993.49104

0.00115

-4.5229

0.36

-0.02758597

-7443.854358

36880.25846

0.00115

-4.4119

0.4005

-0.03265965

0.00186576
0.00236474

-10222.37116

39658.77526

0.00115

-4.3029

0.4339

-0.03760799

-13279.41378

42715.81788

178

0.00289857
9

0.00115

-4.1929

0.4642

-0.04242982

5
0.00346276

-16590.2221

46026.6262

10

0.00115

-4.0829

0.4906

-0.04712516

5
0.00405386

-20123.52279

49559.92689

11

0.00115

-3.9729

0.514

-0.05169399

5
0.00467095

-23855.25946

53291.66356

12

0.00115

-3.8629

0.5366

-0.05613633

5
0.00531196

-27779.01708

57215.42118

13

0.00115

-3.7529

0.5574

-0.06045216

5
0.00597505

-31880.36181

61316.76591

14

0.00115

-3.6329

0.5766

-0.06463

5
0.00665815

-36147.44503

65583.84913

15

0.00115

-3.5214

0.594

-0.06867961

5
0.00735850

-40564.99865

70001.40275

16

0.00115

-3.4129

0.609

-0.07260444

-45113.48314

74549.88724

17

0.00115

-3.3029

0.6239

-0.07640278

0.00807599

-49792.24382

79228.64792

18

0.00115

-3.1909

0.6378

-0.08007231

0.00880946

-54593.45819

84029.86229

19

0.00115

-3.0789

0.6506

-0.08361305

0.00955765
0.01031998

-59508.30558

88944.70968

20

0.00115

-2.9659

0.6629

-0.08702383

-64532.87472

93969.27882

21

0.00115

-2.8509

0.6755

-0.09030237

0.01109681

-69669.76756

99106.17166

22

0.00115

-2.7409

0.686

-0.09345440

0.01188571
0.01268668

-74901.65388

104338.058

23

0.00115

-2.6299

0.6965

-0.09647879

5
0.01349835

-80228.63183

109665.0359

24

0.00115

-2.5148

0.7058

-0.09937081

5
0.01431508

-85641.48125

115077.8853

25

0.00115

-2.4029

0.7102

-0.10213414

5
0.01514699

-91100.59596

120537.0001

26

0.00115

-2.2879

0.7234

-0.10476523

5
0.01598787

-96676.84564

126113.2497

27

0.00115

-2.1765

0.7312

-0.10726820

-102326.5755

131762.9796

28

0.00115

-2.0664

0.7387

-0.10964456

0.01683738

-108047.2522

137483.6563

179

0.01769447
29

30F

0.00115

-1.9546
-

0.7453

0.00423

1.8295

0.75282

4
-

-0.11189235

0.00115

7
-

-113831.8257

143268.2298

-135391.4637

164827.8678

-132898.3985

162334.8026

0.02088119
-0.11963679

4.9268
1

6
0.02059300

-0.2506

-0.12530269

4.8531

6
0.02016589

0.00115

-0.3714

-0.13088377

6
0.01963183

-129443.9016

158880.3057

0.00115

-4.7455

-0.4644

-0.1363411

6
0.01901474

-125254.2181

154690.6222

0.00115

-4.621

-0.5366

-0.14165525

6
0.01833256

-120497.7965

149934.2006

0.00115

-4.4924

-0.5932

-0.14682151

6
0.01759863

-115300.1326

144736.5367

0.00115

-4.3601

-0.6382

-0.15183562

6
0.01682169

-109754.6075

139191.0116

0.00115

-4.2291

-0.6756

-0.15669909

6
0.01600623

-103922.0365

133358.4406

0.00115

-4.093

-0.7091

-0.16140604

1
0.01515822

-97834.19348

127270.5976

0.00115

-3.9619

-0.7374

-0.16596222

1
0.01427996

-91532.28546

120968.6896

10

0.00115

-3.8292

-0.7637

-0.17036580

6
0.01337411

-85032.50707

114468.9112

11

0.00115

-3.693

-0.7877

-0.17461275

1
0.01244295

-78353.64505

107790.0492

12

0.00115

-3.5573

-0.8097

-0.17870365

6
0.01149259

-71511.68793

100948.092

13

0.00115

-3.4232

-0.8264

-0.18264033

6
0.01049945

-64548.97831

93985.38241

14
15

0.00115
0.00115

-3.3082
-3.1516

-0.8636
-0.8673

-0.18644476
-0.1900691

6
0.00950206

-57299.25621
-50035.23429

86735.66031
79471.63839

180

1
0.00848983
16

0.00115

-3.0188

-0.8802

-0.19354072

1
0.00745908

-42680.8037

72117.2078

17

0.00115

-2.8829

-0.8963

-0.19685605

6
0.00641304

-35210.60855

64647.01265

18

0.00115

-2.7486

-0.9096

-0.20001694

6
0.00535309

-27646.94443

57083.34853

19

0.00115

-2.6141

-0.9217

-0.20302316

1
0.00427922

-19999.45355

49435.85765

20

0.00115

-2.4803

-0.9338

-0.20587550

1
0.00319293

-12268.06718

41704.47128

21

0.00115

-2.3444

-0.9446

-0.20857156

1
0.00209778

-4463.415888

33899.81999

22

0.00115

-2.2101

-0.9523

-0.21111318

6
0.00099942

3389.799098

26046.605

23

0.00115

-2.0731
-

-0.9551
-

-0.21349724
-

11252.02067

18184.38343

0.00423

1.8295

0.97282

0.22124168

24F

-0.00311856

40627.10563

11190.70153

Cell 2 of the root Airfoil:


stringe
r

area
0.00423

X-Xc

Y-Yc

A(X-Xc)

A(Y-Yc)
0.00318672

basic q

q(net)

