This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
Leon Battista Alberti
Leon Battista Alberti
Birth name Leon Battista Alberti Born February 14, 1404 Genoa, Italy April 20, 1472 (aged 68) Rome
Nationality Florentine (Italian) Field Movement Works Architecture, Linguistics, Poetry Italian Renaissance Tempio Malatestiano, Palazzo Rucellai, Santa Maria Novella
Leon Battista Alberti (February 14, 1404 – April 20, 1472) was an Italian author, artist, architect, poet, priest, linguist, philosopher, cryptographer and general Renaissance humanist polymath. Although he is often characterized as an "architect" exclusively, as James Beck has observed, "to single out one of Leon Battista's 'fields' over others as somehow functionally independent and self-sufficient is of no help at all to any effort to characterize Alberti's extensive explorations in the fine arts." Alberti's life was described in Giorgio Vasari's Vite de' più eccellenti pittori, scultori, e architettori or 'Lives of the most excellent painters, sculptors and architects'.
Childhood and education
An Italian humanist, Alberti is often seen as a model of the Renaissance "universal man". He was born in Genoa, one of two illegitimate sons of a wealthy Florentine merchant, Lorenzo Alberti. Leon Battista's mother, Bianca Fieschi, was a Bolognese widow who died during an outbreak of bubonic plague. Like many other families, the Albertis had been expelled from their native city, Florence, by the republican government, run by the Albizzis. At the time of Leon Battista's birth, his father Lorenzo lived in Genoa, but the family soon moved to Venice, where Lorenzo ran the family bank with his brother. Lorenzo married again in 1408. The ban on the family was lifted in 1428, and that same year Leon visited Florence for the first time. Alberti received the best education then available to an Italian nobleman. From around 1414 to 1418 he studied classics at the famous school of Gasparino Barzizza in Padua. He then completed his education at the University of Bologna, where he studied law. In his youth, according to stories, Alberti could—with his feet together—jump over a man's head, he was a superb horseman, and he "learned music without a master, and yet his compositions were admired by professional judges."  After the death of his father, Alberti was supported by his uncles. In his twenties Alberti wrote On the Advantages and Disadvantages of Letters, which he dedicated to his brother Carlo, also a scholar and writer. Alberti's Latin
which fit in well with the contemporary aesthetic discourse. household management. Alberti stressed the need for a reform in education. Through his book." as Alberti put it. Alberti stressed that "all steps of learning should be sought from nature.Leon Battista Alberti comedy. included in his De Re Aedificatoria (1452. at the same goal. the sources of their wealth are shameful. so constructed that it is impossible to take anything away from it or add anything to it. which was mediated by Franciscan optical workshops of the 13th-century Perspectivae traditions of scholars such as Roger Bacon."  This treatise (Della pittura ) was also known in Latin as De Pictura. It has been considered . In both Della pittura and De statua. and the standard Italian edition by Cosimo Bartoli was published in 1550. Ecatonfilea (c. moreover. a large and expensive book. he gave the work to his family to read. but the artist should be especially attentive to beauty. The work was the first architectural treatise of the Renaissance. The work was not printed until 1843. but he managed to realize only a fragment of his visionary plans. marriage. 1429). 1429). and objects. was not fully published until 1485. "for in painting beauty is as pleasing as it is necessary." However. John Peckham and Witelo (similar influences are also traceable in the third commentary of Lorenzo Ghiberti. who had been the first famous philologist to study the works of the ancient Roman poets. to whom Alberti dedicated the whole work. Painters and sculptors strive "through by different skills. De aspectibus) of the Arab polymath Alhazen (Ibn al-Haytham. Alberti opened up his theories and ideals of the Florentine Renaissance to architects. 