A Project Report On Early Childhood Longitudinal Study (ECLS), USA

Submitted to: Sh. A. K. Mishra DDG, NASA

Submitted by:

and children's experiences and growth through the eighth grade. and children born with low and very low birth weight. and performance in school. in the fall of 2006. With the parent's permission. and early school experiences. Data collected for the ECLS-B focus on children's health. information on children's elementary schools is available by linking the ECLS-B data to school data from NCES's Common Core of Data (CCD) and Private School Survey (PSS) universe files. child care and early education providers. What is the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study (ECLS)? The Early Childhood Longitudinal Study (ECLS) program includes three longitudinal studies that examine child development. child care. Sample Design: Information about these children was collected when they were approximately 9 months old (2001-02). trained assessors visited children in their homes. Birth Cohort (ECLS-B) was designed to provide policy makers. data were collected from all participating sample children.000 children born in the U. Sample Size: A nationally representative sample of approximately 14. The kindergarten class of 2010-11 cohort will follow a sample of children from kindergarten through the fifth grade. This stage is educationally important and also the character of the child is mostly obstinate. researchers. disobedient. and their teachers all across the United states provided information on children's cognitive. twins. What is the objective of the study? The Early Childhood Longitudinal Study. care. American Indian and Alaska Native children. 2 years old (2003-04). The birth cohort of the ECLS-B is a sample of children born in 2001 and followed from birth through kindergarten entry. approximately 75 percent of whom were in kindergarten or higher. stubborn. school. and teachers.. The ECLS program provides national data on children's status at birth and at various points thereafter. data were collected from the approximately 25 percent of participating sample children who had not yet entered kindergarten or higher in the previous collection. and physical development across multiple settings (e. Children: 4 rounds of separate interviews and data collection were performed. home. negativistic and antagonistic hence this stage plays a significant role in the development of character and personality. early learning. Birth Cohort (ECLS-B) What is the Coverage of this study? Data source: Children. community. their parents. child care providers. school). What is the Data Collection Procedure? The ECLS-B collected information from children. The ECLS B dataset also includes information about the schools the study children attended in kindergarten. parents. and education during the formative years from birth through kindergarten entry. and parents with detailed information about children's early life experiences. in 2001. school readiness. early education programs. emotional.Introduction What is early childhood? Period between the ages of 3-6 . The kindergarten class of 1998-99 cohort is a sample of children followed from kindergarten through the eighth grade. respectively.S. social. other Asian and Pacific Islander children. which pertain to U.S. The children participating in the study came from diverse socioeconomic and racial/ethnic backgrounds with oversamples of Chinese children. their child care and early education providers. Additionally. children's transitions to non-parental care. In every round of data collection. and 4 years old/preschool age (2005-06). children participated in activities designed to measure important developmental skills in the . Additionally. as well as children who were repeating kindergarten in the 2007-08 school year. In the fall of 2007.g. development. and individual variables with children's development. The ECLS program also provides data to analyze the relationships among a wide range of family. and school. public and private schools. teachers.