30F

-1.8295

0.752828

-0.00774444

1
0.00405899

-21559.63799

12716.80061

31

0.00115

-1.7158

0.7585

-0.00971761

6
0.00493782

-27473.49703

6802.94157

32

0.00115

-1.6013

0.7642

-0.01155910

6
0.00582344

-33444.30098

832.137619

33
34

0.00115
0.00115

-1.4865
-1.3737

0.7701
0.775

-0.01326858
-0.01484833

1
0.00671469

-39473.68305
-45553.42813

-5197.24444
-11276.9895
181

1
0.00761111
35

0.00115

-1.2603

0.7795

-0.01629768

6
0.00851237

-51680.38761

-17403.9490

36

0.00115

-1.1506

0.7837

-0.01762087

1
0.00941730

-57851.7927

-23575.3541

37

0.00115

-1.0396

0.7869

-0.01881641

6
0.01032615

-64059.75219

-29783.3135

38

0.00115

-0.9265

0.7903

-0.01988188

1
0.01124431

-70306.07594

-36029.6373

39

0.00115

-0.8124

0.7984

-0.02081614

1
0.01215982

-76628.55047

-42352.1118

40

0.00115

-0.6983

0.7961

-0.02161919

6
0.01307683

-82943.78025

-48667.3416

41

0.00115

-0.5838

0.7974

-0.02229056

6
0.01399465

-89280.67224

-55004.2336

42

0.00115

-0.4686

0.7981

-0.02282945

1
0.01491787

-95634.48384

-61358.0452

43

0.00115

-0.3577

0.8028

-0.02324080

1
0.01584822

-102036.8682

-67760.4296

44

0.00115

-0.2477

0.809

-0.02352566

1
0.01677063

-108499.7653

-74223.3266

45

0.00115

-0.1348

0.8021

-0.02368068

6
0.01769282

-114918.4133

-80641.9747

46

0.00115

-0.0234

0.8019

-0.02370759

1
0.01861569

-121346.3911

-87069.9525

47

0.00115

0.0888

0.8025

-0.02360547

6
0.01953822

-127790.1922

-93513.7536

48

0.00115

0.2033

0.8022

-0.02337167

6
0.02046029

-134242.8255

-99966.3868

49

0.00115

0.3223

0.8018

-0.02300103

6
0.02137983

-140703.9306

-106427.492

50

0.00115

0.4372

0.7996

-0.02249825

6
0.02229914

-147158.6714

-112882.232

51

0.00115

0.5482

0.7994

-0.02186782

6
0.02321696

-153622.7026

-119346.264

52

0.00115

0.6596

0.7981

-0.02110928

-160087.243

-125810.804
182

0.02413201
53

0.00115

0.7733

0.7957

-0.02021998

6
0.02504454

-166543.6974

-132267.258

54

0.00115

0.8885

0.7935

-0.01919821

1
0.02595453

-172993.817

-138717.378

55

0.00115

0.9999

0.7913

-0.01804832

6
0.02686188

-179437.2287

-145160.790

56

0.00115

1.1102

0.789

-0.01677159

6
0.02776601

-185873.0227

-151596.584

57

0.00115

1.2246

0.7862

-0.01536330

6
0.02866600

-192297.5921

-158021.153

58

0.00115

1.3403

0.7826

-0.01382196

6
0.02956208

-198704.6492

-164428.210

59

0.00115

1.4563

0.7792

-0.01214721

6
0.03045402

-205095.8275

-170819.388

60

0.00115

1.5722

0.7756

-0.01033918

6
0.03134079

-211469.5132

-177193.074

61

0.00115

1.6842

0.7711

-0.00840235

1
0.03222226

-217818.1068

-183541.668

62

0.00115

1.7977

0.7665

-0.00633500

6
0.03309868

-224140.9535

-189864.514

63

0.00115

1.9118

0.7621

-0.00413643

1
0.03396865

-230439.7159

-196163.277

64

0.00115

2.028

0.7565

-0.00180423
0.00066194

6
0.03483196

-236704.9778

-202428.539

65

0.00115

2.1445

0.7507

2
0.00325622

1
0.03568825

-242935.1646

-208658.726

66

0.00115

2.2559

0.7446

7
0.00598218

1
0.03653660

-249127.3702

-214850.931

67

0.00115

2.3704

0.7377

7
0.00883936

6
0.03737691

-255275.484

-220999.045

68

0.00115

2.4845

0.7307

2
0.01182384

1
0.03820824

-261378.6646

-227102.226

69

0.00115

2.5952

0.7229

2
0.01494022

6
0.03903026

-267430.1634

-233153.724

70
71

0.00115
0.00115

2.7099
2.8258

0.7148
0.7068

7
0.01818989

6
0.03984308

-273427.9673
-279372.996

-239151.528
-245096.557
183

7
0.02156928

6
0.04064601

72

0.00115

2.9386

0.6982

7
0.02507885

6
0.04143848

-285260.134

-250983.695

73

0.00115

3.0518

0.6891

7
0.02872182

1
0.04221979

-291085.411

-256808.974

74

0.00115

3.1678

0.6794

7
0.03249520

1
0.04298879

-296844.2907

-262567.852

75

0.00115

3.2812

0.6687

7
0.03639738

6
0.04374480

-302528.499

-268252.060

76

0.00115

3.3932

0.6574

7
0.04042951

6
0.04448782

-308133.0873

-273856.647

77

0.00115

3.5062

0.6461

7
0.04458952

1
0.04521669

-313658.1538

-279381.715

78

0.00115

3.6174

0.6338

7
0.04887615

1
0.04593187

-319095.5028

-284819.064

79

0.00115

3.7275

0.6219

2
0.05328916

6
0.04663234

-324448.2341

-290171.795

80

0.00115

3.8374

0.6091

2
0.05782809

1
0.04731751

-329709.1111

-295432.675

81

0.00115

3.9469

0.5958

7
0.06249663

1
0.04798692

-334874.0851

-300597.646

82

0.00115

4.0596

0.5821

7
0.06729570

6
0.04863920

-339940.2626

-305663.824

83

0.00115

4.1731

0.5672

2
0.07222575

6
0.04927446

-344898.0996

-310621.661

84

0.00115

4.287

0.5524

2
0.07728460

6
0.04989167

-349748.4373

-315471.998

85

0.00115

4.399

0.5367

2
0.08247018

1
0.05049128

-354483.8723

-320207.433

86

0.00115

4.5092

0.5214

2
0.08778145

1
0.05107249

-359107.4354

-324830.996

87

0.00115

4.6185

0.5054

7
0.09321060

1
0.05163576

-363613.425

-329336.986

88

0.00115
0.00213

4.721

0.4898
0.476931

7
0.10346521

1
0.05265305

-368004.3815

-333727.942

RF

4.8076

-375973.0195

-341696.580
184

0.00423

1.8295

0.09572077

0.04853507

-0.972828

5
0.09377474

5
0.04740209

-346597.9345

-312321.495

24

0.00115

-1.6922

-0.9852

5
0.09198281

5
0.04625600

-338531.7311

304255.2925

25

0.00115

-1.5582

-0.9966

5
0.04510991

-330387.2649

-296110.826

26

0.00115

-1.4231

