University of Massachusetts - Amherst

ScholarWorks@UMass Amherst
Wind Energy Center Reports UMass Wind Energy Center

1978

Wind Turbine Blade Stress Analysis And Natural Frequencies
F. W. Perkins Duane E. Cromack

Perkins, F. W. and Cromack, Duane E., "Wind Turbine Blade Stress Analysis And Natural Frequencies" (1978). Wind Energy Center Reports. Paper 11. http://scholarworks.umass.edu/windenergy_report/11

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WIND TLIRBINE BLADE STRESS ANALYSIS AND NATURAL FREQUENCIES

Technical Report by F.W. P e r k i n s and D.E. Cromack

Energy A1 t e r n a t i ves Program U n i v e r s i t y o f Massachusetts Amherst, Massachusetts 01003

August 1978

Prepared f o r t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s Department o f Energy and Rockwell I n t e r n a t i o n a l Number PF 67025F.

, Rocky

F l a t s P l a n t Under C o n t r a c t

This r e p o r t was prepared t o document work sponsored by t h e United States Government. N e i t h e r t h e U n i t e d States n o r i t s agent t h e De-

partment of Energy, n o r any Federal employees, n o r any o f t h e i r c o n t r a c t o r s , subcontractors, o r t h e i r employees, make any warranty, express o r imp1 i e d , o r assume any l e g a l l i a b i l i t y o r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h e accuracy, completeness, o r usefulness o f any i n f o r m a t i o n , apparatus, product o r process disclosed, o r represent t h a t i t s use would n o t i n f r i n g e p r i v a t e owned rights."

The enclosed codes a r e much l e s s expensive t o run.g. The c r i t i c a l s t a t i c l o a d The has been determined t o be a h u r r i c a n e wind p e r p e n d i c u l a r t o t h e blade planform. They are. .ABSTRACT There a r e many problems t o be addressed w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e design o f wind t u r b i n e blades. c l o s e l y matched t o and a r e n o t as comprehensive. dynamic performance. a t l e a s t i n t h e steady s t a t e c o n d i t i o n . t h e needs of t h e A l t e r n a t i v e Energy Progra~iio f t h e School o f Engine e r i n f a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y of Massachusetts. however. and have been developed t o be o f use t o t h e small wind energy conversion i n d u s t r y . s t r u c t u r a l i n t e g r i t y and c o s t . has been d e a l t w i t h a t some l e n g t h by various i n v e s t i g a t o r s . NASTRAN) t h e c o s t o f t h e r e p e t i ti t v e use of those codes i s p r o h i b i t i v e f o r t h e general user. V i t a l t o an understanding o f these s t r u c t u r a l problems i s a d e s c r i p t i o n of t h e n a t u r a l frequencies and mode shapes o f t h e blades. Foremost among these a r e aerodynamic The s u b j e c t o f aero- performance. c o s t o f a blade system i s beyond t h e scope o f t h i s paper. While these c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s can be computed u s i n g e x i s t i n g programs (e. These c o n s i d e r a t i o n s a r e t h e s u b j e c t o f t h i s paper. The s t r u c t u r a l i n t e g r i t y o f wind t u r b i n e blades must be i n s u r e d i n both t h e s t a t i c and dynamic l o a d cases. The dynamic loads i n c l u d e t h e f l u c t u a t i n g com- ponent due t o t h e wind and a l l blade-support i n t e r a c t i o n s .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 5 3. . . . . . . . . i v LIST OF TABLES . .2 Fornial D e s c r i p t i o n o f Blade Problem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV . 22 4. .1 S t a t i c Beam Bending . . .3 Bending S t r e s s . .4 Program Output Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . x RATIONALE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iii ABSTRACT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Program I n p u t Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . i x LIST OF FIGURES . 1 5 3. . 17 NUMERICAL TECHNIQUES. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 3 2. .5 Environmental Effects . . 1 2 2. . . . . . . . . . 111 . . .2 Equations o f Motion f o r Small Flexural V i b r a t i o n s . . . . . . 1 8 4. . . . . . . . . . 1 8 4. . . .1 H i s t o r i c a l P e r s p e c t i v e . . . . . . .2 Observations on Design . . . . . . . . 1 3 GOVERNINGEQUATIONS . I1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DESCRIPTIONOFPROBLEM . . . . . .3 D e s c r i p t i o n o f Load . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Description o f WF-1 Blades . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 1. . . . . . . . . . .4 Flexural V i b r a t i o n s . . 8 2. . . . . 7 . . . . . 25 . . . . . . . . . . .4 Other Dynamic C o n s i d e r a t i o n s . . . . . . . . . . 10 2. . . . . . . .2 Bending D e f l e c t i o n s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 1. . .1 I n t e g r a t i o n o f S e c t i o n P r o p e r t i e s . . . . . . 8 2. . . . 6 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

.. . . . . Stress and D e f l e c t i o n ... .. BIBLIOGRAPHY . .. . . APPENDIXC ProgramMoments . . . . .. . . . .. . . . ..4 . .. .. . . Program L i s t i n g . . . . ... . . .. . .. .... . . .. . .. . ... . .. REFERENCES .. . P r i n c i p a l Variables . . . . .. Section Properties WF-1 Stress and D e f l e c t i o n Vibration 5. . . .. . . . . . . .. PROGRAM VERIFICATION 5.. ... . .. . P r i n c i p a l Variables . .. ... .... . . . . . . . .. .. . . .. .. . .. . .. . . .... Flow Chart Formal ism PrograrnMornents . . . ... . . C. Terminal Session .. .. ..... . . . ..... . . . .. . . Program L i s t i n g . . . .. . . P r i n c i p a l Variables 82 84 85 86 87 . . ..2 . . . ... . . .... . . . . . . . .. . .. .. . . . . . . . .. .. . .. . Flow Chart . ... .. APPENDIX E .. . . . . Function INPUT . . . . .. .. .. ... . .... . . . . . . .. .. . .. Program L i s t i n g ..1 5. ... .. ... . . .. .. ... . .. . . . ... . . .. . . . ... . .... .. .. .. .. . . . .. .. .... .. . . . . VI .. . . . .. .. . . CONCLUSIONS C 1 . ... .. . .. . . ... . .. . .. . .. .. . .2 APPENDIX D . . . . .3 5. APPENDIX A Coordinate System Correspondence . ... ... . . . . . . . .. . . . .. ... . . . . . . . . .. .. Function INDEX . ......TABLE OF CONTENTS (CONTINUED) Page v. . APPENDIX B Equations o f Motion . . . . . . .. . .. . .. . . .. ... . . . . . . .. . . . . .. Flow Chart . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . ... . . . . 106 Program L i s i n g . . . . . . . 97 F l o w c h a r t . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . .. 116 Program L i s t i n g . . . . . . . .. .. .. 117 Flow Chart . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .TABLE O CONTENTS (Continued) F Page APPENDIX F Function INTEG .. . 108 Flow Chart . . . . . . 101 APPENDIX I Program FREQ. . . . . .. . . 99 Program L i s t i n g . . . 98 APPENDIX H Minor Routines .. . . . . . . ... . . 115 Program D e s c r i p t i o n P r i n c i p a l Variables . .. . .. . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . .. . Function DEF . . . . .. . . . . . . .. . .. 99 Program D e s c r i p t i o n . . . . . ... . . . . . . .. . . ... . . . .. . . .. .. .. 118 . . . . .. . . . .. .. ... . . .. .. . . . . ... . . . . . . . . . . .. . . 110 Terminal Session . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . .. . .. . .. . . . . . .. . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F l ow Chart . . . . .. ... . 103 P r i n c i p a l Variables . .. .. 115 . .. . . .. . . 103 Program D e s c r i p t i o n . . . . . .. 89 90 92 93 95 96 P r i n c i p a l Variables Program L i s t i n g APPENDIX G . .. . . . 100 Flow Charts . . . . .. . ... . . . .. . . . . P r i n c i pal Vari abl es Program L i s t i n g . . .. . . 114 APPENDIX J Function DOG . . .. . .

.. ... . . Examples . . .. . . . . . .. . . .. Data F i l e s . . .. . Program D e s c r i p t i o n . . Description.. Sample C a l c u l a t i o n f o r Rayleigh's Method .. . ... . . . ... . ... . . . . . .. . .. P r i n c i p a l Variables . . . . .. . . ... . . ... . . . .. . . . . . .. viii . . . . .. . .TABLE OF CONTENTS (Continued) Page APPENDIX K ... .... . . APPENDIXL APPENDIX M . .. . .... .. . . . . .. . .. .. .. . . .. .... Function ORTHOG Program L i s t i n g Flow Chart 119 119 120 121 122 123 123 125 129 . ... . .. . . ... . . . ...... .

. 4 5 31 31 Modulus Weighted Section Properties f o r a Diamond 5.. .. . .. .. ... . . . ... . .... .. . . .. . . .. .LIST OF TABLES TABLE Page BladeDesignWF-1 Blade Shape WF-1 1. .... .. . ..1 . . . . . .. . . . . .. .. . ... ...... Bending Stress by Gage Number . .1 1. . . .l . .4 M... . . 37 43 132 ... Modulus Weighted Section Properties f o r an E l l i p s e . ... . . .. . .. . .2 5. Modeshapes . . .2 5.. .3 5... Sampl e Cal c u l a t i o n s ..

. . .LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1. ... ... .1 3. . WF-1 Test Blade ( S t a t i c Tests) . . . . . ... . . . . .. Page . . .. .. . . . . ..... ..1 WF-1 Planform and Twist . Power vs RPM . ... ..1 1. ..2 2. . . TestBeam . . . .. . . . . . . . . .. . .. . . . . Description of Blade Components . . .. . Scheniatic Program Moments . . Windmill (Rotating) Coordinate System . . . .. . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . ... Test Sections . . .1 5. . . . Wind Furnace Blade T i p Deflection . . ... Force and Moment Balance . Santple Beam . . . Strain Gage Location . . ..

It The The spar i s made o f a r e l a t i v e l y h i g h modulus f i b e r g l a s s The blade stock ( F i g u r e 1. The 'The blade planform and geometry a r e described i n Figure 1. p i t c h e d through an a r c o f 93' by t h e automatic p i t c h c o n t r o l mechanism. NACA 441 5 a i r f o i l shape was chosen as t h e e x t e r i o r p r o f i l e on each cross section.1 D e s c r i p t i o n o f WF-1 Blades I A t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f Massachusetts. 2 ) . t h e r e e x i s t s t h e Wind Furnace I. Each blade i s i n c l i n e d from t h e plane o f r o t a t i o n Each blade i s capable o f being by t h e s t a t i c coning angle o f 10'.1 ) i s surrounded by a s t e e l (The intended cross s e c t i o n c o n s t r u c t i o n i s described i n b l a d e o f t e r o t o r system. epoxy m a t r i x . a t t h i s time. 1 . s k i n i s o f a r e l a t i v e l y low bending modulus composition f i b e r g l a s s epoxy m a t r i x .C H A P T E R RATIONALE 1. sleeve.) Measurements subsequent t o blade c o n s t r u c t i o n showed t h a t t h e cross s e c t i o n s v a r i e d considerably from t h e intended 15% t h i c k a i r f o i l (Table 1. Thicknesses as g r e a t as 22% were measured on t h e spare The v a r i a t i o n i n t h e chord was s l i g h t . The machine has a downwind. This machine i s a p r o t o t y p e wind t u r b i n e which i s intended t o c o n t r i b u t e a l a r g e p o r t i o n o f t h e heat energy r e q u i r e d f o r space heati n g f o r t h e U n i v e r s i t y ' s S o l a r H a b i t a t I. i s not.2). p o s s i b l e t o measure t h e i n t e r n a l components o f t h e blade t o check f o r u n i f o r m i t y . t h r e e bladed r o t o r .I. (The reasons f o r t h i s choice are p a r t l y h i s t o r i c a l 1 and p a r t l y based on t h e popular use o f t h e NACA 4415 a i r f o i l i n a i r p l a n e p r o p e l l e r s .1. ) The blades are o f 4 p a r t c o n s t r u c t i o n (Figure 1 . Table 1 .

I W F-I PLANFORM AND TWIST RADIUS f t. CHORD ft. TWIST degrees .1.FIG.

FIG.2 DESCRIPTION OF BLADE COMPONENTS TYPICAL SECTION (NACA 4 4 1 5 ) SPAR WE7 7 SKIN SPAR 1 TRAILING EDGE STIFFENER \ BLADE STOCK FIBERGLASS EPOXY STEEL SLEEVE . 1.

0555 Ib 3 in 6 = 4.25 f t ) L.TABLE 1 .. 3 x 10 p s i 'spar.0501 3 in Ib .4 x 10 p s i Espar 6 Gspar= . t o Spar Web (ft) Skin Thickness (in) Spar Thickness (in) Web Thickness (in) r/Radius (Station11 0 ) Chord (ft) Twist (degrees) 6 E s k i n= 2.5 x 106 p s i 'skin = .2 x 10 p s i Gskin= ..1 BLADE DESIGN WF-1 (Radius = 16.E.

2 BLADE SHAPE WF-1 (Radius = 16.25 f t ) CHORD Desi n (in3 Result (in) AIRFOIL Desi n (in3 THICKNESS Error Result (in> (%> .TABLE 1 .

The increasing a v a i l a b i l i t y of composite materials i s a f a c t o r of great significance t o the designer. t h i s i s now standard practice i n the military a i r c r a f t propeller industry. there i s no reason t o expect t h a t future blade designs will incorporate the same a i r f o i l section a t a l l radial points.g. In f a c t . Traditional structural materials will The l i k e l i - c e r t a i n l y continue t o play a major r o l e i n blade construction. the observed thicknesses of the UMass WF-1 blades and the b e t t e r than predicted performance tend to confirm t h i s thought. 1) 2) 3) Cross section e x t e r i o r shape Cross section i n t e r i o r structure Bending modulus distribution Density distribution 4) 5 ) Twist distribution 6) Radial spacing . e.3 Program Input Requirements I t i s apparent from the foregoing t h a t any comprehensive code f o r blade bending s t r e s s analysis must a1 low f o r the fol lowing . hood of designs incorporating more than one material becoming commonplace i s great.2 Observations on Design I t appears a t t h i s time t h a t there i s l i t t l e i f anything t o be l o s t in terms of aerodynamic performance i f thicker a i r f o i l s are used in design!" In f a c t .1. low noise requirements o r aeroelastic requirements. A t t h i s time however. 1 . I t may t u r n out t h a t s p e c i f i c parameters.inputs. as we1 1 as havi ng various cross-sectional shapes. require blade shapes both highly twisted and tapered.

7) Bending a x i s l o c a t i o n These inputs are s u f f i c i e n t f o r t h e bending s t r e s s analysis o f t h e blade. t h e i n p u t would be sufThe shear s t r e s s f i c i e n t f o r a t o t a l s t r e s s analysis of t h e blade. i s weakly dependent on t h e mode shape o f the n a t u r a l frequencies. the dynamacist should be able t o p r e d i c t most o f the important system . (With t h e a d d i t i o n o f t h e shear modulus.) 1.4 Program Output Requirements The parameters o f primary i n t e r e s t t o the designer must be included i n t h e output. 5 i s s t r o n g l y dependent on t h e means by which t h e blade i s supported. Number 4 Number 2) 3) 4) 5) A l l o f the above except f o r 4 and 5 can be uniquely s p e c i f i e d . The approach taken i s t o assume a c a n t i l e v e r beam and t o compute the n a t u r a l frequencies attendent t o t h a t configuration . Time does n o t a l l o w i t s i n c l u s i o n here. From t h i s p o i n t . i s o r d i n a r i l y o f secondary importance i n t h e design of blades. 1) These i n c l u d e Bending s t r e s s d i s t r i b u t i o n s Deflections under l o a d Mass o f blade Mass moment o f i n e r t i a about a x i s o f r o t a t i o n Natural frequencies o f blade.

n o i s e o f o p e r a t i o n . w i n d m i l l s have been designed t o operate i n t h e s t a l l e d aerodynamic mode. Since t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n of a i r f o i l s i n t o t u r b i n e technology.1 H i s t o r i c a l Perspective T r a d i t i o n a l l y . bladed windmil 1. " The r o t o r can then g a i n s u f t h a t i s t o operate a t a very low aqgle o f a t t a c k w i t h consequent h i g h l i f t and low drag. a l l t u r b i n e s have p r e t t y much t h e same The power o u t p u t i s dependent on t h e swept area aerodynamic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . and t h e investment o f a r e l a t i v e l y l a r g e amount o f m a t e r i a l i n t h e blades p e r u n i t power. These developments opened t h e way t o powered f l i g h t and t o t h e development o f modern wind t u r b i n e s . The . f i c i e n t speed t o a l l o w t h e blades t o " f l y . It i s obvious t h a t much more power can be d e l i v e r e d a t t h e same wind speed by t h e same r o t o r i f t h e r o t a t i o n a l speed i s allowed t o increase. The f i r s t approach. indicated.C H A P T E R I 1 DESCRIPTION OF PROBLEM 2. o f t h e r o t o r . t h e s o l i d i t y of t h e blade system. e t c . t h e r e have been two major t h r u s t s i n blade design. untapered blades. t y p i f i e d by t h e Smith-Putnam machine!*%as been t o de-emphasize aerodynamic s o p h i s t i c a t i o n w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e c o s t o f unt w i s t e d . rpm. F i g u r e 2. I t was n o t u n t i l t h e e a r l y 20th c e n t u r y t h a t a i r f o i l knowledge had pro- gressed s u f f i c i e n t l y t o a l l o w t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f e f f i c i e n t p r o p e l l e r s and 1 i f t i n g surfaces. The p e n a l i t i e s t h a t a r e p a i d by u s i n g t h e s e simple blades a r e s l i g h t l y (-10%) reduced performance w i t h r e s p e c t t o aerod y n a m i c a l l y optimum blades.1 sbws a p l o t o f power versus RPM f o r a t h r e e On t h e f a r l e f t t h e r e g i o n o f s t a b l e s t a l l e d o p e r a t i o n i s I n t h i s mode of o p e r a t i o n .

