# Design of One Way Slabs

CE A433 – RC Design T. Bart Quimby, P.E., Ph.D. Spring 2007

Definition

A One Way Slab is simply a very wide beam that spans between supports

you are solving for As/ft width. .Design for a 12” Width  When you solve for As.

Beam Profile  Design variables: Thickness (h) and Reinforcing .

h  Thickness may controlled by either:    Shear Flexure Deflection .Solving for Thickness.

 Vu  fVc  f 2 f cbw d Vu d f 2 f cbw ACI 318-05 11. .Thickness Based on Shear  Shear stirrups are not possible in a slab so all you have is fVc for strength.1(a) exempts slabs from the requirement that shear reinforcement is required where ever Vu exceeds fVc/2.6.5.

   Largest beam size (based on Asmin as specified in the code) Smallest beam size (based on the steel strain being .005) Smallest beam size not likely to have deflection problems (c ~ .375cb) . using b = 12”.Thickness Based on Flexure  Use the three equations that were presented earlier in the semester for computing bd2 for singly reinforced concrete beams.

Thickness Base on Deflection   We haven’t covered deflection calculations yet. See ACI 318-05 9.5(a) if you want to totally ignore deflections .5.2  You must comply with the requirements of ACI 318-05 Table 9.

it might be useful to put the steel at mid depth so that it can act as both positive and negative reinforcing.7.1(c)  Cover requirements are a bit different   You might need to make allowance for a wear surface .Other Considerations  For thinner multi-span slabs.  Then h = d*2 See ACI 318-05 7.

5.1 All bars can provide this As by selecting an appropriate spacing   Mu < fAsfy(d-Asfy/(1.Flexural Steel  Consider as a rectangular singly reinforced beam where b = 12”     The resulting As is the req’d As PER FOOT OF WIDTH.7f’cb))  Solve for As Spacing = Ab/(req’d As/ft width) Watch units!!!! . Also consider min As requirement ACI 318-05 10.

max aggregate size/.75) .Spacing Limits  ACI 318-05 7.5 has an upper limit on bar spacing  S < min(3h. 18”)  The lower limit is as used in previous beam problems.6..  The clear distance between bars > max(1”.

69 7.23 4.293 0.27 1.04510 0.04613 0.06 8.00 0.00 18.53 17.00 18.00 18.62 7.45 0.04355 0.667 0.847 1.82 63.00 18.60 0.911 0.94 7.495 0.965 0.11 13.44 0.500 0.00 18.799 2.595 4.875 1.95 10.00556 0.710 0.90 9.282 0.31 0.01699 0.65 91.445 0.Typical Calculation Controlling Flexural Steel Requirement 0.20 0.65 17.375 0.927 0.00 1.81 163.000 4.153 1.00 1.40 7.507 0.00 18.73 42.410 1.155 1.80 51.693 2.16 12.55 7.950 0.040 1.59 26.500 2.53 61.614 0.303 0.550 0.293 0.625 0.81 7.01260 0.79 0.02252 #9 #10 #11 #14 #18 1.667 7.294 in^2/ftw Bar Ab (in^2) db (in) max s (in) Use s (in) Act.465 1.11 0.93 0.88 7.03087 0.36 9.970 0.49 8.75 10.226 0.527 8.361 0.488 0.270 1.56 2.12 21.21 18.00163 Note: Check development lengths .257 40.25 4.48 32.692 0.128 1. As (in^2/ftw) Act d (in) pMn (ft-k/ftw) Mu/pMn c (in) Stl Strain #3 #4 #5 #6 #7 #8 0.00958 0.286 0.64 31.95 24.50 13.00 18.750 0.400 0.00 7.00 0.50 8.04466 0.507 0.

2  r = 0.18”) .0020 for fy < 60 ksi r = 0.2.12. ACI 318-05 7.Temperature & Shrinkage Steel   ACI 318-05 7.0018 for fy = 60 ksi Spacing < min(5h.12 Req’d As/ft width = (12”)hr     This steel is placed TRANSVERSE to the flexural steel.

T&S Calculation .

Layout Temperature & Shrinkage Steel Flexural Steel .

Example Problem   Materials: f’c = 3 ksi. Dead = 25 psf . fy = 60 ksi Imposed Loads: Live = 100 psf.