2 Study of perspective Alberti regarded mathematics as the common ground of art and the sciences. aimed to teach that "a man dedicated to study and hard work can attain glory. the book was written "not only for craftsmen but also for anyone interested in the noble arts. was a misogynist comedy about the Olympian gods. written between 1443 and 1450. d. scholars and others. Alberti loved classics. just as well as a rich and fortunate man. dealt with love. for nurses or the mother. However. when he saw some of his relatives openly ridiculing both the whole work and the author's futile enterprise along it. Like Erasmus decades later. "I will take first from the mathematicians those things with which my subject is concerned. and money—in the Tuscan dialect. ruins." and subsequently "this concord is realized in a particular number." For a short time it was passed as a genuinely antique Roman play. from history to town planning. Later he also complained. c." and that at the earliest possible age children should be taught the alphabet. Amator (c. a short treatise on sculpture. Philodoxus. and Deiphira (c." Alberti's thoughts on harmony were not new—they could be traced back to Pythagoras—but he set them in a fresh context. 46–30 BC). the first Italian edition came out in 1546." Momus. With great hopes. In Rome. Alberti was well-versed in the sciences of his age. "To make clear my exposition in writing this brief commentary on painting. after which it became a major reference for architects. He noted that "the care of very young children is women's work." The ultimate aim of an artist is to imitate nature. and it relied in its scientific content on classical optics in determining perspective as a geometric instrument of artistic and architectural representation. De re aedificatoria. Alberti wrote I Libri della famiglia—which discussed education. Alberti did not mean that artists should imitate nature objectively. Della Pittura (On Painting). proportion. His detailed observations. were patterned after the De architectura by the Roman architect and engineer Vitruvius (fl." Alberti began his treatise. or if they do become rich from literary pursuits. and engineering to the philosophy of beauty. and arrangement demanded by harmony. His knowledge of optics was connected to the handed-down long-standing tradition of the Kitab al-manazir (The Optics." The work of art is. but in his autobiography Alberti confesses that "he could hardly avoid feeling rage. It covered a wide range of subjects. dreamed of rebuilding the city of Rome. and failed relationships. Commentario terzo). 1429–1434). Pope Nicholas V. without impairing the beauty of the whole. virtues." Other early works. 1041). Originally published in Latin. as it is. namely that as nearly as possible the work they have undertaken shall appear to the observer to be similar to the real objects of nature. Like Petrarch. Beauty was for Alberti "the harmony of all parts in relation to one another. On the Art of Building). according to Alberti. Alberti had plenty of time to study its ancient sites. that "the learned don't become rich.
is eventually castrated. • San Sebastiano.Leon Battista Alberti as a roman à clef—Jupiter has been identified in some sources as Pope Eugenius IV and Pope Nicholas V. 3 Architectural works For the Rucellai family in Florence Alberti designed several buildings. the façade of Santa Maria Novella. the marble-clad shrine of the Holy Sepulchre. the façade of Palazzo Rucellai. • Sant'Andrea. Alberti borrowed many of its characters from Lucian. Mantua (begun 1471) Palazzo Rucellai . Leon Battista Alberti. Some dates vary from source to source. the god of mockery. 1453–60) • Façade of Palazzo Rucellai (1446–51) • Completion of the facade of Santa Maria Novella. and perhaps also the Capella Rucellai. Mantua (begun 1458) • Pienza. The name of its hero. Rimini (1447. 1477). Francesco. but they return to heaven after Jupiter breaks his nose in a great storm. Jupiter and the other gods come down to earth also. Florence (1470. Momus. Tempio Malatestiano. After being expelled from heaven. executed by Bernardo Rosselino. possibly as consultant (1459–62) • Sepolcro Rucellai in San Pancrazio (1467) • Tribune for Santissima Annunziata. completed with alterations. these come from Franco Borsi. Florence (1448–70). 1977) • S. Momus. refers to the Greek word for blame or criticism. one of his favorite Greek writers. (New York: Harper & Row.