If the parent or provider felt more comfortable speaking in a language other than English or Spanish. materials were developed to include children and families whose primary language was not English. at 9 months and 2 years. The fourth round is called the Kindergarten 2006 & kindergarten 2007 rounds . the parent respondent) using the Nursing Child Assessment Teaching Scale (NCATS). Additionally. the sampled children. In the kindergarten rounds.cognitive. and their schools.e. Resident fathers also completed self-administered questionnaires in the preschool wave. and then the sampled child's primary provider in the center was interviewed about the group environment and the child's experiences. parenting attitudes. Teachers and Schools: Kindergarten teachers of ECLS-B children completed questionnaires that captured information about the teacher. and family characteristics. children’s social interactions with the parent respondent were assessed using the Two Bags Task. At preschool and kindergarten. Gross motor skills were assessed by asking children to jump. The second round is the 2-year round where the BSF-R again was used to measure cognitive and motor development. questions about the children’s school experiences were asked. For example. hop on one foot. individuals and organizations that provided regular non-parental care and education for the child were interviewed over phone. most frequently the mother. Children who did not demonstrate sufficient English language skills to complete the assessment in English were either routed to a comparable assessment in Spanish (if Spanish-speaking) or else excluded from the cognitive assessments. their classrooms. Both home. themselves. The third round is the Preschool round where the ECLS-B child assessment protocol was modified to take into account the study children’s growing competencies and to focus more on indicators of school readiness. first the center director was asked for general information about the program. Inclusion and Accessibility The ECLS-B worked to include all sampled children and families. children’s English language skills were assessed at the beginning of the cognitive assessments. socioemotional. balance on one foot. the home environment. Fine motor skills were assessed by asking children to copy a series of forms/shapes drawn by assessors and to build structures using blocks. Early Care and Education Providers: With the permission of the child's parents. and catch a bean bag. Questions regarding family structure. child participation in nonparental care and education arrangements. The first round is the 9-month round where approximately 9 months old children’s cognitive and motor skills were assessed using a modified version of the Bayley Scales of Infant Development (BSID-II). in every round of data collection. For center-based settings. Within the limits of time and fiscal constraints. Children’s socio-emotional development was assessed through a taped interaction with their primary caregiver (i. then translators were utilized when available. Kindergarten Class of 1998-99 (ECLS-K) kindergarten and first grade collections. both the parent interview and the early care and education provider interview were translated into Spanish. A different taped interaction. The BSF-R was replaced with an early reading and mathematics assessment similar to the assessments used in the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study. called the Bayley Short Form—Research Edition (BSFR). and community and social support also were included.The kindergarten cognitive assessments were similar to the preschool assessments. one exception was that the assessment of color knowledge was not included.and center-based primary providers were asked about their own background and experiences. skip. Parents were asked to provide information about the sampled child.. A modified Q-sort was included in the 2-year collection to assess the quality of children's attachment to their primary caregiver. the child assessments were administered in the child's primary language either by a bilingual interviewer or with the assistance of a translator. household income.1 and physical domains. was used to assess children’s socioemotional development. the Two Bags Task. as in the previous waves. Fathers (both resident fathers and nonresident biological fathers) completed self-administered questionnaires in the 9-month and 2-year data collections that covered topics such as the role they play in parenting and their attitudes toward fatherhood. Parents: A computer-assisted interview was conducted with the sampled child's primary caregiver. walk backward along a line. School data were obtained from teachers and from NCES’s universe data files (the Common Core of Data (CCD) and Private School Survey (PSS)). Regardless of English . Additionally.

Accommodations were allowed when necessary. cognitive. for children who were repeating kindergarten in the 2007-08 school year. teachers of children enrolled in school completed a self-administered questionnaire. socioemotional. when approximately 75 percent of them were in kindergarten or higher. all study children were administered the motor items (via a translator if needed) and their physical measurements were taken. motor skill. 2 years of age: The ECLS-B directly assessed children and interviewed primary caregivers in the children's homes. Research Issues The ECLS-B was designed to describe children’s first experiences and relationships. a child was excluded only from certain components of the assessment (e. The study sought to better understand children's physical. emotional. The level of English language proficiency that children needed to demonstrate to be included in the assessments administered in English was set very low. In both kindergarten collections. child care environment. in most cases where an exclusion occurred. the ECLS-B assessed children and interviewed their primary caregivers in the children's homes.. relatively few children were excluded from the cognitive assessments administered in English. Early care and education providers were interviewed by telephone and a subsample of the children had their nonparental care and education arrangements directly observed. children in wheelchairs did not have their gross motor skills assessed) rather than from the entire assessment. 4 years of age/preschool: The ECLS-B directly assessed children and interviewed primary caregivers in the children's homes.e. home environment.. The in-home visit included a videotaping of parent-child interaction.and after-school care and education providers of children who were enrolled in kindergarten also were interviewed by telephone. Children with disabilities were included in the sample. 2006-07 and 2007-08. Kindergarten: This data was collected in two school years. Children's Transitions . In the fall of 2007 (the kindergarten 2007 collection). The in-home visit included a videotaping of parent-child interaction. and physical assessments enable analysis of child development and its relationship to early learning environments over time. Data were collected for all sample children in the fall of 2006 (the kindergarten 2006 collection). the early care and education providers of children who had not yet entered kindergarten were interviewed by telephone. The before. Exclusion from the assessments was considered on a case-by-case basis. the Common Core of Data and the Private School Survey). health care. Resident and nonresident fathers completed a self-administered questionnaire. and language development in relation to important influences in their lives (e. and for twins of children in these groups. In both collections.. Early care and education providers were interviewed by telephone and a subsample of the children had their nonparental care and education arrangements directly observed.language skills. 9 months of age: In this first round of data collection.e.g. Before. Periodicity of Survey Birth: Information regarding parenatal care and delivery was obtained from the National Center for Health Statistics and the 9-month parent interview. they did not enter kindergarten when they were age-eligible to do so). and school environment). Direct cognitive. mother's prenatal behavior. as a result. The in-home visit included a videotaping of parent-child interaction. Resident fathers completed a self-administered questionnaire.g. the ECLS-B directly assessed children and interviewed primary caregivers (usually the mother) in the children's homes. The ECLS-B was designed to maximize participation of children with special needs at every data collection wave. The study provides descriptive data on: 1) Children's growth and development in critical domains 2) Children's transitions to child care and early childhood education programs and kindergarten 3) Children's health status at birth and at regular intervals during early childhood 4) Father’s involvement and 5) School readiness Children's growth and development A central focus of the ECLS-B is children's development during the critical years before formal schooling begins. Resident and nonresident fathers completed a selfadministered questionnaire. The second collection was necessary because children born later in 2001 were not age-eligible for kindergarten in 2006-07 and some children experienced a delayed kindergarten entry (i.. School data were drawn from existing universe data files supported by NCES (i. social. Children requiring Braille or sign language were excluded from the cognitive assessments and were given a modified motor assessment. In the kindergarten 2006 collection.and after-school care and education providers of the children participating in the kindergarten 2007 collection were interviewed by telephone as well. data were collected for the 25 percent of sample children who had not entered kindergarten the year before.

