Introduction to Human Resource Management

Every business unit needs human resource (manpower) for the conduct of different business activities. In fact, no organisation can exist or operate efficiently without the support of human resource. Such human resource includes top level managers, executives, supervisors and other subordinate / lower level staff / employees. A business organisation has to estimate its future manpower needs and adjust its manpower planning and development programmes accordingly. This is called 'staffing' function of management. Human resource management is also described as personnel management or manpower management. According to Edwin Flippo, "Personnel Management is the planning, organising, directing and controlling of the procurement, development, compensation, integration and maintenance of people for the purpose of contributing to organizational, individual and social goals".

Meaning of Human Resource
In an industrial unit, large numbers of persons are employed in order to conduct various operations and activities. This is treated as human resource or manpower employed. A business unit needs material resources as well as human resource for the conduct of various activities. Of all the "M"s in management (such as Materials, Machines, Methods and Money) the most important "M" stands for Men i.e., manpower working in the organisation. It is through manpower/employees that all other ingredients of an enterprise-money, machines, materials, marketing, etc., are managed. In brief, Human Resource (HR) constitutes the most important and the most productive resource of an industrial / business unit.

It is rightly said that "machines are important in the production process but the man behind the machines is more important". He transforms the lifeless factors of production into useful products. Human resource (HR) is an important asset of a business unit. Well-trained, loyal and efficient team of workers brings success and stability to a business unit. This suggests the importance of human resource in business. People and the organisation in which they work are inter-related and interdependent. organisation moves towards prosperity only by using its available human resource purposefully. Similarly, employees get various monetary and other benefits through the prosperity of their organisation.

Managerial Function
The human resource manager is a part of the organizational management. So he must perform the basic managerial functions of planning, organizing, directing and controlling in relation to his department. 1. Planning: planning is necessary to determine the goals of the organization and lay down policies and procedures to reach the goal. For a human resource manager, planning means the determination of personnel programs that will contribute to the goals of the enterprise i.e anticipating vacancies, planning job requirements, job description and determination of the source of recruitment. It involves three steps:  A supply and demand forecast for each job category is made. This steps requires knowledge of both labor market conditions and the strategic posture and goals of the organization.

Compensation: it is concerned with the determination of adequate and equitable remuneration of the employees in the organization for their contribution to the organizational goals. The personnel manager can motivate the employees in an organization through career planning. It is the process of enhancing the skills. Development is done through the various training programs.  Plans are developed to eliminate the forecast shortages and excess of particular categories of human resources. Directing: it involves encouraging people to work willingly and effectively for the goals of enterprise. 2. The personnel can be compensated through monetary as well as non monetary rewards. it is better to determine the manpower requirements both in terms of number and quality of the personnel. Employment: the first operative function of an organization is the employment of proper kind and number of persons necessary to achieve the objectives of the organization. it involves the observation and comparison of results with the standards and correction of deviation that may occur. The organization structure basically includes the following:  Grouping of personnel activity logically into functions or positions. 3. ensuring employee morale. It is continuous and never ending in nature. developing cordial relationships and provision of safety requirements and welfare of employees. 3. Organizing: once the HR manager has established the objectives and developed the plans and programs to reach them. Before these processes are performed. he must design ad develop organization structure to carry out the various operations. Training process helps in the development of employees and moulds the thinking of employees and leads to quality performance of employees. the direction function is meant to guide and motivate the people to accomplish the personnel programmes. which in turn have been formulated on the basis of the objectives of the organization.Net shortage and excess of personnel by job category are projected for a specific time horizon.  Operative Function 1.  Assignment of different functions to different individuals  Delegation of authority according to the tasks assigned and responsibilities involved  Co-ordination of activities of different individuals. of the personnel. This includes recruitment. salary administration. 4. capabilities and knowledge of employees for doing a particular job. Controlling is concerned with the regulation of the activities in accordance with the plans. . Development: it is the follow-up of the employment function. selection and placement etc. In other words. 2.

training and performance appraisal.4. It keeps full records of their training and development. transfer. it also preserves many other records relating to the behavior of personnel like absenteeism and labour turnover and the personnel programs and policies of the organization. Motivation: sometimes employee does not contribute towards the organizational goals as much as they can. promotion etc. Maintenance: employee must be provided with the good working condition so that they may like their work and work place and maintain their efficiency. working environment etc. transfer. This is due to lack of motivation. safety and comfort of workforce. 6. This includes measures taken for health. policies and procedures. The HR manager helps in various departmental managers to design a system of financial and non financial rewards to motivate the employees. 2. education for children of employees. inconsistence and confusion. The personnel manager has to ensure the release of retirement benefits to the retiring person in time. recruitment and selection. Policy Formulation: it is one of the important tasks of a human resource manager. Advisory Function 1. it is logical that last should be the separation and return of that person to the society. counseling. 7. HR policies intended to communicate the basic ground rules on which organization functions to avoid the discrimination. achievements. recreational facilities. or to prevent anticipated problems in the area of HRM that policies are framed. welfare activities. To top management: HR manager advises the top management in formulation and evaluation of personnel programs. personnel records and statistics. group insurance. rest rooms. placement. 5. It is with a view to overcome problems of recurring nature. Personnel records: the personnel department maintains the records of the employees working in the enterprise. Separation: since the first function of the HR management is employment. This may include grievance over distribution of overtime work. Advisory role: line managers are generally confronted with problems in their day to day operations. The various and physical and social well being of the employees are also taken care of like provision of cafeteria. The HR manager helps the top management in the formulation of policies on wage and salary administration. job analysis and design. 2. appraisal. To departmental heads: he also offers advice to the heads of various departments on matters such as manpower planning. annual . Role of Human Resource Manager 1.

