# Physics (9702

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Concise Notes for A Levels Students

**Units and Dimensions
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Physical Quantities

Physical quantity is physical property that can be measured. Base Quantity Seven arbitrarily chosen physical quantities are called base quantities and its units are known as base units. Basic Quantity Length Mass Time Electric Current Temperature Amount of Substance Luminous Intensity Base Units Metre Kilogram Second Ampere Kelvin Mole Candela Symbols m kg s A K Mol cd

Derived Quantites All physical quantities other than base quantities are called derived quantities, and its unit is called derived unit. For example speed is a derived quantity and m/s is its derived unit:

Quantity

Unit

Name

Symbol

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Physics (9702)

Concise Notes for A Levels Students Prefix Pico Nano Micro Milli Centi Deci Kilo Mega Giga Tera Factor 10–12 10–9 10–6 10–3 10–2 10–1 103 106 109 1012 Symbol p n µ m c d k M G T

Measurements

Reading Reading is a single determination of the value of an unknown quantity. It is the actual reading taken during an experiment.

Measurement Is the final result of the analysis of a series of readings.

Vernier Calipers 1. Read the value of the main scale which is just to the left of “0” reading on the Vernier scale (12 mm in this case). 2. Read the value of the Vernier scale which exactly coincides with the main scale (3 in this case). 3. The total reading would be

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Physics (9702)

Concise Notes for A Levels Students

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5 + (46 x 0. value of g taken as 10m/s2 Systemic Errors cannot be reduced by taking average.g. Size of error is roughly constant and measurement obtained is either always greater or always less than the actual value. faults in the surrounding conditions or wrong assumptions made by the observer. Reaction time of observer 3.96 mm
Systematic Errors Uncertainties in the measurement of physical quantities due to instrument.Physics (9702)
Concise Notes for A Levels Students Micrometer screw gauge
Reading = Linear Scale reading + (Coinciding Circular scale reading x 0.01) mm = 2. Due to instruments a.01) = 2. A watch is fast b.5 + 0. e. Errors due to wrong assumptions. 4.46 = 2. Examples of Systematic Error 1. Calibration at certain temperatures and used in under different temperatures. Systematic Errors can be reduced by Taking measurements carefully Using different instruments Using different methods Checking zero error Checking stopwatch with another stopwatch
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. Zero Error 2.

Accuracy A measurement is said to be accurate if it is close the actual value.024
Precision can be improver my: Using a hand lens.36 0.40 0.02 0.Physics (9702)
Concise Notes for A Levels Students Random Error Uncertainties in measurement made by the observer or person who takes the measurement. Random Errors can be reduced by Taking average
Precision A measurement is said to be precise if mean deviation of readings is smaller (the readings are close to each other and not spread over a long range). Different pressure applied when closing the gap of micrometer screw gauge when measuring a soft object.38 0.42 Mean Diameter ∑ Deviation 0. Accuracy is given by the percentage error. The Smaller the percentage error.44 0. A plane mirror behind the pointer. and its magnitude is not constant. Random error can be positive or negative. Errors due to parallax error 2. This is done to avoid parallax error. Changes in temperature during an experiment 3.04 0. The observer reads the scale when the pointer is directly on top of its image in mirror. the higher the accuracy. Example of Random Error 1.
Calculating Percentage Error
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.04 0.00 0.02 Mean Deviation ∑ 0. Diameter 0.

Physics (9702)
Concise Notes for A Levels Students
Precise and Accurate
Accurate but not Precise
Precise but not Accurate
Not Precise and not Accurate
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.

For example: displacement. temperature. momentum.
Vectors
Scalar Quantities A scalar quantity is one which can be described fully by just stating its magnitude.Physics (9702)
Concise Notes for A Levels Students Calculating Compound Errors If
If
If [ If [ ] ]
If [ ]
Addition. density.
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. force. time. velocity. energy and volume.
Vector Quantity A vector quantity is one which can only be fully described if its magnitude and direction are stated. length. Subtraction. Multiplication and Division of constants have no effects on compound errors. acceleration. For example: mass. speed. magnetic flux density and electric intensity.

Triangle of Vectors (head to tail)
Resolving a Vector Vertical Component of R = R sin θ Horizontal Component of R = R cos θ
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.Physics (9702)
Concise Notes for A Levels Students
Addition of Vectors 1. Parallelograms of vectors
2.

