Q1. Explain Knowledge based system? Explain DSS and OLAP with example?

Knowledge Based System (KBS) KBS are the systems based on knowledge base. Knowledge base is the database maintained for knowledge management which provides the means of data collections, organization and retrieval of knowledge. The knowledge management manages the domain where it creates and enables organization for adoption of insights and experiences.

There are two types of knowledge bases: a) Machine Readable Knowledge Bases: The knowledge base helps the computer to process through. It makes the data in the computer readable code which makes the operator to perform easier. Such information is used by semantic web. Semantic web is a web that will make a description of the system that a system can understand. b) Human Readable Knowledge Bases: They are designed to help people to retrieve knowledge. The information need to be processed by the reader. The reader can access the information and synthesize their own.

KBS refers to a system of data and information used for decision making. The system is automated to work on the knowledge based data and information required in a particular domain of management activity. The processing is done on the past decisions taken under suitable conditions. Decision making is based on the fact that the condition is similar to the past situation hence the decision is also similar.

Decision Support Systems (DSS) DSS is an interactive computer based system designed to help the decision makers to use all the resources available and make use in the decision making. In management many a time problems arise out of situations for which simple solution may not be possible. To solve such problems you may have to use complex theories. The models that would be required to solve such problems may have to be identified. DSS requires a lot of managerial abilities and managers judgment. You may gather and present the following information by using decision support application: • Accessing all of your current information assets, including legacy and relational data sources, cubes, data warehouses, and data marts • • Comparative sales figures between one week and the next Projected revenue figures based on new product sales assumptions

what should be the production quantity to maximize the returns. OLAP is also referred to as a multi dimensional analytical model. There is no scope for errors in decision making when such systems are used as aid to decision making.• The consequences of different decision alternatives. given past experience in a context that is described. Many big companies use OLAP to get good returns in business. It helps the management take decisions like which month would be appropriate to launch a product in the market. . The output is sent only after thorough verification of the input facts fed to the system. what should be the stocking policy in order to minimize the wastage etc. Q3. DSS is a consistent decision making system. The system goes through a series of multiple checks of the various parameters used in business decision making. Explain DFD & Data Dictionary? Explain in detail how the information requirement is determined for an organization? A DSS has the capability to update its decision database. The querying process of the OLAP is very strong. Benefits of DSS: • • • • • • • • • Improves personal efficiency Expedites problem solving Facilitates interpersonal communication Promotes learning or training Increases organizational control Generates new evidence in support of a decision Creates a competitive advantage over competition Encourages exploration and discovery on the part of the decision maker Reveals new approaches to thinking about the problem space Online Analytical Processing (OLAP) OLAP refers to a system in which there are predefined multiple instances of various modules used in business applications. It can be used to generate reports of various level management activities. It is capable of performing mathematical calculations and logical calculation depending upon the model adopted to solve the problem. A nearest match is found analytically and the results displayed form the database. Any input to such a system results in verification of the facts with respect to the available instances.

The numbers do not imply the sequence. It can also have software to update itself and to produce reports on its contents and to answer some of the queries. sometimes called files or databases. The data dictionary also stores some of the description of data structures. DFD do not explain how the processes convert the input data into output. It is source or destination of data. Each adjoining faces with common vertex may be considered to represent the various parameter of the business situation under consideration. A number of guideline should be used in DFD     Choose meaningful names for the symbols on the diagram. Q3 Explain DFD & Data Dictionary? Explain in detail how the information requirement is determined for an organization? DFD (Data Flow Diagrams) Data flow diagrams represent the logical flow of data within the system.: Region. location. The data dictionary can be used to retrieve the definition of data that has already been used in an application. format for storage and other characteristics. Product etc. attributes and relationships.g. starting with a summary high level view and proceeding more detailed lower level views. Sales & demand. Rectangle represents external agents. They do not explain how the processing takes place. external entities and stores. Make sure the diagrams are balanced Data Dictionary The data dictionary is used to create and store definitions of data. There are six faces of the box. DFD uses few symbols like circles and rectangles connected by arrows to represent data flows. flows. Arrow represents data flows. The open-ended boxes represent data stores. DFD can also be drawn in increasing levels of detail. inputs and outputs to end from the processes. These data stores correspond to all instances of a single entity in a data model.A model of OLAP may be well represented in the form of a 3D box.the boundary of the system. Number the processes consistently. Q4. Rounded rectangles represent processes that transform flow of data or work to be done. Distinguish between closed decision making system & open decision making system? What is ‘What – if’ analysis? Why is more time spend in problem analysis & problem definition as compared to the time spends on decision analysis? . Avoid over complex DFD. E. DFD can easily illustrate relationships among data. such as entities.

If the manager operates in an environment not known to him. then the decision-making system is termed as an open decision-making system. tested.     What if analysis Goal Seeking Analysis Sensitivity analysis and Goal Achieving analysis Q5. The knowledge of the outcome may be a probabilistic one. The process is executed through analytical modelling of problem and solution. There are two types of systems based on the manager’s knowledge about the environment. if implemented. What.The decision making systems can be classified in a number of ways. The conditions of this are: a) The manager does not know all the decision alternatives. c) No method. How hardware & software support in various MIS activities of theorganization? Explain the transaction stages from manual system to automatedsystems? . Decision Analysis by Analytical Modeling Based on the methods discussed. rule or model is available to study and finalize one decision among the set of decision alternatives. and ranked for selection. The model is built with some variables and relationship between variables considered values of variables or relationship in the model may not hold well and therefore solution needs to be tested for an outcome. based on some goal or objective criterion. a method or a rule whereby the decision alternatives can be generated. b) The manager has a model.if analysis Decisions are made using a model of the problem for developing various solution alternatives and testing them for best choice. The conditions of the closed decision making system are: a) The manager has known set of decision alternatives and knows their outcomes fully in terms of value. This method of analysis is called 'what if analysis'. If the manager operates in a known environment then it is a closed decision making system. c) The manager can choose one of them. The model is analyzed in four ways. b) The outcome of the decision is also not known fully. a decision is made but such decision needs to be analysed for conditions and assumptions considered in the decision model. if the considered values of variables or relationship change.

