Mike Taglione 

ECE 3450 

P a g e  | 1 

Power Dissipation Report
Purpose/Background:
For my Power Dissipation Report, I choose to investigate a leading edge microprocessor producer, AMD Technologies (Advanced Micro Devices). This semiconductor company was founded in 1969 amidst the semiconductor revolution by Jerry Sanders and Edwin Turney. Primarily, they produce motherboards, microprocessors, embedded processors and graphics processors. They are the second largest supplier of microprocessors in the world, second to Intel. When analyzing microprocessors, it is important to take key note in several aspects of these marvelous creations. The die size is an important characteristic of microprocessors due to the fact that the smaller the die size, the more amount of chips that can be created with a given amount of raw materials. The die size measures the length by width dimensions of a chip, typically ranging from 20 – 500 square millimeters. Another important component is the clock frequency of a chip, which until now was a very haze term. The clock rate is determined by the frequency of an oscillator crystal which produces a fixed sine wave. This is done through the mechanical resonance of a vibrating crystal to create an electric signal. This sine wave is then translated into a square wave with the same frequency. At this point, the clock distribution network carries this clock signal to all the parts that need it. Essentially, the clock rate determines how ‘fast’ the chip runs. The number of Cores is important to discuss as well in microprocessors. Each chip has a central processing unit to execute program instructions; however, some chips have multiple independent actual processing units to run the desired programs at the same time to increase speed. Lastly, the important characteristic of microprocessor technology is the thermal design power. The thermal design power (TDP) is the average maximum power a processor can dissipate while running software. It is important due to the fact that it is the ‘energy cost’ of the microprocessor. AMD and Intel aim at reducing the amount of energy consumed by these microprocessors. Throughout this report, the year released will be discussed in order to evaluate newer technologies and their effect of the previously mentioned components.

Data Tables:
Type of Processor AMD Phenom™ II AMD Phenom™ II X6 Processor AMD Phenom™ II X4 Processor Energy Efficient AMD Phenom™ II X4 Processor Energy Efficient AMD Phenom™ II X3 Processor AMD Phenom™ II X2 Processor AMD Phenom™ AMD Phenom™ X4 Quad‐Core Processor AMD Phenom™ X3 Triple‐Core Processor AMD Athlon™ II Processors
AMD Athlon II Neo

Model #

Clock  Process  Die Size  # of Transistors  Thermal Design  Date  Frequency  # of Cores Technology  W/Transistor 2 Released (million) Power (Watts) (mm ) (GHz) (nm, SOI) 2009 2009 2009 2009 2009 2008 2008
2010

W/mm2

1100T 975 910e 705e 565 9950 8850
K325

3.300 3.600 2.600 2.500 3.400 2.600 2.500
1.300

6 4 4 3 2 4 3
2

258 258 258 258 258 285 285 117 193 144

758 758 758 758 758 450 450 234 106
69

125 125 65 65 80 125 95
15

45 45 45 45 45 65 65
45

1.649E‐07 1.649E‐07 8.575E‐08 8.575E‐08 1.055E‐07 2.778E‐07 2.111E‐07 6.410E‐08 9.811E‐07 1.299E‐06

4.845E‐01 4.845E‐01 2.519E‐01 2.519E‐01 3.101E‐01 4.386E‐01 3.333E‐01 1.282E‐01 5.389E‐01 6.181E‐01

AMD Athlon FX AMD Athlon FX AMD Athlon AMD Athlon 3800 2005 2.400 1 89 90 FX‐55 2004 2.600 1 104 139

000E‐01 5. The plot below shows the large increase in transistors per chip over a six year period.000E‐01 6. 900 800 700 # of Transistors 600 500 400 300 200 100 Number of Transistors Over Time y = 4E‐305e0. Introspection of the thermal power dissipation per chip.000E‐01 W/mm^2 4. By keeping in check with Moore’s law. This observation is identical to that of Gordon Moore with his derivation of ‘Moore’s Law’.000E‐01 0.3521x 0 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 Date 2008 2009 2010 2011 Further analysis of this data yields some significant results.000E‐01 2.000E‐01 1. I noticed a trend in the number of transistors on each chip to the year that model was released. Time   7. and then per area of chip shows a strongly decreasing trend over the last few years. Moore’s Law states that the number of transistors that can be ‘squeezed’ onto a microprocessor will double every two years. giving the trend an exponential curve.Mike Taglione  ECE 3450  P a g e  | 2  Discussion and Determines: Upon immediate analysis of this data. W/mm2  vs. Research online shows that companies often would increase the size of their microprocessors in order to fit Moore’s law trends.000E+00 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 Date 2008 2009 2010 2011 . it easier to set goals for research and design.000E‐01 3. The plot below shows the decrease in TDP per year.

. but also on the different components of said chips. when looking at the power dissipation per transistor.Mike Taglione  ECE 3450  P a g e  | 3  As you can see. the graph proves that over even the short span of 5 years. One of the correlation factors I would have been interested in analyzing further in depth is the Clock Frequency to TDP. then we would see frequencies around the Megahertz range. Additionally.400E‐06 1. these values don’t deviate as much relative to one another. W/Transistor vs.200E‐06 Watts/Transistor 1. All in all. in 2005 the amount power dissipated per area went from 6E-01 watts all the way to around 1E-01 watts only 5 years later.000E‐07 2. Time 1.000E‐07 6.000E‐07 4. technology has drastically increased to the point that we can now have an immense number of transistors while still being able to keep them relatively cool.000E‐07 0. this report is a great primer for the rest of the Digital Electronics course.000E‐06 8. TDP and core technologies I was able to further understand why and how these microprocessors follow the trends that were previously discussed. Just by simply informing myself on clocking frequency. Many of the chips show higher wattage to higher frequencies but over the time period. as many of us have very slim knowledge pertaining to microprocessor technologies. Perhaps if processors ranging back to the 80’s were analyzed.000E+00 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 Date 2008 2009 2010 2011 Conclusion: I found this report to be very informative not only on microprocessors.

.net. Dennis Publishing." The UK's Leading Source for Hardware and Games Reviews | Bit-tech. "Review ." Tom's Hardware: Hardware News.com/us/products/desktop/processors/Pages/desktop-processors. 28 Jan.bit-tech." Wikipedia. "List of AMD Phenom Microprocessors. Inc.pcstats. Web. Advanced Micro Devices. 7 Jan. <http://en. <http://www. Richard. 2013.AMD Phenom II X4 940 and 920 CPUs | Bit-tech. 2013. <http://www.wikipedia.amd. Tests and Reviews.com/reviews/phenom-ii-940.PC Hardware Reviews and Guides . Swinburne. 28 Jan.com .org/wiki/List_of_AMD_Phenom_microprocessors>. 2009..cfm?articleID=1221>. 2013." PCSTATS.html>. Web. "Technical Details : AMD Phenom II X4: 45nm Benchmarked. <http://www.Get The 'Stats and Stay Informed! Web. 2013. 28 Jan.tomshardware.2114-2. 28 Jan. Toepelt. The Free Encyclopedia.net/hardware/cpus/2009/01/08/amdphenom-ii-x4-940-and-920-review/1>." AMD . 28 Jan. 8 Jan. Web. 28 Jan. "AMD Processors for Desktop PC's.Mike Taglione  ECE 3450  P a g e  | 4  Works Cited:   "AMD Athlon XP 2400 Processor Review . Web.net. 2013. <http://www. 2011. and Frank Voelkel.Advanced Micro Devices. 2013.com/articleview.com. Bert. 2009.aspx>.PCSTATS.

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