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. SI unit of moment is Nm.
Static Equilibrium
Moment of a Force Turning effect of force about an axis is called torque or moment of a force. Sum of Moments of forces about any axis is zero Couple A couple consists of two equal and opposite forces when its line of action is not along the same line.
Equilibrium of a body A body is in equilibrium if: 1. then the three forces are in equilibrium. The resultant force is zero AND 2.Physics (9702)
Concise Notes for A Levels Students Triangle of Forces If three forces acting on a point can be represented in magnitude and direction by the three sides of a triangle taken in order.

Vibratory
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. 2. It has a larger base. without a change in linear position is called rotatory motion.
Kinematics
Three types of motion
Translatory motion Also known as linear motion is motion along a straight line. It is the point where the weight of the object appears to be acting.
Stability An object is stable if 1. Rotatory motion Spinning or turning motion that takes place around an axis.Physics (9702)
Concise Notes for A Levels Students
Centre of Gravity The center of gravity G of an abject is the point where the line of action of weight passes. Its center of gravity is lower.

Vector quantity Si unit is m. Displacement Shortest Distance covered. it is known as vibratory motion.
Equations of Motion
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. Speed Distance covered per unit time.Physics (9702)
Concise Notes for A Levels Students When an object is displaced from its fixed position and made to move to and fro periodically. Scalar quantity SI unit is m/s. Vector quantity Si unit is m/s. A vibratory motion happens when a particle is vibrated. Vibratory motion is also called as oscillatory motion Distance Total length covered by a body during its motion. Scalar quantity SI unit is m. Uniform/Constant speed Equal distance covered in equal interval of time Velocity Displacement traveled per unit time. Vector quantity Si unit is m/s2. Acceleration Rate of change of velocity.

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. Gradient (slope) of Velocity-Time Graph gives acceleration.Physics (9702)
Concise Notes for A Levels Students Distance-Time Graph
Gradient (slope) of Distance-Time graph shows velocity
Velocity-Time Graph
Area under Velocity-Time Graph shows distance covered.

Newton’s First Law of Motion A body continues its initial state of rest or uniform motion unless it is compelled to change that state by an external force. It depends on mass of body.
Inertia It is a property of material objects due to which they oppose any change in their original state. Newton’s Second Law of Motion When an unbalanced force acts on a body its produces acceleration in the body in the direction of force.
Newton A force is said to be one newton when it produces an acceleration of 1 m/s2 in a
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.Physics (9702)
Concise Notes for A Levels Students Projectile Motion
Horizontal component of velocity stays same.
Dynamics
Force Force can be defined as rate of change of momentum. Vertical component of velocity changes due to gravitational force. It is a vector quantity and its SI unit is N. The magnitude of the acceleration is directly proportional to the applied force and inversely proportional to the mass of body.

Joule Work done is said to be 1 J when the force of 1N displaces a body though 1 m in its direction. Energy Energy is ability to do work. Newton’s Third Law of Motion To every action there is equal and opposite reaction. It is a vector quantity and SI unit is Ns or Kg m/s. Elastic Collision A collision in which total kinetic energy stays constant. If bodies of same mass collide their speeds are interchanged.Physics (9702)
Concise Notes for A Levels Students body of mass 1 kg.
Momentum Linear momentum of a body is the product of its mass and its velocity. Work Work done is product of force and the distance in the direction of force. Relative speed of approach is equal to relative speed of separation. J. Kinetic Energy Energy possessed by a body due to its motion
Potential Energy Energy possessed by a body due its physical condition or motion
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Principle of Conversation of Momentum The total linear momentum of an isolated system is constant. It is scalar quantity and its SI unit is Joule. Inelastic Collision A collision in which total energy stays constant but kinetic energy changes.

Power Power is the rate of doing work. A. Its SI unit is watt or J/s.Physics (9702)
Concise Notes for A Levels Students Internal Energy
Principle of Conservation of Energy Total energy of an isolated system stays constant.
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. SI unit is Ampere.
where n = number of electrons and e = charge on one electron Potential Difference The potential difference between two points in a circuit is the work done to move a unit charge from one point to another.
Efficiency
Electricity AS
Electric Current Current is rate of flow of electric charge.