FIG. 5 rn. 2.1 10 2 I0 1 1 00 90 3 BLADES $f Vo =oO = 2 2 . 10 7 4 10 3 r e f . M. 800 10 00 . R. z w 3 0 20 1 0 0 0 I I I I I 1 I I I 1 200 400 600 R.p.M. CHORD = 4 in. R = 25 in. 2-1 POWER Vs.P.P. -1 m tt- 80 706050 40 30 STALLED REGION OF STABLE OPERATION 5.h.

Depending on t h e d e t a i l e d c o n s t r u c t i o n . w i t h no o t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n . The n a t u r e o f t h e wind i s such t h a t t h e mean wind speed. o c i t y x Chord (The Reynold's Number. Recent work by ~ u t t e ? ? W i 1son. NASA MOD-0 and LlMass machines. Brace I n s t i t u t e . Lissamann and ~ aker'? l and Cromack and ~ e f e b v r c ?%ave e l u c i d a t e d these problems. ' A s e r i o u s o b j e c t i o n t o t h e above work i s t h a t t h e performance curves were generated u s i n g quasi-steady. a i r f o i l d a t a has been c o l l e c t e d a t from 3 t o 10 times t h e Reynold's Number a t which most o f t h e power i n a wind t u r b i n e i s produced. . i s o n l y m a r g i n a l l y adequate t o c h a r a c t e r i z e performance. The n a t u r e o f p r a c t i c a l t u r b i n e s i s such t h a t . 2. Most Work + Kinematic V i s c o s i t y . The second approach.2 Formal D e s c r i p t i o n o f Blade Problem R o t a t i n g wings have t r a d i t i o n a l l y been analyzed as beams w i t h v a r i o u s boundary c o n d i t i o n s . ) has y e t t o be done which w i l l show which i f any a d d i t i o n a l d a t a a r e needed f o r adequate performance p r e d i c t i o n s . t r a d i t i o n a l l y . Much work has been done t o c h a r a c t e r i z e t h e planforms r e q u i r e d f o r optimum o r n e a r l y optimum performance over a wide range o f design cons t r a i nts. The o u t e r edge i s i n v a r i a b l y f r e e . and how o r i f t h e y can be i n c l u d e d i n e x i s t i n g performance codes. o r some combination. Velalong blade. pinned a t t h e r o o t . Experience has shown t h a t wind t u r b i n e s almost never operate a t t h e i r design point. these beams may be e i t h e r hinged a t t h e r o o t . i s t o i n c o r p o r a t e b o t h t w i s t and t a p e r i n t o t h e blade design i n an attempt t o o p t i m i z e performance and reduce noise. as e x e m p l i f i e d by t h e H u t t e r . h i g h Reynold's Number a i r f o i l data. varies r a d i a l l y o f t h e t u r b i n e ' s power i s produced i n t h e outbard 3/10 o f t h e r a d i u s .primary b e n e f i t i s ease o f f a b r i c a t i o n and consequent low cost.

The simplest rotating winds, are of a rectangular planform and a single material. For example, extruded a1 uminum blades are now comThese are the simplest t o analyze

mercially available in various sizes.

i t will always be possible t o find a s e t of axes which completely un-

couples the bending deflections in one direction from those i n the other. These are by definition the principal axes. They will have the

same orientation f o r a l l sections and a l l loads and moments can be resolved about them. The introduction of twist complicates the analysis. The twist will

make i t d i f f i c u l t o r impossible t o f i n d axes f o r which the bending deflections are decoupled. calculated once. rect orientation. However, the moments of i n e r t i a need only be

They can then be transformed by rotation into the corA t t h i s point, the analysis requires the solution of

the coupled bending equations (Appendix A ) and the coupled bending s t r e s s equations. The introduction of taper requires t h a t the moments of i n e r t i a be computed a t each station of i n t e r e s t . The equations which must be solved

are then the same as in the case of a beam of rectangularplanform w i t h twist. I f the rotor blades are constructed of more than one material, for example a1 uminum and fiberglass or fiberglass of two or more d i f f e r e n t bending moduli , i t i s necessary t h a t the so-called modulus weighted section properties be computed. This i s a method by which the t e n s i l e properties

of the different components of each cross-section are weighted i n the accumulation of those quantities necessary f o r analysis. For example,

the modulus weighted x and y centroid locations define the location of the tension center for the cross-section. (The tension center i s t h a t point

a t which an applied radial load gives no l a t e r a l deflections. )

The blades on t h e WF-1 a r e j u s t such non-homogeneous, t w i s t e d , tapered beams. The s o l u t i o n of t h e bending and s t r e s s equations r e -

q u i r e s t h e i n c o r p o r a t i o n o f numerical techniques i n some a l g o r i t h m s . The f a c t . t h a t t h e blade cross-sections a r e r a t h e r complex shapes ( b o t h e x t e r n a l l y and i n t e r n a l l y ) i n d i c a t e s t h e need f o r some numerical methods f o r t h e computation of t h e s e c t i o n p r o p e r t i e s . ( I t t u r n s o u t t h a t many

numerical techniques were r e q u i r e d f o r t h e s e c t i o n p r o p e r t y i n t e g r a t i o n s . ) 2.3 D e s c r i p t i o n o f Load I n t h e case o f non-accelerated r o t a t i o n t h e loads encountered a r e 1ift, drag, g r a v i t y 1oads and c e n t r i f u g a l 1oads

.

Performance codeszo6 can

p r e d i c t t h e quasi-steady l i f t and drag o p e r a t i n g on a blade s e c t i o n subj e c t t o t h e above r e s t r i c t i o n s . These loads can then be r e s o l v e d about The g r a v i t y l o a d i s

r e f e r e n c e axes and t h e bending equations solved. b o t h r a d i a l and f l e x u r a l t h e horizon. excitation.

, depending on t h e b l ade o r i e n t a t i o n r e l a t i v e t o

For each blade, g r a v i t y gives a one p e r r e v o l u t i o n c y c l i c The c e n t r i f u g a l loads a r e c o n s t a n t i f t h e angular speed i s

constant and d e f l e c t i o n s o u t of plane due t o g r a v i t y a r e n o t t o o g r e a t . Unsteady, a c c e l e r a t e d motion i n t r o d u c e s o t h e r loads. The tower

shadow o r wake may cause a c y c l i c v a r i a t i o n i n t h e a p p l i e d wind loads. This w i l l cause a change i n t h e d e f l e c t i o n p a t t e r n on a one p e r r e v o l u t i o n p e r blade basis. The c y c l i c v a r i a t i o n i n d e f l e c t i o n w i l l cause t h e genThe magnitude

e r a t i o n o f s o - c a l l e d c o r i o l i s forces by t h e blade elements. of these p e r i o d i c loads i s of considerable i n t e r e s t .

They w i l l determine The per-

t h e c y c l i c stresses, hence t h e f a t i g u e p r o p e r t i e s of t h e blades.

i o d i c response of t h e blade t o t h e tower wake i s very p o o r l y understood a t t h i s point. Ongoing i n v e s t i g a t i o n s a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f Massachusetts

and elsewhere may shed l i g h t on t h i s area.

2.4

Other Dynamic Considerations The e f f e c t o f t o r s i o n a l coupling o f v i b r a t i o n s has been neglected i n

the foregoing.

The e f f e c t o f t h e coupling between r a d i a l loads and v i These e f f e c t s are considered t o be o f

b r a t i o n s has also been neglected.

marginal i n t e r e s t t o t h e windmill designer because o f t h e r e l a t i v e l y low r o t a t i o n a l speed o f the r o t o r . I n a paper w r i t t e n by Ormiston

2.7

, loads

are scaled according t o t h e Ormiston shows t h a t f o r

radius o f t h e wind machine under consideration.

very l a r g e machines, t h e one per r e v o l u t i o n g r a v i t y loads may be the 1i m i t i n g design c r i t e r i o n . For moderately sized machines, t h e c r i t i c a l

loads are f l e x u r a l and a r e due t o t h e aerodynamics o f power production. The random nature o f the wind a l s o provides a non-steady component i n t h e a i r loads. This e f f e c t becomes more pronounced as t h e p i t c h a t This e f f e c t i s p r e s e n t l y

which peak power i s produced i s approached.

thought secondary i n importance t o t h e tower wake and/or shadow w i t h r e spect t o c y c l i c loads. igation. This i s another area under a c t i v e i n v e s t -

2.5

Environmental E f f e c t s The sun w i l l degrade t h e s t r e n g t h o f glass laminates which a r e n o t

protected from it.

The experience a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f Massachusetts has

been t h a t s i g n i f i c a n t erosion o f the most e x t e r i o r l a y e r o f r e s i n took place i n t h e f i r s t two years o f operation. The blades were purposely n o t pro-

t e c t e d i n order t h a t s t r u c t u r a l defects would be e a s i l y seen.

It i s n o t

N structural o defects were found which can be unequivocally assigned to the design. f a i r l y well understood. There i s presently great interest in the siting of windmills The effects of s a l t spray on metal are either on or near the ocean. base for composite fatigue i s broadening. once the stress environment i s prescribed. the data I t seems a t this time that the material properties of metals are better understood than are those of composites. locations.f e l t t h a t this erosion had any effect on blade strength. The fatigue properties of metals are quite For inland well known. rain and windblown sand and dust are significant factors in the weathering of bl ades . However. Metals are subject to corrosion i n the environment of the wind turbine. Metal-plastic composites may suffer from fatigue due t o different coefficients of thermal expansion and the diurnal temperature cycle. .

1 S t a t i c Beam Bending Beam theory f o r homogeneous p r i s m a t i c beams i s q u i t e w e l l developed.y) s e c t i o n plane i s i n some cross- . axis. non-isotropic. t h e x a x i s p o i n t s down t h e bending.CHAPTER I 1 1 GOVERNING EQUATIONS 3. The dynamic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f such beams are a l s o w e l l known. then the d i f f e r e n t i a l equations f o r beam bending a r e (see Appendix A ) The general equations f o r bending stress a t p o i n t (x. This i s not t h e case w i t h non-homogeneous. o r non-prismatic beams. and t h e y a x i s i s i n c l i n e d from the upwind d i r e c t i o n by t h e coning angle (see Figure 1) w i t h u = u n i t d e f l e c t i o n i n the x d i r e c t i o n v = u n i t deflection i n the y direction. If a l l o w t h e existence o f a coordinate system such t h a t t h e x we a x i s i s p a r a l l e l t o t h e plane o f r o t a t i o n .

1 CONING/ ANGLE --!A ONCOMING WIND PLANE OF ROTATION J WINDMILL (ROTATING) CO-ORDINATE SYSTE M .FIG. 3.

1ongi tudi nal . and torsional vi brati on many situations numerous simplifications may be made. The equations of motion for the flexural vibrations of a beam allowing coupl i n g between vibrations in orthogonal directions are (see Appendix B ) . slender windmill blade.These equations are solved in the enclosed codes. Equations of Motion for Small Flexural Vibrations In general. i t was t h o u g h t advisable t o include the influence of slope in the deflection equations. the equations of motion of a rotating beam involve coupl i ng between flexural . m = lineal mass density. The fact t h a t many windmil 1 blades are highly twisted and tapered required the allowance of bending about non-principal axes. In Usually. however. . numerical techniques must s t i 11 be used for solution. Because of the possibility of large deflections in a long.

The f u n c t i o n INDEX i s o l a t e s t h r e e adjacent p o i n t s on t h e p e r i p h e r y o f t h e s e c t i o n being considered. 'rhi s procedure i s accompl ished by the functions. i s p o s i t i v e towards t h e low pressure surface. each segment a r e then found by use o f t h e l e a s t square c o e f f i c i e n t s . ) t h e weight d e n s i t y . ( U n i t s used f o r t h e d e n s i t y a r e pounds p e r c u b i c inch. through t h e s e t o f t h r e e p o i n t s . i n t h e l e a s t square sense. Function INTEG f i r s t f i t s t h e b e s t parabola. I t appends t o t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n t h e per(Thickness here r e f e r s t o t i n e n t bending modulus and m a t e r i a l thickness.1 I n t e g r a t i o n o f Section P r o p e r t i e s The axes used i n a l l d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e s e c t i o n p r o p e r t i e s i s as follows. The technique used i n t h e computation of t h e s e c t i o n p r o p e r t i e s was t h e replacement of i n t e g r a t i o n s w i t h summations when t h e use o f t h e d i r e c t i n t e g r a t i o n was i n a p p r o p r i a t e . 18 . If the l i s t e d thickI t a l s o appends ness i s zero t h e program assumes t h e s e c t i o n i s s o l i d .) T h i s i n f o r m a t i o n i s then used w i t h f u n c t i o n IIVTEG. The i n t e r v a l d e f i n e d by these P o i n t s on t h e p e r i p h e r y o f p o i n t s i s then d i v i d e d i n t o t e n equal segments. INDEX and INTEG (Appendices E and F r e s p e c t i v e l y ) . P o s i t i v e x has i t s o r i g i n a t t h e l e a d i n g edge and increases P o s i t i v e y has i t s o r i g i n a t t h e l e a d i n g edge and along t h e chord l i n e . t h e minimum d i s t a n c e from t h e o u t s i d e t o t h e i n s i d e .C H A P T E R I V NUMERICAL TECHNIQUES 4.

For each value of y. Thus ten points are This has the e f f e c t of decreasing the e r r o r due to the replacement of the section integrations w i t h summations a t the expense of the error introduced by the use of a f i t curve rather than the i n p u t data points. where t i s The midpoint the s k i n thickness and C l . Iyy are the moments of i n e r t i a of some area about an arbitrary axis system xy. where . C2 a r e l e a s t square coefficients. I f the section i s s o l i d . determined from the three input points. and I r r y Ipsy '5s a r e the moments of i n e r t i a of t h a t same area about i t s own centroid axis system. That i s tprojected = t[cos tan-' (C. If Ixx.and the value of x a t the midpoint of each section. Ixy. the algorithm accomplishes the following. another value i s determined which i s the former value minus the projected thickness.) values and the values Xi determine the area centroids of the load carrying material i n this small interval. If the section i s not s o l i d . y. the section properties determined by the above ten intervals are solved f o r directly. (The projected thickness i s found by multiplying the thickness of the skin by the secant of the tangent a t the point x. then Ixx Ixy - - Irr + AY 2 Irs + ~ x y + IYY Iss k2. + 2c2xi)]-'. The worth of t h i s information can best be shown by examination of the following equations.

W e the cross section properties are computed. Irs9 ISS can be made vanishingly small by the use of either a properly chosen coordinate system o r a small area. or by the local density. isparallel t o y .A = geometric area of the considered. a 1 inch square centered a t x = y = 2 in. the small areas are hn weighted according to the local bending modulus. the error in Ixx and I introduced by neglecting the area's centroidal moment of inertia i s only 2%. r i s parallel t o x . . are the coordinates of the centroid s X. I XY = o+ 1 (2)(2) = 4 YY For even so gross an example. Consider the following.Y I r r .

The l o g i c assumes t h a t t h e y coordinate o f the bending a x i s i s t h e same as the y coordinate of the tension a x i s . The ~ o d u l u sweighted They determine t h e The d e n s i t y weighted f i r s t moments are used t o determine t h e l o c a t i o n o f the centers o f mass of t h e cross sections. n e c t i n g a l l tension centers i s the tension axis. The d e n s i t y weighkd areas I n summary. The q u a n t i t i e s computed a r e the modulus wei g k d areas. (The chordwise l o c a t i o n o f the bending a x i s i s p a r t o f t h e program i n p u t . t h e geometric areas of the cross s e c t i o n a r e computed. The In modulus weighted area are used f o r t h e t r a n s p o s i t i o n o f t h e s e c t i o n moments o f i n e r t i a from the leading edge. This i s done by d i v i d i n g t h e l o c a l bending s t i f f n e s s by an ( a r b i t r a r y ) reference modulus and m u l t i p l y i n g t h e considered area by the r e s u l t . t o t h e bending a x i s . When a non-solid s e c t i o n i s considered. g i v e t h e blade s e c t i o n weights. f l e x u r a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of t h e beam. and second moments. the c a l c u l a t i o n s are summed w i t h t h e r e s u l t s o f previous c a l c u l a t i o n s f o r the cross section. d i r e c t i n t e g r a t i o n o f t h e s e c t i o n p r o p e r t i e s i s accomplished. f i r s t moments. a d d i t i o n . the f o l l owing s e r i e s rep1ace t h e i n t e g r a t i o n s .) second moments a r e t h e s e c t i o n moments of i n e r t i a . ) The modulus weightEd f i r s t moment (The l i n e con- i s used t o determine t h e l o c a t i o n of the tension center. when a s o l i d s e c t i o n i s considered.The modulus weighting i s a method whereby a composi t e cross s e c t i o n may be represented by a s i n g l e t o t a l bending s t i f f n e s s . and the d e n s i t y weightedareas and f i r s t moments. considered areas. This i s done f o r a l l Density weighting i s accomplished by m u l t i p l y i n g t h e (See Appendix F.) The r e s u l t s o f considered area by t h e l o c a l density. t h e o r i g i n . .

- = weighting f u n c t i o n . x.2 . Bending D e f l e c t i o n s The governing equations f o r beam bending. u s i n g t h e coordinate system o f Chapter 1.AREA = 1 9 dA A wherein 9 1 i mi A A. where thermal stresses a r e n o t considered. 4. are . y = are c e n t r o i d values dependent on t h e weighting f u n c t i o n AREA = e i t h e r geometric o r modulus weightedarea o f t h e l o a d c a r r y i n g m a t e r i a l i n t h e cross section..

however. t h i n . we have 'it1 = mi + k (kl + 2k2 + 2k3 + k4). For small d e f l e c t i o n s .-EREF lxxlyy-Ixy 2 1 )I These equations are non-linear.' This method uses t h e boundary c o n d i t i o n s on a func- t i o n and i t s d e r i v a t i v e s t o i n t e g r a t e t h e d e r i v a t i v e s across some i n t e r v a l . The p a r t i c u l a r Runge-Kutta f o r m u l a t i o n chosen i s t h e so-called c l a s s i c method. i s a d e r i v a t i v e o f some order 1 l e s s than f. because t h e blades are very long. and f l e x i b l e . term i s customarily neglected. .1 (1 - dv 3/2 . t h e non-linear I t i s d e s i r a b l e t h a t t h e n o n . where f i s t h e i n t e g r a l from which y i s determined. The method used f o r t h e s o l u t i o n o f these equations i s a f o u r t h order Runge Kutta method!. L e t t i n g i be an index r e l a t e d t o t h e p o s i t i o n x.l i n e a r i t y be included i n an a n a l y s i s of blade bending.