and from preschool to kindergarten.g. it was important to obtain information on both fathers’ and mothers’ involvement with their children. the first formal school experience is kindergarten.Of particular interest to the ECLS-B is the transition that occurs as young children first receive care and education on a regular basis from persons other than their parents. Transitions of interest include the transitions to group-based early childhood programs and other forms of nonparental care and education.. the ECLS-B collected information about children’s experiences with health care and the prevalence of several health conditions (e. including the identification of health issues and special needs as children age. Additionally. special needs. However. the nature of children's early experiences in and before kindergarten is quite variable. development. and their nonparental care and early educational experiences. The ECLS B also collected information regarding children’s nutrition and eating habits. School Readiness For some children. fathers’ involvement in their children's lives was examined by directly gathering information from the fathers (or father-figures) themselves. their families and home learning activities. Rather than rely on proxy reports from mothers. Father Involvement The role parents play in the lives of their children is of special interest in the ECLS-B. and receipt of services. .). asthma. The ECLS-B captured information about activities that fathers engage in with their children as well as their feelings about being a father. and expectations for children differ across preschool and kindergarten programs. Children's Health Status Children's early growth. Therefore. Variations in children's development were examined in light of their health status and care. both prenatally and after birth. etc. The longitudinal nature of the data allows for an examination of changes in children's health status. and readiness for school are influenced by many health factors. who were most often the respondent to the parent interview. ear infections. The ECLS-B examined children's preparation for school by studying the different characteristics of children.

school. and their schools provided information on children's cognitive. which was un-timed and conducted one-on-one with each child. in fall kindergarten only.e. In addition. and teacher qualifications also was collected. emotional.Kindergarten Class of 1998-99 (ECLS-K) The Early Childhood Longitudinal Study. and the spring of 8th grade (2007). the fall and spring of 1st grade (1999-2000). Information on children's home environment. and their progression through 8th grade. Data Collection Procedures The ECLS-K collected information from children and their parents. as well as how children’s early experiences relate to their later development. the assessment included measurements of height and weight and. including one-on-one assessments. children completed questionnaires on various topics including their perceptions of their social and academic competence and skills. their teachers. The direct child assessment. and eighth grades. school environment. skip. They came from diverse socioeconomic and racial/ethnic backgrounds. and eighth grades. the spring of 5th grade (2004). Why this survey? No large national study focused on education had followed a cohort of children from kindergarten entry to middle school until the ECLS-K. their school experiences and activities. Who were surveyed? The children in ECLS-K came from both public and private schools and attended both full-day and part-day kindergarten programs. and their diet. emotional. Where the data collected from? The ECLS-K collected information from a nationally representative sample of kindergartners. computer-assisted telephone interviews (CATI). In the third. Teachers and school administrators were contacted in their schools and asked to complete questionnaires. teachers. fifth. classroom. teachers. their transition into school.g. community. Data were collected using a variety of methods. The ECLS-K was designed to provide comprehensive and reliable data that can be used to describe and to understand better children's development and experiences in the elementary and middle school grades. home. their general knowledge (i. and schools. collected information about children's reading and mathematics skills and knowledge in each round of data collection. classroom curriculum. The longitudinal nature of the ECLS-K data enables researchers to study how a wide range of family. When data were collected? The ECLS-K is a longitudinal study that followed the same children from kindergarten through the 8th grade. children's psychomotor skills (e. Also participating in the study were the children's parents. science and social studies) in kindergarten and first grade. and schools. draw figures).. jump. What information was collected? Children. manipulate blocks. the spring of 3rd grade (2002). and community factors at various points in children’s lives relate to cognitive. home educational activities. Information was collected in the fall and the spring of kindergarten (1998-99). Parents . Kindergarten Class of 1998-99 (ECLS-K) focuses on children's early school experiences beginning with kindergarten and following children through middle school. Children To collect information from children. fifth.. school. How data were collected? Trained evaluators assessed children in their schools and collected information from parents over the telephone. and their science knowledge in third. The ECLS-K data provide descriptive information on children's status at entry to school. and physical development. social. social. learning. and selfadministered paper and pencil questionnaires. trained assessors visited the children in their schools. ability to hop. and physical development. teachers. and schools all across the United States. their families. their parents. and experiences in school. The multifaceted data collected across the years allow researchers and policymakers to study how various child. classroom environment. and individual factors are associated with school performance.