Increasing temperature of a wire leads to increasing resistance.
Factors on which Resistance depends Nature of material.Physics (9702)
Concise Notes for A Levels Students
EMF EMF of a source is the work done to move a unit charge around a complete circuit. provided that temperature and other physical conditions stays same
Ohmic Conductor – Ristance Constant
Thermistor – Resistance decreases
Filament lamp – Resistance Increases
Resistance It is the ratio between V and I flowing through a circuit. It is the ratio between V and I flowing through a circuit. Resistivity of conductor ρ. Directly proportional
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. Cross-sectional area A. Inversely proportional Length l. Ohm’s Law Ohm’s law states that the current passing though the conductor is directly proportional to the potential difference across it.

Physics (9702)

Concise Notes for A Levels Students

Series combination of resistors Same current passes through all resistors. V = V1 + V2 + V3 R = R1 + R2 + R3

Parallel Combination

V stays same

Thermistor Thermistors are devices made from semiconductors, break the rule we've just explained (typical) and reduce their resistance as temperature increases. This is because the extra energy makes the atoms release electrons, allowing them to move more easily, this in turn reduces the resistance.

Light Dependent Resistor LDR Light-dependent resistors also decrease their resistance when energy is given, but this time the energy needs to be given as light energy. Internal Resistance Cell is not perfect, some energy is wasted inside the cell, this is due to resistance

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Physics (9702)

Concise Notes for A Levels Students inside the cell.

Where: V= Voltage across external circuit. E= emf of cell I= Current through cell r= Value of internal resistance Ir= P.d across internal resistor

Kirchhoff’s First Law The vector sum of current entering a junction in a circuit is zero.

This law follows the principle of conservation electric charge.

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Physics (9702)

Concise Notes for A Levels Students

Kirchhoff’s Second Law Around a closed loop, the vector sum of the Emf is equal to the vector sum of the products of current and resistors.

∑

∑

This law is based on law of conservation of energy.

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Beyond this point material would not return to its original dimension when deforming force is removed. Elastic Limit Materials are only elastic up to a certain limit known as elastic limit.
Young Modulus The ratio of stress and strain is known as Young Modulus.
Strain It is defined as extension per unit length. Strain does not have a unit.
Stress It is the force applied per unit area of cross-section. Hook’s Law Within the elastic limit the extension or compression is directly proportional to the applied force. Its unit is N m-2 or Pa.Physics (9702)
Concise Notes for A Levels Students
Elasticity
Elasticity It is the ability of a body which enables it to regain its original dimensions when the deforming force acting on it is removed.
(
)
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. Its unit is N m-2 or Pa.

any work done can be fully recovered.
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. Up to elastic limit. Plastic Deformation After elastic limit is exceeded. Elastic Limit Slightly beyond limit of proportionality is elastic limit.Physics (9702)
Concise Notes for A Levels Students Gradient of Stress-Strain graph gives young’s modulus. wire does not return completely to its original length.
Area under force-extension graph gives Strain Energy
Behaviour of a wire under stress
Limit of proportionality It a point beyond which extension is not proportional to force and stress is not proportional to strain. Elastic Deformation Wire returns to its original length.

For example glass. Brittle Material Do not show plastic deformation and break immediately once elastic limit is exceeded. Beyond upper yield point extension is permanent and a small amount of force applied causes great extension. Atomic planes in the wire slide over each other.Physics (9702)
Concise Notes for A Levels Students Yield point At lower yield point plastic flow begins. and wire narrows down uniformly. Beyond ultimate tensile strength wire narrows unevenly. forming necks and eventually breaks. Ultimate tensile strength It is the point of maximum stress where wire has its greatest strength. Ductile Material Undergo plastic deformation before breaking
Glass
Copper
Rubber
Polythene
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.

Gas
Molecules are in constant random motion. Amorphous Solids Also known as non-crystalline solids. Intermolecular distance is very large compared to size of molecule.Physics (9702)
Concise Notes for A Levels Students
Experiment to determine the Young modulus of a metal wire
States of Matter Solid Made up of molecules arranged closely in fixed pattern. Molecules are able to slide over each other.
Waves
Displacement Amplitude Phase Difference
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. Molecules vibrate about their mean positions The force of attraction between molecules are very strong Solids have fixed shape
Liquids Made up of molecules close together. it lacks long-range order characteristic of crystal (atoms are repeated only over a short range).
Crystalline Solids Atoms are arranged in fixed repetitive manner over a long distance. Gas molecules collide with each other and with walls of container (elastically) exerting pressure. Takes shape of container. For example NaCl.