grievance etc. "the prosperity. policies and programmes of human resource management. Such team constitutes an important asset of an enterprise. he acts as a linking pin between the management and the workers. HRD programmes create a team of well-trained. He is concerned with the like provision of cafeteria. rest rooms. Decision-making role: HR manager formulates and designs. labour agreement. 8. Thus he is responsible for industrial peace and harmony in the organization. He gives the authentic information to the trade union leaders to the higher management. One organisation is different from another mainly because of the people (employees) working therein. efficient and capable managers and subordinates. For instance. Welfare role: HR manager acts as a welfare officer in the organization. Sometimes. the personnel manager can offer useful advice because he is familiar with personnel policies and practices. labour welfare. He also conveys the views of the trade union leaders to the higher management. Leadership role: he also provides leadership and guidance to the workers and their groups. 4. 6. superior and subordinate and even between management and employees. he also acts as worker’s representative to put forward their problems to management. Human Resource Development Human Resource Development (HRD) means to develop available manpower through suitable methods such as training. 5.3. Representative role: the HR manager generally acts as a spokesperson of the top management or representative of the company and communicates the management policies and decisions that affect people in the organization. It is because he has better understanding and overall picture of the company’s operations. transfer. objectives. education for children of employees. group insurance. Druker. recreational facilities. He ensures effective communication in the organization and influences the workers for extending their cooperation in the extending the organizational objective. increase in pay. In all such matters. Linking pin role: the human resource manager attempts to achieve and maintain good industrial relations in the organization. He is responsible for setting up of various committees on discipline. 7. According to Peter F. thus. Mediator role: HR manager also acts as a mediator in the events of conflicts between the employees or groups of employees. promotion. counseling. labour laws etc. transfers and opportunities for career development. if not the survival of any business depends on the performance . he lays down the grievance procedure to redress the grievance of the employees. promotions. he decides about the contents and duration of training programs for various categories of workers and executives. disciplinary action and so on. safety.

2. It also caters the need for employee talent & Skill development within an organization. and organization development. Career. tuition assistance. alongside technical skills that are required to perform specific tasks. in order to gain advantage over its competitors and ultimately achieving great amount of success. . 3. both within and outside of the workplace. key employee identification. succession planning. coaching. Human Resource Development includes: 1. 5. time management and so on and so forth actually enhances the performances of these individuals ultimately benefiting the organization in the long run. Human Resource Development can be both formal as well as casual ranging from classroom training sessions & college courses. To equip employees. Organizations that intend to grow and sophisticate utilize an extensive portion of their resources in Human Resource Development. to casual mentoring of subordinates by their superiors. Human Resource Development includes such opportunities as employee training. 4. communication. employee career development. Human Resource Development (HRD) is the domain that performs core function in an organization for the advancement of personal & professional skills. with soft skills such as leadership. performance management and development. Talent and Skill Development are important components of Human Resource Development." The human resource should be nurtured and used for the benefit of the organisation. Employee training Employee career development Performance management and development Key employee identification Organization development. Organizations have many opportunities for human resources or employee development.of its managers of tomorrow. mentoring. and an organizational scheduled change effort. Human resource development is directed towards changing an organization and everyone associated with it from within. knowledge and abilities of employees.