A l l o f t h e d e r i v a t i v e s o f intermediate value must (See APPENDIX G. The f i n i t e element method 1ed t o unnecessary The f i n i t e d i f f e r e n c e method r e q u i r e d t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n o f new data p o i n t s i f t h e same r e s o l u t i o n o f displacements were required. This precludes t h e i r use f o r t h e s o l u t i o n o f v i b r a t i o n problems i n t h e time domain. be c a r r i e d i n memory. N e i t h e r o f these methods were considered uniquely s u p e r i o r t o t h e Runge Kutta s o l u t i o n f o r t h i s problem.y) is There were no special techniques necessary f o r t h e s o l u t i o n o f t h i s problem. . .By t h e use of t h i s i n t e g r a t i o n scheme. The m u l t i p l i e r s o f the coordinate components x and y are a l s o computed i n t h e s o l u t i o n o f t h e bending equations. These equations could have been w r i t t e n i n f i n i t e d i f f e r e n c e o r f i n i t e element form as we1 1 complication.) The p r e c i s i o n a v a i l a b l e by t h e use o f t h i s method i s q u i t e high. t h e i n t e g r a t i o n i n t e r v a l may be shortened o r higher order Runge Kutta methods used. (One disadvantage o f t h e Runge Kutta methods i s t h a t t h e a p p l i c a t i o n t o p a r t i a l d i f f e r e n t i a l equations i s apparently unknown.) 4 . I f t h e p r e c i s i o n i s n o t acceptable. They a r e stored i n memory and re- c a l l e d where t h e s t r e s s d i s t r i b u t i o n i s reported. d i f f e r e n t i a l equations o f any order may besolved.3 Bending Stress The expression f o r t h e bending s t r e s s a t some p o i n t (x.

(APPENDIX D. . The program output would n o t have t o be modified i n any way if t h e order o f data e n t r y i s modified. see APPENDIX D) . as long as the operator keeps t r a c k o f which data has been entered. t h e s t r e s s w i l l be resolved a t t h e p o i n t s entered.on t h e h i g h and low pressure aerodynamic surface skins. i s c a l l e d Rayleigh's method. t h a t is. They may be solved i n a number of ways. Obvious choices a r e t h e use o f f i n i t e The method used i n t h i s r e p o r t d i f f e r e n c e and f i n i t e element methods. The i n p u t s e c t i o n i s very v e r s a t i l e i n t h a t no special order o f data e n t r y i s r e q u i r e d (except CHORD. (For higher modes.The bending s t r e s s i s resolved a t each p o i n t l i s t e d i n t h e f i r s t two i n p u t s t o t h e program. INPUT.4 Flexural V i b r a t i o n s The governing equations f o r f l e x u r a l v i b r a t i o n s o f a twisted. non- p r i s m a t i c beam are (APPENDIXB) These equations cannot be solved i n closed form w i t h o u t s i m p l i f i c a tion. T h e i r s o l u t i o n r e q u i r e s t h e use o f numerical techniques. ) I f any o t h e r data a r e entered i n t h e i r place. The technique as used here (see APPENDIX I ) d i f f e r s s l i g h t l y from t h e usual a p p l i c a t i o n s i n t h a t successive approximations a r e made t o r e f i n e t h e determined mode shape. when possible. 4.

included.2 t i n g system i s . A Mi The key t o t h e method o f successive approximations i s t h a t t h e i n e r t i a l l o a d i s p r o p o r t i o n a l t o a mass times i t s displacement. modal a n a l y s i s o f t h e system. t o r s i o n a l ) may be Any degree o f simp1 i f i c a t i o n can be achieved by n e g l e c t i n g chosen parameters. f l e x u r a l . Instead. n o t t h e loads themselves. where Fi +i i s t h e imposed l o a d a t i.w i t h t w i s t e d beams. s i n c e t h e mode shapes a r e a p r o p e r t y o f t h e l o a d p a t t e r n s . i s t h e mode shape a t i. t h e method r e s o l v e s t h e n a t u r a l frequencies and mode This i n f o r m a t i o n can then be used i n a shapes o f an o s c i l l a t i n g system.) The technique i s very v e r s a t i l e because o n l y t h e response t o an assumed l o a d p a t t e r n need t o be determined. t h e method does n o t always converge. Hence The constant k i s o f no i n t e r e s t . i i s t h e mass a t i. R a y l e i g h ' s method does n o t s o l v e f o r t h e system behiavor i n t h e t i m e domain. The expression f o r t h e square o f t h e n a t u r a l frequency o f an o s c i l l a - 4. T h i s l o a d p a t t e r n i s used t o compute another mode shape by c a l c u l a t i n g t h e d e f l e c t i o n s due t o t h e imposed . Any response ( a x i a1 . i s t h e arr~pl tude.

loads.

The magnitude o f t h e d e f l e c t i o n so computed a t some one p o i n t The s e t o f a l l d e f l e c t i o n s d i v i d e d by t h i s When the i n e r t i a l forces associated w i t h some

i s c a l l e d the amplitude (A). amplitude i s the mode shape.

mode shape produce a d e f l e c t i o n p a t t e r n having the same mode shape, the method has converged t o the fundamental. A t t h i s p o i n t , the square o f the (See APPENDIX M

c i r c u l a r frequency i s the r e c i p r o c a l o f the amplitude. f o r a sample c a l c u l a t i o n . ) The niaximum k i n e t i c energy f o r the system i s

The maximum p o t e n t i a l energy i s equal t o the maximum k i n e t i c i s given by 1 u = C - F (A (i) 2 i i 1

energy and

= C 2 Mr i -

4:1 A 4i,where

4

i s t h e mode shape from t h e l a s t c y c l e o f t h e i t e r a t i o n .

S e t t i n g these two expressions equal gives

which i s t h e same as equation 1 once the expansion o f Fi has beem accomplished.

I f convergence o f the mode shape has been achieved, then

The i n t r o d u c t i o n o f t w i s t i n a beam, t h a t i s t o say t h a t the p r i n c i p a l axes o f a l l cross sections o f a beam being non-parallel, introduces

coupling between the loads i n one plane and t h e d e f l e c t i o n s i n another.

Ifa beam i s p r i s m a t i c and n o t twisted, o r a t worst tapered, then the
resonant v i b r a t i o n s o f the beam w i l l be a l i g n e d w i t h one o f t h e p r i n c i p a l axes. other. This i s a consequence o f t h e d e f l e c t i o n s being uncoupled from each For a h i g h l y t w i s t e d beam, e.g. a windmill blade, the d i r e c t i o n o f

resonant v i b r a t i o n s w i l l , i n general, vary from cross s e c t i o n t o cross section. Any attempt a t analysis, therefore, must a l l o w two degrees o f

f l e x u r a l freedom a t each cross section.

(A more complete a n a l y s i s would
Since

a l s o a l l o w a t o r s i o n a l degree o f freedom a t each cross section.

there was no observable t o r s i o n a l d e f l e c t i o n o f the t e s t e d blade under load, t h a t component o f the a n a l y s i s was considered unimportant.) general r e s u l t s hold, however. o f the tips deflection. The same

The amplitude i s chosen t o be t h e magnitude

The i n e r t i a l forces are the mass per segment The

times t h e mode shape a t t h e midpoint o f each spanwise section. d e f l e c t i o n s a r e computed u s i n g the f u n c t i o n described above.

Rayleigh's method i s u s u a l l y used f o r a determination o f t h e fundamental mode. There are various techniques a v a i l a b l e f o r the i s o l a t i o n o f The f i r s t such method i s t o impose a d e f l e c t i o n

higher modes, however.

i n space o r i e n t e d a t 90" t o t h e fundamental d e f l e c t i o n p a t t e r n . (A f r e e beam i n space has t h e property t h a t the fundamental mode shape f o l l o w s a p a t t e r n which produces a maximum d e f l e c t i o n f o r t h e given loads.) A l o a d p a t t e r n 90' o u t o f phase b u t equal i n magnitude w i l l produce much smaller deflections. ( I n fact, f o r a r e g u l a r p r i s m a t i c beam, t h e d e f l e c t i o n s so This d e f l e c t i o n p a t t e r n can then be used t o

produced w i l l be a minimum.)

compute the beam frequency. mental.

This frequency w i l l be higher than t h e funda-

I t w i l l o f t e n be the n e x t highest frequency.

Another technique i s known as Schmi tt Orthogonal i z a t i o n (see APPENDIX
K )

.

(The f o l l o w i n g and much o f t h e foregoing i s taken from Bi ggs Struc-

t u r a l ~ynamics.) Any assumed d e f l e c t i o n patten can be expressed as

where

m ia

= t h e assumed mode shape a t i,

J;n = the p a r t i c i p a t i o n f a c t o r o f the mth mode i n mi,

,

m im

= the mode shape o f mode

rn a t i.

M u l t i p l y i n g both sides by mi

$in,

we have

where i 9-i n
= mass a t i = mode shape a t i f o r mode n

The o r t h o g o n a l i t y c o n d i t i o n f o r normal modes i s t h a t

unless m = n.

Equation 3 can now be r e w r i t t e n

The p a r t i c i p a t i o n f a c t o r f o r t h e mth mode i s Using t h i s p a r t i c i p a t i o n f a c t o r . (If an i t e r a t f v e process i s used and t h e procedure i s f u n c t i o n i n g c o r r e c t l y . t h e p a r t i c i p a t i o n f a c t o r s w i l l a1 1 approach zero.) Yet another procedure i s t o assume a number o f mode shapes r e l a t e d t o each o t h e r and l o o k f o r a frequency minimum. t h e assumed mode shape can be swept c l e a n o f t h e i n f l u e n c e o f p r e v i o u s l y determined mode shapes. t h e mode shape g i v i n g t h e maximum n a t u r a l frequency i s t h e most accurate. mode shape becomes The assumed T h i s procedure w i l l converge t o t h e n e x t h i g h e r mode shape and frequency. . Since t h e p r e s c r i p t i o n o f an i n c o r r e c t mode shape does n o t e x c i t e resonant responses alone.

55 i n EXACT 190.4% . 5. compared w i t h t h e e x a c t p r o p e r t i e s .4 i n 4 0 7. t h e modulus weighted c a l c u l a t e d s e c t i o n p r o p e r t i e s .1 For t h e e l 1 ipse.00 I YY IXY AREA 5. For t h e diamond shape.C H A P T E R V PROGRAM VERIFICATION 5.1 Section Properties The f u n c t i o n s which make up t h e programs as assembled were a l l subjected t o verification.1.7 i n 4 337.66 i n2 1. t h e modulus weighted s e c t i o n p r o p e r t i e s c a l c u l a t e d by t h e program cornpared w i t h t h e e x a c t values a r e as follows: CALCULATED Ixx 190.5% 78.98 i n 4 81. a r e as f o l l o w s : CALCULATED IXX EXACT 78. The functions INDEX and INTEG were used t o corn- pute t h e geometric p r o p e r t i e s o f t h e s e c t i o n s shown i n Fig.37 i n 2 Table 5.20 i n 4 0.6% I YY I XY AREA 2 Table 5.2 7.75 i n 4 0.00 ERROR 1% 3.75 i n 4 78.45 i n 2 5.1% 0 1.4 i n 4 357 i n 4 0 ERROR 1% 5.

5.TEST SECTIONS ELLIPSE FIG.1 DIAMOND .

2 Stress and D e f l e c t i o n The e l l i p t i c cross section above was used as t h e cross s e c t i o n shape of a hypothetical c a n t i l e v e r e d beam 10 f e e t long. since t h e moments o f i n e r t i a o f a i r f o i l shapes are n o t commonly a v a i l a b l e .45) where a = deflection P = l o a d a t 10 f e e t L = l e n g t h o f t h e beam E = Young's modulus ( f o r s t e e l ) I = 63. are u s u a l l y l i s t e d i n t h i s way5-'. The most expedient way t o improve t h e r e s o l u t i o n o f these rounded p a r t s o f the shape i s t o increase t h e number o f p o i n t s d e s c r i b i n g t h i s region.The r e l a t i v e l y l a r g e e r r o r i s due t o the steep slope o f t h e e l l i p s e as i t nears t h e leading and t r a i l i n g edges.1000 ( 1 2 0 1 ~ ~ = . negl ig i b l e. however.3(3x1 07) (63. The e r r o r i s . good r e s u l t s f o r t h e section p r o p e r t i e s can be expected. 5.30 inches = .301 inches.45 i n4 The program c a l c u l a t e d a d e f l e c t i o n o f . The d e f l e c t i o n p r e d i c t e d by t h e w e l l known s t r e n g t h o f m a t e r i a l s formula i s P L . From ( A i r f o i l s e c t i o n coordinates t h e foregoing. I t was n o t p o s s i b l e t o t e s t t h e a i r f o i l shapes d i r e c t l y .

The chord lengths of the cross sections were nearly a t the specifications. The observed deflections differed from the calcuA t t h i s time.2). blade geometry was established by ~iieasurement. The s e t of gages (1--10) around the circumferences of the blade a t . 5. An actual load of the same weight was placed on the t e s t blade and the deflection and s t r e s s levels measured.3 WF-1 Blade Stress and Deflection As a final t e s t of the s t a t i c portion of the analysis. The blade cross sections were discovered t o have a great deal more depth than originally thought. Nw data f i l e s were establ ished by mu1 tiplying the coordinates i n the e old f i l e s by the fractional difference between the observed and l i s t e d depths. 8 oz.95 R. The e r r o r i s negligible.475 R were 350 n Constantan BLH s t r a i n gages of various l o t s . The maximum predicted s t r e s s was 7557 psi. A hypothetical load of 15 1 bs. the pub1 ished geometry of the WF-1 blade was used as program input. was input a t . the lated deflections by approximately a factor of two. (See Tab1 e 2. Figure 52shows the location of s t r a i n gages used f o r the t e s t . ) The new data f i 1 es were used as i n p u t t o the program.The maximum s t r e s s predicted by the usual strength of materials formula f o r the above beam and load i s where y = maximum distance from the neutral axis. the geometry describing the WF-1 blade was entered. The s t r a i n gages . For the f i r s t t r i a l . (These data f i 1 es a r e 1i s t e d in APPENDIX M.

5 .475 R LOW PRESSURE SURFACE F A C I N G . 2 STRAIN GAGE LOCATION CROSS SECTION A T .FIG.

+ 2.organized radially (11-20) were 500 n Constantan BLH strain gages of the same l o t .3 l i s t s the observed and predicted values of s t r e s s for a l l gages.. . Table5. largely because of the good agreement between predicted and observed deil ections. They are plotted in Figure 5. The deflection in the lead direction (positive x direction according t o the paper's sign convention) i s due entirely t o the coupling between the deflections in two planes. + This agreement i s acceptable.99 in. 9 Oz. All bonds between gage and substrate were by Eastman 910 ady The strains were detected and transduced b a shop built r e s i s t o r bri dge and amp1 i f i er. hesive.57 in.13 in. I t i s a consequence of the blade The deflection values are as follows: Predicted .3 Agreement between predicted and The gage bond measured values were good for a l l gages except number 17..36 .96 . This load was oriented a t 90' t o the chord l i n e a t the t i p . Uncertainties in the geometry of the t r a i l i n g edge. twist.06 in. towards the low pressure surface (towards the bottom of the page). i s suspect there. make any more precise determination of the bending coupling unlikely. load a t . Figure 5.4 shows the observed blade t i p displacement due t o the sing1 e 15 I b . 2. Measured .95 R. particularly relative t o the load carrying capacity of the roving bundle used t o seal the t r a i l i n g edge.

3 BENDING STRESS BY GAGE NUMBER (Refer t o F i g u r e 5. p s i Predicted Observed 233 .TABLE 5.2) Stress.

5.475R VIA LINEAR INTERPOLATION TO -600 -70 S K ! N S T R E S S A T 4O0/0 C H O R D PER CENT RADIUS HU6 1 0 20 30 40 A - ( ) GAGE NUMatI R (FIG.5R . 3 WF-I T E S T BLADE (STATIC T E S T S ) 151b. 80z. 1 0 20 3C 40 I I 0 60 70 8 -400 f z -500 Q -- STRAIN GAGE MEASUREMENT WLUE (WITH ERROR BARS) COMPUTER SIMULATION (CORRECTED FROM .38 FIG. 5 . A T .2) 50 60 70 80 90 TIP (201 UPPER AERODYNAMIC .475 R A D I U S 200 I LOWER AERCDYNAMIC (HIGH PRESSURE! SURFACE PER CENT CHORD.E.95 RADIUS S T A T I O N SKIN STRESS A T .

PREDICTED) 2. MEASURED (. MEASURED (2.FIG.36in.57in.96in.99in. 5. PREDICTED ) I 7 LOADED POSiTiON WIND FURNACE BLADE TIP DEFLECTION .4 + UNLOADED POSIT1ON 4 1 + 1 .

a shaker was mounted f o r t h e i s o l a t i o n o f resonant frequencies. On t h e spare wind f u n a c e blade. 48.35 R. The t o t a l weight o f t h e shaker was 2. The numbers p r e d i c t e d by program FREQ a r e The agreement i s seen t o be q u i t e good. The reason t h a t two numbers a r e g i v e n f o r t h e h i g h e s t p r e d i c t e d frequency i s t h a t t h e program FREQ c o n t a i n s two a l g o r i t h m s f o r t h e d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f t h i s frequency. The r o t o r It was mounted a t .79 1bs. t h i s beam a r e The t h r e e l o w e s t frequencies o f u3 = 251 radians/sec.4 Vibration The Rayleigh R i t z method was used f o r t h e s o l u t i o n o f t h e n a t u r a l frequencies. As a simple t e s t o f t h e program.8 inches from t h e blade support.5) were used. . The f i r s t The second superimposes t h e f u n c t i o n s i n ( r x + L ) over t h e fundamental mode shape and t h e value o f x i s varied. tip The mode shapes were a1 1 normal i z e d t o t h e magnitude o f t h e displacement v e c t o r (see APPENDIX I) . t h e dimensions and s e c t i o n p r o p e r t i e s of a s i x f o o t l o n g s t e e l beam whose cross s e c t i o n was a one i n c h by f o u r i n c h r e c t a n g l e ( F i g u r e 5. uses S c h m i t t o r t h o g o n a l i z a t i o n f o r t h e s o l u t i o n .5.