Finding “h”  At this point.5a:   Cantilevers: h > L/10 = 24”/10 = 2.4” Main Spans: h > L/24 = 120”/28 = 4. we have enough information to determine h using ACI 318-05 Table 9.29”  We still need to check shear and flexure requirements… but need more info! .

 wDL = 25 psf + (150 pcf)*.2(100 plf/ftw) + 1.6(100 plf/ftw) = 280 plf/ftw   .Determine Loads    Consider only a 1 ft width of beam (b = 12”) wLL = 100 psf = 100 plf/ft width wDL = 25 psf + weight of slab Make a guess at a slab thickness or write the equations of shear and moment in terms of slab thickness… Let’s try h = 6”… we will need to fix this later if it turns out to be greater.5 ft = 100 psf = 100 plf/ftw wu = 1.

As a result. Only have to design one set of flexural steel! .An Almost Arbitrary Decision  We will place the steel at mid-depth of the slab so that it handles both positive and negative moments     This means that we only need to design for the worst case moment (positive or negative) along the span. This makes things pretty simple. d = h/2 This is a good choice for a short relatively thin (less than 8”) slab.

e.3 since they are statically determinant (i.Determine Maximum Shears   Use ACI 318-05 8.3)   The two center spans are the same  Vu = wu*Ln = (280 plf/ftw)*(1. don’t meet the criteria to use 8.3 (the slab meets the criteria!) to compute internal forces (or you can do a full elastic analysis) The cantilevers are exempt from 8.5 ft) = 420 lb/ftw Vu = wu*Ln/2= (280 plf/ftw)*(9 ft)/2 = 1260 lb/ftw .

75(2)sqrt(3000)(12”)] 1.5a) still controls!!! .Determine Req’d h Based on Shear  For our choice:     d d d h = > > > h/2 > Vu/[f2sqrt(f’c)bw)] (1260 lb/ftw)/[.28 in 2.56 in  Deflection criteria (Table 9.

5 ft.418 ft-lb/ftw  Max negative Mu = wu*Ln2/11 = 2.062 ft-lb/ftw  Cantilevers are statically determinate: Ln = 1.3: Max positive Mu = wu*Ln2/16 = 1.   Design for Mu = 2.062 ft-lb/ftw Mu = wu*Ln2/2 = 315 ft-lb/ftw .Determine Maximum Moments  Main spans: Ln = 9 ft   Can use ACI 318-05 8.

  Max size (based on min reinforcing): h = 6.005): h = 3.40 in .Select “h” Based on Flexure  Can use the equations derived for choosing the size of rectangular singly reinforced beams earlier in the semester.  Use b = 12” and solve for d.  Try solving the equations for both max and min size to bracket the possibilities.41 in Min size (based on stl strain = 0.

5a deflection criteria and Shear Strength criteria Other choices that meet the limits computed are also valid No real need to go back and fix the “h” that our load estimate since they are close and the assumption was conservative. but can do it to refine the design if we want to.Now… Make a Choice!    I choose to use h = 5”… it is in the range for flexure and meets Table 9. .

3sqrt(f’c))*bwd/fy = 0.199 in2/ftw .7*f’cb))  As > 0.199 in2/ftw Watch those units!!!  Also check to make sure that the minimum As is met   The larger value controls  As > min(200.Determine the Flexural Steel  Solve the flexural design inequality for As:    Mu < fAsfy(d-Asfy/(1.100 in2/ftw Use As > 0.

C. .Select the Flexural Steel  Use #4 @ 12” O.

Consider T&S Steel     For our case.02 ft = 12.2 in … use 18” #3 is the better choice!  Use #3 @ 12” O.2 in   For #4 bar: s < 22. for T&S steel .11 in2 / (0.108 in2/ftw) = 1.0018(12”)(5”) = 0. r = 0.C.0018 Req’d As > 0.108 in2/ftw Max allowed spacing = min(18”.5h) = 18” Compute some spacing and choose a bar:  For #3 bar:  s < 0.

Final Design    Slab Thickness = 5” Longitudinal Steel = #4 @ 12” O.C. .C. @ mid-depth Transverse Steel = #3 @ 12” O.