-0.9966

0.09034625

5
0.04395715

-322256.0584

-287979.619

27

0.00115

-1.2872

-1.0024

0.08886597

5
0.04280025

-314091.6809

-279815.242

28

0.00115

-1.153

-1.006

0.08754002
0.08636644

-305911.6069

-271635.168

29

0.00115

-1.0205

-1.0101

5
0.08534478

0.04163864

-297711.6603

-263435.221

30

0.00115

-0.8884

-1.0124

5
0.08447883

0.04047438
0.03930678

-289506.2356

-255229.797

31

0.00115

-0.753

-1.0153

5
0.08376698

5
0.03813654

-281290.8454

-247014.406

32

0.00115

-0.619

-1.0176

5
0.08320877

-273070.1635

-238793.724

33

0.00115

-0.4854

-1.0189

5
0.08280282

0.03696481
0.03579192

-264852.1696

-230575.731

34

0.00115

-0.353

-1.0199

5
0.08255212

-256639.1515

-222362.712

35

0.00115

-0.218

-1.0193

5
0.08245598

0.03461973
0.03344937

-248444.1944

-214167.755

36

0.00115

-0.0836

-1.0177

5
0.08251348

5
0.03228028

-240275.2582

-205998.819

37

0.00115

0.05

-1.0166

5
0.03111349

-232128.2551

-197851.816

38
39

0.00115
0.00115

0.1855
0.321

-1.0146
-1.0119

0.08272681
0.08309596

5
0.02994981
0.02879003

-224010.5884
-215927.8713

-189734.149
-181651.432

40
41

0.00115
0.00115

0.4542
0.5927

-1.0085
-1.0043

0.08361829
0.08429989

5
0.02763509

-207885.4912
-199890.3833

-173609.052
-165613.944
185

5
0.08513548

0.02648543

42

0.00115

0.7266

-0.9997

5
0.02534348

-191945.3037

-157668.865

43

0.00115

0.8633

-0.993

0.08612828

5
0.02420935

-184067.3667

-149790.928

44
45
46
47

0.00115
0.00115
0.00115
0.00115

1.0014
1.1362
1.2694
1.404

-0.9862
-0.9785
-0.9694
-0.9588

0.08727989
0.08858652
0.09004633
0.09166093
0.09342997

5
0.02308408
0.02196927
0.02086665

-176257.5115
-168522.6312
-160873.795
-153323.1686

-141981.072
-134246.192
-126597.356
-119046.73

48

0.00115

1.5383

-0.947

5
0.09535438

0.0197776

-145880.3451

-111603.906

49

0.00115

1.6734

-0.9336

0.01870396
0.01764584

-138558.2331

-104281.794

50

0.00115

1.8081

-0.9201

0.0974337
0.09966987

5
0.01660486

-131357.5951

-97081.1565

51

0.00115

1.9445

-0.9052

5
0.01558251

-124289.8244

-90013.3858

52
53
54

0.00115
0.00115
0.00115

2.0787
2.2142
2.3486

-0.889
-0.8713
-0.8524

0.10206038
0.10460671
0.1073076
0.11016546

5
0.01458052
0.01360026
0.01264380

-117365.1295
-110595.6662
-103990.949

-83088.6909
-76319.2275
-69714.5103

55

0.00115

2.4851

-0.8317

5
0.11317662

5
0.01171184

-97565.61788

-63289.1792

56
57

0.00115
0.00115

2.6184
2.7537

-0.8104
-0.7885

5
0.11634338
0.11966354

5
0.01080507

-91324.17011
-85271.61323

-57047.7311
-50995.1746

58

0.00115

2.8871

-0.7656

5
0.12313769

0.00992463
0.00907075

-79415.77956

-45139.3409

59

0.00115

3.021

-0.7425

5
0.12676893

5
0.00824482

-73758.32193

-39481.8833

60
61
62

0.00115
0.00115
0.00115

3.1576
3.2895
3.424

-0.7182
-0.6939
-0.6684

5
0.13055186
0.13448946

5
0.00744684
0.00667818
0.00593930

-68309.12789
-63067.73616
-58044.02448

-34032.6899
-28791.2976
-23767.5858

63
64

0.00115
0.00115

3.5574
3.692

-0.6425
-0.6156

0.13858047
0.14282627

5
0.00523136

-53241.09239
-48667.07649

-18964.6579
-14390.6379

186

5
0.00455516
65

0.00115

3.8264

-0.588

0.14722663
0.15177775

5
0.00391001

-44327.57029

-10051.1319

66
67

0.00115
0.00115

3.9575
4.0915

-0.561
-0.5339

5
0.15648298
0.16134207

5
0.00329603
0.00271493

-40217.43864
-36337.76804

-5941.00004
-2061.32937

68

0.00115

4.2253

-0.5053

5
0.00216362

-32700.56705

1575.871549

69
70

0.00115
0.00115

4.3613
4.4962

-0.4794
-0.4503

0.16635757
0.1715282

5
0.00164578
0.00115990

-29284.40085
-26114.82163

4992.037751
8161.616975

71

0.00115
0.00213

4.6294

-0.4225

0.17685201
0.18710662

5
0.00033401

-23181.23809

11095.20051

RF

4.8076

-0.387198

-18297.56612

15978.87248

14.2 DESIGN OF FUSELAGE:


General Procedure:
1. The load distribution on the fuselage is identified and the shear force, Bending moment
diagrams are constructed.
2. Stringer design for the fuselage is carried out and the bending stress acting on each
stringer is evaluated.
3. Shear flow distribution around the fuselage is found out.
4. Bulkhead design for the fuselage is carried out.
14.2.1 Identification of distributed loads on the fuselage:
187

The distributed loads on the fuselage is identified are

Fuselage structural distribution

Passenger weight distribution

Cargo weight distribution

Structural weight Distribution:


Length of the nose section

= 8.5m

Length of the tail section

= 10.26m

Length of the cabin

= 45.202m

8.5m

45.202m

10.26m

From the diagram,


1
1
*8.5*Ws + 45.202* Ws + *10.26*Ws =-368167.24
2
2

Ws = -6745.2134 Nm 1
Load intensity distribution of structural weight of fuselage:
Wxs = 793.5545 x , x varies from 0 to 8.5m
Wxs = 6745.2134 , x varies from 8.5m to 53.702m

188

Wxs = 657.42882 x 42050.4609 , x varies from 53.702m to 63.962m


Passenger Weight Distribution:

8.5m

11.219m

1.5m

14.749m

1.5m

14.749m

1.5m 10.26m

1.5m

14.749m

1.5m 10.26m

From the above figure,


11.219W p + 14.749W p + 14.749W p =-218959.2
W p = -5186.7384 Nm 1

Cargo weight Distribution:

8.5m

11.219m

1.5m

14.749m

From the above figure,


189

11.219W p + 14.749W p + 14.749W p =-49050

Wc =-1204.7094 Nm 1
Identification of point loads: (phase I balance diagram, side view)
Point load