5 . 5 TEST BEAM CROSS SECTION STEEL B E A M E = 3 x 1 7 psi 0 1 6 ft.FIG. .

weighed . t h e blade support d i d n o t tumble o f f d u r i n g a v i b r a t i o n t e s t . b u t measurement o f these mode shapes was n o t p o s s i b l e w i t h t h e i n s t r u m e n t a t i o n a t hand. The p i p e was f i x e d t o t h e concrete f l o o r . any remaining (Qua1it a - f l e x i 1ib i t y i n t h e support would lower t h e observed frequency. a1 though n o t tremendous. The stand was s t i f f e n e d by e x t e r n a l supports i n both bending and t o r s i o n . t h e support was q u i t e r i g i d . balanced d u r i n g c o n s t r u c t i o n ( v i s . a v i s .40 Ibs.38 i n . t h e o t h e r s i m i l a r blades) by t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n o f l e a d shot a t unknown l o c a t i o n s . p r i m a r i l y because sympathetic v i b r a t i o n s i n t h e blade w i l l be caused by e x c i t i n g forces n o t p r e c i s e l y a t t h e resonant frequency. ) apparatus a v a i l a b l e f o r t h e t e s t . t h e r o t o r and a s t r o b e l i g h t . The blade support was b o l t e d atop a s e c t i o n o f 8 i n c h diameter steam pipe 5 f e e t t a l l . the density o f the blade's Second. i s considered acceptable. Predicted The agreement i s n o t extremely good. . T h i r d . A penny balanced on edge on t h e Fourth.1 i s n o t known w i t h any g r e a t p r e c i s i o n . t i v e l y . and had an e c c e n t r i c i t y o f .4. do n o t a1 low tremendous r e s o l u t i o n of t h e resonances. disagreement can be guessed a t . l i s t e d i n Table5. The agreement between observed and p r e d i c t e d frequencies. The p r e d i c t e d mode shapes are They appear t o be c o r r e c t . t h e blade was materia. The r e s u l t s o f t h e frequency a n a l y s i s o f t h e Measured WF-1 a r e shown below. The primary reasons f o r t h e F i r s t .

TABLE 5.4 MODE SHAPES .

Thi s p r o v i des s t r o n g e v i dence t h a t t h e a p p l i c a t i o n of R a y l e i g h ' s method t o t h e problem o f f r e e v i b r a t i o n o f a beam. The codes a r e inexpensive t o operate when compared w i t h f i n i t e element codes of comparable sophistication. t h e v e r i f i c a t i o n of t h e codes w i t h r e s p e c t t o an e x i s t i n g wind t u r b i n e blade has been accompl ished. a l l o w i n g c o u p l i n g between d e f l e c t i o n s i n two directions. . veri fied. i s valid. Codes were developed which a l l o w t h e r e s o l u t i o n o f bending s t r e s s i n and n a t u r a l frequencies of wind t u r b i n e blades.CHAPTER CONCLUSIONS V I The o b j e c t o f t h i s study was t h e development o f computer programs u s e f u l t o the wind t u r b i n e designer. f o r example. The i n c l u s i o n of t h e computer codes and documentation i n t h e appendices should f a c i l i t a t e t h e use of these codes on o t h e r A l l o t h e r p a r t s of t h e codes have a l s o been computer systems. and observed n a t u r a l frequencies has a l s o been shown. shear a n a l y s i s and/or t o r s i o n a l c o u p l i n g may be accomplished by subroutine modifications. Good agreement between t h e p r e d i c t e d and observed f l e x u r a l d e f l e c t i o n s has been shown. Acceptable agreement between p r e d i c t e d I n short. The extension of these codes t o a l l o w .

P. Wilson. Applied Numerical Methods f o r Digital Computation. UM-WT-TR-78-1. e Shapiro. . Robert A.. P e t e r B. 1948. 1969. Fluid Mech. 1977. The Design. 1964. Principles of He1 i c o p t e r Engineering. . M-L. No. Optimum Wind Energy Conversion Systems. . New York. - A Dun Donnelley Publisher. E. Wilson. I n s t . Ulrich. New Yor. and Lissamann. NTIS. Rotor Dynamic Considerations f o r Large Wind Power Generator Systems. Stoddard. p a Putnam. Development. R. John M. Introduction t o Structural Dynamics. Brace Res. Cromack. Palmer C . Robert E. Lefebvre. W C Workshop Proceedings. J u l y . Temple Press Limited . 1977. e t a l . and Cromack. Hutter. B i ggs. PB-2385-95.. Op. ES James. McGraw-Hi 11 . and Testing of a Low Cost 10 Hp Windmill Prime Mover. 1976. Robert E. 9: 399-419. Nw York. Duane E .E. . Paul L. Hutter. Applied Aerodynamics of Wind Power Machines. Rev..REFERENCES C h i l c o t t . NSF/RA/W-73-006. . Pub1 . c i t . . MT7. Aerodynamic Performance of Wind Turbines. 1974. Final Report. e t a l . 1955. Jacob. Van Nostrand Reinhold. London. Wind Tunnel Tests f o r Fixed Pitch S t a r t U and Yw C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . 9 A Comparative S t u d y o f Optimized Blade Confiqurations f o r High Speed Wind Turbines.. . Ann. Power from the Wind. I. UM-kF-TR77-8. Ormiston..S. Perkins. ERDA/NSF/O4014-7611.

A. Dover P u b l i c a t i o n s . Theory o f Mind Sections. 1959. p..E. .l ibid.1 Abbott.A. and Von Doenhoff. 407. I.2 Biggs 5.REFERENCES (Continued) 4. New York. A.

I n s t . Duane E. Robert N. J u l y . Aerodynamic Perfonnance o f Wind Turbines. PB-238595.ynamics of Wind Power. 1969. I n t r o d u c t i o n t o S t r u c t u r a l Dynamics. TEMPLE PRESS L i m i t e d . F t . Mech. ERDA/NSF/0401-76/1. OPTIMUM WIND ENERGY CONVERSION SYSTEMS. Colo. Biggs. 1948. Robert E. . W C Workshop Proceedings. Ul r i c h . Palmer C. . Theory and Analysis o f F1i g h t Structures.S. Shapiro. New York. Applied Aerod. Robert M. John M. 1969. The Design. Robert E. July. Barbara L. Annotated B i b l iography . Jacob. London. Ormiston.. Rotor Dynamic Considerations f o r Large Wind Turbine Power Generator Systems. Robert A. . .. NSF/RA/WES 73-006. Energy from t h e Wind. et a1 . F l u i d 1977. Peter B. 1974. York. NTIS. F i n a l Report. MT7. C o l l i n s . Development. Publ. Rive1 l o . Putnam. and Cromack. W i 1son. McGraw-Hill New York. Colorado S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y .. UM-WF-TR-77-9. and Lissaman. No. Brace Res. 1964.E.. Rev. L i b r a r i e s and F l u i d Mechanics and Wind Engineering Program.. Wilson. .. utter. and T e s t i n g o f a Low Cost 10 Hp Windmill Prime Mover.BIBLIOGRAPHY Burke. Van Nostrand Reinhold. Paul L. Lefebvre. McGraw-Hill. New A Comparative Study o f O p t i - mized Blade Configurations f o r Hiqh Speed Wind Turbines. 1955. R. P r i n c i p l es of He1icopter Engineering.. C h i l c o t t .. Ann. Meroney. Power from t h e Wind. 9: 399-419..

1956. 1958. Chordwise Bending. Dept. Cambridge. J r .L. Edward Arnold (Pub1 i s h e r s ) L t d . An Introduction t o t h e Theory of A e r o e l a s t i c i t y . I r a A. Joseph..-A . . W-i1liams. 1976. . John Wley and Sons. McGraw H i 11. Inc. N w York. Alfred and Myers. 23.. e 24. Mechanical Vibrations. Aeroelastici t y . Bispl inghoff. . e 14. Nw York. McGraw H i l l . 15 Feb. 17. Engineering Analysis of Flight Vehicles. . NACA TN 3905.P.. Theory of Wing Sections.. U... e Miles. Albert E. Reading. Mass. Nw York. Harris. e Frederick Ungar Publishing Co.. Shock and Vibration Handbook. 18. Nw York. Vo1. and Von Doenhoff.C. 1957. Addison Wesley Publ i s h i n g Co. Houbolt. Hol t . Garry C. Raymond L . of Commerce. Dover Publ i c a t i o n s . e 16. e t a1 . 1977.E. 1954. Den Hartog. e t a1 . N w York. 1959. Abbott. 13. MIT. Addison Wesley Publishing Co. Mass.. Inc. 1952. PB-256198. Gessow. D. D i f f e r e n t i a l Equations of Motion f o r Combined Fl apwise Bending. 1960. Wind Energy Conversion. e 22.. Nw York. Ashley. 20. Fung. . i e 19. . Alfred and Newell. George W. . Dynamics of Airplanes. 1969. Dun Donne1 ley Pub1 i s h e r . James. Abramson.. John C. 21 . Nw York. Aerodynamics of the Helicopter. 1976. An Introduction t o the Theory of A i r c r a f t S t r u c t u r e s . Y . I . Nw York.. 1974. Ronald Press. Airplane S t r u c t u r e s . Inc. 1955. Inc. e 15.. M. Appl ied Numerical Methods f o r Digital Computation. Cyril M and Crede. Charles E. Norman H. Dover Publ i c a t i o n s .12. and Brooks. 1 .S. London. and Torsion of Twisted Non-Uniform Rotor Blades.

(Dept Comnerce?) PB-256 198. Wood as an Engineering M a t e r i a l . May. New York. Rose. 1957. U. E. Wood A I A A Student 31 s t Annual National Forum o f t h e American He1 i c o p t e r Society. S t r u c t u r a l Analysis by F i n i t e D i f f e r e n c e Calculus. Rohrbach.. of i n a Windmi 11 Rotor.. W. Discussion o f Monientum Theory f o r Windmills. 1956. Harper and Row. The E l e c t r i c a l Research Association. . Hdbk. Stresses i n A i r c r a f t and Shell Structures. Morrison. New York. Fa11 .. Kuhn. Wind Turbine S t r u c t u r a l Dynamics. U n i v e r s i t y of Massachusetts. 1970. .. . Performance C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f Aerodynamically Optimum Turbines f o r Wind Energy Generators.. 1970. Carl and Worobel . Journal . Forman S. 1975. S-993. 31st Annual National Forum o f t h e American H e l i c o p t e r Society. NASA Lewis. D. J. P r e p r i n t No. APPENDIX IV. P r e p r i n t No.C. Aerodynamic Design and Performance o f M i ndmi 11s . New York. Barnes. Forest Products Lab.. A l t e r n a t i v e s Program. Washington. Numerical Methods t h a t Work. Energy Stoddard. Lee R. Washington. Larrabee. Dynamic Response o f Wind Turbine Rotor Systems. 1974. The Development o f a Method f o r Measurement o f S t r a i n s .C. S-996. D. TRj7612. Wah. Robert A.S. Paul.Acton. DOE Pub1i c a t i o n CONF-771148. Technical Report C/T117. [ . Ormiston.G. McGraw H i l l . Thein and Calcote.. NASA Conference P u b l i c a t i o n 2034. Van Nostrand Reinhold Co. May 1975. 1975. F o r r e s t S. McCormi ck.

Agard LS-63. .. James C. Robert. The Generation of E l e c t r i c i t y by Wind Power. C . Robert H. 42. 6:10. 94035.36. 41. Helicopter Aerodynamics and Dynamics. Moffett Field. Young. and Yin. 732. NSF/RA/W-73-006. The Influence of Pitch and Twist on Blade Vibrations. Agard Lecture Series No. D . Sheng Kuang. E.N. preprint No. pg. 40. SPON LTD. E. On the Question of Adequate Hingeless Rotor Model 1 ing in Forward Fl i g h t . Journal of A i r c r a f t . Wind Energy Conversion Systems. . May. 1973. . NSF-NASA. M. 1973. C . 274-1. the Macmillan Cornpany. Dec. & F. Scanlan. 29th Annual Forum of the American Helicopter Society. 1973. e 1951. 63. London. Introduction t o t h e Study of Aircraft Vibration and F l u t t e r . Proceedings. Golding. 383. Nw York. Hohenemser. Kurt H . Workshop Proceedings. 1976. and Rosenbaum. S p e c i a l i s t s Meeting on Rotorcraft Dynamics. 37. Biggers. NASA-Ames Research Center. American Helicopter Society and NASA/Ames Research Center. D . 38.W. . California. June 11-13. Maurice I . 39.S.

indicated directions are positive. respond i n t h e f o l l o w i n g manner. A. Vy = V .l Theory and Analysis o f F l i g h t Structures The c o o r d i n a t e systems c o r - . M = M . .Y' y = Mx = - My' I -- VY1 V '. Primes r e f e r t o R i v e l l o ' s system. '. - z = x' = V '. - z1 MY = M . All Hence t h e f o l l o w i n g correspondences Vx x = .A P P E N D I X A COORDINATE SYSTEM CORRESPONDENCE The d i f f e r e n t i a l equations f o r beam bending were taken from R i v e l l o .

R i v e l l o ' s equations f o r beam bending a r e These become R i v e l l o ' s r a d i a l s t r e s s equation i s This becomes. where P i s any r a d i a l l o a d i s t h e cross s e c t i o n area i s a bending moment about t h e ith i s ax a r e space coordi nates A M~ x .z .y .

. a c t i n g on the o s c i l l a t i n g section. This diagram neglects t h e t h e i n c l u s i o n o f which are the D'alembert forces i n f l u e n c e o f an o f f a x i s placement o f the c. would introduce t o r s i o n a l coup1 i n g .A P P E N D I X Equations o f Motion B Figure B1 shows t h e transverse shear forces and bending moments a c t i n g on a s l i c e o f blade o f l e n g t h dz.g. f x and f Y Summing moments about the i n f e r i o r edge. we have Neglecting h i g h e r o r d e r terms i n dz and cancel 1i n g Neglecting higher o r d e r terms i n dz and c a n c e l l i n g Summing forces a c t i n g on t h e element .

FIG. 8.1 .

then then from 3a and 4a. w have from Rivello that e .If m i s the lineal mass density. u i s a unit displacement in the x directions and v in the y direction. w have e For small displacements.

Let n and Rearranging 5 and 6. Substituting 8 i n t o 7 .where a) b) c) El i s an a r b i t r a r y reference modulus My i s the bending moment about t h e y a x i s Mx i s t h e bending moment about t h e x a x i s W can now solve f o r t h e bending moments a t some p o i n t z i n terms o f e t h e curvatures a t t h a t p o i n t .

Rewriting 1 i n terms o f 10 and 2 i n terms o f 9 .Recall i n g t h e d e f i n i t i o n o f k . we g e t . t h i s reduces t o Solving f o r Mx by i n s e r t i o n i n t o 8 Expanding k and s i m p l i f y i n g .

For example. i f we consider a u n i f o r m homogeneous beam w i t h o u t t w i s t . t h e equations 13 and 14 reduce t o No Numerous s i m p l i f i c a t i o n s where I f we f u r t h e r r e s t r i c t a t t e n t i o n t o t h e case o f bending about p r i n c i p a l axes. then we have . however. we g e t These a r e t h e equations of motion f o r t h e coupled f l e x u r a l free v i b r a t i o n s o f a beam o f a r b i t r a r y mass d i s t r i b u t i o n and c o n s t r u c t i o n . closed form s o l u t i o n f o r these equations e x i s t s .R e w r i t i n g 3 i n terms of 12 and 4 i n terms o f 11. a r e o f engineering i n t e r e s t .

.These l a t t e r equations a r e comnonly encountered i n books on beam v i b r a t i o n s and s t r u c t u r a l dynamics.

.(potentially assigned to i t ) . O u t p u t or executable statement. Input. Only the kth entry of Bi i s considered. Program control transfer Machine control flow direction.A P P E N D I X C C. Bi i s assigned a1 1 numbers included within the brackets. Decision or comparison. 1 Flow Chart Formal i s m The subscript i implies t h a t B i s a data f i l e with more than one number .

I f not. the stress levels i n the c a l l i n g f u n c t i o n DEF (see Appendix G ) .nent v a r i a b l e s . Once t h e i n p u t s e c t i o n i s completed. t h e increment by which t h e c o l l e c t i v e p i t c h i s t o be changed ( t h i s may be p o s i t i v e o r negative) and t h e number o f i t e r a t i o n s desired. The program then r o t a t e s t h e s e c t i o n axes (hence t h e values of t h e moments o f i n e r t i a ) i n t o t h e proper o r i e n t a t i o n f o r t h e bending analysis. Next t h e program computes t h e d e f l e c t i o n s due t o bending by Finally. The program f i r s t d i r e c t s t h e p r e s e t t i n g of perti. The program f l o w c h a r t i s included on t h e f o l l o w i n g pages. Ifyes. t h e operator i s asked f o r t h e s t a r t i n g value of t h e c o l l e c t i v e p i t c h . t h e (modulus weighted) moments o f i n e r t i a a r e transposed t o t h e p o i n t a t which t h e bending a x i s passes through t h e station. one i n p u t can r e s u l t when compared w i t h t h e i n p u t section.2 Program Moments This i s t h e main program o f t h e s t a t i c analysis. s k i n are computed and reported. then t h e i n p u t o f i n f o r m a t i o n necessary t o t h e analysis. . The One p e c u l i a r i t y o f t h e a l g o r i t h m i s t h a t t h e v a r i a b l e BMX i s a c t u a l l y t h e negative o f t h e bending moments about t h e x axis. That s e c t i o n o f t h e program uses very l i t t l e computer time Consequently. The program then asks whether o r n o t i t e r a t i o n f s desired. program execution ceases. coordinate transformations are s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d . There were few problems i n v o l v e d i n w r i t i n g t h e main program. The i t e r a t i v e loop f o r r e p o r t i n g stresses was introduced t o save compp u t e r time. The l o a d p a t t e r n i s assumed t o remain constant. The program then computes t h e bending s t r e s s d i s t r i b u t i o n associated w i t h each col 1e c t i ve p i t c h s e t t i n g .C.