Longitudinal Waves vibrations are parallel to the wave motion .
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. The longer the wavelength the greater the diffraction. 2.
1. sound and some earthquake waves. They move energy in the form of vibrating particles or fields Transverse Waves vibrations are perpendicular to the wave motion .so if the wave is travelling horizontally. light and water. For example.so if the wave is travelling horizontally. For example.Physics (9702)
Concise Notes for A Levels Students Period Frequency Wavelength Speed
Progressive waves distribute energy from a point source to a surrounding area. or expanded horizontally as they go along (we call the expanded bit a rarefaction).
Diffraction Diffraction is the spreading out of waves as they pass through a gap or by an obstacle. the vibrations will be up and down. The smaller the gap the greater the diffraction. The particle movement is a series of compressions and rarefactions. the particles will be compressed closer together horizontally.

The resultant displacement can be found by adding the two displacements together: This is called the Principle of Superposition. At the point they meet. they will interfere to produce a fixed pattern.Alternatively.. Coherence Coherent waves are waves with a constant phase difference. they will completely cancel each other out. (However. This is true if they are coherent or not.Physics (9702)
Concise Notes for A Levels Students Wavelength remains same before and after the diffraction. the two waves could combine when their crests coincide. If two waves of the same type and the same frequency combine so that the crest of one coincides with the trough of the other. then there would be constructive interference and the resultant amplitude would be equal to the sum of the separate amplitudes:
Superposition will occur whether waves are coherent or not. if the waves are coherent. (Note: They don't have to be in phase for this to be true. the resultant displacement at any point is always the sum of the separate displacements of the wave at that point:
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. the two waves will combine to give a resultant wave whose amplitude (or intensity) may be greater or less than the original two waves. After they have passed they return to their original forms..) The same rules apply. When two waves meet they will interfere and superpose.) They will have the same frequency and wavelength (they are normally produced from one source). This is called destructive interference.

Physics (9702)
Concise Notes for A Levels Students
Diffracting Grating
Standing/Stationary Waves
Polarization Transverse waves can oscillate in any plane. This is done by passing the waves through a 'grid' so that only the waves that can fit through the slits can continue through:
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. Polarization is the process by which the oscillations are made to occur in one plane only.

Physics (9702)
Concise Notes for A Levels Students
Longitudinal waves cannot be polarised.
Circular Motion
Angular Displacement Angle subtended by an arc at the center of the circle.
Radian Angular displacement is said to be one radian when length of arc is equal to the radius of circle
Angular Velocity ω Rate of change of angular displacement
Frequency f The number of rotation per second made by the rotating object
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. It is measured in radians.

During circular motion whatever be the forces acting on the body their resultant is centripetal force.
Motion in Horizontal Cirle In case of horizontal circle tension in the string provides necessary centripetal force so
Motion in Vertical Cirlce
At the top of circle:
Tension and weight are in same direction
At the bottom of circle:
Tension and weight are in opposite direction
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. Centripetal force always directs towards the center of the circle.Physics (9702)
Concise Notes for A Levels Students
Centripetal Force It is the force which compels the body to move in a circle.

Universal Gravitation
Newton’s law of Universal Gravitation Newton’s law of Universal Gravitation states that the force of attraction between two objects is directly proportional to the product of the masses of the objects and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them.
G is known as universal gravitation constant.Physics (9702)
Concise Notes for A Levels Students
Centripetal Acceleration Acceleration caused by centripetal force.
Relationship between G and g
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.

when another mass is introduced into the field it experiences a force.
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Concise Notes for A Levels Students
Gravitational Field It is the force field around a mass. Gravitational Field Strength The gravitational field strength. g at a point in a gravitational field is defined as the gravitational force of attraction per unit mass at that point.

V at a point in a gravitation al field is the work done by the gravitational attraction to bring a unit mass from infinity to that point. The gravitation potential at infinity is assumed to be zero and its value decreases as mass approaches closer to earth (becomes negative).
Motion of Satellite Gravitational attraction provides centripetal force so:
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.Physics (9702)
Concise Notes for A Levels Students Gravitation Potential The gravitation potential. Its unit is joule J. It is scalar quantity and its unit is J/Kg
Equipotential Surface The surface where all points on it has the same gravitation potential.
Gravitational Potential Energy The gravitational potential energy U of a body of mass m at a point in gravitational field is defined as work done to bring the body from infinity to that point.