X(m)

Load(N)

Moment(N-m)

Fixed equipments (P1)

26.86

13148.38

353165.4868

Pilots (P2)

3.2

2158.2

6906.24

Nose landing gear(P3)

8.32

14279.53

118805.6896

Reserve fuel (P4)

19.862

185334.87

3682085.048

Horizontal tail(P5)

55.6172

33111.59

1841573.923

Vertical tail(P6)

56.172

17667.83

992437.346

(Lavatory & Galley)1 (P7)

20.4672

3209

65679.2448

(Lavatory & Galley)2 (P8)

37.4662

3209

120229.0358

(Lavatory&Galley) 3 (P9)

53.7152

3209

172372.0768

P2

P3

P4

PA PA

P7

P1

P8

P9

P5

P6

PB PB

Consider the fuselage to be a over-hanging beam with the supports provided by the front and
the rear spar and the reactions provided is PA and PB
To find the Reactions provided by the supports:
Step Involved:

190

Calculate the moment provided by the point loads along the length of the fuselage.

Convert the distributed loads on the fuselage into point loads.

Determine the moment provided by the distributed load by integration

Following the steps above,


PA + PB = -903723.7305 (equilibrium by summation of point loads)
17.25 PA +23.76 PB =-26905689.43 (equilibrium by summation of moments)
Solving the above equations PA = -837269.3586N
PB =1740993.089N
Using the method described in Standard Strength of Materials books the variation of shear force
and the bending moment is calculated and graph is plotted as done for the wing.

191

14.2.2 STRINGER DESIGN:


In the Stringer Design, the following are calculated
Number of stringers
Area of the Stringers
Steps followed in Stringer Design:
1. The maximum bending moment experienced by the fuselage is calculated by allowing a
Factor of Safety of 2
M y = M max * n

Where M max is identified from the bending moment diagram of fuselage

192

2. The material for the Stringer is selected and the Critical Shear stress of the material is
identified.
3. The moment of inertia for the fuselage is given by
I yy =

nAR 2
2

Where n is the number of stringers


A is the area of the stringer, m2
R is the radius of the fuselage, m
4. The bending stress experienced by the stringer in the fuselage is

x =

My *z
I yy

; max =

2M y
nAR

Substituting the known values nA is found.


5. The skin should withstand the buckling stress so using the formula

cr =

2 * E * Kb t 2
( )
12(1 2 ) b

Where Kb =8.5 ( for aircraft applications) and b is the stringer spacing.


6. Number of stringer is calculated as
n=

d
b

where d is the diameter of the fuselage.


7. The area of the Stringer is calculated as
A=

nA
n

193

8. From the book ,Airframe Stress Analysis and Sizing,Niu the properties of the section is
known choosing the Area to be closer to the Area calculated in Step 7
Following the above steps,
M y = 18919332.26 N-m

The material Selected is Al 2024 for which the critical stress cr = 216MPa
nA = 0.0553488m2 ; b = 9.04cm; n = 220, A= 2.5158*10-4 m2(calculated)
Area of the stringer= 2.6*10-4 m2( from Niu)
Calculation of bending Stress in the Stringer:
The bending stress of the Stringer is given by

x =

My *z
I yy

; Z=Rsin

= 0.02893
nAR 2
= 0.2792m2
I yy =
2
Substituting in the bending stress formula,

x = 211.758*10 6 sin

Tabulation for Bending Stress of the Stringers


stringer
1
2
3
4
5
6

angle (rad)
0
0.02893
0.05786
0.08679
0.11572
0.14465

bending stress (Mpa)


0
6.125159803
12.24519354
18.35497944
24.44940431
30.5233678

194

7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51

0.17358
0.20251
0.23144
0.26037
0.2893
0.31823
0.34716
0.37609
0.40502
0.43395
0.46288
0.49181
0.52074
0.54967
0.5786
0.60753
0.63646
0.66539
0.69432
0.72325
0.75218
0.78111
0.81004
0.83897
0.8679
0.89683
0.92576
0.95469
0.98362
1.01255
1.04148
1.07041
1.09934
1.12827
1.1572
1.18613
1.21506
1.24399
1.27292
1.30185
1.33078
1.35971
1.38864
1.41757
1.4465

36.57178669
42.58959915
48.57176895
54.51328969
60.40918899
66.25453265
72.04442879
77.77403192
83.438547
89.03323349
94.55340927
99.99445457
105.3518159
110.6210096
115.7976262
120.8773332
125.8558797
130.7290991
135.492913
140.1433348
144.6764724
149.0885323
153.375822
157.5347536
161.5618464
165.4537303
169.2071482
172.818959
176.2861398
179.6057892
182.7751289
185.7915065
188.6523978
191.3554084
193.8982762
196.2788732
198.495207
200.5454229
202.427805
204.140778
205.6829084
207.0529054
208.2496227
209.2720587
210.1193578
195

52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
85
86
87
88
89
90
91
92
93
94
95
96

1.47543
1.50436
1.53329
1.56222
1.59115
1.62008
1.64901
1.67794
1.70687
1.7358
1.76473
1.79366
1.82259
1.85152
1.88045
1.90938
1.93831
1.96724
1.99617
2.0251
2.05403
2.08296
2.11189
2.14082
2.16975
2.19868
2.22761
2.25654
2.28547
2.3144
2.34333
2.37226
2.40119
2.43012
2.45905
2.48798
2.51691
2.54584
2.57477
2.6037
2.63263
2.66156
2.69049
2.71942
2.74835

210.7908107
211.2858557
211.6040784
211.7452125
211.7091398
211.4958907
211.1056435
210.5387248
209.7956091
208.8769182
207.7834211
206.5160329
205.0758141
203.4639702
201.68185
199.730945
197.6128879
195.3294512
192.8825459
190.2742198
187.5066558
184.5821699
181.5032098
178.272352
174.8923006
171.3658841
167.6960538
163.8858809
159.9385542
155.857377
151.6457649
147.3072425
142.8454407
138.2640934
133.5670348
128.7581957
123.8416006
118.8213642
113.7016878
108.4868559
103.1812329
97.78925883
92.31544629
86.76437619
81.14069416
196

97
98
99
100
101
102
103
104
105
106
107
108
109
110
111
112
113
114
115
116
117
118
119
120
121
122
123
124
125
126
127
128
129
130
131
132
133
134
135
136
137
138
139
140
141

