Introduction In the present era of ever-increasing energy consumption and dwindling fossil fuel reserves, the importance
of biomass based, decentralized fuel such as Biogas and Biomass based power generation has been greatly increased. It is a well-established renewable and environment friendly fuel for rural energy needs. Biogas is ideally suited for rural applications where required animal or human excreta and agricultural waste are available in plenty. Harnessing such a resource promotes rural industries, agriculture, dairy and animal farming in a sustainable way. This will also increase employment in the rural regions and discourage migration to cities. Biogas is an environment friendly, clean, cheap and versatile fuel. Biogas is produced by anaerobic digestion of degradable wastes such as cattle dung, vegetable wastes, sheep and poultry droppings, municipal solid waste, sewage water, land fill etc. Presently the biogas is mainly used for cooking and lighting purposes in the rural areas. The use of biogas in stationary engines used for different agricultural operations is going on. Its utilization is also feasible in automobiles, used for transportation purposes by enriching and compressing it in cylinders. Biogas can be converted in bio CNG after enrichment and bottling. It becomes just like CNG. Potential of the Technology So far, biogas has mostly been used as fuel for cooking and running stationary engines. However, its potential has not fully utilized, yet. There is a great enhancement in its utilization potential particularly where bigger plants are in operation e.g. institutional biogas plants in Gaushalas, dairy farms or community biogas plants in villages. Gaushalas are running generally on charity basis and most of Gaushalas are not in sound financial position. Enrichment and bottling of biogas will help to improve it. India has a vast potential of 6.38 X 1010 cubic meter of biogas per annum from 980 million tones of cattle dung produced. A National Project on Biogas Development (NPBD) was launched by Government of India in 1981. A total of about 36.5 lakh family biogas plants have been installed under this programme all over the country till Dec. 2004. This is about 30 % of the total 120 lakh family type biogas plants potential. More than 3380 Community Biogas Plants (CBP), Institutional Biogas Plants (IBP) and Night-soil based Biogas Plants (NBP) have been installed all over the country with most reporting satisfactory performance levels. The family biogas plants in the country are estimated to be saving 39.6 lakh tones of fuel-wood per year. Besides, about 9.2 lakh tones of enriched organic manure are being produced every year from these plants. There are number of Gaushalas, dairies, village communities having large number of cattle which have potential of installing biogas enrichment and bottling system. In urban areas, large quantity of biogas can be produced in sewage treatment plants using anaerobic digestion. Okhala Sewage Treatment Plant, New Delhi is an example where more than 10,000 cubic meter of biogas is produced every day. Due to rising cost of petroleum products and environmental concerns it has become imperative to make use of local resources as an alternate to petroleum fuels. There for it is worldwide trend to explore and make use of biogas as an alternate fuel in vehicles
can be used for all applications for which CNG are used. 35-40 % carbon dioxide. bio-methane (enriched biogas) which is nearly same as CNG. a heavier and non combustible gas and some fraction of hydrogen sulphide. irrigation pump sets and in rural industries. removing CO2. H2S and water vapour. Biogas. Concept of Alternative Bio-CNG Biogas contains a large proportion (about 40 % by volume) of carbon dioxide.5-1. water requirement in this process is high but it is the simplest method of removing impurities from biogas. CNG technology has become easily available and therefore.e. The scrubbing system is found to enrich methane about 95 % or more depending upon biogas inlet and water injection pressure. Biogas Enrichment Process A variety of processes are available for enrichment i. pick up vans etc and also for stationary applications at various long distances. Compressed gas is stored in high pressure steel cylinders as used for CNG. Properties and Utilization as CNG Biogas comprises of 60-65% methane. like Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) cannot be converted to liquid state under normal temperature. In this method. say three wheelers. Biogas can be used for all applications designed for natural gas. assuming sufficient purification.Biogas Composition. Estimate for 1000 m3 Biogas Bottling Plant Biogas Plant: Waste Required: ~20 Tons Cattle Dung Water requirement in Biogas Plant: ~ 20 Tons Biogas Production: 1000 NM3/Day
. cars.0 % hydrogen sulfide and rests of water vapour. tractors. Hence it is needed to enrich biogas by removing these undesirable gases to save compression energy and space in bottle and corroding effect. It is almost 20% lighter than air. There is large potential of this technology in buses. However. Removing carbon dioxide and compressing it into cylinders makes it easily usable for transport applications. This will help to meet our energy demand for rural masses thus reduces burden of petroleum demand. the carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulfide present in the biogas is absorbed in down going water and methane goes up and collected in vessel. auto rickshaws. In counter-currently operated absorption process. the biogas is pressurized and fed to the bottom of a scrubber column where water is sprayed from the top. 0. One of the easiest and cheapest methods involves is the use of pressurized water as an absorbent liquid. cars. Commonly CO2 removal processes also remove H2S. moves towards energy security and will improve economic status by creating employment generation in rural area. Already. Scope of the Technique Enriched biogas is made moisture free by passing it through filters after that it is compressed up to 200 bar pressure using a three stage gas compressor. which can be done by scrubbing.