Physics (9702)
Concise Notes for A Levels Students
Energy of Satellite
(
)
(
)
√
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.

These satellites provide continuous link for the communication. These satellites orbit in the same direction as rotation of earth (west to east).Physics (9702)
Concise Notes for A Levels Students
Geostationary Satellite Satellite which orbit around the earth above the equator with period of 24 hours. These satellites do not need to be tracked.
Simple Harmonic Motion
A body is said to be in simple harmonic motion if its acceleration is directly proportional to its displacement from fixed point (equilibrium position) and is always directed towards that fixed point.
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.

Physics (9702)
Concise Notes for A Levels Students
√
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.

Physics (9702)
Concise Notes for A Levels Students
Relation SHM and Circular Motion
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.

Physics (9702)
Concise Notes for A Levels Students
Energy of particles executing SHM
[
]
Kinetic energy is maximum when x=0
Potential Energy is maximum when x=x0
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.

Light Damping If the resistive forces are small then system is said to be lightly damped. Amplitude of oscillation is decreases gradually.Physics (9702)
Concise Notes for A Levels Students
Damping Effect The effect of resistive forces in removing energy in vibration object in form of heat to the surrounding. Damped Oscillations Oscillations where the amplitudes become smaller and smaller are known as damped oscillations. It is only after a large number of oscillations that
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.

Heavy Damping If the resistive forces are very large then the system is said to be heavily damped.Physics (9702)
Concise Notes for A Levels Students the system stops oscillating. After displacement return to original position takes a very long time.
Critical Damping If the damping is just sufficient to prevent oscillation. Amplitude decreases exponentially with time. but yet not too great to indefinitely delay returning to original position then the system is said to be critically damped.
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.

√ √
Resonance The phenomenon in which the amplitude of the oscillating system becomes very large when drivers frequency becomes equal to the natural frequency of the oscillating system is known as resonance.Physics (9702)
Concise Notes for A Levels Students
Advantages of damping Suspension system in car. Forced Oscillations Oscillations which are under the influence of an external periodic force are known as forced oscillations.
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. Good system is one which is slightly under critical damping. The frequency of such a system is the same as the frequency of the external periodic force (known as driver’s frequency).

3. One effect of the damping is to decrease the effect of resonance so greater the damping smaller the amplitude of vibration at the resonance frequency. Cooking of Food in microwave oven: In ovens microwave with the frequency similar to the natural frequency of water molecules are used. 2. greater the resistive force smaller the amplitude of the vibration and flatten will be the peak. radio waves have same frequency as frequency of the electrical oscillations in the circuits of receiver. Radio tuning circuit: When tuned. 2.Physics (9702)
Concise Notes for A Levels Students
The sharpness of the peak depends upon the resistive forces acting on the system.
Advantages of Resonance 1.
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. MRI: Disadvantages of Resonance 1. Vibrating parts of the mechanical equipment might break. Collapse of suspension bridge.

When the mass is in equilibrium the extension in each spring is equal to e.
When mass is released it accelerates towards equilibrium position
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. the magnitude of restoring force is given by.
Hence motion is SHM
Comparing
with
√
√
√
Motion of mass attached to two similar springs.
When the mass is displaced a small distance x to the right.Physics (9702)
Concise Notes for A Levels Students Motion of mass attached to a spring Hooks Law: F=Kx When mass is released it accelerates towards equilibrium position.

The direction of electric field is from positive to negative. Its value is always >1.
Electric Field It is a force field which exists around a charge when another charge is introduced in experiences a force. Electric Field Strength Electric field strength E at a point in an electric field is the force per unit charge acting on a positive test charge (q) placed at that point. It is a vector and is represented by lines of force. It’s a vector quantity and its unit is N/C or V/m.
ε0 = Epsilon knot = Permittivity of free space or vacuum = 8.
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.Physics (9702)
Concise Notes for A Levels Students
Hence motion is SHM
Electrostatics
Coulombs Law Coulomb’s Law states that the force between two point charges is directly proportional to the product of the charges and inversely proportional to the square of the distance r between them.85 x 10-12 Fm-1 It the charges are not in vacuum then
Εr =Relative permittivity of that medium with respect to vacuum.