2.77728
2.80621
2.83514
2.86407
2.893
2.92193
2.95086
2.97979
3.00872
3.03765
3.06658
3.09551
3.12444
3.15337
3.1823
3.21123
3.24016
3.26909
3.29802
3.32695
3.35588
3.38481
3.41374
3.44267
3.4716
3.50053
3.52946
3.55839
3.58732
3.61625
3.64518
3.67411
3.70304
3.73197
3.7609
3.78983
3.81876
3.84769
3.87662
3.90555
3.93448
3.96341
3.99234
4.02127
4.0502

75.44910658
69.69437665
63.88132044
58.01480281
52.09973338
46.14106238
40.14377654
34.11289493
28.05346468
21.97055688
15.86926221
9.754686763
3.631947755
-2.493830782
-8.617522265
-14.73400186
-20.83815077
-26.92486051
-32.98903719
-39.0256058
-45.0295144
-50.99573841
-56.91928477
-62.79519615
-68.61855508
-74.38448806
-80.08816966
-85.72482656
-91.2897415
-96.77825729
-102.1857807
-107.5077861
-112.7398198
-117.877503
-122.9165361
-127.852702
-132.6818697
-137.3999978
-142.0031376
-146.487437
-150.8491429
-155.0846053
-159.1902794
-163.1627293
-166.9986306
197

142
143
144
145
146
147
148
149
150
151
152
153
154
155
156
157
158
159
160
161
162
163
164
165
166
167
168
169
170
171
172
173
174
175
176
177
178
179
180
181
182
183
184
185
186

4.07913
4.10806
4.13699
4.16592
4.19485
4.22378
4.25271
4.28164
4.31057
4.3395
4.36843
4.39736
4.42629
4.45522
4.48415
4.51308
4.54201
4.57094
4.59987
4.6288
4.65773
4.68666
4.71559
4.74452
4.77345
4.80238
4.83131
4.86024
4.88917
4.9181
4.94703
4.97596
5.00489
5.03382
5.06275
5.09168
5.12061
5.14954
5.17847
5.2074
5.23633
5.26526
5.29419
5.32312
5.35205

-170.6947729
-174.2480631
-177.6555274
-180.9143142
-184.0216963
-186.9750731
-189.7719729
-192.4100552
-194.8871121
-197.2010705
-199.3499941
-201.3320843
-203.1456824
-204.7892706
-206.2614735
-207.5610589
-208.6869392
-209.6381723
-210.413962
-211.0136591
-211.4367617
-211.6829157
-211.7519151
-211.6437022
-211.3583676
-210.89615
-210.2574362
-209.4427608
-208.4528056
-207.2883991
-205.9505157
-204.440275
-202.7589411
-200.9079209
-198.8887636
-196.703159
-194.3529361
-191.8400619
-189.1666393
-186.3349057
-183.347231
-180.2061154
-176.9141878
-173.474203
-169.88904
198

187
188
189
190
191
192
193
194
195
196
197
198
199
200
201
202
203
204
205
206
207
208
209
210
211
212
213
214
215
216
217
218
219
220

5.38098
5.40991
5.43884
5.46777
5.4967
5.52563
5.55456
5.58349
5.61242
5.64135
5.67028
5.69921
5.72814
5.75707
5.786
5.81493
5.84386
5.87279
5.90172
5.93065
5.95958
5.98851
6.01744
6.04637
6.0753
6.10423
6.13316
6.16209
6.19102
6.21995
6.24888
6.27781
6.30674
6.33567

-166.1616992
-162.2952999
-158.2930778
-154.1583824
-149.8946739
-145.5055206
-140.9945957
-136.3656743
-131.6226303
-126.7694331
-121.8101442
-116.7489141
-111.5899784
-106.3376546
-100.9963382
-95.5704993
-90.06467876
-84.48348431
-78.83158676
-73.11371612
-67.3346576
-61.49924762
-55.61236973
-49.67895061
-43.70395584
-37.69238582
-31.64927155
-25.57967043
-19.48866203
-13.38134383
-7.262826968
-1.13823194
4.987315659
11.10868944

199

14.2.3

Shear Flow for the Fuselage:

Steps involved:
1. K 1 , K 2 , K 3 are evaluated using the following relations given below
I zy

K 1 = I zz I yy I zy 2

K2=

K3=

I zz
I zz I yy I zy 2
I yy
I zz I yy I zy 2

2. The basic shear flow equation is given by


q = ( K 3V y K 1V z ) Ay + ( K 2V z K 1V y) Az

3. Since the cross section is symmetric,


K1=0; K2=

1
1
; K3=
I yy
I zz

4. Since there is no side force acting on the aircraft, Vy=0

Az =

5. The shear flow is given by q = ( K 2Vz )

Vz Az
I yy

Vz AR sin
I yy

Where Vz is the maximum shear force identified from the shear force diagram
I yy is calculated in the previous section

200

6. A cut is made at the first stringer and the shear flow due to the cut, q o is calculated using

the equation
220

2 As q + 2 R 2qo = 0
i =1

Where As is the area of the sector


7. The tabulation is done for calculating the shear flow around the fuselage

Following the above mentioned steps,

q = 3552.0547 sin ; As=

R 2
=0.1412 m ;qo= -1.5569Nm-1
2

Tabulation for Shear flow:


stringer
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22

theta ( rad)
0
0.02893
0.05786
0.08679
0.11572
0.14465
0.17358
0.20251
0.23144
0.26037
0.2893
0.31823
0.34716
0.37609
0.40502
0.43395
0.46288
0.49181
0.52074
0.54967
0.5786
0.60753

basic shear flow


0
102.7466089
205.4072305
307.8959495
410.1269946
512.01481
613.474127
714.4200358
814.7680561
914.434208
1013.335082
1111.38791
1208.510632
1304.621968
1399.641483
1493.489658
1586.087951
1677.358868
1767.226026
1855.614217
1942.449469
2027.659111

net shear flow


0
102.7466089
308.1538393
513.30318
718.0229442
922.1418046
1125.488937
1327.894163
1529.188092
1729.202264
1927.76929
2124.722992
2319.898542
2513.1326
2704.263451
2893.131141
3079.577608
3263.446818
3444.584894
3622.840243
3798.063685
3970.108579

due to cut
-1.5569
101.1797089
306.5869393
511.73628
716.4560442
920.5749046
1123.922037
1326.327263
1527.621192
1727.635364
1926.20239
2123.156092
2318.331642
2511.5657
2702.696551
2891.564241
3078.010708
3261.879918
3443.017994
3621.273343
3796.496785
3968.541679