FIG.-------COMPUTE STRESS b DEF CALCULATES DEFLECTIONS 4 I SCHEMATIC PROGRAM MOMENTS . C . I PROGRAM MOM ENTS SUBROUTINES SECTION PROPERTIES 0 INPUT 4 m a - -- L A . CALCULATES SEC TlON PROPERTIES OUTPUT m e - -- v TRANSLATE TO BENDIFJG AXIS INDEX A --------ROTATE COORDINATES v INTEG 1 I -------b COMPUTE DEF CHANGE PITCH ANGLE INPUTS 1 .

i n a n a l y s i s of many d i f f e r e n t c o l l e c t i v e p i t c h s e t t i n g s . t h e program can be v e r y e a s i l y m o d i f i e d t o a l l o w t h e moments o f i n e r t i a f o r p a r t i c u l a r designs t o be s t o r e d i n g l o b a l memory. . A l t e r n a t i v e l y . refinement.is One obvious t o allow the introduction o f d i f Presently. This would r e q u i r e t h e i n p u t s e c t i o n t o be used o n l y once f o r any p a r t i c u l a r blade design. p i t c h may be indexed. which has n o t been made. only c o l l e c t i v e f e r e n t l o a d p a t t e r n s w i t h i n t h e i t e r a t i v e loop. The m o d i f i c a t i o n necessary i s t h e removal o f t h e v a r i a b l e s concerned from t h e header 1i n e o f MOMENTS.

t.r. chord a t each s t a t i o n .t. 2) ( P o s i t i v e i s a r o t a t i o n from Leading edge towards Low Pressure surface) PR PS RO H Minor p r i n c i p a l moment o f i n e r t i a Major p r i n c i p a l moment o f I n e r t i a Local p i t c h angle w. wind m i l l axes I XX IYY S e c t i o n moment o f i n e r t i a about windmi 11 x a x i s S e c t i o n moment o f i n e r t i a about w i n d m i l l y a x i s Mixed s e c t i o n moment o f i n e r t i a about w i n d m i l l a x i s Bending modulus a t low pressure s u r f a c e s k i n Bending modulus of h i g h pressure s u r f a c e s k i n Y c o o r d i n a t e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f low pressure s u r f a c e I XY EUP EL0 YU XC YL X c o o r d i n a t e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f low pressure s u r f a c e Y c o o r d i n a t e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f h i g h pressure s u r f a c e XCL X c o o r d i n a t e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f h i g h pressure s u r f a c e c2 STRU Stress d i s t r i b u t i o n i n Low Pressure s u r f a c e s k i n .r.PRINCIPAL VARIABLES BETA BETANOT THETA Local p i t c h angle C o l l e c t i v e p i t c h angle 1) P o l a r Mass Moment of I n e r t i a about r o t o r a x i s ANGLE o f PRINCIPAL AXES w.

65 STRL Stress distribution in High Pressure surface skin .

E O P R E A iB E T A i CH0.r ' r " r .( ( z : c x c .+/TUETA+32.n f i ~ a ~ s e a ~ 1X'I'CtI~:'fO-AREaxX~nR~ x'r'PAR YETAtBETA+FHI rvEra+wx ( : ~ Q P R~ I ~ ~ I ~ O R O + : ~ X .1 114PUT .~ : o o .(-l*~~r~)~180+ol (+1E7) FIEOUT WII4DMILL LI:<CS REFERRED TO BENDII4G A X I S ' I 'BENDI~IG STIFFNESSES . XC. I'I'YO i I:<'r'O: T H E T A .sCL. 6 C E P I T R O I I ~ L O C A T I O N FIS CHORD FRACTION' '&AS5 C E N T R U I n COORDSNATES' >:HAP: YEPR' 9 ~+~(~r~Mcssx)pMoPsx.I' 9 I 3+dASSX+C?HORK~ I 'YEt4DING 'AEOUT STIFFNESSES -1E7' T H E MAJOR PRINCIPAL LIXI5' 9 I I 2+PR THE MX14OR P R X I 4 C I P A L A X I S ' 'ABOUT 9 27'I I 'TOTAL 0 I I AREA OF MASS' ~.2 ) +RCOT * I I . -~B:~XI::YC+I~YC-I.PROGRAM LISTING VMOYEHTSCnJV vMOYE1. P R . I C L I ~ ~ I L I T I C ' N F S E U T I O I i P R I I 1 C X F ' ~ LA X E S F R O M C H O R D O .HETaCfTYETA]f2 'SLADE 1 I WEIGdT. 29578 i I 'MCDULUS WEZGHTED CENTROI~ LocnrIou1 ' 7 I . c ) + 2 ) *:)+I::Yc*~) P S + ( ( X::>:C+EYYC ) .S (LB I14 S E C * 2 ) '.:>:0.-:XC) !. Y L O j C i . rsan X ' 'MCDULUS W€IGHTEb y z+xaaR-cHotsn . XBOR YBLIR 3+Q( 2 .C2.+ (.IT5 Fn o t ..YLo~ n RFIND IXXC. THE TAX^^.'r'LIP G . (CCWr+) ' 9 2.2X12 I THETAcMASZXH rHETA~~)+:UETOC~]-2 THETa[fTHETA]+.YuP~. PRINCXPLIL A14GIE nFIND R H D MOMENTS O F I t 4 E R T I A rwzrac fr::xc+zr i z ) + 2 : .+/THETA 1 I a .:J. I X T C IXXCtIXXO-ARE AX YEAR*^ ~ r r c t r ~ ~ ~ r o .IGEOAREA 'YEfGHT O F U N I T SPA14.z *0.~ + t2 M O S ~ ) ) ~ ~ THETO+-THET~XMPSS THEt&ClJtTHETd[1]+2 THETACfTnETa)tT~ETd[pTHET~]f2 1YLISG 8 YOMEI4T CF INERTIa ASOUT T H E F:OTOR A:. F'5 ..ROOT i YBAR . p : i s a ~ ) p x ~ a ~ .YL. I I I C . POUNI*S '.MLLss51' I t 'MLISS X CEMTROID AS CHORD FRACT1OI. POUNDS P E R INCH* 9 4twass n P0:nCOMPUTE I I MOMENTS O F INERTIA AbOUT WIIiDM1LL AXES I I I I lnEta I NAUGHT 1..Yu.1.

lcruPlCr. X ~ ~ R H O C I ] rLc(-lx:<lxlowro[~] ~991 [loo] )+. :</CHORD.(~:~?:x~~r't)-~:r'r'~~ C:+(-'fOUUG) " '' ' I N THC FLAP DIRECTIOPI' (HvPcl)DEF C791 C801 C811 [82] C831 c l " " ' I H THC LLPD LAG DIRECTIOH' I N THE ~841 CBJ3 C8&] ( H P P C ~ ) D L Fc? .X~~FHOCI~ :~CLC(::~X~~EHOCI] )+.7O] C1:1] C1223 El233 CL253 '' 'DO YOU WANT TO ITERPTE WITH ME?' I T I H D c A / ~ ' ~ ' E S ~ = ~ ~ ~ ~ +(ITIND=O)/P4 ITI1.I.7x%UO C723 C731 C74] C753 C763 C773 c783 " x ( (DMYx1:::C)-DM:<~I:<~r)-(I:~:%~I'~'l'~-I:~'~'~~ * 0 U ~ ~ + 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 c~c(srounG)~((~~wx~~r)-b~'r~~::~)i.t?x (1oRHO) x ( 2 o R H O ) xI:.C633 C643 C653 C663 RuOcDCTA-01 'CxXXXslC7' 9 2 ~ 1 % X t I:<:<Cx ( (20PHO) 1 2 ) + ( I'V'rCx (1oRHO) t2)-DS. P 1 5 BENDI1. x ~ L ) + c ~ ~ I ] ~ ~ ~ ~ . #.]~.Lo~cI. 'rl.c( I:::.Olc1.~ ~ : < ~ ~ ~ ~ R U O C I ~ ) + ' I U ~ ~ [ I ..C H O U D C I ~ C1133 7 OrsTRL El131 '' C11. bEh1DI:lO STFB55 BPLCW ' * L o l c ( l l)+rLo 'OtDCR OF READING 'ruP1Cr.]-tPARCI] ::~+(-~X::S~'P~CI~)+:<~CI.:Cx.( l o R H G ) a 2 ) + ( I Y Y C x ( Z o R H O ) a:)+DD 9 C70] C713 " 'CXIXY-lE7' 9 2+1:<'tc(IX:<Cx ( l o U H 0 ) X2oRHJ)-( IItYCx ( 1oRHn) xzoRHC) +I:CC'Cx~~. X~ORHOI: ~1011 El033 11 a "STRESS FORMULATIOH AND SOLUTIOH S T R U C S T R L ~ ( ~ ' I ' U F )1 ~ STFUtEUPx (CIEI].Lo~[I .X:~F:HOCI] ~C~(:~:~~:~UHOCI])+~UP~~I.41 1+1+1 El153 C1163 C1173 C1183 +(I>Pcl)/P2 +'I p:!:+<IT1~4DfO)/p3 ' ' f 1193 [1.tDeO 'NUMaLR OF ITLRATIOHS' El261 C1273 NITcO 'IHCREMLHT' 1T1~cc(o+l80)r0 POIHT~ ~ 1 2 8 3 'STPRTIHG .:IC C673 C683 C693 " ' S X I ' ? ~ I ' s ~ L ~ ~ zrIY'l.I ..'J Y U ~ ( . C923 C933 C9j] ~ 9 5 3 C963 ~ 9 7 3 C993 '-:' P~:"IIIIIIIIIIP===III====~=I~========================== ]-TBPRCI] ] t Y L O l C I .. x:<C C1071 C1083 ~ 1 0 9 3 " " 'srarrou uuMacR C1101 7 O r S T R U ~ 1 1 1 3 7 z + ( : : l + : : r a n l ~ r 1) . x'tU)+C:!CI]e [103] C104] El053 El063 ~ T R L ~ E L ~ ~ ( c ~ ~ I ] ~ .I. ] ~ . . 1I ~891 ~ 9 0 3 c913 E L o c r L o c l i l J ::s+ ruplc(l IS~U ) .I-.IG C37] Ce83 UoTaTron SUP+ " U P C l .IG STEESS ABOVE :: .COMPUTC sracssss I + l fiITEIPCITIVE snaxrs s r x n OUT STWESSB LOOP FOR RCPORTI1. c L .

.

:YY WUT THE 3OlOIffi AXIS BLTII.EFSR I X I . W I T OF IlLQTIA AT W( RIDIUS I If E X E M E ItVRT SECTION (IXPUT) OETCBINE IXX.~ ~ .Ivv.S SfSTSI CI i .-M. 1x1. IVY V L P ~ -LOU PRESSURE SKIN T5 U I ! S I I L L AX.FUNCTION MOMENTS I I 1:IITIR 12: 'VARIABLES (FOOL 1) I I PRItIT MINOR PRINCIPAL . . 1x1.7 [~*. 4 L C W I:TC' 41 I I FIND W R l l l l O n OF :#ERTLI O i BLADE ROTATI* AXIS PRINT COLLibTIVE PITCH FiP-BENOIXG W L U S JF P4!:IT PPI'iCIPAL PX!S LO3T:Jt:S 47 C4U( RADIAL ?OUT:rJ:( .1XVi Iui:vv! -!xv?) ) II 4 I G H PPESSURE SKlR coo~o~uam vLo'.y .

E S I R E D W E E R OF ITEPATIOAS U M E STRESS LEVEL If1 UPPER U l D LOU SKINS PITCH IMCRDIENT P R I K STRESS L E MID NL CHORWIM LOUTIONS a 1:IITIALIZE L D U L PITCH YES .MOMENTS (Continued) I I TRANSFOffl Y CMRDIiYTES INTO EOlDING AXIS CEllTERED S'ISTDI 1 1 1 lr ITERATIW DESIRED I IHTO BFIIDING AXIS CENTERED SYSTEM 1 I I 'I I INTO UItI1IIILL AXIS COMPUTE X. V COORDIIYTES OF POiliTS C HIGH AlW U LOU PRESSURE SURFACES N I T .

TERMINAL SESSION YOMENTS ENTER T H E NUMBER OF VLITLI SETS a: 8 ENTER THE UPPER S K I N 7 NEWFl ENTER THE S K I N X CO-ORD CO-ORDINLITES a: 0: NlWFlZX E N T E R T H E LOWER SKIN Y CO-ORV a: HEWF2 ENTER rnE 'f MATRIX a: < : 0: NLWF34X HEUP3 MLITRIX ENTER THE 7 YPTRIX 0: X NEWF4 MLITRIX NEWP34:< 0: ENTER THE Y YC)TRI:< 0: < : NEWF5 MQTRI:< NewFgbx a: ENTER THE MC)TKI:< T 0: NEWPb : MLITt?r:< i 0: NCWF56:.: ENTER THE 7 MPTRIX CI : NCWF7 < MATRIX : 0: NEWF78X ENTER THE Y MaTRIX a: X NEWF8 MLITRIH : NEWF78:: .

PLOD

VECTOR NEYPWI

PWI.

THE

REL,

TWIST

114 D E G R F E S

!Y :
ENTEe *ETA HaUGHT

0:
0
ENTER

Tna

RaoraL

STATION

SPACING,

H

0:

19.5
LNTLR TUB LOCATION OF THE RENDING

6x1s

0:
SHLAR

.7,5xcuoao
FORCE PER SPnhJWISE S E C T I O N I N THE

: DIRECTIOeI C

0:

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
SHEAR FORCE 11.1 T H E
Y

DIRECTION

0:

C 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 15+9-16
ENTER THE RnXnIUS OF THE MOST INBOARrm STATIOH,

0:

19.5

C O I I I N G ANGLE?

0:
10
Mass MOMENT OF I N E R T I n nBOUT THE ROTOR AXIS (LB I N S E C L ~ ) 664.6

I).ICLI1~JGTIO).J O F

SECTIOW

F-RIbICIPOL AXES

FROM CHORD

(CC.r)=+)

-10.89
MODULUS ::BLR

5.99
r BPR

5.56

4.58

3.50

4.77

17.23

7.33

3.78

6.14

WEIGHTEO

CENTROID

LOCnTION

3.61 4.29 3.77 1.01 2.43 2.07 1.03 1.56 1.33 1.16
MODULUS

1.04 0 63 0.55 0.45 0.38 0.34 0.33 0.27 0.24 0.15
X

WEIGHTED

C E N T R O I D L O C A T I O N 65 CHORD

FRACTION

0.223
MnSS CENTUOXD XPAR

0.245
r'BC)R

0.249

0.246

0.238

0.236

0.269

0.236

0.246

0.276

COORDINnTES

3.80 4.63 4.08 3.28 2.66 2.25 2.15 1.70 1.47

1 .02 0.62 0.54 0.45 0.38 0.34 0.36 0.27 0.25

MPSS

X

C L N T R O I D AS

CHORD

FRACTION

0.234
DRMDIN6 AmOUT THC

0.264
MAJOR

0.270 ilC7 1.67 10.23 4.94
POUNDS CLR

0.268

0.261

0.256

0.285

0.258

0.272

0.311

STICFNLSSCS

PRINCIPAL AXIS

4.09
ABOUT TNL

2.96
MINOR

1.31 5.50 9-16
INCH

0.65 3.18 3.57 0.1940

0.39 1.51 2.76 0.1507

0.16 0.91 2.42 0.1298

0.13 0.14 1.51 0.0825

0.06 0.27 1.06 0.0574

0.01 9-15 0.55 0.0295

PIINCIPAL AXIS

13.89
TOTAL aRLA OC

15.13
MPSS

10.32
P L I O H T OC U N I T

6.33
SCAM,

0.5633

0.3431

0.2671

0.2254

DENDIHG STIFCNSSSCS EX I X X + l E 7

(ilC7) ABOUT 1.97

WINDMILL

A:<LS

PLCCRRED

TO

eLNDIHG

4x1s

7.17

4.39

1.05

0.67

0.39

0.21

0.13

0.07

0.01

I N

Tnc

CLAP

DIPECTION

DCCLSCTION

0.000

C.016

0.077

0.205

0.415

0.723

1.162

1.766

2.513

3.339

ORnCR

OF

RCADING

15

BENDrt<G STRESS

PDOVC : i r :</CHOF:n,

EEt.IDII.IG

STRESS

3ELOW

: C

STATION

NUMOLR

1

-447 0.00 -447

-444 0.05 -293

-379. -220 0.10 0.20 '8 11 22

-37 0.30 215

lh3 0.40 406

375 0.50
5'77

596 0.60. 787

824

i179
0.85

0.70 ?77

1265

1551 l.OC 1551

STATION

NUMBER

2

84 0.00 84

203 0.05 273

-297 0.10 327

-391 0.20 370

-411 0.30 382

-377 0.40 369

-306 0.50 395

-207 0.60 398

-85 0.70 400

146 0.65 410

41R 1.00 418

S T a T I O N NUMBER

3 -344 0.10 536 -525 0.20 547 -602 0.30 515 -6C4 0.40 476 -552 0.50 434 -462 OsLO 389 -340 0.70 343 -96 0.85 285 222 1.00 222

241 0.00 241

'8 17 0.05 484

STPTION

I4UYBER

4 -334 0.10 538 -535 0.20 537 -613 0.30 495 -625 0.40 445 -585 0.50 393 -507 0.60 337 -396 0.70 281 -173 0.85 206 128 1.00 128

257 0eOO 257

-173 0.05 492

STPTXON

14UYLER

5 -346 0.10 511 -530 0.20 513 -613 0.30 474 -623 0.40 428 -580 0.50 380 -501 0.60 328 -390 0.70 375 -165 0.85 206 134 1.00 134

232 0.00 232

-189 0.05 464

STPTION

HUMIER

6 -354 0.10 576 -567 0.20 566 -669 0.30 512 -692 0.40 449 -658 0.50 385 -584 0.60 316 -476 0.70 247 -250 0.85 153 56 1.00 56

285 0.00 285

-178 0.05 531

S T P T X O N f.dUYDEP

8 -289 0.10 565 -506 0.20 535 -621 0.30 463 -664 0.40 384 -655 0.50 303 -608 0.60 219 -530 0.70 133 -355 0.85 15 -107 1.00 -107

320 0.00 320

-116 0.05 535

STPTXOfl

NUYPEU

9 -153 0.10 346 -386 0.20 320 -362 0.30 370 -395 0.40 216 -398 0.50 160 -379 0.60 103 -342 0.70 45 -252 0.85 -37 1 ' 0 1.00 -110

313 0.00 313

-47 0.05 333

bO

I O U WPblT

TO

XTER9TE

WITH

ME?