Equipotential Surface A surface where all the points lying on it have same value of electric potential is called equipotential surface. It’s a scalar quantity and its SI unit is J/C=Volt. No work is done in moving a charge between two points in equipotential surface. Electric potential increases when unit positive charge is moved from infinity to a point in electric field.Physics (9702)
Concise Notes for A Levels Students
Electric Potential Electric Potential V at a point in an electric field is the work done to move a unit positive charge from infinity to that point. At infinity electric potential is assumed to be zero. electric force will be of attraction so electric potential decreases. electric force will be of repulsion. In case of –Q charge. when unit +ve charge is moved from infinity to any point in field.
Electric Potential Energy The electric potential energy of a charge q at a point in an electric field is defines as the work done to move the charge from infinity to that point.
Electric Potential Due to a Charged Sphere Electric field around a charged conducting sphere is identical to that around a
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. In case of field of +Q charge.

SI unit is Farad F.
Capacitance depends on A = Area of the plate d = Separation between plates ε0 = Permittivity of free space (nature of dielectric)
Combination of Capacitors Series Combination If only two capacitors then Charge stored on each capacitor is same = Q V=V1 + V2 + V3
Parallel Combination Potential difference across each capacitor is same = V Q = Q1 + Q2 + Q3 C = C1+ C2 + C3 NOTE:
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. Capacitance Capacitance is the ability to store charge. Inside the sphere electric field E=0.Physics (9702)
Concise Notes for A Levels Students point charge.
Capacitor A capacitor is a device for storing electric charge. It consists of two parallel metal plates with an insulator (known as dielectric) present between the plates. It is the ratio between the charge Q stored on any one plate of capacitor and the potential difference V across it.

Physics (9702)
Concise Notes for A Levels Students Energy stored in charged capacitor
Forces in Magnetic Field
Force on Charged Particles
Where: Q=charge of particle v=velocity of particle B=Magnetic flux density θ=Angle between velocity and magnetic field
Force on Current Carrying conductor
Where: I=current passing through conductor l=length of conductor B=magnetic field density θ=Angle between direction of flow of current and magnetic field If the particle goes undeflected
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.

Physics (9702)
Concise Notes for A Levels Students
When a charged particle enters a magnetic field we now know it will be forced to change direction. If it stays in the field it will continue to change direction and will move in a circle.
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. The force produced will provide the centripetal force on the moving particle.

Magnetic field pattern in case of a current carrying solenoid
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.Physics (9702)
Concise Notes for A Levels Students Fleming’s Left Hand Rule
Force of repulsion between current carrying parallel conductors when current flowing is in opposite direction.
Force of attraction between current carrying parallel conductors when current flowing is in the same direction.

Physics (9702)
Concise Notes for A Levels Students
X= Current into the paper 0 = Current out of the paper Magnetic flux density Magnetic flux density is the force per unit length on a straight conductor carrying unit current normal to the magnetic field.
Tesla Magnetic flux density is said to be 1 Tesla when force of 1N is experiences by a conductor of 1m carrying a current of 1A placed normal to the magnetic field.
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.
Ac current The main feature of AC is that the direction of flow changes from one direction to another. Its unit is Tesla. T.

Physics (9702)
Concise Notes for A Levels Students Sinusoidal AC
Rectangular AC
Saw-tooth AC
Root Mean Square (r. Half-Wave Rectification A semiconductor diode permits the current to pass through it when in forward biased and does not conduct when in reverse biased.s) Root mean square value of an AC current is the value of the steady current which when flowing through the same resistor.m. produces heat at the same rate as the mean rate of heat produced by the AC current.
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.
√ √
Rectification Rectification is changing an alternating current into a direct current.

Physics (9702)
Concise Notes for A Levels Students
Full-Wave Rectification
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.

This is called 'smoothing'
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. put a capacitor (known as reservoir capacitor) across (parallel to) the resistor and when the supply voltage across the resistor drops towards zero the capacitor delivers some extra current through the resistor in the correct direction.Physics (9702)
Concise Notes for A Levels Students
The output is not pure DC so.