201

23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67

0.63646
0.66539
0.69432
0.72325
0.75218
0.78111
0.81004
0.83897
0.8679
0.89683
0.92576
0.95469
0.98362
1.01255
1.04148
1.07041
1.09934
1.12827
1.1572
1.18613
1.21506
1.24399
1.27292
1.30185
1.33078
1.35971
1.38864
1.41757
1.4465
1.47543
1.50436
1.53329
1.56222
1.59115
1.62008
1.64901
1.67794
1.70687
1.7358
1.76473
1.79366
1.82259
1.85152
1.88045
1.90938

2111.171832
2192.917743
2272.82843
2350.837017
2426.878221
2500.888403
2572.805625
2642.569701
2710.122246
2775.406726
2838.368506
2898.954893
2957.115184
3012.800705
3065.964853
3116.563137
3164.553212
3209.894914
3252.550299
3292.483668
3329.661602
3364.052986
3395.629041
3424.363339
3450.231833
3473.212875
3493.287232
3510.438104
3524.651137
3535.914438
3544.218579
3549.556612
3551.924068
3551.318967
3547.741815
3541.195606
3531.685817
3519.220409
3503.809812
3485.466924
3464.207096
3440.04812
3413.010213
3383.116005
3350.390512

4138.830943
4304.089575
4465.746173
4623.665447
4777.715238
4927.766624
5073.694028
5215.375326
5352.691947
5485.528972
5613.775232
5737.323398
5856.070076
5969.915888
6078.765558
6182.527991
6281.116349
6374.448126
6462.445213
6545.033966
6622.145269
6693.714588
6759.682027
6819.992379
6874.595172
6923.444708
6966.500107
7003.725336
7035.089241
7060.565575
7080.133017
7093.775191
7101.48068
7103.243035
7099.060782
7088.937421
7072.881423
7050.906226
7023.030221
6989.276736
6949.67402
6904.255216
6853.058333
6796.126218
6733.506516

4137.264043
4302.522675
4464.179273
4622.098547
4776.148338
4926.199724
5072.127128
5213.808426
5351.125047
5483.962072
5612.208332
5735.756498
5854.503176
5968.348988
6077.198658
6180.961091
6279.549449
6372.881226
6460.878313
6543.467066
6620.578369
6692.147688
6758.115127
6818.425479
6873.028272
6921.877808
6964.933207
7002.158436
7033.522341
7058.998675
7078.566117
7092.208291
7099.91378
7101.676135
7097.493882
7087.370521
7071.314523
7049.339326
7021.463321
6987.709836
6948.10712
6902.688316
6851.491433
6794.559318
6731.939616
202

68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
85
86
87
88
89
90
91
92
93
94
95
96
97
98
99
100
101
102
103
104
105
106
107
108
109
110
111
112

1.93831
1.96724
1.99617
2.0251
2.05403
2.08296
2.11189
2.14082
2.16975
2.19868
2.22761
2.25654
2.28547
2.3144
2.34333
2.37226
2.40119
2.43012
2.45905
2.48798
2.51691
2.54584
2.57477
2.6037
2.63263
2.66156
2.69049
2.71942
2.74835
2.77728
2.80621
2.83514
2.86407
2.893
2.92193
2.95086
2.97979
3.00872
3.03765
3.06658
3.09551
3.12444
3.15337
3.1823
3.21123

3314.861122
3276.55757
3235.511911
3191.758495
3145.33394
3096.277098
3044.629022
2990.432938
2933.734201
2874.580261
2813.020623
2749.106807
2682.8923
2614.432516
2543.78475
2471.008124
2396.163544
2319.313648
2240.522749
2159.856787
2077.38327
1993.171219
1907.29111
1819.814814
1730.81554
1640.36777
1548.547198
1455.430668
1361.096108
1265.622464
1169.089638
1071.578417
973.1704061
873.9479621
773.9941228
673.3925383
572.2274006
470.5833735
368.5455215
266.1992388
163.6301774
60.92417625
-41.83281158
-144.5547901
-247.1557926

6665.251634
6591.418692
6512.069481
6427.270406
6337.092436
6241.611038
6140.90612
6035.06196
5924.167139
5808.314461
5687.600884
5562.12743
5431.999107
5297.324816
5158.217266
5014.792873
4867.171668
4715.477192
4559.836397
4400.379537
4237.240058
4070.554489
3900.462329
3727.105924
3550.630355
3371.183311
3188.914968
3003.977866
2816.526776
2626.718572
2434.712102
2240.668055
2044.748823
1847.118368
1647.942085
1447.386661
1245.619939
1042.810774
839.128895
634.7447603
429.8294162
224.5543537
19.09136467
-186.3876017
-391.7105827

6663.684734
6589.851792
6510.502581
6425.703506
6335.525536
6240.044138
6139.33922
6033.49506
5922.600239
5806.747561
5686.033984
5560.56053
5430.432207
5295.757916
5156.650366
5013.225973
4865.604768
4713.910292
4558.269497
4398.812637
4235.673158
4068.987589
3898.895429
3725.539024
3549.063455
3369.616411
3187.348068
3002.410966
2814.959876
2625.151672
2433.145202
2239.101155
2043.181923
1845.551468
1646.375185
1445.819761
1244.053039
1041.243874
837.561995
633.1778603
428.2625162
222.9874537
17.52446467
-187.9545017
-393.2774827
203

113
114
115
116
117
118
119
120
121
122
123
124
125
126
127
128
129
130
131
132
133
134
135
136
137
138
139
140
141
142
143
144
145
146
147
148
149
150
151
152
153
154
155
156
157

3.24016
3.26909
3.29802
3.32695
3.35588
3.38481
3.41374
3.44267
3.4716
3.50053
3.52946
3.55839
3.58732
3.61625
3.64518
3.67411
3.70304
3.73197
3.7609
3.78983
3.81876
3.84769
3.87662
3.90555
3.93448
3.96341
3.99234
4.02127
4.0502
4.07913
4.10806
4.13699
4.16592
4.19485
4.22378
4.25271
4.28164
4.31057
4.3395
4.36843
4.39736
4.42629
4.45522
4.48415
4.51308

-349.5499538
-451.6515814
-553.3752278
-654.635762
-755.3484403
-855.4289776
-954.793618
-1053.359204
-1151.043249
-1247.764001
-1343.440515
-1437.992723
-1531.341494
-1623.408706
-1714.117309
-1803.39139
-1891.156237
-1977.338401
-2061.865757
-2144.667566
-2225.674531
-2304.818859
-2382.034315
-2457.256279
-2530.421798
-2601.469642
-2670.34035
-2736.976287
-2801.321684
-2863.322694
-2922.927427
-2980.086002
-3034.750583
-3086.875422
-3136.416897
-3183.333546
-3227.586107
-3269.137544
-3307.953084
-3344.000243
-3377.248853
-3407.671088
-3435.24149
-3459.936985
-3481.736905