following his natural genius. a mongrel. and produced a small Latin work on geography. He was a welcomed guest at the Este court in Ferrara. emphasized Alberti's scholarly achievements. but above all. De componendis cifris. On the reverse side is the question. 1472 in Rome. a human figure related to a square and a circle. a dialogue about Florence during the Medici rule. a large plaquette. Courtyard of the Uffizi Gallery. who argued that historical progress in art reached its peak in Michelangelo. "And Alberti was to Leonardo Da Vinci as the finisher to the beginner. but as a painter. Giorgio Vasari. had special status. However. and in Urbino he spent part of the hot-weather season with the soldier-prince Federico III da Montefeltro. Would only that Vasari's work were here supplemented by a description like that of Alberti! The colossal outlines of Leonardo's nature can never be more than dimly and distantly conceived." . who whispers in the ear of Ludovico Gonzaga. as a member of noble family and as part of the Roman curia. for whom he wrote a panegyric. Alberti was a dilettante. To the left of his profile is a winged eye. pioneering in their field. page after page. the older man dressed in dark red clothes. he is clothed as a Roman. were a treatise in cryptography. but Leonardo filled his notebooks with observations on human proportions." Burckhardt also mentions Alberti's love for animals." Jacob Burckhardt portrayed Alberti in The Civilization of the Renaissance in Italy as a truly universal genius. Florence and studying the proportions of antiquities. as a scientist Leonardo was more empirical than Alberti." wrote Vasari.Leon Battista Alberti 4 Other works and legacy Among Alberti's smaller studies. Alberti. The Duke of Urbino was a shrewd military commander. as the master to the dilettante. Alberti distinguished himself from the ordinary craftsman. not his artistic talents: "He spent his time finding out about the world Late statue of Leon Battista Alberti. the ruler of Mantua. Leonardo. He was a humanist. who generously spent money on the patronage of art. In Alberti's self-portrait. Canis). "In painting Alberti achieved nothing of any great importance or beauty. Alberti planned to dedicate his treatise on architecture to his friend. Alberti completed De iciarchia (On Ruling the Household). and the first Italian grammar. or sculptor. but this is not surprising since he devoted himself more to his studies than to draughtsmanship. "The very few paintings of his that are extant are far from perfect. Just a few years before his death. Descriptio urbis Romae (The Panorama of the City of Rome). "We painters. He had a pet dog. a close science to geography at that time." said Alberti in On Painting. if Amyntas is dark? (quid tum si fuscus Amyntas?) Violets are black. followed Alberti in the view that painting is science. ending with the famous drawing on the Vitruvian man. taken from Virgil's Eclogues: "So what. Alberti believed in ideal beauty. With the Florentine cosmographer Paolo Toscanelli he collaborated in astronomy. As an artist. Alberti is said to be in Mantegna's great frescoes in the Camera degli Sposi. Quid tum? (what then). he concentrated on writing rather than on applied work. Alberti died on April 25." (from Lives of the Artists). who ironically called himself "an uneducated person" (omo senza lettere). educated in workshops. who was a theorist and did not have similar interest in practice. and hyacinths are black. and part of the rapidly expanding entourage of intellectuals and artisans supported by the courts of the princes and lords of the time.
• Whilst Alberti's treatises on painting and architecture have been hailed as the founding texts of a new form of art. French. At Mantua he designed the churches of San Sebastiano and Sant'Andrea. of the accumulation of people. Piero della Francesca and Fra Angelico. • He took great interest in studying the ruins of classical architecture in Rome and elsewhere. De pictura ("On Painting") contained the first scientific study of perspective. Pienza is considered an early example of Renaissance urban planning. He drew on his contacts with early Quattrocento artists such as Brunelleschi. breaking from the gothic past. and "hold the eye of the learned and unlearned spectator for a long while with a certain sense