Occupying higher level Job positions. The existing employees are trained to refresh and enhance their knowledge. evaluates their performance. 4. Training is given so that employees are prepared to share the responsibilities of the higher level job. especially to those employees who deliver performance. 3. 2. Employee career development In simple terms it means 'Providing employees an opportunity to grow'. This training familiarize them with the organizational mission. Climbing up the ladder in the organizational hierarchy. Training is crucial for organizational development and success. It is fruitful to both employers and employees of an organization. computer implantment. 4. Training is given on four basic grounds: 1. a number of actions have to take place at different levels as outlined below: . Training is the process of enhancing the skills. Employee training Training of employees takes place after orientation takes place. In the career development cycle. 2. assigns them roles & responsibilities commensurate with their potential. purchasing a new equipment. 3. 2. If any updations and amendments take place in technology. On-going increase in remuneration. It is continuous and never ending in nature. rules and regulations and the working conditions. training is given to cope up with those changes. It is a composite organizational process which involves people. Career development is not a mere management responsibility. one or more of the following: 1. 5. When promotion and career growth becomes important. Having an opportunity to avail of some exclusive benefits (perks & privileges). For instance. changes in technique of production. Training process moulds the thinking of employees and leads to quality performance of employees. Acquiring higher level skills & competencies. capabilities and knowledge of employees for doing a particular job. An employee will become more efficient and productive if he is trained well. to an employee. The employees are trained about use of new equipments and work methods.1. addresses their ambitions. vision. and creates Job positions to accommodate growth ambitions of employees. New candidates who join an organization are given training. Growth means.

encouraging. . Each organization should be viewed as a coherent system composed of separate parts. including performance management and performance appraisal (to name a few). Organization development Organizational development deals with improving a company’s performance and individual development of its employees. supporting and developing all employees. This understanding is based on the assumption that organizations. Key employees are usually highly compensated. Performance management and development Performance Development is a tool for rewarding. crises and ways to overcome them. each characterized by its specific problems. Key employee identification An employee with a major ownership and/or decision-making role in the business. Organisations use many different terms to describe performance development. maintain and improve your skills. 4. They may also receive special benefits as an incentive both to join the company and to stay with the company. knowledge and job performance in order to achieve individual career goals and contribute to the achievement of team and organizations business goals.
 5. organizational design. evolve. The term organizational development identifies the stages through which organizations go in the process of their development. You could say that organizational development is the way organizations change. just like human beings. Organizational development as a process includes methodologies and achievements in strategic planning. diversity and balance between work and life. Performance development aims to develop. Performance Development is an ongoing cyclical process. which provides time and a structure for you and your manager/supervisor to:       Discuss how you are going in your job Exchange feedback Clarify how your work contributes to the goals of the Health Service Decide together what you both need to do in order to optimize the effectiveness of your work Identify and plan for any areas/issues needing support Discuss and plan for your development needs.3. and leadership development. It is very important to identify the key employee so as to get various benefits out of that employee in order to achieve the organization’s objective. coaching. have cycles of development.

 Achieve excellence in every aspect of working life. right time. respect and dignity.  Create environment for the trainees conducive to their character building. Objectives of Manpower / HR Planning 1. To determine the recruitment level. Human resource planning is the two phased process by which the management can project the future manpower requirements and develop suitable action plans to accommodate the implications of the projection. To determine the future manpower requirements of the Organisation as per the need for renovations. human development.Role of Human Resource Development  Develops the human resource of the company continuously for better performance to meet objectives.  Develops constructive mind and overall personality of each employee  Develop each individual capability to perform the present job and to handle future likely roles.  Develop and maintain high motivation level of employees. To ensure optimum utilisation of human resources currently employed in the Organisation. To ensure that necessary human resources are available as and when required. 2. 4.  Provides suitable need based training programs  Prepare newly inducted staff to perform their work with high level of competency and excellence. According to Decenzo and Robbins. Thus human resource planning is the process of developing and determine the objectives. expansion and growth programmes. capable of effectively and efficiently completing those tasks that will help the organization achieve the overall objective. modernisation. develop and utilize human resources so as to achieve the goals of the organizations. policies and programmes that will procure. innovation.  Promote a culture of creativity. 3. right kind of people at the right place. . Human resource planning is the process by which an organization ensures that it has the right number of people. Human Resource Planning or Manpower planning It is the first managerial function of human resource management.  Meet social obligations of industry to contribute towards the excellence of technical and management education. Human Resource Planning has to be a systems approach and is carried out in a set procedure.

Replacement of manpower: The existing manpower in an Organisation is affected due to various reasons such as retirement and removal of employees and labour turnover. Transfers and promotions are made for meeting such situations. Manpower planning is needed in order to forecast and meet additional manpower requirement due to expansion and growth needs through recruitment and suitable training programmes. Imaginative HRP is needed in order to meet the growing and changing human resource needs of an organisation. Introduction of appropriate selection tests and procedures is also possible as per the manpower requirements. an organisation when there will be surplus staff in one department and shortage of staff in some other department. Coping with change: HRP enables an enterprise to cope with changes in competitive forces. Meeting manpower needs: Every Organisation needs adequate and properly qualified staff for the conduct of regular business activities. To meet the challenge of new technology existing employees need to be retrained and new employees may be recruited. 3. 2. Meeting growing manpower needs: The expansion or modernisation programme may be undertaken by the enterprise. HRP is needed to estimate the shortfall in the manpower requirement and also for making suitable arrangements for the recruitment and appointment of new staff. To assess future accommodation requirements. Placement of manpower: HRP is needed as it facilitates placement of newly selected persons in different departments as per the qualifications and also as per the need of different departments. Meeting challenges of technological environment: HRP is helpful in effective use of technological progress. Increasing investment in HR: An employee who picks up skills and abilities becomes a valuable resource because an organisation makes investments in its manpower either through direct training or job assignments. Adjusting manpower requirements: A situation may develop in. skill. 9. 8. Recruitment and selection of employees: HRP suggests the type of manpower required in an organisation with necessary details. It ensures that adequate numbers of persons are trained to fill up the future vacancies in the Organisation. Need for HRP 1. number and type of personals. 7.5. Surplus or shortage of manpower is avoided and this ensures optimum utilisation of available manpower. 4. 6. Training of manpower: HRP is helpful in selection and training activities. products. To design the basis for management development programmes so as to develop the required talents among the employees selected. This facilitates recruitment and selection of suitable personnel for jobs in the Organisation. and technology and government regulations. Such changes generate changes in job content. markets. 5. 6. . 10.

