## Are you sure?

This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?

Stress is a measurment of strength, it is how much pressure a material can withstand without undergoing physical change. There are a number of different types of stress.

**Tensile strength/fracture stress
**

Tensile strength or fracture stress is the amount of stress a material can be put under before it fractures.

**Yeild stress and yeild stength
**

Yeild stress or yeild strength is the amount of stress a material can take before it deforms permanently.

Caclulating stress

Stress is the pressure a material is under, that is the force per area. Stress is given the symbol sigma.

Stress is defined as the force per unit area of a material. i.e. Stress = force / cross sectional area:

where,

σ = stress,

**F = force applied, and A= cross sectional area of the object.
**

Units of s : Nm-2 or Pa.

Strain Strain is a measurement of how much a material has stretched. Stress causes strain on a material. Strain is a ratio between the original length of the material and the amount it has extended by, therefore:

Strain is defined as extension per unit length. Strain = extension / original length

A useful tip: In calculations stress expressed in Pa is usually a very large number and strain is usually a very small number. If we apply tensile force we have tensile stress and tensile strain If we apply compressive force we have compressive stress and compressive strain. The calculation of the Young's modulus of a sample of material is therefore: Stress-strain graphs You need to be able to use and recognise the parts of a graph of stress plotted against strain: The first thing to know is that the area under the curve represents the toughness of the material . We can use the above definitions of stress and strain for forces causing tension or compression. ε = strain. you've done it wrong! Young's modulus Young's modulus is a measurement of stiffness. If it comes out much different then.where. and l = stretched length Strain has no units because it is a ratio of lengths. .how much it resists stress. It describes how much a material will stretch (strain) when put under a given stress. lo = the original length e = extension = (l-lo).

Here are schematic stress-strain graphs of copper and glass.strain graph beyond elastic behaviour In this 'Learn-it' so far. Point C is the fracture point.the ratio between stress and strain is constant. In this region the material will return to it's original size. Hooke's law Hooke's law relates the force.Between the origin and point A the material is said to be elastic . The graph. using the equation: Where k is some constant. beyond this point the material will not obey Hooke's law and won't return to it's original shape when the stress is removed. Stress . These points are called breaking points. x. In the elastic region the stress-strain graph is a straight line. F. The stress at the breaking point is called the breaking stress of the material. we have drawn stress-strain graphs for the elastic behaviour of a material.the cross sectional area of the material decreases. Note: that both graphs end at points marked X. A material physically breaks at its breaking point. Breaking stress of a material. where the material splits into two. At point B the material undergoes 'necking' . acting upon a material and it's extension. It is very important for designers and engineers to know the value of the breaking stress for the materials they use. . Point A on the graph shows the elastic limit of the material. We can. however draw a stress strain graph beyond the elastic region. Here the rate of the extension increasing is going up. then becomes non-linear because Hooke's law is not obeyed and stress is not proportional to strain. is related to the energy required to break internal bonds between the atoms or the molecules of the material. The plastic region refers to the curve between points A and B. in principle. obeying Hooke's law.

represented by the area bound by the hysteresis loop is lost and eventually dissipated as heat. Within the range of the stress and strain of the graph. Although. It is different from the other two stress-strain graphs. In one loading and unloading cycle the strain energy. rubber undergoes high strains (extension) without breaking. in the following respects: 1. . the stress-strain graph has two branches (generated by loading up stress and unloading stress). It actually represents the fact that rubber is not a very good material for storing energy. one kind of rubber (polyisoprene) can be stretched ~500% without breaking 2. above.This diagram schematically shows the stress strain curve of rubber. rubber on loading returns to its original length (zero extension). For example. The loop formed by the two branches is called hysteresis loop.

- Loads on Aircrafts
- Aeronautical Engineering
- Centrifugal Compressors
- Aircraft Loads
- Applied Gas Dynamics
- Columns and Strut Notes New
- Columns Notes
- Compressors
- Inlets
- Comp
- dke672_ch4
- Table_of_Contents_35022.pdf
- Design & Analysis Tools for Supersonic Inlets
- PREVIOUS YEAR QUESTION PAPER ON GAS TURBINE.pdf
- Theory Notes
- 6. Aircraft Propulsion
- Aircraft Structures
- Elasticity Syllabus
- finite element analysis
- Theories of Failure
- Questions and Answers in Aerodynamics
- Strength of Materials_PUP Copy
- ROCKET AND MISSILES IMPORTANT QUESTION PAPER
- Centrifugal Compressor
- Rocket Propulsion
- Jet Propulsion
- Failure Theories
- Compressor Components
- 21 Centrifugal Compressors

Skip carousel

- As 1774.31.1-2000 Refractories and Refractory Materials - Physical Test Methods Modulus of Elasticity - Flexu
- Elastic recovery characteristics of waist band using high stretch polyester in place of Lycra- A Experimental review
- tmp53B3.tmp
- Tmp 4890
- Effect of hyper elastic property on dynamic behaviour of IC Engine
- tmpDB69
- Tmp 5867
- Effect of Soil-Structure Interaction on Seismic Response of Buildings
- UT Dallas Example Syllabus by Kiran Solanki (Advanced Mechanics of Materials)
- tmpD855
- tmpC763.tmp
- tmp16EA.tmp
- Literature Review on Bamboo as Reinforcement in Concrete Structure
- tmpB7DF
- tmp121A.tmp
- tmp7F0E
- tmp859B.tmp
- tmpA916
- UT Dallas Syllabus for mech6306.501.11f taught by Xin-Lin Gao (xxg110530)
- An Overview on Response of Non- Linear Analysis of RCC Structures
- tmpBA2C.tmp
- tmpEDF2
- tmpD434
- tmpA728
- tmpD329
- Earthquake Curriculum_Parsquake_TWB
- Teachers Guide to Earthquake Science and Safety Education
- tmp943A.tmp
- As 1012.17-1997 Methods of Testing Concrete Determination of the Static Chord Modulus of Elasticity and Poiss
- As 3541.1-1988 Synthetic Sporting Surfaces General Principles

- Exercise with solution
- Chapter 1
- 2.pdf
- SC1x KeyConceptDocument v5 1 Complete
- Computer networking
- CompleteKeyConceptsDocument_2015.pdf
- COCOMO.pdf
- Lean Operations 5S
- INTRODUCTION
- Combinations and Permuation
- ISA.pdf
- Lec01_Ch01_Computer Abstractions and Technology
- Acids and bases notes.docx
- The Periodic Table
- Bonding and Structure
- Complete Physic As
- Waves As physics

Sign up to vote on this title

UsefulNot usefulClose Dialog## Are you sure?

This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?

Close Dialog## This title now requires a credit

Use one of your book credits to continue reading from where you left off, or restart the preview.

Loading