I E S 14UYDEF: O F

ITEI?PTIOl4S

0:

IHCREMEHT

?

0: 0:

L

"
F'OI>lT

STPRTLNG

3

D E T P NPUGUT

3

050 0.20 578 '8 64 0.7 10 .9 UINDMILL I X C S RCCCRRCD TO BCNDXNO 6x1s cxxxxi1o7 68 .39 0.176 0.10 306 -382 0.30 488 -629 0.278 0.40 472 -660 0.9 0.002 LLPDINO 0.00 63 '1 21 0.601 0.60 354 -375 0.40 388 '7 28 0.01 I N THC L C I D L A 0 D I R C C T I O M DCCLCCTION 0.20 0.05 533 -586 0.50 412 -577 0.70 420 179 0.40 446 5 1 0.20 354 -394 0.30 529 -701 0.60 348 -459 0.000 ORDIR OC 0.05 465 -362 0.424 STRESS 0.13 3.10 582 '9 16 0.104 PBOVL 0.30 374 -354 0.BCNDXNO STICCNCSSLS (+1C7) PBOUT 20 .60 410 ' 5 0 0.10 515 -546 0.85 197 107 1.00 459 63 0.20 523 -625 0.50 400 -175 0.85 441 459 1.790 I S B L N D I N G STRCSS X T :</CHORDT PCHOING LCLOW H STITLO14 NUMBER 2 '9 29 0.70 306 -137 0.00 107 .00 277 5 -204 0.70 283 -217 0.50 402 -494 0.05 230 S T a T I O H NUMBER -?=5 0.85 243 176 1-00 176 sTITION NUMBER 6 -374 0.01 0.016 3.00 225 277 0.6 46 .68 0.

85 -690 -1140 1.23 ABOUT WZ'NDMILL PXES PEFECPED TO BENDING A.IG ExI:.70 -317 61 -1423 0.14 0.98 1. 0.1E7) 2.13 0.30 290 -416 0.190 :C/CHORD.002 READING 0.05 1453 STATION t.50 179 -392 0.052 STRESS 0.887 2.05 348 B€Ta NAUGHT 4 (.016 0.30 963 -1408 0.39 0.STATION NUMBER 7 -349 0.IUMBLR 2 .IG S T A T I O N C4UMBER 1 STATIOII I.50 368 -1576 -1561 0 ~ 6 0 0.912 :: .305 0.:>:-lE7 STICF1.85 -19 -103 1.40 235 '1 46 0.111 ABOVE H.205 1.20 340 -384 0.55 4.075 0.IUMBER 9 -167 0.40 668 -1529 0.60 121 -349 0.10 1443 -817 0.70 0.01 IEl THE FLPP DXRECTIOH DEFLECTION 3.00 217 -56 0.734 1.000 ORDER OF 0.016 15 FENPING 0.205 0.70 63 -249 0.IESSES 6.20 1244 -1184 0.000 0.10 364 -307 0.688 WELOW 0.00 1097 164 0.06 0.IDII.:IS WLI.00 -103 217 0.19 0. 0.681 I H THE LEaD DEFLECTION LAG DIRECTION 0. *EI.IDII.478 STRESS 0.419 3.00 -1140 1097 0.740 3.

40 494 -658 0.05 532 5T6TION NUMBER 8 -333 0.I NUMPER 6 -394 0.S T a T I O l .30 546 -708 0.00 309 -154 0.10 586 -604 0.13 587 -552 0.20 568 -661 0.30 506 -693 0.50 440 -567 0.40 435 -669 0.00 309 0.70 308 -297 0.83 244 162 1.70 322 -180 0.00 162 266 0.05 547 -@ END OF CROGRaM .60 285 -507 0.00 266 -215 0.20 589 -697 0.60 381 -439 0.50 362 -605 0.85 102 -8 1.

~ dA ~ P ( X . X BAR f ( ~ ( ~ . . Y ) YdA MASSY :P(X. over a l l l o a d c a r r y i n g E(x3. ~ ) + E dA )Y ~ YBAR . i s an a r b i t r a r y reference modulus. f ) A ~ o ( . The c a l c u l a t i o n s a c t u a l l y performed by t h e s u b r o u t i n e a r e l i m i t e d t o incrementing i n d i c e s and t h e r e d u c t i o n of f i r s t moments t o c e n t r o i d s by d i v i s i o n by t h e a p p r o p r i a t e l y weighted areas. ~ ) +) X 1 E dA A ~ ( E ( X . Specifically.Y) where dA A4 El dA i s t h e i n t e g r a l of t h e f u n c t i o n area.Y) +El J dA MASSX A ~ ( ~ dA ~ ) ~ .y) i s t h e l o c a l bending modulus.A P P E N D I X FUNCTION INPUT D Function i n p u t reads t h e data necessary f o r a11 subsequent c a l c u l a t i ons The f u n c t i o n a l s o c a l l s t h e r o u t i n e s which compute t h e s e c t i o n s ' s t r u c t u r a l characteristics . . A (E(x.

i s assigned by operation on the f i r s t entered f i l e o f x coordinates. 2 5 x CHORD' and a l l o f t h e bending w i l l be r e f e r r e d t o t h e q u a r t e r chord l i n e . t h e values o f t h e chord l e n g t h f o r t h e various sections. t h e chord w i l l be adversely e f f e c t e d . t h i s can a l s o be entered as long as t h e scale has t h e same shape as CHORD. t h e bending a x i s i s scaled w i t h t h e chord. f o r Thus.p(x. The function checks t o i n s u r e t h a t t h e c o r r e c t number o f transverse loads have been entered i n both t h e x and y d i r e c t i o n s . This i s u s e f u l i f . They could be e x p l o i t e d i n a s i m i l a r manner. (The c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n o f the r o t o r as a c a n t i l e v e r beam supported a t t h e most inboard s t a t i o n i s accomplished a t t h i s p o i n t by t h e f u n c t i o n BEND. be accomplished by m o d i f i c a t i o n o f t h i s Function. By t h e time t h e v e c t o r i a l i n p u t s are r e q u i r e d (1 i n e 28 and beyond) t h e v e c t o r CHORD has a l ready been established. This w i l l be described e x p l i c i t l y i n Appendix H. when t h e pro- example. Subsequent c a l c u l a t i o n s based on Any o t h e r beam type can . I f scaled any o t h e r way. gram asks f o r t h e l o c a t i o n o f t h e bending a x i s . one need o n l y type l . MASSX and XBAR have a l s o been established a t t h i s p o i n t . t h e values s t o r e d i n CHORD w i l l be i n c o r r e c t .) The v a r i a b l e CHORD.y) i s t h e l o c a l density. I f any data f i l e i s entered which does n o t c o n t a i n t h i s information.

PRINCIPAL VARIABLES A r e c o r d o f t h e Low pressure s k i n Y coordinates and bending modulus A record o f t h e h i g h pressure s k i n Y coordinates and bending modul us X X BAR A Record o f t h e X coordinates associated w i t h t h e above The X component of t h e modulus weighted c e n t r o i d f o r each station Y BAR The Y component o f t h e modulus weighted c e n t r i o d f o r each station MASSX MASSY The X components o f t h e mass c e n t r o i d l o c a t i o n s The Y components o f t h e mass c e n t r o i d l o c a t i o n s .

MY~.IPUT.a ~ ~ a 'veaR+. TRY PGPI1.J=>I) +L1 /aLraN.rcrnss'fi~ass PHIC(O-1eO)XO C34] C351 C36] C373 ' ENTER 1.4 T:4E ~ 3 9 3 .l. THE REL. H L *eTa+io-l80)rU lEIiTEC: T H E R P D I d L HcIJ 'LIiTER THE (381 L O C P T I O N OF B E l ~ I D I l ~ t O >:15' P SECYIOi.rra.ln 0 SPPHYI3E :: .I ' C423 C433 t443 + ( < pBM't')=pCHORG)/C.l CJs] C46] C473 +CXl C X 2 : '5HEPF.r' +(Jd=1. TWIST Ir-1 D E G P E E S ' izs] ~ 2 9 3 ~ 3 0 3 .ECTIO~.ECTIOli' B M X c U SEND 0 +((pQMx)=pCHORD)/Cw3 C483 c493 CSOj ' INCORRECT +c::= C:'3:'ENTER IMBORDCO 'CONIl4G ' SHGPR THE X:IPUT.:sae:+z CAO] C::1: ' 4 H E P Y FORCE PER C413 8 M v c H WE!.<-uass ~~ss.lPTES ' CB] (91 C103 M Y ~ + ~ U P C O ' C I i T E P T H E 51114 YMtXtU CHORDtr/MM +DPLTON LS1.~(M Cll C23 (33 " 'ea.&I)JJ.1 THE ~ i u w s r aOF n c ~ a ETS' S C41 C51 C63 C73 'r C1-GRDI1.PROGRAM LISTING VIHF'UTCOIV vI~. TI> lGPIH.~ RADIUS 8 O F T H E MOST CSl] CS?] C531 C543 CSS3 PtiGLE? ~ * c t o .mar-afi:ca ~311 ~321 C333 ~assnt~ass. .? H+O JJ+O 'ENTER THE UPPER 5111.IF. :.1 11.1OX:'CNTEE VLoewwlcO +DPLTON TME : CO-GPD1 E C11] C123 LOYCfi SKIN 1 CO-ORD' ' CIS] CIS] CIS1 C161 ' " L1: ' ' '' 'EPITCR TkE T YOTRIX 1 C171 C183 C19] CZOI C213 w"lt0 ':< M P T r I : < 8 IMDE:C M M ~ CZ23 M*tO ~ 2 3 3 naLrorc:rw C243 ~ 2 3 3 C243 C273 JJcJJ+l + ( J. : s a ~ c : < a a ~ . INBOPPD sTaTI0t. I N THE r DIL.!OUGHT' PT1TION THE SFICIt-IG.1.i e o ) x o '' " v .r./LEllU:< aiaaH'r:'F:EaD VECTOR PHI.!~ 'INCORRECT SHEPR FORCE IWPUT.

Cbll416H PRESSURE SURFAC: COORDllUTES I W-x COOROlNATE RTRIX BET&( " i1SO! x COLLECTIVE PITCH : DEGREES I H-SPACING B M E E N W l A L STATIONS . I RELATIVE n I s T AT EACH STATION.FUNCTION INPUT IPn-YUD-LOII PRESSURE SURFPCE W T R I X m-x tarark CORPLSPOXDING T J ABOVE A30 BELO'. I N 9EBREES YL3.

INPUT (Continued) s BrSlYi BEIIDING MOMENTS DUE T O LOADS IN X DIRECTION (BWY H BEND ) + I BMYi+ BENDING MOMENTS DUE TG LOADS IN Y I MOST INBOARD STATION 0 RETURN .

t h e newly i n t e g r a t e d q u a n t i t i e s a r e summed w i t h t h e a p p r o p r i a t e elements o f t h e already e s t a b l i s h e d v e c t o r s . t h e s i z e o f t h e v a r i a b l e s i n l i n e s 15 through 24 i s e s t a b l i s h e d . The unique advantage of t h i s arrangement i s t h a t any s i z e d a t a f i l e s may be used i n t h e analysis. The a l g o r i t h m a u t o m a t i c a l l y adapts i t s e l f . each row must have an even number of numerals included. The v e c t o r Y c o n s i s t s o f t h e thickness o f t h e s e c t i o n being considered. The vector X c o n s i s t s o f t h e x coordinates. The o n l y a r i t h m e t i c a c t i v i t y i s t h e a d d i t i o n o f t h e r e s u l t s o f f u n c t i o n INTEG t o t h e a p p r o p r i a t e v a r i a b l e s . t h a t i s when t h e f i r s t d a t a f i l e i s being processed. then down t h e rows. as l o n g as every data f i l e p e r t a i n s t o t h e same number o f s t a t i o n s . because t h e f i r s t row o f MM c o n t a i n s o n l y bending modulus and d e n s i t y i n f o r m a t i o n . t h e r e a r e some r e q u f r e ments on t h e shape o f b1M and MM1. Because t h e program always p i c k s o u t t h r e e p o i n t s a t a time. Each row o f I'rlM must have an odd number o f MFll must have one more row than MM. . On t h e f i r s t pass. Since each row o f MM1 except t h e f i r s t c o n t a i n s thickness and c o o r d i n a t e i n f o r m a t i o n .A P P E N D I X FUNCTlON INDEX E T h i s f u n c t i o n reads t h e data f i l e s MM and M 1 and d i r e c t s t h e i r i n t e M gration. The f u n c t i o n INTEG i s then c a l l e d t o operate on x and y. When o t h e r data f i l e s a r e being processed. and t h r e e y coordinates corresponding t o t h e above x coordinates. The program f i r s t moves across t h e columns. t h e l o c a l bending modulus. entries. and t h e l o c a l d e n s i t y .

Y) dAi Ai El YBAR i A J E(X.Y)X dAi i El .PRINCIPAL VARIABLES 2 J E(x'y)y Ai 1 dAi: measured from chord l i n e IYYOi 2 J E ( x s y ) x dAi measured from t h e l e a d i n g edge Ai El IXYO i E(x.y)xy dAj Ai r AREA i 1 E(x.

J n A X 3 nnncn~ncn L m 5 L I I E E R U D U G ~4 4 1 I - x + + . H n -: .a D i m m & n & O X X X X . : > : + I-GI t x x I X D n u u t t f f f f X D f D D m D D m i + X n w I U L f t X r r i D H H O ~ 0 ~ u l 0 a 3 D O O O L E U X X D I * ~ ~ : .* * + .. .: D H M I & n & O X X X > : i D H H H ~ & X & > : 1 c . ~ ~ ..L ~t D D ~ D D ~ ..~ D D D I * ~ j : . . . . : i D n n ~ + ~ m W L t : I i \ DLLUUUUUU.t .. : ~ ' ~ m ~ m ~ ~ ~ r m z + xt r t n t ~m t ~ r D H ~ L O ~ ~ ~ D D ~ ~ : ~ H ~ L O ~ ~ ~ L mD ~ D u~ l ~ i r + m Z ~ ~ ~ Im In c n n n ~ o o a n m s c n n z ~ o o o z n + z r ~ m r r* m i z ix n n n n n n . + L D O < > : X X X * H H H X m ~ ~ e m c n q n ~ o o D Z u D O O D I .. i .: < I ~ u u X X X @ H H O D i l H D + + D O O D I .I-4 z ?:3 x ~i ~ ~ ~ L L L L ~ mL t H x ~ .: \ D x x D ~ V A < : .t ~ w o o m u l m n n n n n n t n a n L q n D c V o \ ~ I aI a m O ' X L L L L L L H gnnuuuuuu : : D O 0 i B L L + + + + + + : . ul ix n x t t t t t t t a c t . : n E E :. : rn i i w ... : ~ ~ m n c . ~ 1 I .. Z X R E ' I ~ . O H X X H - \ + -I++ 6 + + f D F :: .

FUNCTION INDEX L_r F-J + 1 .

INDEX (Continued) .

wise.A P P E N D I X FllNCTrON TNTEG F Function INTEG performs summations o f t h e s e c t i o n p r o p e r t i e s t o approximate t h e i n t e g r a l s d e t a i l e d i n Appendix E. I f t h e s e c t i o n i s s o l i d . 41 through 53 t o e s t a b l i s h t h e summation o f i n t e r e s t . x values a r e then determined. we g e t t e n i n t e r v a l s evenly spaced between The c e n t r o i d a l x c o o r d i n a t e s a r e then The values o f y associated w i t h these t h e l a r g e s t and s m a l l e s t v a l u e o f x. Thus. A parabola i s f i t through these p o i n t s . determined f o r each o f t h e i n t e r v a l s . and evenly spaced i n t e r v a l s a r e pros c r i b e d o n t o t h a t curve. I f t h e section i s n o t s o l i d . t h e l o g i c assumes t h a t the specified section i s solid. t h e i n c l u d e d s e c t i o n p r o p e r t i e s a r e then determined. . t h e s e c t i o n i s broken up i n t o many r e c t a n g l e s and t h e c e n t r o i d coordinates o f these r e c t a n g l e s used. then the projected thickness i s s u b t r a c t e d from t h e p r e v i o u s value of y and t h e i n t e r m e d i a t e s between these values of y a r e found. The i n p u t r e q u i r e s t h e s p e c i f i c a t i o n o f t h r e e p o i n t s on t h e surface. This establishes t h e coordinates o f t h e c e n t r o i d This i n f o r m a t i o n i s then operated on i n l i n e s of t h e s e c t i o n considered. Ift h e s p e c i f i e d t h i c k n e s s f o r t h e summation i s zero. most o f t h e i n t e g r a b l e Other- s e c t i o n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s aretcomputed d i r e c t l y ( l i n e s 17 through 29). I n t h i s case.