If parents felt more comfortable participating in a language other than English or Spanish. Inclusion and Assessibility To the greatest extent possible. teachers and school administrators completed paper and pencil surveys. the ECLS-K included all sampled children and their families in the data collection activities. Teachers and Schools To collect information from teachers and schools. . Questionnaires designed to collect information regarding a child's Individualized Education Plan (IEP) and receipt of special education services were completed by the special education teachers/service providers of children with disabilities. Only children who required Braille or sign language to complete the direct cognitive assessment. were excluded from the direct child assessments. the interview was conducted in person. Materials and procedures were developed to maximize the inclusion of children and families whose primary language was not English and children with special needs. translators were utilized when available. Computer assisted interviewing methods were used to record the parent's answers.To collect information from parents. or whose Individualized Education Plan/Individualized Family Service Plan specifically indicated the child should not be assessed. a trained interviewer phoned the parent at his or her home and conducted a 45-50 minute interview. If the child's family did not have a telephone. Both the parent interviews and the kindergarten-first grade direct child assessment math battery were translated into Spanish.

. Teachers. parent interviews. and teacher questionnaires were fielded in the fall. 2007(the eighth-grade year): The ECLS-K followed the children into middle school. including those that became non respondents at some point after kindergarten. their teachers. can be found at http://nces. school administrators.asp?pubid=2009005) are now available. their parents. Released Data The longitudinal Kindergarten Through Eighth Grade Full Sample Public-Use Data And Documentation (http://nces. Information was collected from the children. In general. grade-level files. Unlike the public-use data. Research Issues The ECLS-K was designed to address a vast array of research issues. The full sample of children. school administrators. This is the only file that is needed for analysis of publicly available data for any round of ECLS-K data collection. 2) Status and transitions. along with school administrators. their teachers. Researchers interested in analyzing restricted data from more than one grade must request the cross-sectional files for each grade of interest (i. 1999-2000 (the first-grade year): The ECLS-K conducted child assessments and parent interviews for a 30 percent sub-sample of children in the fall. .gov/pubsearch/getpubcats.Periodicity of Survey 1998-99(the kindergarten year): The ECLS-K child assessments. 2002(the third-grade year): The ECLS-K conducted child assessments and parent interviews in the spring. and parent interviews in the spring. parents. family and community. the study focused on three broad areas: 1) Schooling and performance. This longitudinal K-8 data file includes all released data for all cases that ever participated in the study. and 3) The interaction of school. and the children themselves completed questionnaires in the spring as well. Restricted Data Due to NCES' confidentiality legislation. including supplemental and restricted-use files. Teachers. fifth grade. and the children themselves completed questionnaires in the spring as well. and their school administrators in the spring.e.ed. restricted-use ECLS-K data are released only as crosssectional. their parents. or eighth grade). 2004(the fifth-grade year): The ECLS-K conducted child assessments and interviews. first grade. researchers must obtain (or amend) a restricted data license to access restricted data from the ECLS-K.ed. and teachers participated again in the spring. and their school administrators participated in the spring.asp?sid=024. third grade.gov/pubsearch/pubsinfo. kindergarten. Children. Information on other data releases.