3. Trend Analysis: Manpower needs can be seen through the past practice of the firm or organization keeping the principle year as a basis and a central tendency of measure Work Load Evaluation: This depends on the nature of the work load in a branch. Analysing the current manpower inventory. There may be excess or deficit or in extremely few cases just the right number quantitatively. This provides the present manpower inventory. the current manpower status has to be analysed. 2. Analyzing the current manpower inventory Making future manpower forecasts Developing employment programmes Design training programmes 1. This is accumulated across the organization at different levels and departments. or a division in a firm or organization.It is very important to evaluate the present manpower status before making a forecast for future manpower planning.Steps in Manpower Planning The various steps in manpower planning are: 1. The Manpower forecasting techniques commonly employed by the organizations are as follows: I. 4. Another analysis on the qualitative side conducted similarly shows the competencies required versus competencies available for each of the job roles. Expert Forecasts: This includes formal expert surveys. For this the following things have to be noted    Type of organization Number of departments Number and quantity of such departments Employees in these work units 2. planning can be done for the future manpower requirements in several work units. III. Making future manpower forecasts Once the factors affecting the future manpower forecasts are known. department. To evaluate the present manpower status a department by department analysis and a job-role by job-role analysis is conducted to arrive at the required manpower versus the available manpower. . The final report will consolidate and state the required manpower versus the available manpower in terms of the quantitative analysis. Before a manager makes forecast of future manpower. informal decisions and the Delphi technique. II.

etc. development programmes. the employment programmes can be framed and developed accordingly. Training programs may be designed to train existing resources on the latest improvements and advancements in technology or the related business subject. allotments have to be made for getting the total manpower requirements. Work Force Evaluation: As production and the time duration are to be kept in mind.IV. skill and capability of the employee. knowledge of the workers. 3. Training programmes depend upon the extent of improvement in technology and advancement to take place. expansion plans. When the appropriate candidate is selected. It is also done to improve upon the skills. A training calendar is designed to ensure competencies of existing staff are enhanced to meet the future manpower forecasts.or short term positions. capabilities. which will include recruitment. 4. Selection involves a series of steps by which the candidates are screened for choosing the most suitable persons for vacant posts. Training is provided to improve the knowledge. . Developing employment programmes Once the current inventory is compared with future forecasts. Other Methods: A few mathematical models with the help of computers are also used to forecast manpower needs. he is placed in the organization. V. Recruitment is the process of searching the candidates for employment and stimulating them to apply for jobs in the organization and selection is the process of obtaining and using information about job applicants in order to determine who should be hired for long. Additional training programs may be designed when organizations are diversifying or expanding. selection procedures and placement plans. Design training programmes These will be based upon extent of diversification.

training. and working conditions of a job along with the job’s title. communication skills and personal skills required to perform the job effectively. duties. other benefits . It generally includes duties.Job analysis Job analysis is a process of determining which characteristics are necessary for satisfactory job performance and analyzing the environmental conditions in which the job is performed. general.  Job title: title of the job and other identifying information such as wages. based on the findings of a job analysis. judgmental skills. machines. working conditions and occupational hazards that form part of the job whereas job specification comprises of the capabilities required to perform job. and the name or designation of the person to whom the employee reports. education. responsibilities. salaries. The process of job analysis leads to development of two documents viz. job title. scope. and written statement of a specific job. tools and equipment. Job description indicates the tasks and responsibilities. Job description usually forms the basis of job specification. Components of Job Analysis Job Description: Job description is a broad. It analyzes the work content of job & job content of work. experience. job description and job specification.. purpose. The following information is common in most of the job descriptions.