1 MS A RO T H WX pi X i A Ai i RO T H WY C pi i Y i A Ai AREA1 L A Ai i . A Ai MD T O WX i 1 A A.PRINCIPAL VARIABLES RO H density 1ocal bendi ng modu 1us E X x components o f selected p o i n t s y components o f selected p o i n t s c o e f f i c i e n t s o f t h e best f i t parabola coo + colx Y co + co2x2 = y MD T O WY L i '1 --i yi i 5x.

where = density l o c a l bendingmodulus small s e c t i o n of a r e a E AA = = €1 = 107 .

: I1+r1++/Exax:~:a*~ ~ ~ + ~ ~ + + / E x ~ x ~ * x ~ B X3+13++/EXaX'?E*2 masEltBasE1++/Exa MODWTY+MODWTT++/EX~T~BXA MOL~WT:~~MO~WTX++/EX:~'EXCI M ~ S C M A S C R H O +/Q X RHOWT>~tF:HOWTX++/RHOX>:BXG RHOWTYtRHOWTY++/EHOxYBXa aREaltaREal++/a v . ' T.T*'r'.'C I 3 3 COtr>< F I T Y ::+:. ( T X F I C I E L E .CO.CICI.111 R THIS R O U T I t . ~ 1 1 . aREnltaREal++/nxx 5xY*2 + +lo00 HECK:THET+-30CO~~J+~xCO~~]x:~: '1'1t'r'-0 . ~ x ~ X x X x T * ~ 13tTJ++/Ex(Dxs3)xT*3 FCI5EltBCISE1++/Exn:~:x'r' M o ~ W T ~ r ~ t M O r ~ W T ~ r ~ + + / E x n : C x 1 ' .Il:.1 rn'i+( rmt(aax.r WOEK:n THE BUTTER >:me:.:. THE CI1.F:HO.:*: 1 2 t I ~ + + / E x O .:'r'.::B.PROGRAM L I S T I N G VI.r~1)+0.1 ) x D ~ : c o .u : < + ~ ) 2 ) .5x~x~aa ( c o ~ ~ l x ~ : .( ~ 0 [ 2 ] x : c + n : ~ : + 2 ) + c o f ( c~ ~ j x n 33 (LIX*~)+D~*~)*O.n : ~ + ~ ) + c :o .IEW THE OF I:. I E ZnOES PIECEWISE SUMMCITION O F ' f i V n R I O U S P R O P E R T I E S OF T H E CROSS S E C T I O H 5 .. RHOt:-:[5] EtXC4J TtfC43 EtE-EF:EF DO WITH THE SECTIO14'S S'r"r'. S x ( xYC:] )=XYC~I ) xT+20THET ant (x'r.: Mi\StMAS++/E:Cx~xeHO HHOIUTS+EHOWT:~:++/F:HOXXXL~~<~'~~ RHOWTYtRHOWT'r'++/RHOxro:CxO. '1'F.:x. 1xx'[3-J-:cC1] ~+(coC~~x~:)+coI:33X~:*2 4 ( T Z O ) /HECK I ~ + x ~ + + / E xI. HOST ~ R U n F l T I T I E SS H O U L a P B R E C I D l L I I D E I .* 2 5 O MODWTX+MOrhWT%++/ExD:CxY ' xi. :<t>:c \ 3 3 I't'.: I 1 4 T E G 1'.X~XXO. I 3 HCIVE T O n I:CX R E S F ' E C .(TEGCC]V V:.I.THET THE iC I i ' f l .~~X:.:[i]+(D:1+2)+( YtCOCl ( \ 1 0 ) .E.S n+rx( x(~+nxt2)*2 + ( l o = ~ + / n a ) / w o ~ ~ a t ( a a x a ) + ( ~ a a ) x ln:.12.T V E L Y .

FUNCTION INTEG .

I NTEG Page 2 + I MODWTY MODUTY I I 1 RHO x i Ai ( 0 RETUR .

I t s operation i s straightforward. . s t a t i o n i s assumed t o be zero i n b o t h d i r e c t i o n s . T h i s must be changed t o some o t h e r value i f some r o t o r s u p p o r t o t h e r t h a n a c a n t i l e v e r i s t o be considered.APPENDIX G FUNCTION DEF F u n c t i o n DEF solves t h e Equation o f bending g i v e n i n Chapter 3. It u t i l i z e s a f o u r t h o r d e r Runge-Kutta method f o r t h e s o l u t i o n (Chapter 4 ) . I n t e g r a t i o n begins a t t h e most i n b o a r d The d e f l e c t i o n o f t h e most i n b o a r d s t a t i o n and proceeds toward t h e t i p . The i n i t i a l s l o p e i s assigned t h e v a l u e zero.

f o r example .PRINCIPAL VARIABLES H s t a t i o n spacing number o f s t a t i o n s slope a record o f slope as a f u n c t i o n o f radius N F FF RET d e f 1e c t ion C the q u a n t i t y being integrated.

PROGRAM LISTING VDEFCa]V VIN DEF CjHjNjFjFFjF:ET.5 Li+HxF L~+HxEB+F+K~+~ K2+HXKX(i+EE*2)fii.5 FF+FFIF+(+6)~Ki+K4+2XK2+K3 RET+RETY(-i+RET)+(+6)xLi+L4+2xL2+L3 +(IT=N-i)/Lii IT+IT+i F+-i+FF +LO LI 1 :' DEFLECT1Ot.ITjK.t ' 8 I 3tRET t .5 L3+HxPP+F+U2-2 K ~ + H x K x ( ~ + P B * ~ ) * ~ .L3.K2.L4 H+II.(Ci] rt+1t-t~2] F+FF+O F.K3jK4.:ET+O IT+i LO:K+~.L2. ~ Lq+HxPP+F+K3 KqtHxKx(i+PB*2)*i.~XCCIT]+CCIT+~] Ki+HxKx(i+Fh2)hi.Li.

H I < .FUNCTION DEF R P D VECTOR I1 : RSD VECTOR H c X I . ~ Rtl [REI. (I + F ~ ) ~ .IT 1 iUST ELE!EIi? OF FF . (LAST ErrmY IN I r-J IT.

t h e r e f o r e be taken t h a t t h e s i g n o f t h e bending moments thus c a l c u l a t e d are a d j u s t e d c o r r e c t l y i n t h e c a l l i n g program. . Function RESET RESET assigns v a r i a b l e t y p e (empty v e c t o r ) t o t h e l i s t e d vectors. It a l s o assigns i n i t i a l values t o t h e l i s t e d s c a l a r s .APPENDIX H MINOR ROUTINES Functi on Bend Function Bend computes bending moments due t o t h e loads F according t o t h e spacing d e f i n e d by H. For p o s i t i v e H and p o s i t i v e Care must F t h e computer bending moments w i l l a1 1 be p o s i t i v e . Function FOOL 1 FOOL 1 assigns v a r i a b l e t y p e t o t h e l i s t e d vectors and i n i t i a l values t o t h e 1 i s t e d s c a l a r s .

S+K-I)XF[K] +(I=pF)/L I+X+I +NEW L:W+M?O v vRESET[O]v VRESET 111 C21 C31 MODWT:.I.PROGRAlll LISTING vBEl.K C11 C21 C31 141 CSl C61 171 C81 MeF I+1 NEW:K+I+(II+(~F)-I)-~ M[I]+HX+/(O.:+MOEIWTP+I ~ + I ~ + I ~ + P & S E 1 + & R E A 1 + 0 RHOWTX+RHOWTV+WAS+O Ki-2 C41 CSI w d+d+1 Ill+I22+X33+0 .lD[n] v v M + H B E N D F.

+ COMPUTE BENDING STAT ION MOMENTS AT EACH ASSIGN 0 AT FREE END RETURN 7 ( 1 .' I FUNCTION BEND 4 READ DISCRETE LOAD PATTERN AND SPACING BEnliEEN LOADS I r-l I INITIALIZE ASSIGN MEMORY SPACE I I .

FUNCTION FOOL 1 SPACE FOR FUNCTION RESET I ASSIGN I N I T I A L VALUE TO A P P L I CABLE VARIABLES VARIABLES I I 7 RETUR .

m a t e r i a l d i s t r i b u t i o n . nent constants a r e c a l c u l a t e d by MOMENTS and s t o r e d i n g l o b a l memory. . The beam i s f i r s t allowed d e f l e c t i o n s w i t h The method converges t o t h e fundamental. The n e x t o p e r a t i o n i s t o assume a mode shape which i s t h e n e g a t i v e transpose of t h e fundamental mode shape. The beam considered may be o f completely a r b i t r a r y con- s t r u c t i o n . and frequency due t o t h i s i n e r t i a l l o a d a r e computed and reported. The f u n c t i o n ORTHOG i s used t o sub- t r a c t t h e i n f l u e n c e of lower modes on t h e assumed s o l u t i o n by Schmitt Orthogonal i z a t i o n . To execute FREQ you need o n l y t y p e t h e name. verges on t h e n e x t h i g h e r mode shape. The p e r t i - FREQ i s w r i t t e n such t h a t t h e r e q u i r e d i n p u t t o t h e program i s s u p p l i e d d u r i n g t h e normal execution o f t h e program MOMENTS. The d e f l e c t i o n s . (The f u n c t i o n DOG i s used t o compute t h e d e f l e c t i o n s . no c o n s t r a i n t s .APPENDIX I PROGRAM FREQ FREQ c a l c u l a t e s t h e n a t u r a l frequencies and mode shdpes o f a f r e e l y v i b r a t i n g beam. t h e assumed s o l u t i o n conOnce convergence has been noted. FREQ uses t h e Rayleigh R i t z method o f assumed s o l u t i o n t o f i n d t h e frequencies and mode shapes. mode shape. T h i s assumed mode shape i s 90" o u t o f phase w i t h t h e fundamental mode shape a t each r a d i a l s t a t i o n . The i n e r t i a l l o a d due t o t h i s assumed mode shape i s determined.f l e x u r a l v i b r a t o r y modes may be neg1ected . ) Higher modes a r e now sought. t w i s t and t a p e r so l o n g as coup1 i n g between f l e x u r a l and any o t h e r n o n . When appl i e d i t e r a t i v e l y .

) (The support i s d e f i n e d A s i n e f u n c t i o n having a node a t t h e support and a t The fundamental mode shape i s m u l t i The f r e - t h e assumed mode i s established. This frequency The frequency and mode shape so determined a r e r e p o r t e d and t h e program stops. p l i e d by t h e imposed s i n e . This becomes t h e assumed s o l u t i o n . a node i s assumed a t t h e f r e e Next. Above t h a t agreement was p r o g r e s s i v e l y worse. a u n i f o r m beam d e f i n e d by 11 s t a t i o n s was entered. The search seeks t h e node p o s i t i o n and frequency corresponding t o a f r e quency maximum. halfway between s t a t i o n s i x and the f r e e end. The program w i l l f i n d The program as p r e s e n t l y w r i t t e n now stops. The process i s t h e same as described above. Next. t o be s t a t i o n 1 . Once again t h e negative transpose o f t h e mode shape i s used t o compute a y e t h i g h e r mode. The modes p r e d i c t e d agreed w i t h t h e exact r e s u l t up t o t h e t h i r d mode. ) I f t h e operations on t h e lower modes by ORTHOG do n o t converge t o a s i n g l e assumed mode a f t e r 10 i t e r a t i o n s . a node i s assumed a t t h e s i x t h s t a t i o n . (This i s t h e same i n i n t e n t as t h e Schmitt Orthogonal i- z a t i o n of an assumed s o l u t i o n w i t h j u s t t h e fundamental ) maximum corresponds t o a w e l l d e f i n e d spanwise node. quency i s computed on t h i s basis. a node i s assumed The same operations a r e end and t h e same operations are c a r r i e d out. c a r r i e d o u t again. a d i f f e r e n t scheme i s used.t h e frequency i s computed. ( I n a t e s t . These t h r e e steps a r e t h e f i r s t i n a b i s e c t i o n search r o u t i ~ e . and t h e frequency and mode shape are p r i n t e d . . F i r s t . . a r b r i t r a r i l y h i g h e r modes (up t o t h e l i m i t imposed by the s i z e o f t h e d a t a entered) i f t h e 2 i n l i n e 77 i s changed t o some a r b i t r a r y l a r g e r integer.

such t h a t they r e f l e c t t h e bending moments and i n i t i a l slope due t o t h e changed boundary c o n d i t i o n s .This program can be used f o r any boundary c o n d i t i o n s once s u i t a b l e m o d i f i c a t i o n s have been made t o f u n c t i o n s BEND and DEFl (DEF1 i s l o g i - c a l l y i d e n t i c a l t o DEF. . Appendix G ) . The deflected mode shapes and moments o f i n e r t i a a r e a l l r e f e r r e d t o t h e most r e c e n t p i t c h s e t t i n g i n MOMENTS.

y C a l c u l a t e d mode shape. y C a l c u l a t e d mode shape. X components o f lower mode shapes Y components o f lower mode shapes . x c a l c u l a t e d mode shape. x C a l c u l a t e d mode shape. MASS o f r a d i a l segments X component o f assumed mode shape PHIY Y component o f assumed mode shape X component o f i n e r t i a l l o a d Y component of i n e r t i a l l o a d Ampl it u d e (1 ines 25-80) Node p o s i t i o n (1 i n e s 81 on) Ampl itude ( 1 i n e s 81 on) C a l c u l a t e d mode shape. y C i r c u l a r frequency . Modulus weighted nioment o f i n e r t i a Modulus weighted moment o f i n e r t i a Modulus weighted moment o f i n e r t i a IYY IXY ACCX ACCY MAS . x C a l c u l a t e d mode shape. 1b s / i n .PRINCIPAL VARIABLES MASS IXXi L i n e a l weight d e n s i t y .

Previous node position Previous node position Previous circular frequency Previous circular frequency Deflection in the +x direction Deflection in the +y direction .

Z [ +L DOG ol+r.a OPTPOG COu1~IT+.! 2tPHI'r '.i[I+1] )-2 F ~ r e ~ a s x ( F ~ I r ~ I ] + i H IK ' r] ) .7+Bt( ( + / M ~ S ~ ( F H I ~ ~ : ~ ~ F ~ ~ I ~ ~ ~ ) + ( F .6 .n1::1 accl'cacC~r'.:CI']+PHI... I ) r ' M P S + ( M ~ ~ ~ C I ] + M ~ S ~ C I + ~ I ) .p : ..4 DOG ~~~~~~~~~~~1 PHI'r'+FHI:: aa: + ( XI+=O) OPTHOG P:c+uasx .:n PYcM~SXPHII~ DOG .FHI'r'.( (j=x::.~ ~ ~ + / M ~ S ~ ( P W I 'FFEOENCY.FHI:-:.6 3r~ass 2+I'r'Y I+I:.al.:[I+1] )-_7 PHI::~c(~HI::~[I]+FHI:. I..A '.6 ' i 6 3-n COUI<T+0 acc::+accy+ INcO P::+PT+.aCc~:.FHIr~.:)-1)r1 H1+H*pI:<x r+t -l+punss ( 0 . 0 0 1 ) / ~ B FHII'. ~ : 7 .~ uasc~auas-386. a : F .I. ~ l ' r & .rHI'l'1 'OMEGP +a0 ' FHI:int(PHI:<[T]+PHI:.nCc'~'-F~~'~P-r'.PROGRAM LISTING VFREnCO]V v~REa..-ux'rn+-l XFHI. 'MODE ' U ' V 0 . I ~ I ~ ~ ' ~ ~ F H I ~ I ' ~ ) ) .( PHI> !us2 )+v12) s0.II~l.:CI+1] )-2 F ' r ' c M a s x ( V H I ' I ' C I J C F ' H I ' I ~ ~ T + ~)-.[I]+PHX. .7 ] ?JOG acr/((us3)+Vk?)r0. 2+1:<:< ! :.:.:~ PHI'r+PHIr'l t0.r.PHI::~.:'r' I : ' . k a 5 .:l+usa! lcvial (PHI!:-FHIXl! ): !f EMS+(+/ f0. ' .& ' .5 a* :acc::eccc::.C'3UI~I T + 1 +(COUI.: C13 C I I C31 C41 C51 'INFUT 'Mass a RECORF' *..L:WS.'aan (PHI:.:+PHI:.5 PHr:..:~ P>:tMasxPHI:.:~[X ti] )-2 P H I ' I ' ~ + ( P H I ~ ' ~ I ] + F ' H I ' ~ ' ~ -2 ~ ] )I + PHIY1+(CHIY1~I]tFHI'I1~I+l])i~ 6 .FH. 6 ! I Y a b4 0 0 # .5 PHI::+U-n PH1'reV.ITP~~ j Ana:F!:+Ma5x lac (FHI. FHI:~:CI+PHI'I1 .FSI. HERTZ '.6 '70-02 SHaFE' ?+PHI:.5 1'1) 1 2 ) FMSCRMS+<+~'(FHI'I-FHI + ( ~ ~ 5 < 0 .

a Pnr Y E L V + O PHIXlc(FHI:t8CI]+FHIi:6CI+1]).:cMasx (PHI:.g ~ 9 3 3 rur::lcu+aaaa C943 P II H' lev-aaaa C95] F~I~:~~(CHI~~CI]+FUI:<~CI+~])C~ C963 PHI::c(PHI:ECI]+F~HI:<CI+~J).:cxrHI'r~c(pu)p~ ~ 7 9 1 +aa CO E 3 aC:'NO CONVERGENCE O F ORTHOGONOL V E C T O R S ' C811 a4-6 C821 INcl c e j ] ama:n sEnrcn FOR PRLQUE~ICY C84] wr:'cacc>:Ci: j x l o e ( I H ~ C ~ J)+a Cd5] rnIYcacc'rCl.+aaaa ~ 8 1 3 P:.6 Z+Bc( ( + / M ~ S X ( F H I : .71 r n r ~ r l c ( p w x .6 2 + e i o 2 'MODE SH9PE x + / M O S X ( P H I : : ~ ~ ~ ) + P H I 10.~ PHITle(PHIY8cI]+PHI>SCI+1])-~ 'OMEGA ' .sxa2+a ~ 1 1 5 3 +-0 ~ 1 1 7 3 a=:P:ca C1183 aa : e ~ 1 1 9 1 aco.A -.* i ) A o .2 C983 PUIYc(PHITC:]+F H I I C l + l ] ) t 2 ~ 9 9 3 o c i ( + / ~ ~ ~ x ( P ~ I : ~ ~ x ~ ~ I ~ ) + P H) I -.n~rc~nx'r'. r ~ ~ C r ] + p n x ~ r 1 [r+lj).--r/(r/tu). : l ~ ~ ) + ~ h r ~ r ~ ~ ~ ) I a a ~ x . a ~ x P ~ I + / u a s ~ ( r ~ ~ : . ?+rwrxa C743 '' C751 ' ' C763 INcII.~ l ) / ~ ~ ~ ~ C1123 +((ax62)taxa~)/aur C1131 a l e s ~ 1 1 4 3 a14-a C~ISI aco.5 2+PHI'V v .0.r/~v PHIX8eU. + ~ C911 DOG C923 aaaacr/((u*?)+vr?)*0.~ ~9.5 ~ 8 7 3 rnr::crn~u+aaaa r.5 C1003 INerN+: C1013 +iIPt>?)/aBW ClO23 a l e ' ~ 1 0 3 3 acrr:<x C1043 D l & & ~1053 +am ~ 1 3 6 3a r a : + ( r n ) 3 ) / a r c C1033 a 2 ~ a C1083 ~3-r CIWI nco.]xlos(~W~~~])+a ~ 8 .:I:)+PHI~L~) 10.g* ~ ) ' ~ ~ ' ' u '.5xal+a ~1203 ~ 1 2 1 3arD:'oueoa 'ja [122] 'HERTZ '. 5 3 a a a a c r / ( (PHI:.sxal+a CIIOI +am ~ 1 1 1 1a e c : + ( ( 1 i l D . ~ ~ .:c~]+PHIZ:CI+~~ )-2 ~901 ~ ~ ~ ~ ( ~ ~ ~ ~ .Pioz lU ' $ 6 :+CUII: C124] 'V ' .1+1 C773 +(1*=2)/1000 C783 PHI:. H I I)' + ) ~ ~ 'PREL1EEICY9 HERTZ 1 . ~ I ~ + P H I Y ~ I + ~ ] ) x M ~ ~ . i ~ 1 ~ .: ~ X P H I : : P ) + ( F ' H I ' I ~ X F .