The ECLS-K provides useful information on how schools and classrooms address the needs of all children. the expectations of parents and schools about what skills. The study also measured children's skills and knowledge at several intervals from kindergarten through eighth grade. instructional practices. Family. The Interaction of School. issues that the ECLS-K focused on included the status of children at entry to kindergarten. . behaviours. resources. school climate.g. The ECLS-K focused on the resources of the family. and Community Numerous factors influence children's educational and other life outcomes. The ECLS-K provides critical information on the roles that parents and families play in preparing for and supporting their children's education and how families. the home environment.Schooling and Performance in the Elementary and Middle Grades Schools and classrooms play a critical role as learning environments in promoting children's positive outcomes. including those with special needs (e. and communities interact to support children's education. due to limited English proficiency or disabling conditions). and background characteristics of teachers and administrators in order to examine the relationship between these factors and children's school performance over time. The ECLS-K collected data on how well children perform in different kinds of classrooms and schools and on the interaction between children's backgrounds and their performance in different learning settings. and how children fare in the new environment as they make the transition from home to school. Thus. schools. Data were collected on curriculum. and the community that can have a profound impact on children's success in school and provide the context within which schools must operate. Status and Transitions Children enter kindergarten with differing levels of preparation for school and performance.. and attributes are necessary for school success.

Like its predecessors. . Round of data collection Dates of data collection Tentative data release Fall Kindergarten Spring Kindergarten Fall First Grade Spring First Grade Fall Second Grade Spring Second Grade Spring Third Grade Spring Fourth Grade Spring Fifth Grade August 2010 to December 2010 March 2011 to June 2011 August 2011 to December 2011 March 2012 to June 2012 August 2012 to December 2012 March 2013 to June 2013 March 2014 to June 2014 March 2015 to June 2015 March 2016 to June 2016 February 2013 (restricted December 2013 (public data) February 2013 (restricted December 2013 (public data) July 2013 (restricted December 2013 (public data) July 2013 (restricted December 2013 (public data) November 2014 November 2014 Not yet determined Not yet determined Not yet determined data) data) data) data) Example Research Questions Comparisons to the ECLS-B & ECLS-K The ECLS-K:2011 is the third in an important series of longitudinal studies of young children sponsored by the U.and out-of-home experiences. school readiness. as well as physical growth. The new cohort of ECLS-K:2011 children together with the earlier cohorts will provide the range and breadth of data required to more fully describe and understand children’s early learning. Kindergarten Class of 1998-1999 (ECLS-K) and the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study.S. Data Information The table below presents the currently planned rounds of data collection. The ECLS-B focused on the characteristics of children and their families that influence children’s first experiences with the demands of formal schooling. The ECLS-K:2011 shares many of the same goals as its predecessors. school. community. social. The prior kindergarten cohort survey (ECLS-K) followed a nationally representative sample of children attending kindergarten in 1998-99 through eighth grade. transition into kindergarten. the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study. transition into school. Department of Education that examine child development. and progress through school. and progress through school. The data are used by researchers to study how a wide range of family. and progression through the eighth grade. born in the year 2001. Parents. and educators to study how student. school. The ECLS-K provides information on children’s status at school entry. The data collected over the years will allow researchers. Kindergarten Class of 2010-11 (ECLS-K:2011) is an exciting new study sponsored by the National Centre for Education Statistics (NCES) within the Institute of Education Sciences of the U. and tentative dates for the release of the data. and education experiences from the late 1990s through 2016. dates of data collection. as well as children’s early health care and in. The birth cohort (ECLS-B) followed a national sample of children. Birth Cohort of 2001 (ECLS-B). and emotional development. The ECLS-K: 2011 will provide comprehensive and reliable data about children's early learning and development. transitions into kindergarten and beyond. policymakers. Department of Education and conducted by Westat. and early school experiences. and individual factors are associated with school performance. from birth through kindergarten. The prior studies consist of two cohorts—a kindergarten cohort and a birth cohort. the ECLS-K:2011 will provide a rich and comprehensive source of information on children’s early learning and development. This information is subject to change. and Schools Participating in the ECLS-K: 2011 The Early Childhood Longitudinal Study. home.S. development.Information for Children. but also advances research possibilities by providing updated information and addressing recent changes in education policy. classroom. and community factors at various points in the child's life relate to cognitive.