age. It specifies the qualities required in a job incumbent for the effective performance of the job. Activities: a description about the job duties. creativity etc. chest.  Desirable qualities which a person may possess. attitude. equipment and other information required to perform job effectively. Job analyst writes job description in consultations with the workers and supervisors. Various contents of a job specification can be prescribed in three terms:  Essential qualities which a person must possess. and expected behaviour on the job. hearing. Final draft is then prepared. etc.  Mental characteristics such as general intelligence. Job description should be reviewed from time to time. A description of social interactions associated with the job such as the size of work group. noise. job experience. interpersonal interaction on the job is made.    Summary: summary is written in one or two lines that describes what outputs are expected from job incumbents. After writing draft job description. cleanliness etc. vision. flexibility. It is a process which is helpful even for framing compensation plans by the personnel manager. and hand and foot coordination. health. temperature. interpersonal ability. Job Specifications: It also known as man or employee specifications is prepared on the basis of job specification. voice poise. comments and criticism are invited to improve its content. Job description is written either by making personal observation or using questionnaire to collect relevant information from supervisors and workers. Job evaluation as a process is advantageous to a company in many ways: . Environment: a clear description of the working conditions of the job. ability to concentrate. Equipment: a clear statement of tools.  Social and psychological characteristics such as emotional ability. conversational ability.  Physical characteristics such as height. sex. drive. foresight. manners. responsibilities. and extra cocurricular activities. weight. judgment. (for specific positions only). Basic contents of a job specification are as follows:  Personal characteristics such as education. values. memory. the location and other characteristics of work environment such as hazards. and  contra-indicators which are likely to become a handicap to successful job performance Job evaluation It is a process of determining the relative worth of a job.

Job design involves systematic attempts to organize tasks.The job evaluation information can be helpful at the time of selection of candidates. Job design is next to job analysis. harmonious and congenial relations can be maintained between employees and management.     Reduction in inequalities in salary structure . Therefore the main objective of job evaluation is to have external and internal consistency in salary structure so that inequalities in salaries are reduced. This helps in bringing uniformity into salary structure. on the methods to be used in carrying out the job. duties and responsibilities into a unit of work to achieve certain objectives.It is found that people and their motivation is dependent upon how well they are being paid. This is possible only through job evaluation. Techniques of Job Design  Job Simplification: In the job simplification technique. Harmonious relationship between employees and manager . Specialization . The factors that are determined for job evaluation can be taken into account while selecting the employees. Therefore.Because of division of labour and thereby specialization. “Job Design is the process of deciding on the contents of a job in terms of its duties and responsibilities. According to Michael Armstrong. A given job is divided into small sub-parts and each part is assigned to one individual employee. Job design integrates the work content and qualifications required for each job that meets the needs of employee and the organization. systems and procedures. . Job simplification is introduced when job designers feel that the jobs are not specialized enough. in terms of techniques. a large number of enterprises have got hundred jobs and many employees to perform them. Job Design The term ‘job design’ refers to the way the tasks are combined to form a complete job. and on the relationships that should exist between the job holder and his superior subordinates and colleagues. Standardization . Job design makes the job highly specialized and well designed jobs are important in attracting and retaining a motivated work force. an attempt should be made to define a job and thereby fix salaries for it.Through job evaluation.The process of determining the salary differentials for different jobs become standardized through job evaluation. so that all kinds of salaries controversies can be minimized. Helps in selection of employees . the job is simplified or specialized.

. Monotony is relieved temporarily. In enriched jobs. They also receive plenty of feedback. independence. new techniques. This means that they have more influence over planning. directing & controlling his own performance & provide opportunity for personal growth & meaningful work experience. executing. Job enlargement is an extension of Job rotation. By Job Enrichment. Small companies may not have as many opportunities for promotions. It involves the addition of tasks at the same level of skill and responsibility. This would also be considered multi tasking by which one person would do several persons jobs. and new ways of doing better work. and responsibility.) Where possible. Critics are of the opinion that this approach involves nothing more than having to perform several boring jobs rather than one. saving the company money and man hours that normally would be paid to additional workers. Job Enlargement: Job enlargement means expanding the scope of the job. By this they can also learn new things. and therefore of unhappiness. Job Enrichment tries to embellish the job with factors of motivation: Achievement – Recognition – Increased Responsibilities – Self Involvement – Opportunities for growth – Advancement – Increased Competence. It upgrades the responsibility. allow them to take on tasks that are typically done by supervisors. people complete activities with increased freedom. exposing the people to several jobs without changing the job duties to be performed. Job Enrichment is concerned with redesigning the job to include a variety of work content. scope and challenge. This results in reducing the motivational content& human element of the job with repercussions on performance. and evaluating the jobs they do. It is opposite to job simplification. It is also the horizontal expansion of a job. condition or state of human capabilities which were not fully utilized & creation of frustration among the individual is removed to the extent possible. It may also happen that over a period of time they will be finding a job for which they are better suitable. A vast majority of the jobs are repetitive & monotonous in nature. so that they can assess and correct their own performance.   Job Rotation: Job rotation implies systematic movement of employees from one job to the other. Job Enrichment: Job enrichment means making the job rich in its contents so that an employee will get more satisfaction while performing that job. that gives the person more autonomy & responsibility for planning. so they try to motivate employees through job enlargement. Many tasks and duties are aggregated and assigned to a single job. The central focus of job enrichment is giving people more control over their work (lack of control is a key cause of stress. This also helps in reducing the boredom by doin same job. It is done to keep workers from getting bored. They can also contribute in a better way to achieve the goals of the organization. Job enlargement is to expand in several tasks than just to do one single task.