12000/day Total Revenue: Rs. Moisture: < 20 ppm Cost: Rs. Civil work.25 Lakhs Annual Profit: Rs. 5000/day Annual cost of dung: (Rs. 15 Lakhs Total Initial Cost of Project: Rs.1. Logistic etc. 11250/day Slurry: (Rs.375 Lakhs Cost of Dung: (Rs. 20 Lakhs Other Cost: Land preparation. 75 Lakhs Annual Profit: Rs.5 Crores Revenue: Purified Gas: (Rs. 250/ton) * (20 tons) = Rs. 6 Lakhs (Annual) Annual Maintenance cost: Rs.
. 8 Lakhs Total Recurring cost: Rs.25 Lakhs Cost of Water & Electricity: Rs. 81. 23250/day) * (350 day) = Rs. 47. 15 Lakhs (Annual) Manpower Cost: Rs. 5000/day) * (365) = Rs. 60 Lakhs Biogas Purification & Bottling System: Raw Biogas Quantity: 1000 NM3/Day Purified Gas Quantity: ~ 375 Kg Purified Gas Composition: CH4: 95 %. 55 Lakhs (excluding the cost of cylinders for gas storage) Slurry Management System: Slurry Production: ~ 6 Tons (50 % solid) Cost: Rs. 30/kg) * (375 kg) = Rs. 2/Kg) * (6000 Kg) = Rs. 18.125 Lakhs Payback Period: 2. High pressure gas storage cylinders Taxes.Cost: Rs. 23250/day Annual Revenue: (Rs.125 Lakhs In BGFP project there is a provision of 50% subsidy Beneficiary Expenditure: Rs. 34. ~ Rs.19 years. H2S: < 25 ppm.34.
3. The objective of this company is to provide biogas energy to its customers at the lower cost than other renewable energy resources while at the same time to preserve our environment by recycling the waste to produce beneficial products. Finance and Management Information System. Industry. Perennial power. will be located in Gujrat.com 4.3. bio energy for electricity generation and the consultancy services for house hold energy solutions. bio fuel for the vehicles named as Bio CNG cylinders.2 Products and Services:The products and services that will be offered are categorized according to different segments of consumptions consisting of.
Website: www. The offerings in this regard will include biogas for household use as well provide to industry at initial stage. household Transportation.
Name of product: Name of company:
GREEN AND CLEAN ENERGY
SAMEER POWER COMPANY
3.4 Office Equipment and Personnel:Thee company will have almost 15 employees in the initial stages.2 Mission:-
. the whole process of production will be carried through the support of technology. is basically a startup venture for producing biogas at the commercial
level taking biomass and other manure as the input and at the same time providing integrated energy solutions to the end consumers and society in a very economical and environment friendly way.1 Company profile
Sameer Powers.5 The Entrepreneurs:The company’s management team consists of the MBA students having specializations in the fields of Marketing.3 Size
and form of Business:-
The key factor determining the success of the business is that it is going to operate in the sector where the demand of the energy is considered to be ever increasing and everlasting. Human Resource Management.1 Vision:-
“Changing life styles with economic and unique available resources”
“Our mission is to provide integrated energy solutions to our customers in an environmentally friendly and socially responsible manner. In other words. producers and users of energy at the household level. However. which are a health hazard due to increased air population.
This situation is worsened by the low level efficiency of these fuels. particularly to rural women who are the managers. sufficient number of industries can’t be set up especially in rural areas so far due to scarcity of energy supply. we will strive hard to provide power in a way that is sustainable in the long term.1 Political:-
. We will lead by example through a commitment that empowers our customers ensuring the excellence at all levels of our operations. Pakistan has predominantly rural society where biomass fuel is the major source for cooking and rural women are primarily involved in biomass collection and use.