is itself one of the most important explanations of change. however. educational. Hence. Time. as in a time series). . which again is capable of picking up long term changes. That will interrupt with the study. a rise in school choice. the advantages of this study is its high validity. longitudinal involves repeated observations of the same variables over long periods of time — often many decades. But there are always pros and cons to every study. Kindergarten Class of 2010-11 (ECLS-K: 2011) will be available in early 2013. there should be a large sample size and accurate sampling to get a proper representative value again for the various stages. and demographic environments. for example to look at differences in demographic characteristics or the home. and classroom experiences of the two groups. Conclusion As the definition says. It is a type of observational study. ECLS-K: 2011 will allow cross-cohort comparisons of two nationally-representative kindergarten classes experiencing different policy. with an anticipated release in summer 2013. Also.people usually do not remember past events and if they were asked about their past. Longitudinal studies are often used in psychology to study developmental trends across the life span. The long time frame in itself is a disadvantage as it is elaborate and requires effort to collect data for the different stages.The ECLS-K: 2011 will provide data relevant to emerging policy-related domains not measured fully in previous studies. participants may drop out. Coming more than a decade after the inception of the ECLS-K. For example. longitudinal studies can give answers to questions concerning change that cross-sectional studies cannot. It will be appropriate to use data from the first data file release to compare the two cohorts in other ways. The restricted-use base-year data file for the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study. Therefore. but as we see here the study is done in a present scenario for a continuous timeframe. and an increase in English language learners. the direct child cognitive assessment scores available on this first data file release will not be appropriate for crosscohort comparisons. Additionally. in contrast to cross-sectional datasets (such as the census itself). Please note that while the ECLS-K:2011 was designed to allow for cross-cohort comparisons with the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study. school. through ECLS we get to study individual-level change over time. and in sociology to study life events throughout lifetimes or generations. Hence. significant changes include the passage of No Child Left Behind (NCLB) legislation. which provide a snapshot of a population at a single point in time (or at repeated intervals. they would not remember. Child assessment scores designed specifically for comparisons between the ECLS-K and ECLSK: 2011 cohorts are currently in development. Kindergarten Class of 1998-99 (ECLS-K).

and physical domains? What are the levels and rates of growth in these domains from infancy through kindergarten? How do these levels and rates of growth vary for different groups of children? What characteristics of children. and how do these skills vary by demographic characteristics such as race/ethnicity. and those with delayed entry? What characteristics of children. availability of the arrangements. social. and readiness for school? What characteristics show the strongest associations with the attainment of school readiness skills and behaviors? .Annexure 1 Example Research Questions for ECLS-B The ECLS-B was designed to address a variety of research questions. and which children experience delayed entry? How do children from the same age cohort who entered kindergarten a year later than the rest of the cohort differ from those who entered “on time”? Do delayed-entry children perform similarly in kindergarten compared to their peers who entered kindergarten on time? How do children who repeat kindergarten compare to peers? How do children with varying backgrounds make the transition to formal education at kindergarten? How are these differences related to academic and social success? School Readiness What literacy. from infancy through kindergarten). their families. Many of the questions were designed to apply to the entire span of the study (i. their families. socioemotional. language. including the ones listed by topic area below.e. development. although some reference age-specific constructs. and quality – relate to how well children with varying backgrounds and needs are prepared for school? How do outcome measures associated with participation vary by characteristics such as race/ethnicity. and School When do parents decide to place their children in nonparental care and education arrangements? What factors are important to parents when selecting an early care and education arrangement for their children? Do parents feel there are good choices for such arrangements where they live? What are the characteristics and quality of the nonparental care and education arrangements that children have? How stable are these arrangements? How do different types of care and early education arrangements. socioeconomic status. Children’s Growth and Development What are children’s competencies in the cognitive. Early Education Programs. and family structure? How do these characteristics differ among children repeating kindergarten.. and their early care and early education experiences are associated with different levels and rates of growth? Children’s Transitions to and Participation in Nonparental Child Care. sponsorship. socioeconomic status. mathematical. health. and the demands placed on parents to balance work and home life relate to children’s growth. language. those entering on time. and other child and family characteristics? How do the characteristics of the arrangements interact with the characteristics of children and their families in relation to children’s social and cognitive development? How continuous is the non-parental care and education children receive? How consistent are the characteristics of the different settings in which a child receives nonparental care and education? Are frequent changes in child care and early education programs associated with cognitive and socioemotional development? Which children enter kindergarten the year they qualify according to age. and family well-being? What are the early child care experiences of children living in low-income families who may be eligible for Head Start? How do differences in care and early education arrangements relate to child development and later school achievement? How do the characteristics of the arrangements – including organization. and motor skills do children exhibit as preschoolers and kindergartners. and their early care and educational experiences correlate with children’s preschool skills and behaviors.