of pleasure and emotion". who edited and published it as the genuine work of 'Lepidus Comicus'. He also built the facade for the family palace in the Via della Vigna Nuova. Newer translations are now available. which debouched into a simple basin designed by Alberti. But how far Alberti was responsible for these innovations and how far he was simply articulating the trends of the artistic movement. • He has been credited with being the author. entitled Philodoxius. An Italian translation of De pictura (Della pittura) was published in 1436. which create harmony amongst each other. Facade of Santa Maria Novella. Pius II himself named Bernardo Rosselino as his architect. and at Rimini the church of San Francesco. Donatello and Ghiberti to provide a practical handbook for the renaissance artist. Pius II wanted to use the village as a retreat but needed for it to reflect the dignity of his position. De Statua. known as the Palazzo Rucellai. of the Hypnerotomachia Poliphili. is impossible to ascertain. which by the 16th century had been translated into Italian (by Cosimo Bartoli). His praise of the Calumny of Apelles led to several attempts to emulate it. with which his practical experience had made him familiar. The Latin version had been dedicated to Alberti's humanist patron. An English translation was by Giacomo Leoni in the early 18th century. In his treatise De pictura (1435) he explains the theory. would later deceive the younger Aldus Manutius. The design. one year after the original Latin version and addressed Filippo Brunelleschi in the preface. • He was so skilled in Latin verse that a comedy he wrote in his twentieth year. though it is not exactly clear what his role as designer was. including paintings by Botticelli and Signorelli. and buildings. in whose employ Alberti served. • Alberti is sometimes thought to have had an important role in the designing of Pienza.Leon Battista Alberti 5 Contributions Alberti made a variety of contributions to several fields: • Alberti was the creator of a theory called "historia". • Alberti wrote an influential work on architecture. which radically transformed the center of the town. but which was redesigned beginning around 1459. • Alberti used his artistic treatises to propound a new humanistic theory of art. or alternatively the designer of the woodcut illustrations. Gianfrancesco Gonzaga of Mantua. animals. He also wrote works on [sculpture]. . On a commission from the Rucellai family he completed the principal facade of the church of Santa Maria Novella in Florence which had been begun in the previous century. a church. a village that had been called Corsignano. Pope Pius II. Spanish and English. it is impossible to know the extent of their practical impact within his lifetime. a strange fantasy novel. De Re Aedificatoria. a town hall and a building for the bishops who would accompany the Pope on his trips. His stylistic ideals have been put into practice in the works of Mantegna. included a palace for the pope. At Rome he was employed by Pope Nicholas V of the restoration of the Roman aqueduct of Acqua Vergine. which was swept away later by the Baroque Trevi Fountain. It was the birthplace of Aeneas Silvius Piccolomini.
1429). by Francesco Landini. commissioned by Giovanni de' Medici. with feet tied. Under this perspective the Villa Medici in Fiesole could therefore be considered the "muse" for numerous other buildings." The autobiography survives thanks to an 18th century transcription by Antonio Muratori. and that it then became the prototype of the Renaissance villa. Penguin Classics. not only in the Florence area. in Latin . • Apart from his treatises on the arts. leap over a standing man. pointing to three significant advances in the field which can be attributed to Alberti: "the earliest Western exposition of cryptanalysis. to some extent. 1437). Alberti also wrote: Philodoxus ("Lover of Glory". throw a coin far up to ring against the vault. the invention of polyalphabetic substitution. ISBN 0-262-51060-X. On Painting. ISBN 978-0-14-043331-9.) • Alberti claimed in his "autobiography" to be an accomplished musician and organist. begun 1432) Vita S. Theogenius ("The Origin of the Gods". . 1438 in Latin and in the third person. 1441. in a short autobiography written c. (translated by Joseph Rykwert. 