Definition of Recruitment: According to Edwin Flippo. information is collected from interested candidates. In recruitment. expansion and diversification of business activities of an enterprise. In the recruitment. a pool of eligible and interested candidates is created for the selection of most suitable candidates. etc. retirement. "Recruitment is the process of searching for prospective employees and stimulating them to apply for jobs in the Organisation. In addition. Sources for recruitment The various sources for recruitment can be grouped onto the following two categories: . Recruitment represents the first contact that a company makes with potential employees. employment exchanges. transfers.. death and labour turnover." Need for Recruitment: The need for recruitment may be due to the following reasons / situations :a. permanent disability. Recruitment is a positive function in which publicity is given to the jobs available in the organisation and interested candidates (qualified job applicants) are encouraged to submit applications for the purpose of selection. Creation of new vacancies : due to growth. termination. Vacancies : due to promotions. new vacancies are possible due to job respecification. b. internal promotions. In the recruitment process. are used. For this different source of recruitment such as newspaper advertisement.Section B Recruitment and Selection Recruitment Recruitment means to estimate the available vacancies and to make suitable arrangements for their selection and appointment. the available vacancies are given wide publicity and suitable candidates are encouraged to submit applications so as to have a pool of eligible candidates for scientific selection.

 Internal source: there are two important internal sources of recruitment. transfers and promotions.  Promotion: It leads to shifting an employee to a higher position. In fact. from one department to another or from one shift to another. it should be ensured that the employee to be transferred to another job is capable of performing it. Transfer is a good source of filling vacancies with employees from overstaffed departments or shifts.  Transfer: it involves the shifting of an employee from one job to another. pay and status of the employees in learning different jobs. Running enterprise has to recruit employees from outside for filling the positions whose specifications cannot be met by the present employees and for meeting the additional requirements of manpower. At the time of transfer. Many companies follow the practice of filling higher jobs by promoting employees who are considered fit for such positions. facilities.  External sources: Every enterprise has to tap external sources for various positions. carrying higher responsibilities. The following external sources of recruitment are commonly used by the bog enterprise: . It has the great psychological impact over the employees because a promotion at the higher level may lead to promotions at lower level within the organization. Filling vacancies in higher jobs from within the organization has the benefit of motivating the existing employees. transfer does not involve any drastic change in the responsibilities. status and pay. namely.

In some cases compulsory notifications of vacancies to the employment exchange is required by law. It is also known as recruitment at factory gate. Casual callers or unsolicited applications: The organizations which are regarded as a good employers draw a steady stream of unsolicited application in their offices. Godman’s international. professional and managerial personnel. A few examples of headhunters are: ABC consultants. In fact. private agencies and professional bodies appear to be doing most of the work. mantec consultant etc. However in the technical and professional area. They specialize in middle and top level executive placement. Recommendations or referrals: application introduced by friends. semiskilled and skilled operative jobs. relatives may prove to be a good source of recruitment. Reputed industrial houses which require management trainees send their official to campuses of various management institutes for picking up talented candidates doing MBA. This is a very cheap method as it does not involve any cost of advertising vacancies. It avoide the cost of recruiting workforce from other sources. Such workers are known as casual or badly workers and they are paid remuneration on daily wages. many employers prefer to take such persons because something about that background is known. It is also called campus recruitment. Educational institutions and campus placement: Jobs in commerce and industry have become technical and complex to the point where college degrees or diplomas are widely required. The practice of direct recruitment is generally followed for filling casual vacancies requiring unskilled workers. When a present employee or business friend recommend someone for a job.       Direct recruitment: an important source of recruitment is direct recruitment by placing a notice on notice board of the enterprise specifying the details of the jobs available. Management consultants or head hunters: These helps organization to recruit technical. They maintain database of persons with different qualifications and skills and even advertise the jobs on behalf of their clients to recruit right type of personnel. This serves as a valuable source of manpower. If adequate attention is paid to maintain pending application folders for various jobs. the personnel department may find the unsolicited applications useful in filling vacancies whenever they arise. Thus employment exchange brings the job giver in contact with the job seekers. The qualities and qualifications expected from the candidates are usually mentioned in the advertisement. a kind of preliminary screening is done and a person is placed on a job. Media advertisements: This medium is widely used for recruitment of all categories of personnel. Employment agencies: Employment exchange run by the government are recognized as good source of recruitment for unskilled. vocational institutes and management institutes for recruitment to various jobs. . it provides a wide choice as it attracts large number of candidates from all over the country. Thus the organizations maintain a close liaison with the universities. Though quite costly.