. especially cognitive gains? Children with Special Needs What are the varieties of service delivery models in place for special education? How are these varieties of programs related to child outcomes? . and how does their involvement with their children and the family relate to children’s development? What role do resident fathers play? What contributions do fathers make to children’s development and preparation for schooling that are independent of mothers’ contributions? How do the characteristics of classrooms (e. including disabilities and injuries. practices) relate to children’s development during kindergarten and interact with their previous experiences in nonparental care and education? How do schools facilitate the transition into kindergarten? What is the relationship of this transition to children’s success in school? How do parents prepare for this transition? Children’s Health Status How prevalent are disabilities and illnesses among young children? How prevalent is obesity among young children? How are children’s early health care and health status. Many of the questions were designed to apply to the entire span of the study. and early care and education arrangements during the preschool years relate to differences in skills at kindergarten entry? In what ways do parental cognitive stimulation and emotional nurturance covary with readiness for school? What role do fathers play in early child rearing. and health promotion and prevention programs relate to rates of growth and development for more vulnerable children? How do these children fare when they enter formal schooling as compared to their peers? In what kinds of educational programs are these more vulnerable children enrolled when they enter school? What kinds of school programs are available for children with health and developmental disabilities? Annexure 2 Example Research Questions for ECLS-K (1998-99) The ECLS-K was designed to address a variety of research questions.How do the characteristics of parents. although some reference constructs that were only relevant in particular grades. early childhood education programs. curriculum. families. Children’s Developmental Status at Entry to Kindergarten and in Later Grades What is the status of children’s development (as defined by cognitive. including the ones listed by topic area below. socio-emotional development. related to their preparedness for formal school? What aspects of child health and parent health relate to children’s growth and development? What is the relationship between different early child and family medical histories and children’s development and school readiness? What is the relationship between different health care practices and children’s development and school readiness? Is there an association between health insurance coverage and children’s health and well-being? Is there an association between access to health care and children’s health and well-being? What groups of children have more developmental difficulties and how does family involvement in early intervention.g. behaviour. and physical status measures) at entry to kindergarten and through middle school? How are family socio=demographic and contextual characteristics associated with success in school within and across developmental measures and within child sex and race/ethnicity subgroups? How prevalent is obesity among children in elementary school? How do the rates of obesity vary for children with different characteristics and backgrounds? How do the rates of obesity change over the elementary years and into middle school? Time in School How are the length and schedule of the school year related to children’s progress.

content coverage. use of teachers’ aides or volunteers. which are organized by the different study data collection instruments. Direct and Indirect Child Assessments . children. and methods of providing feedback differ across classrooms or schools? How do teachers and schools deal with the diversity of children’s skills? Are children’s opportunities to learn associated with family social background variables? Neighbourhood and School Characteristics How do neighbourhood or community differences relate to children’s development? Do basic demographic and organizational differences between schools have associations with children’s academic and social development? Family-School Interactions How does parental involvement in children’s education relate to academic performance and students’ school engagement? What is the extent of parental school involvement in elementary and middle school? What affects the extent of parental involvement? What kinds of extra services or programs do schools provide to families. or community members? Child Care Arrangements (Including Prior Head Start Program Attendance) What are the child care arrangements for children in the early grades? How are these arrangements related to children’s progress through school? Annexure 3 Example Research Questions for ECLS-K: 2011 The ECLS-K: 2011 has been designed to study the following sets of research questions. While the questions below focus on the early years of the study. child-to-teacher ratio. and use of team teaching correlate with children’s progress through school? Are differences in classroom materials and supplies related to differences in children’s outcomes? Classroom Practices How do instructional practices. time on task. the ECLSK: 2011 is designed to follow the kindergarten cohort of 2010-11 through the 2015-16 school years (when most of the children will be in fifth grade). Additional study research questions will be added to this list as the study progresses.How do schools teach children who have little or no proficiency in English? How do schools respond to the needs of parents with little or no English proficiency? How and when do schools provide services to children identified as gifted and talented? What kinds of programs do schools provide to children who are falling behind academically? Classroom Characteristics and Resources Does teachers’ educational background or experience relate to children’s academic development? How do class size.