1424). Della famiglia ("On the Family". is the very first example of a Renaissance villa: that is to say it follows the Albertian criteria for rendering a country dwelling a "villa suburbana".Leon Battista Alberti • Some studies propose that the Villa Medici in Fiesole might owe its design to Alberti. Potitus". many in the Renaissance promoted themselves in various ways and Alberti's eagerness to promote his skills should be understood. could. and the invention of enciphered code" (David Kahn (1967). • Alberti was an accomplished cryptographer by the standard of his day. and thus – perhaps – had the leisure to devote himself to this art. Galimberti. not to Michelozzo. but there is no hard evidence to support this claim. could in the great cathedral. De commodis litterarum atque incommodis ("On the Advantages and Disadvantages of Literary Studies". A. (many but not all scholars consider this work to be an autobiography) he was capable of "standing with his feet together. In fact. The codebreakers: the story of secret writing. • According to Alberti himself. c. (This advice should be followed in reading the above information. Alberti. Torino 1997. Cosimo il Vecchio's second son. Profugorium ab aerumna ("Refuge from Mental Anguish". the most significant advance in cryptography since before Julius Caesar's time. in English . Intercoenales ("Table Talk". for it was not properly used for several hundred years. 1435." Needless to say. which from the end of the 15th century onwards find inspiration and creative innovation here. • Della tranquillitá dell'animo. Leon Battista. Latin text and English translation. but this is only speculation. Maybe also that this hilltop dwelling. and springing over a man's head. amused himself by taming wild horses and climbing mountains. trans. ISBN 978-0-262-51060-8. Foreword by David Kahn. c. and invented the first polyalphabetic cipher which is now known as the Alberti cipher and machine-assisted encryption using his Cipher Disk. 6 Works • De Pictura. Vasari also agreed with this. 1440). • He was also interested in the drawing of maps and worked with the astronomer. Cambridge. 1988. The polyalphabetic cipher was. musical posers were not uncommon in his day (see the lyrics to the song Musica Son. • De Cifris A Treatise on Ciphers (1467). Ten Books on Architecture). 1972. and cartographer Paolo Toscanelli. • Momus.). at least in principle. for complaints to this effect. with its view over the city.) He held the appointment of canon in the metropolitan church of Florence. 2003 ISBN 0-674-00754-9 • [De re aedificatoria] (1452. astrologer. 1429). De iure (On Law. Momus (1450) and De Iciarchia ("On the Prince". On Painting. De Pictura.). Cryptography historian David Kahn titles him the "Father of Western Cryptography". On the art of building in ten books.: MIT Press.These and other works were translated and printed in Venice by the humanist Cosimo Bartoli in 1586. 1468). 1433). within that framework. De re aedificatoria. Mass. some of which originates in this so-called autobiography. Robert Tavernor and Neil Leach). New York: MacMillan. Potiti ("Life of St. Alberti also claimed that he "excelled in all bodily exercises. Zaccagnini.
• Anthony Grafton." Arabic Sciences and Philosophy. • Mark Jarzombek. Sein Leben und seine Architekturtheorie. jstor. univ-tours. Mazzini. palladiancenter.. 9. No. "A Philosophical Perspective on Alhazen’s Optics. pdf . R. edu/ mmj4/ www/ downloads/ renstud4_3. 1. mit. Villa Medici a Fiesole. Renaissance Studies 4/3 (September 1990): 273–285. ISBN 0-684-10114-9. Italian edition  • "Dinner pieces". pp. org/ sici?sici=0075-4390(1984)47%3C52%3AADPILS%3E2. com/ Texts/ Alberti/  http:/ / www. 43. Universal Man of the Renaissance. State University of New York. 1998. Torino 2007 • Francesco Borsi. 1969. 1984 (1984). 1956. 1860. p. Nader El-Bizri. A New Translation an Critical Edition". fi/ alberti. See Kelly-Gadol. 2. Simone. issue 2 (2005). ISBN 0-300-07615-0. Inc. html)  Further information on the Rucellai family can be found on the Italian Wikipedia article  Liane Lefaivre. • Wright. liberliber. Leon Battista Alberti. org/ predecessors. A Translation of the Intercenales by David Marsh. French and Italian editions of De re aedificatoria  • "Leon Battista Alberti. J. "Alberti's De Pictura: Its Literary Structure and Purpose" . it/ biblioteca/ a/ alberti/ de_pictura/ html/ depictur. 47. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons. D. Leon Battista Alberti's Hypnerotomachia Poliphili. Dictionary of Scientific Biography. Arizona Board of Regents for Arizona State university 2007. Cambridge: The MIT Press. 52–71. May 2011. cesr. Edward. Stuttgart 1982 References       In Italy. On Alberti and the Art of Building. On Painting. Leon Battista Alberti e il prototipo di villa rinascimentale. fr/ Traite/ Auteur/ Alberti. 19 (1989:9–35). "Alberti. "Leon Battista Alberti and the 'Night Sky' at San Lorenzo". htm  http:/ / architectura. Leon Battista Alberti. 15. Edited and Translated by Rocco Sinisgalli. Trans. 0.. sci. & Tavenor. Artibus et Historiae 10.Leon Battista. Leone Battista". S.  Books and Writing website – http:/ / www. editor John Richard Spencer. • Robert Tavernor. ISBN 978-1-107-00062-9 • I libri della famiglia. Leon Battista Albertis Delineation of the city of Rome". Peter Hicks. Leone Battista Alberti. Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft Darmstadt 2012 • Michel Paoli. On Painting. Journal of the Warburg and Courtauld Institutes. Vol. p. New York 2000 • Günther Fischer. Rykwert. James Beck. noteaccess.R. Palladio's Literary Predecessors (http:/ / www.Leon Battista Alberti • Latin. vol. asp?param=en  http:/ / books. CO%3B2-X  http:/ / web. 1997  D. 96–98. Leon Battista Alberti. but Alberti is known as Leon. com/ books?id=gNmEAAAAIAAJ& printsec=frontcover& dq=intitle:I+ intitle:libri+ intitle:della+ intitle:famiglia+ inauthor:Alberti& source=bl& ots=ww-arZxmaD& sig=7IUl0Mn1uE-7p8zEegRUM0yd91Y& hl=en& sa=X& ei=YUk8UJyiOIrhiALYg4GwBA& ved=0CDUQ6AEwAA#v=onepage& q& f=false  http:/ / links. Leon Battista Alberti. Joan. University of Chicago Press.1. “The Structural Problematic of Leon Battista Alberti's De pictura” . google. pp. 7 Bibliography • Gille. Leach. On the Art of Building in Ten Books. New York. pp. htm  Alberti. Center for Medieval and Early Renaissance Studies. Das Gesamtwerk. Master Builder of the Italian Renaissance. New Haven and London: Yale University Press. Binghampton 1987 • "Descriptio urbis Romae. Cambridge: MIT Press. kirjasto. 189–218 (Cambridge University Press). N. 1988  Center for Palladian Studies in America. Bertrand (1970). this first name is usually spelled "Leone".. Centro Di. Cambridge University Press. Leon Battista Alberti. Firenze 2004  http:/ / www. ISBN 978-0-300-07615-8. Jacob Burckhard in The Civilization of the Renaissance Italy.
ilnarratore.html) • "Learning from the City-States? Leon Battista Alberti and the London Riots" (http://www. Italy (http://www. Berfrois (http://www. Harvard University. Ex ludis rerum mathematicarum : manuscript.com/2011/ 09/caspar-pearson-urban-siege/). Caspar Pearson. Maria Novella.it/biblioteca/a/alberti/de_pictura/html/index.berfrois. [14--].html) • Sta. (printed in Rome in 1520).edu/urn-3:FHCL.liberliber.php?type=author& language=en&aid=12&tpl=/eng/autore. 1404–1472._Andrea.com/show.org/search.html).htm).org/predecessors.com/Texts/Alberti/)) • Libri della famiglia – Libro 3 – Dignità del volgare (http://www. Linda Hall Library • Read online "Ten Books on Architecture by Leone Battista Alberti" (http://www.uni-mannheim.questia.greatbuildings. Mantua.greatbuildings.html) on audio MP3 • Momus (http://www. (http:// nrs.org . Leon Battista.HOUGH:1267672) Houghton Library.com/PM.2.html) • Alberti's works online • De pictura/Della pittura (http://www.berfrois.ac.tpl.lindahall.com) • MS Typ 422. Andrea. qst?a=o&d=89563736) • Works of Alberti (http://www. (printed in London in 1755). full digital facsimile.com/buildings/S.Leon Battista Alberti 8 External links • Albertian Bibliography on line (http://alberti.de/mateo/itali/autoren/alberti_itali.com/). Leon Battista").archive.org/u?/classics. CAMENA Project • The Architecture of Leon Batista Alberti in Ten Books (http://contentdm.uk/ace/alberti/) • S. Alberti.4839)._Andrea.php?query=creator:"Alberti. 26 September 2011 • Online resources for Alberti's buildings • Alberti Photogrammetric Drawings (http://www.noteaccess. • Palladio's Literary Predecessors (http://www. book facsimiles via archive.wordpress.harvard. full digital facsimile.com/buildings/S. original Latin and Italian texts ( English translation (http://www.bath. Florence. Italy (http://www.palladiancenter.