scanners etc are used in organization to support various MIS activities of the organization.b) Storage – A PC can store large quantity of data in a small space. printer. logical tasks. These enabling    capabilities of technology have given rise to four business models that together work in anE enterprise organization. It eliminates the needof storing the conventional office flat files and box files which requires lots of space. colleagues. and provide access to everybody from anywhere.scanner. bar code reader etc. Today a PC with internet isused as a powerful tool of communication for every business activity. interpret and use rules and guidelines for decision-making. Organization of Business in an E enterprise – Software Applications in MIS Internet technology is creating a universal bench or platform for buying and selling of goods. It also provides email and othercommunication capabilities to plan. storing details in the memory etc.d) Accuracy – A PC is highly reliable in the sense that it could be used to performcalculations continuously for hours with a great degree of accuracy.c) Communication – A PC on the network can offer great support as a communicator incommunicating information in the forms of text and images. In a computer the processor is the CPU – Central Processing Unit.And software solutions make them faster and self-reliant as they can analyze datainformation. It is possible to obtainmathematical results correct up to a great degree of accuracy.A block diagram of a computer may be represented asInput unit is used to give input to the processor. Output unit isused to give output s from the computer.A processor refers to unit which processes the input received the way it has beeninstructed. Advantages of a PC : Advantages a personal computer offers are –a) Speed – A PC can process data at a very high speed.e) Conferencing – A PC with internet offers facility of video conferencing worldwide. Thestorage system in a PC is such that the information can be transferred from place toanother place in electronic form.and customers etc to discuss about business activities. copier.Business people across the globe travel a lot to meet their business partner. commodities and services. Essentially Internet and networks enable integration of information. facilitate communication. By video conferencinginconvenience of traveling can be avoided. track. speakers etc.              Hardware support for MISGenerally hardware in the form of personal computers and peripherals like printers. It can process millions of instructions within fraction of seconds. It does allmathematical calculations. They are:• E business• E communication• E commerce• E collaboration These models work successfully because Internet technology provides the infrastructure forrunning the entire business process of any length.Examples of output unit – Monitor. mouse. monitor and control the business . Examples of input unit –Keyboard. faxmachines.

product information is available on anorganization website which also has a feature of order placement.· Enquiry processing· Order preparation· Order placement· Order confirmation· Order planning· Order scheduling· Order manufacturing· Order status monitoring· Order dispatching· Order billing· Order receivable accounting· Order payment processing The entire process in parts or full can be handled through these technologies and softwaresolutions. Such order is then placed directly on the order board forscheduling and execution. These technologies help to save time. These basic capabilities of Internet have given rise to number of business models.Internet has enabled organizations to change their business process and practices. and conversion has become significantly faster. For example. It provides important strategic. information can flow seamlesslyfrom any location to any other location. Low costconnectivity physical. collaboration. rejection is communicatedinstantaneously to the customer. resource and enable faster decisionmaking. It is capable of linking to disparate systems such aslogistics. Some of them are given in Table   The Internet and networks provide platform and various capabilities wherebycommunication. its sending and storing. data acquisition and radio frequency used systems and so on. the technologyis flexible and capable of handling any business models such as:  . Once everyone is connected electronically. competitive advantage. products or services is made up of the following components.operationsthrough the workers located anywhere. virtual and universal standards of Internet technology make it adriving force to change conventional business model to E business enterprise model. The technology adds speed and intelligence in the business process improvingquality of service to the customer. The business process of serving the customer to offergoods. transparentand cheaper.Information and information products are available in electronic media. and is a resident onthe network. Further. It hasdramatically reduced cost of data and information processing. An order placed isprocessed at the backend and status of acceptance.

Distribution & Selling• Outsourcing. and conversion has become significantly faster. Learning. Further. Training. the technologyis flexible and capable of handling any business models such as: • Retailing. resource and enable faster decisionmaking. Subcontracting• Servicing. Trading. improved customerloyalty and retention and better  . transparentand cheaper. competitive advantage. The business process of serving the customer to offergoods. collaboration. Auctioning• Manufacturing. These technologies help to save time. products or services is made up of the following components. Consulting The resultant effect is the reduction in cost of business operations.· Enquiry processing· Order preparation· Order placement· Order confirmation· Order planning· Order scheduling· Order manufacturing· Order status monitoring· Order dispatching· Order billing· Order receivable accounting· Order payment processing The entire process in parts or full can be handled through these technologies and softwaresolutions.  The Internet and networks provide platform and various capabilities wherebycommunication. The technology adds speed and intelligence in the business process improvingquality of service to the customer. It provides important strategic.

We go into details of each one of them. A transformation had to necessarily go through the following stagesa) Appraisal of the proceduresb) Types of documentsc) Storage systemsd) Formulations and codinge) Verification and validationf) Reviewg) Documentation .  quality offer to the customer. Four major applicationsmentioned earlier make this achievement possible. Transformation stage manual systems to automated systems The manual system which was prevalent in the organizations before industrial revolutionwas slowly transformed into digital form by means of computer and related electronicinstruments.

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