and social and emotional adjustment? Are critical family processes and parenting practices associated with later success in school? What beliefs and standards do they have for children’s behaviour and academic performance at entry into kindergarten? What are parents’ assessments of individual children’s readiness for and adjustment to school? To what extent does parental involvement in children’s education relate to school performance over the course of the early grades? Do parental involvement levels differ by family social. attendance. demographic. demographic. and contextual characteristics at the time of kindergarten entry? How do variations in children’s developmental status at kindergarten entry relate to later success in school? What are the associations between family socio-demographic and contextual characteristics and later success in school within and across developmental domains and across sex and racial/ethnic subgroups? How do family processes and parenting practices relate to children’s school readiness. language.. adaptability) change over time? How prevalent is obesity among young children? How do the rates of obesity vary for children with different characteristics and backgrounds? How do the rates of obesity change over the elementary years? Parent Interview What is the status of children’s development (as defined by cognitive. behaviour. during the elementary years? How do differences in schools’ basic demographic characteristics. enrolment. and how do these relate to other school characteristics and children’s cognitive and social development? How do differences in principals’ background characteristics relate to other school characteristics and practices? Teacher Questionnaires How do instructional practices. and school safety do schools face. teachers’ opportunities for staff development. and contextual characteristics? What forms of parent involvement are most highly correlated with children’s outcomes? What factors might influence the extent of parental involvement? What are children’s patterns of participation in early care and education? How do early care and education arrangements differ by family socio-demographic factors. and physical status measures) at entry to kindergarten and beyond? How does children’s development vary by child and family social.g. socioeconomic status. children. developmental status. social. classroom resources. race/ethnicity.What are children’s competencies in the cognitive. or school goals for teachers’ progress in the classroom relate to children’s academic development? What kinds of services or programs do schools provide to families. and number of kindergarten repeaters relate to other classroom characteristics? . demographic. and emotional development. language. science. and how do these skills vary by demographic characteristics such as race/ethnicity. teacher mobility. and methods of providing feedback differ across classrooms or schools? Do those differences correlate with children’s academic and social development over the elementary grades? To what extent and how are children’s opportunities to learn in the elementary grades associated with family social background characteristics? To what extent and how are children’s opportunities to learn in the elementary school grades associated with later school success? How does diversity in the classroom regarding age. and race/ethnicity? To what extent are these arrangements related to children’s progress through school? School Administrator Questionnaire To what extent does the length of the school year relate to children’s academic progress. socio-emotional. self-monitoring. and family structure? How do these skills differ between children repeating kindergarten and those who are in kindergarten for the first time? To what extent and how do children’s executive functioning abilities (e. especially cognitive gains. and executive function domains? How does children’s development of and growth in these competencies vary by child and family social. policies. or community members? How do these relate to children’s academic and socio-emotional development? How do schools respond to the needs of parents with little or no English proficiency? How do neighbourhood or community differences relate to children’s cognitive and social development? What challenges associated with student behaviour. and organizational characteristics relate to children’s academic and social development in the elementary school years? Do school practices to involve parents result in higher levels of parent involvement? Does the school or administrative climate. socioeconomic status. content coverage. mathematics. resources. sex. and executive function skills do children exhibit as kindergartners. and contextual characteristics? What literacy. impulse control.

instructional strategies. and race/ethnicity participate in different types of care and education programs? How are these arrangements related to children’s academic achievement and progress? To what extent do variations in before.and after-school care and education programs—including organization.How do teachers and schools handle the diversity of children’s skills? How are children with special needs taught? How might instructional differences for these students relate to academic and social outcomes? Do teachers’ characteristics. experience levels. educational background.and after-school care and education programs? Do children with different family socio-demographic factors. and assistive devices are provided to children with different types of disabilities? Do children receive special education services before kindergarten? What transition activities take place from prekindergarten to kindergarten for children with special needs? What is the association between inclusion in the regular classroom and children’s progress through the early grades? Before. sense of efficacy. certifications. and professional development of teachers/care providers related to children’s outcomes? . and teaching experience correlate with children’s outcomes either in isolation or interacting with children’s socio-demographic backgrounds? Do teachers’ practices to involve parents relate to higher levels of parent involvement? How do teacher's relationships with individual students differ? What might the consequences of those differences be for children's academic and social development during the elementary years? What academic and socio-emotional skills and behaviours do teachers report children having as they enter and go through school? Do these vary by family social background characteristics? How do these skills and behaviours change over time? Special Education Teacher Questionnaires How do teachers and schools handle the diversity of children’s skills? How are children identified for receipt of special education services? What are the types of service delivery models in place for special education? How do program variations relate to differences in children’s academic or social development? What is the prevalence of different types of disabilities among children in elementary school? What types of services. including socio-demographic characteristics. and perceptions of school climate. socioeconomic status. and quality—relate to the achievement of children with varying backgrounds and needs during the kindergarten year and beyond? Does participation in before. job satisfaction. views on school readiness. educational backgrounds. sponsorship.and after-school care and education relate to academic and social outcomes experienced by children? To what extent are the characteristics.and After-school Early Care and Education Provider Questionnaires What are the patterns of participation in before.

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