Mlouns.wikipedia.jpg Source: http://en. Reedy.org/w/index. Master shepherd. Cghostyyy. Shaka.wikipedia. Luain. Jorunn. Mervyn. Andre Engels.php?title=File:Santa_Maria_Novella. ElinorD. Stomme. Keegan. Sq178pv. Vargob. Courcelles. Dahn. SpuriousQ.0 Unported //creativecommons. Vrenator. Wolfensberger. Wiki libs. Giano. Voldemortuet.jpg License: Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3. Bonás.wikipedia. ClovisPt.0/ . James086. Chesipiero. William Avery. Factfinderz. Olimpico. CRGreathouse. Bobet. Ignatzmice. NellieBly. Kpjas. Peregrine981.wikipedia. SimonP.jpg Source: http://en. C. Conscious.Article Sources and Contributors 9 Article Sources and Contributors Leon Battista Alberti Source: http://en.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: Imperialista File:Leon Battista Alberti. Omnipaedista. J. JoJan. Ww.wikipedia. AnnaFrance. Sry85. Nishkid64. Gus Buonafalce. RandomCritic. Alcmaeonid. Littlealien182.jpg Source: http://en.org/w/index. Zeig elric. Art LaPella. Dlindner. MarcoTolo. Nimetapoeg. Kriteon. Ihcoyc. Den fjättrade ankan. Hurratolat.org/licenses/by-sa/3. Ragussa. BMBTHC. Tiptoety.jpg Source: http://en. Wareh.org/w/index. Johnbod. Tasnutaer.delanoy. Kamix. Jevansen. Dante Alighieri. Drmies. Quistnix. Sparkit. Everyking. Catpad. Zoe. DCDuring. Polylerus. BlueCanary9999. Kehrbykid. Hohenloh. Mootros. Canderson7. Fram. Attilios.jpg License: Public Domain Contributors: G. Evrik. Jonathan Stokes. Kummi. Itai. Yuckfoo. Coastside. Jgmccue. Makemi. Avoided. CARAVAGGISTI. Superp. Modernist. MaryBowser. 288 anonymous edits Image Sources.org/w/index. Rocastelo. Phoebe. Nihil novi. AmateurEditor.php?title=File:Palácio_Rucellai.Allen. Tamarat. Croganhore. RichiH. Mapetite526.php?title=File:Leon_Battista_Alberti2. Kjetil r Image:Santa Maria Novella. Bbeest. Pnot. Alansohn. Saxobob. Ipsumesse. Orphan Wiki. CardinalDan. Flybd5. Hasanisawi. Don4of4. Jafeluv. Matt Crypto. Thething88. RevRagnarok. Materialscientist. Logologist. A. Mav. Buckyboot.org/w/index. Ugur Basak. Pava. Wikiklrsc.0 Unported Contributors: Carla Nunziata. Chris the speller. Brosi. Mandarax.php?oldid=536410780 Contributors: 20-dude. D6. Antonio G Colombo. Maxis ftw. Securiger. Howdoesitflee. Nekura. MetelloR. Bill Thayer. JoJan. Cnelson. LenBudney. Wikipelli. CSvBibra.dallorto. Carty. Woohookitty. Mahlum. Amandajm. SteinbDJ. Waacstats. Papppfaffe. Arakunem. Benaglia Image:Palácio Rucellai. El C. Giftlite. FayssalF. Phenomenologique. Ssd. Kbdank71. Robert Tavernor. Amadou Ongoiba. Twipley. Retired username. Stefanomione. Pollinosisss. LeaveSleaves. Blahm. Magister Mathematicae. Licenses and Contributors File:Leon Battista Alberti2. Antonrojo. Wizardman. SouthernNights. Wetman.Fred. Sailko. Kwork2. AccioVera. Nkocharh. Horace beecher. Conversion script. Gianfranco. Harvestman. Tomchiukc. Chicheley. Gwernol. Pethan. Hmains. Solipsist. DanielPenfield. Vegetator. Diannaa. MichaelTinkler.jpg License: GNU Free Documentation License Contributors: G. RodC. Noble Skuld the Legend Killer.php?title=File:Leon_Battista_Alberti. Ahoerstemeier. Antonio Giovanni Colombo. Omcnew. Mcginnly. Robert. DVD R W. Euthydemos. The Anome. Antandrus. Capricorn42. Sailko License Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3. Ilya. Rich Farmbrough. Mattes.
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue reading from where you left off, or restart the preview.