R/ .PROGRAM FREQ Page 1 PROGRAM FREQ CALCULATE DEFLECTIONS D U E T 0 PRESUMED LOAD COUNT + OMPUTEORTHOGONA ECTORS TO LOWER ODESAND SUBTRAC 0 I COMPUTE RESULTANT MODE SHAPES COMPUTE I N E R T I A L LOAD ACCX. length / 1 MASS DISTRIBUTION DEFLECTIONS L. SLIBTRACT ORTHOGONAL VECTORS i 0 I 1 f f AMPLITUDE COUNT=10 . :Y LOAD. ACCY ASSIGNED SPACE I N MEMORY I N I T I A L LOAD ASSIGNED 1 EVERYWHERE COMPUTE I N ERT I AL LOADS I COMPUTE DEFLECTIONS DUE TO I N E R T I A L LOADS I I ] COMPUTE MODE l~l+ H. ' 1 NO .

PROGRAM FREQ Page 2 1 COMPUTE MODE 1 CCX ASSIGNED X ORTION OF MODE L H A r 1 DEFLECTIONS DUE TO I N E R T I A L LOADS COMPUTE LENGTH j OF DIFFERENCE BETWEEN CURRENT AND LAST PREVIOUS MODE SHAPE / I COMPUTE MODAL ENTERS OF SPANWISE SEGMENTS CALCULATE AND PRINT FREQUENCY MODE SHAPES CALCULATE AND PRINT MODE SHAPE OLD MODE SHAPE ASSIGNED CURREN MODE SHAPE FREQUENCY COMPUTE NEGATIVE TRANSPOSE OF MODE SHAPES /' i ASSUMED MODE ASSIGNEDALL I's 1 I I CALCULATE I N E R T I A L L O A D DUE TO NEGATIVE J TRANSPOSE .

2 CALCULATE NODAL COORDINATES AT I CALCULATE FREQUENCY AND STORE AS B .PROGRAM FREQ Page 3 TI I ASSUME NODE CALCULATE SHAPE I CALCULATE INERTIAL I / END OF BEAM I ( A2+TI P POSITION CALCULATE DEFLECTION DUE TO COMPllTED FREQUENCY 1 1 CALCULATE AMPLITUDE I I i FREQUENCY AtNEW NODE ( A 1 +A2).

PROGRAM FREQ Page 4 FREQUENCY COMPUTED FREQUENCY COMPUTED FREQUENCY MODE SHAPE NODE P O S I T I O N NODE P O S I T I O N POSITION POSITION .

76 14-29 0.67 5.03 0.27 -1.225 0.11 0.12 9.19 0.08 0.88 0.03 0.63 -0.02 -0. 2 3 1.00 0.55 4.02 -0.05 0.00 0.08 ' .38 -0.07 0.39 0.66 .08 -0.02 19.19 0.20 0.: ITy *'<Y w 0.151 0.27 0115 4.44 0.563 0.194 0.08 0.01 11*4213.19 0.14 0.25 -0.76 ' .00 0.38 0.082 0.057 0.02 0.00 0. 3 57 -3.00 ' .ICE OF ORTHOGOtiAL VECTORS OMEGA HERTZ U V 89.00 0.30 V 0.01 V 10.01 iiO CONVEHGEl.17 -0. 2 01 -0. 1 O0 -0.09 -0.55 0.04 0.26 MODE SHaPE u 0.267 0.13 1.500 OMEGA 26.343 0.02 0.05 0.80 FREOEI4CY H E R T Z 4.01 -0.43 0.35 0.TERMINAL SESSION FREn INPUT RECORD Mass I:< .07 FREOENCI.05 -0.17 0.01 0.05 -0. H E R T Z MODE S H n F E U 0.15-0.030 6.98 2 .16-0.13 0.05 -0.79 0.96 OHEGa 63.05 0.25 0.23 -0.51 0.06 0.30 0.00 0.25 0.70 0.37 3.60 0.130 0.13 0.28 -0.26 1.07 -0.34 0.00 -0.27 0.75 0.05 0.

i d e n t i c a l t o DEF (Appendix G). This function i s l o g i c a l l y . The values o f d e f l e c t i o n a r e r e t u r n e d t o t h e c a l l i n g program. t h e loads i n two planes O and t h e s e c t i o n p r o p e r t i e s t o compute t h e d e f l e c t i o n s i n two planes.APPENDIX J FUNCTION D G O D G reads t h e r a d i a l spacing o f s t a t i o n s . The program uses t h e f u n c t i o n DEF1.

CZi 1 u .PRINCIPAL VARIABLES MX MY Bending moment about x axis Bending moment about y axis C i . C3i Bending constants Deflection i n x direction Deflection in y direction v .

PROGRAM LISTING .

H1 . Px.> RETURN .FUNCTION DOG 1 READ H. Y COMPUTE BENDING MOMENTS COMPUTE BENDING CONSTANTS 1 COMPUTE DEFLECTIONS (. pyy IXXi I Y1 J .

The m a t r i c e s a r e then operated on row by row t o f i n d the p a r t i c i p a t i o n f a c t o r ( s ) f o r each mode. t r a c t e d s t a t i o n by s t a t i o n from t h e ass~~med assumed mode shape i s then r e t u r n e d t o t h e c a l l i n g program.APPENDIX K FUNCTIO ORTHOG N ORTHOG accomplishes t h e Schmitt O r t h o g o n a l i z a t i o n o f t h e c u r r e n t assumed mode shape w i t h p r e v i o u s l y determined (lower) modes. .) Each o f t h e p r e v i o u s l y determined mode shapes i s represented by one l i n e i n b o t h ACCX and ACCY. The coordinates are then compressed i n t o t h e modal coordinates o f t h e s e c t i o n mid-spans. The program f i r s t repeats t h e assumed mode shape row by row u n t i l t h e r e i s one row o f t h e c u r r e n t mode shape s t o r e d i n memory f o r each p r e v i o u s l y determined mode. The p a r t i c i p a t i o n f a c t o r s a r e then mu1 ti p l i e d and t h e i n f l u e n c e o f each mode subThe m o d i f i e d i n t o t h e r e s p e c t i v e mode shapes mode shape. The func- t i o n r e q u i r e s o n l y t h e mass d i s t r i b u t i o n . assumed mode shape and p a s t mode shapes f o r i n p u t . (The procedure i s explained i n Chapter IV.

j ACl ACZi .j PHIYY PSIXi PSIY . . .j PHIXXi . M a t r i x o f x lower mode coordinates times t h e i r respective p a r t i c i p a t i o n factors As above f o r y Assumed mode shape. y component .j M1i . j Accumulated x components o f mode shapes Accumulated y components of mode shapes M a t r i x w i t h t h e same shape as ACCX f i l l e d w i t h assumed mode components ( 1 i n e s 5-1 5 ) As above f o r y components Midspan components from ACCX Midspan components from ACCY Mass per segment corresponding t o AC1 o r AC2 Midspan c o o r d i n a t e s from F1 Midspan c o o r d i n a t e s from F2 X components ' p a r t i c i p a t i o n f a c t o r Y components' p a r t i c i p a t i o n f a c t o r F1i . x component Assumed mode shape.PRINCI PAL VARIABLES ACCXi ACCY .j F2i.

1 E:CPL11.lLITIOI~1 O F FN ~ ~ E ~ nDURE.PROGRAM LISTING VORTHOG[D]v V ~ R T H O G ~ F H I > ~ ~ C ~ P H I T Y ~ M ~ . BYE FOR NOW.:C. THE SEE PROCE- nbx_GEP. I]+PHI'r"r'C. B ~ B Y ~ ~ Q ~ C ) ! : . I]+PWI:C:. F i t P U I : < : C t (pPCC:. I+l])+Z F H I Y ' f t ( F H 1 Y Y C .b ~ O R~ LII. I+l])i2 aclt(accs~.ES.+ / M ~ x L I c ~ R ~ P s I Y ~ ( + / M ~ x ~ ~ ~ x P H I Y ~ ) . I I + ~ ~ C Y C .+ / M ~ x ~ C ~ R ~ F ~ ~ L I C C : < ~ Q ( ~ @ L I C C X ) ~ P S ~ X ~ 2 t a c c r x ~ ( p ~ a )c c S I Y ~P r PHI:C+PHIX-++F1 PHIYtPHIY-+#Fz 0 .1+13)+2 ~ C ~ + ( ~ ~ ~ Y ~ .r~+accx~. I + ~ I ) + ~ u i t ( r a c 1 )puass ~ ~ I ~ ~ ( + / M ~ x ~ ~ ~ x F ~ I ~ ~ : ) .:) pPHI:< F ~ ~ P U I Y( p a c c s ) p ~ ~ r ~ Y ~ FHI:tX+(PHIX:C[. L I C ~ ~ L I C ~ ~ I I ~ F ~ ~ F ~ ~ F ~ ~ F S I ~ ~ : ~ ~ S I ~ n THIS SUBROUTINE LICCOMPLISHES SHLIFE SCHMITT ORTHOGOEIYLIZLITION n O F T H E P R E S U M E D MODE WITH ALL PAST Mom6 SHLIF.

MASSi + COMPUTE PARTICIPATION FACTORS OF LOWER MODES ~ MULTIPLY EACH SUBTRACT (TERM BY TERM) FROM ASSUMED MODE SHAPE 1 4 0 RETURN .FUNCTION ORTHOG ra ESTABLISH MATRICES OF I D E N T I C A L ROWS 0 THE CURRENT MODE SHAPEHAVINGTHESAM S I Z E AS THE MODE SHAPES I N MEMORY F I N D RADIAL SECTION MIDSPAN MODE SHAPE CO-ORDINATES READ PRESENT ASSUMED MODE SHAPE AND A L L LOWER NODE SHAPES.

The y matrices contain the following information: 1) local bending modulus ( i n the [1. NEWFl and N W 3 are y matrices. (The routines require an odd number Adding the thickness. The y matrix thus has one more row and one more column than the x matrix. i n the f i r s t colur~in. the integrating routines assume t h a t the considered section i s solid.2] position) 2) 3) the material thickness a t each s t a t i o n ( i n the f i r s t position of each row) 4) the extreme co-ordinate r e l a t i v e t o the chord ( s t a r t i n g a t the second column of each row from the second row down) The x matrix contains one entry for each of the y co-ordinates in the corresponding y matrix and nothing else.APPENDIX L DATA FILES The data f i l e s a l l have a number of we1 1 defined characteristics.1] position) local weight density ( i n the [I . For example. E F They both refer t o the low pressure surface of the stations. the total 123 . W W 1X and NEWF34X a r e E F2 N W 3 refers t o the E F They x matrices. NEWF12X. The thickness l i s t e d in the f i r s t column of the y matrix i s the minimum distance from one side of the skin t o the other. consider the following f i l e s : and NEWF34X. of data points. NEWF3. The integrating routines which operate on these data f i l e s automatically correct f o r the curvature of the skin r e l a t i v e t o the section axes. N W l refers t o the exterior skin. E F NEWF1. both have an even number of columns. spar. I f the l i s t e d thick- ness i s zero.

A l l of t h e above i n f o r m a t i o n i s s t o r e d i n g l o b a l memory. a y m a t r i x f i l l e d I f any row c o n t a i n e d w i t h zeros would c o n t r i b u t e n o t h i n g t o t h e t o t a l . NEWF8. NEWF2. and NEWF12X r e f e r t o t h e e x t e r i o r s k i n . f o r example. NEWF3. . NEWF34X r e f e r t o t h e spar. The number of c o l The number o f columns w i l l always be one l e s s umns w i l l always be odd. i s arbitrary. a concentrated mass.number o f columns becomes even. t h a n t h e number o f columns i n t h e y m a t r i x . I f any o t h e r d a t a were entered. The x m a t r i c e s have o n l y one row p e r s t a t i o n . NEWF56X r e f e r t o NEWF7.) They both have t h e same number o f rows (one p e r s t a t i o n p l u s t h e bending and d e n s i t y i n f o r m a t i o n i n t h e f i r s t row) . For example. makes t h e i n f o r m a t i o n e a s i l y a v a i l a b l e . NEWF1 . o t h e r data f i l e s c o u l d be developed. i t would be much more c o n s e r v a t i v e o f computer t i m e i f such lumped parameters were i n t r o d u c e d subsequent t o i n t e g r a t i o n as an a d d i t i o n t o t h e a p p r o p r i a t e element of some v e c t o r . 1 T h i s c o u l d be NEWPHI c o n t a i n s t h e t w i s t i n f o r m a t i o n o f t h e blade design. NEWF4. t h e c o l l e c The t i p has been used here. NEWF78X r e f e r t o t h e t r a i l i n g edge bond. NEWF5. i s one e n t r y f o r each s t a t i o n . t h e same f o r t h e number o f rows. i t s p r o p e r t i e s would be i n t e g r a t e d as a lumped parameter. t h e spar web. (However. non-zero elements. NEWF6. This t i v e p i t c h setting. As w r i t t e n . There The r e f e r e n c e p o i n t f o r B . (and has been) done by i n t e r r u p t i n g f u n c t i o n INPUT. The l o c a l p i t c h s e t t i n g c o u l d e a s i l y be t y p e d i n by t h e o p e r a t o r d u r i n g t h e d a t a i n p u t stage o f t h e program.

DATA FILES .

.

.

.

170. span has a mass i n t e n s i t y o f The c e n t r a l M2 = -10 1b sec in 2 and a bending s t i f f n e s s o f The two ends have mass i n t e n s i t i e s o f N1 = . Since t h i s i s a simply supported beam. 129 . For t h e purpose o f analysis. The simply supported beam o f f i g u r e 1 has t h r e e regions. S t r u c t u r a l Dynamics.050 1b sec i n2 2 and bending s t i f f n e s s e s of The beam d e f l e c t i o n s are c a l c u l a t e d by t h e conjugate beam method. the beam i s broken up i n t o twenty equal segments. p. i n which the bending moment due t o t h e e l a s t i c l o a d i s equal t o t h e d e f l e c t i o n .APPENDIX M SAMPLE CALCULATION F R RAYLEIGH'S METHOD O This example i s taken from Biggs. only t h e symmetric modes Each s e c t i o n i s assigned a mass w i l l be important.

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= computed mode shape a t r. o n l y one h a l f o f t h e beam need be considered. r A" '" ' r = computed amplitude. = t h e assumed mode shape a t r. The frequency i s given by where blr = t h e mass a t r. t h i s h a l f beam. f i v e o f t h e segments have an assigned mass o f For 1b sec M = . . The i n i t i a l assumed mode shape i s a s i n e curve.5 r in 2 and t h e o t h e r f i v e an assigned mass o f s i n c e AX = 10 inches. The l e f t h a l f o f t h e beam i s used f o r a n a l y s i s .Because of s y m e t r y . The computations l e a d i n g t o t h e frequency a r e shown i n t a b l e 1. Any o t h e r method o f computing t h e beam d e f l e c t i o n s would have l e d t o t h e same result.

q -.-Or C I C I = P o o a g ~q o o o r u o w o - ..o % Z ~ E ~ S Y c C a -eon== LI rron a$==x - good I s q ? -'=Refm .C a azzsz=%a=:? OD= a m r r i i 0 0 d d " ~ o o o o ~ n .

A t t h e end o f t h e second c y c l e . . t h e computed frequency i s u2 = 94.13 r a d i a n s l s e c .The computed n a t u r a l frequency a t t h e end o f t h e f i r s t c y c l e i s u1 = 94.05 r a d i a n s l s e c .

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