-596.7057465
-801.2015352
-1005.026809
-1208.01099
-1409.984202
-1610.777418
-1810.222596
-2008.152822
-2204.402453
-2398.807249
-2591.204516
-2781.433238
-2969.334217
-3154.7502
-3337.526014
-3517.508698
-3694.547627
-3868.494638
-4039.204159
-4206.533323
-4370.342097
-4530.49339
-4686.853175
-4839.290595
-4987.678078
-5131.89144
-5271.809992
-5407.316637
-5538.297971
-5664.644378
-5786.250121
-5903.013429
-6014.836585
-6121.626005
-6223.292319
-6319.750443
-6410.919653
-6496.723651
-6577.090628
-6651.953327
-6721.249095
-6784.919941
-6842.912579
-6895.178475
-6941.673889

-598.2726465
-802.7684352
-1006.593709
-1209.57789
-1411.551102
-1612.344318
-1811.789496
-2009.719722
-2205.969353
-2400.374149
-2592.771416
-2783.000138
-2970.901117
-3156.3171
-3339.092914
-3519.075598
-3696.114527
-3870.061538
-4040.771059
-4208.100223
-4371.908997
-4532.06029
-4688.420075
-4840.857495
-4989.244978
-5133.45834
-5273.376892
-5408.883537
-5539.864871
-5666.211278
-5787.817021
-5904.580329
-6016.403485
-6123.192905
-6224.859219
-6321.317343
-6412.486553
-6498.290551
-6578.657528
-6653.520227
-6722.815995
-6786.486841
-6844.479479
-6896.745375
-6943.240789
204

158
159
160
161
162
163
164
165
166
167
168
169
170
171
172
173
174
175
176
177
178
179
180
181
182
183
184
185
186
187
188
189
190
191
192
193
194
195
196
197
198
199
200
201
202

4.54201
4.57094
4.59987
4.6288
4.65773
4.68666
4.71559
4.74452
4.77345
4.80238
4.83131
4.86024
4.88917
4.9181
4.94703
4.97596
5.00489
5.03382
5.06275
5.09168
5.12061
5.14954
5.17847
5.2074
5.23633
5.26526
5.29419
5.32312
5.35205
5.38098
5.40991
5.43884
5.46777
5.4967
5.52563
5.55456
5.58349
5.61242
5.64135
5.67028
5.69921
5.72814
5.75707
5.786
5.81493

-3500.623006
-3516.579483
-3529.592982
-3539.652612
-3546.749954
-3550.87907
-3552.036502
-3550.221283
-3545.434931
-3537.681453
-3526.967337
-3513.301549
-3496.695527
-3477.163167
-3454.720817
-3429.387257
-3401.183689
-3370.133716
-3336.263323
-3299.600857
-3260.176999
-3218.024744
-3173.179366
-3125.678398
-3075.561591
-3022.870888
-2967.650386
-2909.946296
-2849.806912
-2787.282563
-2722.425575
-2655.290225
-2585.932699
-2514.41104
-2440.785105
-2365.116509
-2287.46858
-2207.906299
-2126.49625
-2043.306566
-1958.406866
-1871.868202
-1783.762996
-1694.164983
-1603.149146

-6982.35991
-7017.202489
-7046.172464
-7069.245593
-7086.402566
-7097.629024
-7102.915571
-7102.257785
-7095.656214
-7083.116384
-7064.64879
-7040.268886
-7009.997076
-6973.858694
-6931.883984
-6884.108073
-6830.570945
-6771.317404
-6706.397039
-6635.864181
-6559.777857
-6478.201743
-6391.20411
-6298.857764
-6201.239989
-6098.432479
-5990.521274
-5877.596682
-5759.753208
-5637.089475
-5509.708138
-5377.7158
-5241.222924
-5100.343739
-4955.196145
-4805.901614
-4652.585089
-4495.374879
-4334.402549
-4169.802817
-4001.713432
-3830.275068
-3655.631198
-3477.927979
-3297.31413

-6983.92681
-7018.769389
-7047.739364
-7070.812493
-7087.969466
-7099.195924
-7104.482471
-7103.824685
-7097.223114
-7084.683284
-7066.21569
-7041.835786
-7011.563976
-6975.425594
-6933.450884
-6885.674973
-6832.137845
-6772.884304
-6707.963939
-6637.431081
-6561.344757
-6479.768643
-6392.77101
-6300.424664
-6202.806889
-6099.999379
-5992.088174
-5879.163582
-5761.320108
-5638.656375
-5511.275038
-5379.2827
-5242.789824
-5101.910639
-4956.763045
-4807.468514
-4654.151989
-4496.941779
-4335.969449
-4171.369717
-4003.280332
-3831.841968
-3657.198098
-3479.494879
-3298.88103
205

203
204
205
206
207
208
209
210
211
212
213
214
215
216
217
218
219
220

5.84386
5.87279
5.90172
5.93065
5.95958
5.98851
6.01744
6.04637
6.0753
6.10423
6.13316
6.16209
6.19102
6.21995
6.24888
6.27781
6.30674
6.33567

-1510.791656
-1417.169804
-1322.361942
-1226.447413
-1129.506486
-1031.620291
-932.870747
-833.3404958
-733.1128332
-632.2716383
-530.9013037
-429.0866651
-326.9129295
-224.465605
-121.8304282
-19.09329318
83.65982077
186.3429209

-3113.940802
-2927.96146
-2739.531746
-2548.809355
-2355.953899
-2161.126778
-1964.491038
-1766.211243
-1566.453329
-1365.384471
-1163.172942
-959.9879688
-755.9995946
-551.3785345
-346.2960332
-140.9237214
64.56652758
270.0027417

-3115.507702
-2929.52836
-2741.098646
-2550.376255
-2357.520799
-2162.693678
-1966.057938
-1767.778143
-1568.020229
-1366.951371
-1164.739842
-961.5548688
-757.5664946
-552.9454345
-347.8629332
-142.4906214
62.99962758
268.4358417

q= 338.116639Nm-1
From this summation of shear flow , qo is calculated
14.2.4 Thickness of the Skin of Fuselage:
Steps:

The change of lift produced due to the deflection of aileron is calculated using
1
C
L = ( ) *( L ) * *V 2 * S a
2
a

Where

CL
=

(in radians) ; V is the cruise velocity(m/s); S a = 0.06 Sw

The change in lift is felt at the root attachment point and the torque produced due to
aileron deflection is