This process is cheaper. Special programme like job watch. External sources of recruitment are timeconsuming. It is lengthy process. This means infusion of new blood and new ideas into the enterprise 5. It is a quick process. 3. The scope of fresh talent is diminished Internal sources help in saving time of officials responsible for recruitment. The detailed requirements of the job and the qualities required to do it are publicized along with the profile of the organization where vacancy exists. It does not involve any cost of contracting the external sources. (Doordarshan and other channels) is gaining importance these days. External source 1. 4.V. employment news etc have become quite popular in recruitment for various types of jobs. Telecasting: the practice of telecasting the vacant post over T. It involves finding candidates from outside the organization 2.  Labour contractors: These are an important source of recruitment in some industries in India. The existing staff motivated to improve their performance. . Comparison of internal and external sources: Internal source 1. The business can hope for talented candidates from outside. 3. Recruitment through labour contracts are banned in public sector however this practice is still common in carious construction industries. youth pulse. the workers feel dissatisfied if external source are used 4. all the workers employed through him will also leave. Choice of candidates is limited. It involves search of candidates from within the organization 2. This process is costly as vacancies have to be notified in newspapers etc. The disadvantage of this system is that if contractor leaves the organization. Workers are intrudes through labour contractors who themselves are employees of the organization.

It is a process of selecting the best and rejecting the rest. medical exams etc. Such candidates are selected and appointed. Selection of suitable candidates is a responsible type of work as selection of unsuitable persons for jobs creates new problems before the business unit. Selection involves a series of steps by which the candidates are screened for choosing the most suitable persons for vacant posts. It is a positive process Its aim is to attract more and more candidates for vacant jobs The firm notifies the vacancies through various sources and distributes application forms to candidates No contractual relations is created Selection It is the process of selection of right types of candidates and offering them jobs It is a negative process Its aim is to reject the unsuitable candidates and pick up the most suitable people for the vacant job The firm asks the candidates to pass through a number of stages such as filling of forms. interested applicants are differentiated in order to identify those with a greater likelihood of success in a job. In this selection process. employment test. Selection is the process of obtaining and using information about job applicants in order to determine who should be hired for long. It is the process of choosing the most suitable candidates (Properly qualified and competent) out of many interested candidates. 'Right man for the right job' is the basic principle in selection.or short term positions. Recruitment Vs Selection Basis Meaning Recruitment It is the process of searching candidates for vacant jobs and making them apply for the same. It leads to contract of service between the employer and the employee Nature Aim Procedure Contract of service . interview. Selection is a negative function as it relates to elimination of unsuitable candidates.Selection Selection is next to recruitment.

officer from the personnel department starts the scrutiny of applications received. It generally brief and does the job of eliminating the totally unsuitable candidates. Screening of application: After the last date fixed for the receipt of applications. in which a company representative determines whether you have the basic qualifications to warrant a subsequent interview. 2. The number of steps in the procedure and the sequence of the steps also vary. 3. Receiving applications: In this step.Selection Procedure The selection procedure varies from organization to organization and even from department to department in an organization according to the kinds of the jobs to be filled. the organization will be saved from the expenses of processing him through the remaining steps of the selection procedure and unsuitable candidate will be saved from passing through the long procedure. However. Every organization will design a selection procedure that suits its requirements. The preliminary interview offer advantages not only to the organization. Some companies give advertisement in the press and ask interested candidates to submit applications on a prescribed form. Preliminary interview may takes place across the counter at organization’s employment office. It may consist of a short exchange of information with respect to the organization’s interest in hiring and the candidate’s enquiry. Preliminary Interview: A preliminary interview either in person or by phone. applications with necessary details are collected from interested candidates. If an applicant is eliminated at this stage. the main steps or stages that could be incorporated in the selection procedure are as under: 1. but also to the applicant. It makes the processing of applications very easy since there is uniformity of filling the data in the application form. Incomplete .