Hall probe is calibrated by placing it in known magnetic field (B0) and noting p. A sensitive voltmeter is connected to the terminals to measure Hall p. It consists of small piece of semi-conductor through which constant current I is flowing.
Electromagnetic Induction Effect of producing an electric current using magnetism is known as electromagnetic induction. Hall probe must be positioned perpendicular to the magnetic field.d (V0) produced. The current produced is known as induces current.
Magnetic flux is given by:
through an area A perpendicular to magnetic field of flux density B
Magnetic flux linkage through a coil of N turns with its plane perpendicular to the magnetic field density B is given by:
SI unit of magnetic flux is Weber (Wb).
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. Magnetic flux density Magnetic flux per unit area. It is very sensitive so it can measure small changes in magnetic flux.
Hall Probe Hall probe uses hall effect to measure magnetic flux density.d.
Advantages of Hall Probe Size of Hall probe is very small and can be used to measure magnetic flux density in small isolated areas.Physics (9702)
Concise Notes for A Levels Students
Hall Effect It is the phenomenon in which transverse potential difference is set up in a conductor carrying current in a magnetic field.

is induced in one coil due to the variation of current in nearby coil. B-t graph and I-t graph are same.
Self-Induction Self-induction is phenomenon in which an E.M. The electrical energy produced in electromagnetic induction is the result of the transformation of mechanical energy in the form of work done into electrical energy. Self-induction results in Back E.
Negative sign in the equation implies that induced emf opposes the rate of change of magnetic flux linkage. the emf produced is directly proportional to the rate of change of flux linkage.F or Eddy Current
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. Lenz’s law is a direct consequence of the principle of conservation of energy.F is induced in the same coil (Primary Coil) in which current is changing.
Lenz’s Law The direction of the induced current is such as to oppose the change which gives rise to it.Physics (9702)
Concise Notes for A Levels Students
SI unit is Wb/m2.F.M. Mutual Induction Mutual Induction is the phenomenon in which E.M.
Faraday’s Law When the magnetic flux linkage though a circuit changes.
Φ-t graph.

C current It is recommended to transmit the power at high voltage to minimize power loss.
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.Physics (9702)
Concise Notes for A Levels Students Transformer
Transformer is a device used to increase or decrease the A.C voltage. Soft Iron core is used: So that magnetic field lines can pass through easily. Because it is easy to magnetize and de magnetize.
Where Np and Ns are the number of turns in Primary and Secondary coil respectively B is the magnetic flux density A is the Cross-Sectional area of core
Transmission of A.

e = .Physics (9702)
Concise Notes for A Levels Students So high voltage and low current is transmitted for constant power:
Due to which power loss becomes minimum:
Millikan Oil Experiment (To find charge on electron)
Conclusions Electric charge is quantized The fundamental unit of charge.
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.60 x 10-19 All charges are integral multiples of e It is not possible to have a charge less than the fundamental charge
Photoelectric Effect The ejection of electrons from cold metal surface when electromagnetic radiations of sufficient high frequency falls on it is known as photoelectric effect.1.

f0 The minimum frequency of incident radiation required to cause the emission of photoelectrons from the metal surface is known as threshold frequency. if the frequency of incident radiation is less than threshold frequency After threshold frequency when the intensity of elimination is increased the number of photoelectrons emitted per second also increases (i.e.
Einstein Photoelectron Equation
Note: No photoelectron emits whatever the intensity of light be.Physics (9702)
Concise Notes for A Levels Students
Threshold Frequency. Work Function Φ The minimum energy needed for an electron to escape from metal surface.
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. photoelectric current increases).

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. Maximum kinetic energy does not change unless the f of the incident radiation or metal surface is changed.Physics (9702)
Concise Notes for A Levels Students
The increase in photoelectric current is due to higher rate of emission of photoelectrons and not because the photoelectrons have more energy.

Physics (9702)
Concise Notes for A Levels Students
Experiment to find Maximum Energy A reverse p.d. the p.d. is applied (cathode is connected with positive terminal).d. This stopping p. is slowly increased until the reading of Ammeter falls to zero. (Vs) is recorded by the voltmeter.
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.

Physics (9702)
Concise Notes for A Levels Students
Momentum of a Photon
Radiation Pressure Radiation pressure is the pressure exerted upon any surface exposed to electromagnetic radiation
As photon is absorbed by the surface the final momentum is zero so
If n= number of photons incident per second
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.

Physics (9702)
Concise Notes for A Levels Students
Radioactivity
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