T = L * d

From the torque relation, T =2Aq and from which q is calculated


206

The appropriate material for skin is chosen

The stress in the skin is found as =

q
,from which the skin thickness is found.
t

Following the above steps,

L = 3274095.311N ; T=20725023.32N-m; q=329448.8193Nm-1


For Al2024, the critical shear stress is188MPa
The skin thickness = 0.00176m
14.2.5 Bulkhead Design:
Steps involved:
1. The torque and the radial load(F.O.S of 3 is considered) acting on the fuselage is
identified from the previous sections.
2. The Normal force, Shear force, Bending moment due to the torque and the radial load
acting on the fuselage is found for various angles( all in radians)
T
Q 3
) sin + ( )[ cos + ( ) sin ]
R
2 2

Normal force,

N =(

Shear force,

S=

T
Q
1
(1 + cos ) +
[( ) cos sin ]
2 R
2
2

Bending moment,

B=

T
QR
1
[( ) 2sin ]+
[1+ cos ( )sin ]
2
2
2

3. For various angular position , Normal force, Shear force and the bending moment is

calculated and plotted for the rear spar, front spar and at the aft bulkhead position(i.e
starting of the tail section of fuselage)
4. Maximum values of Normal force, Shear force and Bending moment for each case is
identified.

207

5. The appropriate material for the bulkhead is chosen.


6.

The design condition for bulkhead is

critical

1 ; critical 1
max
max
7. The cross section of the bulk head is chosen and the dimensions of the bulkhead are
assumed.
8. max =

M max N max
2S max b 2
t ( a 2t )2
2
+
; max =
{ [a (a 2t ) ] +
} is evaluated and the
Z
A
Zat 8
8

design condition checked.


9. If it does not satisfy the design conditions, the dimensions of the bulk head is changed
appropriately.

Following the steps above,


For the front spar,
Q= 194782.0844 N = 584346.25 N; T=20725023.32 N-m
Using the equations mentioned above the variation of shear force, normal force and
bending moment for different angular positions (0 to 360 deg).

208

209

From the graphs maximum values for Shear force, Normal force and Bending moment is
found.
Since I section is chosen,
Area, A = 2bt + at 2t 2
Section Modulus, Z =

1
[2bt 3 + 6bt (a t )2 + t (a 2t )3 ]
6a

Dimensions of Bulkhead Chosen:


Location

A(inches)

B(inches)

T(inches)

Rear spar

35

35

2.16

Front spar

40

40

3.33

210

At 57.702 m

34

34

2.615

CHAPTER 15
DIRECT OPERATING COSTS FOR THE PASSENGER AIRCRAFT
The costs to be estimated in the direct operating cost are as follows

Flight crew and Cabin crew costs

211

Airframe maintenance labour cost

Airframe maintenance material cost

Engine maintenance labour cost

Engine maintenance materials cost

Landing fee

Navigation fee

Depreciation

Insurance

Before estimating the above mentioned costs, the block time ( Tb ) of the aircraft has to be
calculated. Block Time is defined as the time from which the plane departs the gate of one
airport to the time the plane arrives at a gate of another airport.
15.1 Calculation of Block Time, ( Tb ):
From phase I project,
Time taken to climb = 0.33 hour
Time taken to descent= 0.618 hour
Time taken for Start up, Taxi out, and Take off is around 8 mins (0.13 hour)
Time taken for landing and Taxi to stop is around 5mins (0.083 hour)
Cruise time = distance to be cruised/ cruise velocity = 10 hours

Tb = 10+0.33+0.618+0.13+0.083=11.61hours
Tb =11.61hours
15.2 Estimation of Flight Crew and Cabin Crew costs:

212

Flight crew Cost = Tb * N f c *[C fc + 0.532(

WTO
)]
1000

=$18051.09
Where C fc is $440/hr
Cabin crew Cost = Tb * N cc * Ccc
= $6988.8
Where Ccc is $78/hr
15.3 Estimation of Airframe Maintenance Cost:
Airframe Maintenance Labour Cost= [1.26 + 1.744(

Waf
5

10

) 0.1071(

Waf
105

) 2 ]* Tb

= $1304.3
Where Waf = Wempty Wengine
Airframe Maintenance Materials Cost = [12.39 + 29.8(

Waf
5

10

) + 0.1806(

Waf
105

) 2 ]* Tb

=$1179
Applied maintenance Burden = 2* Airframe Maintenance Labour Cost
= $2609
15.3 Estimation of Engine Maintenance Cost:
Engine Maintenance Labour Cost = [0.645 + (

0.05*Wengine
N e *10

) *(

0.434
+ 0.566)]* Tb * N e * Cme
Tb

= $459
Where Cme is $25/hr

213

Engine Maintenance Labour Cost = [25 + (

0.05*Wengine
N e *10

)*(

0.38
+ 0.62)]* Tb * N e *1.47
Tb

=$830
Applied maintenance Burden = 2* Engine Maintenance Labour Cost
= $918
15.5 Landing Fee:
W
Landing Fee = Cland ( lm )
1000

=$1119 [for Domestic Airports]


=$3178 [for international Airports]

Where Cland =$2.20 [for Domestic Airports]


=$6.25[for international Airports]
Wlm is the landing mass of the Aircraft.
15.6 Navigation Fee:
Navigation Fee = Cnav *500(

WTO
)
1000

= $2346
Where Cnav is $0.20

Trips per Year:

214

Short Range Aircraft = 2100 trips / year


Medium Range Aircraft = 625 trips/year
Long Range Aircraft= 480 trips/year
15.7 Estimation of the Cost of Aircraft:

Total weight of the aircraft = 2447301.014N


Empty weight of the aircraft = 1239059.294n (with the engines)
= 126305.7384kg
So from the above graph using this empty weight estimated the cost of the aircraft = $100m

15.8 Estimation of Engine Cost:

215

Engine Cost= 1548[0.043Wengine + 243.25 M max + 0.969Tturbineinlet] - 2228


=$8.39M
15.9 Depreciation:
Depreciation/year = (1 R) *[(

Caf
Paf

) + S af (

Caf
Paf

)] +

Ce
C
+ Se ( e )
Pe
Pe

= $33.138M
Where R = 0.1
Depreciation/trip = $33.138M/480 = $0.069M
15.10 Insurance:
Annual Insurance = 0.0035* Caf
= $0.35M
Insurance/ trip = $0.00073M
15.11 Interest:
Total investment = cost of Airframe+ cost of Engine+ cost of spares
= $113.35
Where cost of spares =10% of Cost of Airframe + 30% of Cost of Engine
Interest = 5.4% of Total investment
= $6.1212M
Interest/trip = $0.01275M

216