Similar trade tests can be given to welders. such test is given in the case of all types of jobs. Interests and e. are also rejected. two French psychologists. Capacity. a final list of candidates for written tests is prepared.. etc. The purpose of such tests is to judge the knowledge of the candidate and also to find out his :a.) can be measured by his performance in the test. Aptitude. At present. intelligence of a person or his intelligence quotient (I.applications are normally rejected. For example. Applicants. "General intelligence is the capacity of a person for comprehension and logical reasoning. Employment Tests: After the scrutiny of applications. Suitability for a specific job. Along with this. Trade test: Trade test is necessary and useful in the case of jobs which involve technical work. given the necessary training. a stenographer or a typist should be given suitable test in order to judge his ability to take dictation or type. c. written tests are used by Banks and public sector organisations for selection purpose. According to these tests. computer engineer and research assistant and so on. the certificates. areas in which the individual shows special concern. experience. Simon and Binet had developed in 1916 suitable Intelligence Tests to measure general intelligence. that is. therefore necessary to ascertain the vocational aptitude of a candidate before final selection. According to the industrial psychologist. They help the individual in selecting occupation of their interest. d. Trade test is particularly necessary in the case of technical jobs such as junior engineer. 4.Q. For example. Fortunately for them. Interests test: it identify patterns of interests. After long experience. Vocational aptitude test: Vocational aptitude has been defined as "the capacity or latent ability of an individual to learn a job.    . employees discovered that such certificates were not always very reliable as they indicate only paper qualifications. The various tests used for the selection procedure are:  Intelligence test: Intelligence test is useful for judging the intelligence of a candidate. fascination and involvement. Intelligence." Previously only the passing certificates of certain examinations were universally accepted as evidence of intelligence. who do not possess required qualifications. It is. These tests will suggest what types of jobs may be satisfying to the employees. b." It has been claimed that vocational aptitude is as important and perhaps more important than general intelligence for success on a job. testimonials and references are checked.

Workers can be given such tests in order to find out their capacities for the type of job for which they are being considered. These types of interviews are generally probing in a nature. skills and personality the "ideal “candidate would possess. In this final interview. Its essential feature is that it induces a candidate to reveal his inner or real personality. This interview is conducted by one interviewer or by a group of interviewers including top officers of the company and other professional experts. The candidate is asked various questions about his qualifications.This format generally progresses like a casual conversation. Personality test: Personnel managers have come across many individuals with the necessary intelligence and the vocational aptitude. likes. Preliminary or background interview: this type of interview is conducted when the history of the candidate has to be known in terms of his experience. Here. health. but may revolve around some key questions to sense a candidate’s qualifications. The selection committee notes the plus and minus points of every candidate and selects the best candidates for appointment by applying certain uniform norms. Unstructured interviews: They are not formatted step by step. some not anticipated). and yet did not prove successful in the jobs for which they are selected. Interview technique is used extensively for the selection of managerial posts. Protective test is one such test. The interviewer has a list of specific interviewing questions. machine operators and so on. with successive questions formulated in response to statements and responses by the candidate. the interviewer will intentionally try to upset the applicant to see how they react under pressure. Employment Interview: The candidates who have shown reasonably good performance in the written examination and psychological tests are called for personal interview. experience. interests. The final selection depends partly on the performance of the candidate in the tests and also on the performance in the personal interview. an attempt is made to judge overall personality of the candidate. education. 'short-listing of candidates' is done for final selection as per the need of the organisation. dislikes etc. 5. It is considered less reliable than a structured interview due to the lack of specific and sequential questioning that pinpoints explicit behavioral traits and skills in question.  Structured or planned interview: In this type of interview. Stress Interview: In this situation. These questions focus on the experience. prepared in advance. Industrial psychologists felt that they might not have a suitable personality or temperament and began to develop tests to measure personality traits. Many of the questions are open-ended and progress along the topics that surface during the interview (some anticipated. Uncomfortable questions may be asked    . family background and performance in the written test and psychological tests by the interviewers during the course of the interview. It is more or less like the preliminary interview. the interviewer is looking for information in a particular area of interest to the company.

Reference Check: A reference is potentially an important source of information about a candidate’s ability and personality if he holds a responsible position in some organization or has been the boss or employer of the candidate. 6. b. Final Selection for Appointment: The selection procedure comes to an end when the final appointment letter is sent to the candidate with a request to join the organisation on a particular date. Candidates who are not physically fit for the specific job are rejected even when they show good performance in the tests and personal interview. 8. 7. Medical test is taken in the case of all candidates before appointment. education. The entire interview is not generally conducted in this format: it is normally incorporated into one of the other categories. . the test is of a general nature. medical examination has special importance in armed forces. It is used where it is essential to know how the candidate behave in a group. This type of interview may be used more commonly in high-stress jobs. Group interview: it is an interview of number of applicants in dealing with each other in a group. The candidate is required to give at least two references which may be :a. Employment. Reaction of the applicants in dealing with each other can be seen by the interviewers. financial condition. Medical Examination: The purpose of medical examination is to judge the general health and physical fitness of the candidate. Social and c. However. The physical examination should disclose the physical characteristics of individual that are significant from the standpoint of his efficient performance of the job he may be assigned. This means the 'job is offered to the selected candidate' and he is asked to join the organisation within a specific time limit. police record etc. Educational. In case of certain jobs. or the applicant may be interrupted while speaking. Prior to final selection. the prospective employer normally makes an investigation on the reference supplied by the candidateand undertakes more or less a thorough search into the candidate’s past employment. reputation.

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