5. We believe it is essential not only to make profits but also to care about people and protect the environment. products and services. Simultaneously. performance.
Security and affordability of energy supplies are key inputs to ensure sustainable development.
4. actively contribute towards welfare of society and social uplift of the under privileged section of the community”
4. but also results in a drop off in the agricultural productivity due to the diversion of agricultural residues and animal waste from farms to fireplace.3 Market need:-
India is one of the developing countries facing a huge demand in the energy sector due to the trends of improving lifestyles and growing population. Equitable access to energy constitutes a basic element of effort to combat poverty and sustained economic activity.4 The problem:-
Excessive use of biomass energy is not only a threat to the environment due to the high use of forest resources.
Hydropower. should be adopted.
In this crucial situation. But it should be kept in close consideration of the environment degradation problems and processes. In addition to this. in order to tackle the existing energy crisis and ensure a prosperous energy future.
5. With concerns over many issues oil prices don’t see any other way but to shoot upwards. The need of crude oil is on an increase because of an improved lifestyle. In this way.Presently. the backbone of the future energy policies would have to be reliance on domestic resources (Biogas. therefore putting the economy under great strain. The macro –economic implications of supply shock induced energy crisis are large. the political scenario of India is quite favourable for using renewable energy resource in order to eliminate the severe energy crisis in India. which are environment friendly. In view India’s meagre resources of fossil fuels. The endless reality is that this global spike will somehow have to be accommodated in the energy prices in India. Moreover. which has necessitated the use of vehicles are cars for transportation. an alternate source like nuclear. the government now understands that. In this regard. being an energy importer. solar.
A huge shock for the present economic condition is that international oil prices have not only broken all records and are touching the new heights. Imports of crude oil at about $110 per barrel increased the trade deficit and the current account deficit. accounting for the 15% in two weeks. costly and multidimensional. the energy crisis. Solar and Wind energy) as well as the energy conservation. because energy is the resource used to exploit all other resources. The even before it took office the new government was greeted with two jumps in fuel prices.
. Meanwhile crude oil prices have been registering all-time-highs. The infuriating electricity and gas disruptions and soaring fuel prices in turn pushing the cost of living have made life very difficult for the people of India. wind and biomass energy would have to be explored. speculators all around the world expect oil prices to touch $110 per barrel in the medium term. One of the major problems facing the government. is intense. the shooting up dollar value is also posing a huge threat to the economy.2 Economical:-
Energy sector is one the most important sectors driving the economy of India and that’s why some of the latest fluctuations due to the energy crisis in India are having an adverse impact on the economy of India coupled with the widening gap between demand and supply in this particular sector. the dependence on imported petroleum is expected to increase. government made a policy commitment to encourage the biogas installation plants in the country along with the 50% subsidy.
6. India being agriculture based.Factors such as educational background and income of the beneficiaries may also affect the speed of BT adoption. is non-existent and therefore there is no such problem fostered in the installation of the biogas plants in the country as well as much of the technological help and incentives are being provided by the Indian Government.
There are alternative energy resources (especially biogas) that offer significant potential in terms of reducing women drudgery and improving health conditions.
7. etc. with respect to biogas plants. Biogas energy has potential to save the metabolic energy and the time of women. This has to be tackled in two ways: (1) We’ve to try to introduce the plant models most suited for the area and (2) devise suitable training of extension workers to enable them to take the message of BT to the people. Currently. psychologically and politically empowered. allowing rural women to have enough time to be involved in income-generating. all such animal waste is burned in the dry form as the domestic source of energy.
. The same can be used for producing biogas on commercial bases with effective utilization of technology. prevailing in the society pose problems for promotion of the biogas technology . prejudices. In addition to this.Three critical characteristics must be considered in analyzing Indian energy sector.6. Often the beliefs. social and community development activities for their self-enhancement and empowerment.1 Social:-
India has predominantly rural society where biomass fuel is the major source for cooking and rural women are primarily involved in biomass collection and use. “Industry Analysis”
India has one of the world’s fastest growing economies and energy resources development will be essential to increase its ability to sustain the high growth rates through the 1990s. breeds sufficient live stock to produce enough animal waste for the production of biogas. There is quite a potential for using biogas technology as rural energy though out the country by network of community biogas plants. Their livelihoods are threatened due to their heavy workloads and deteriorating health conditions in the absence of good nutrition and health services. calendars. leaflets. posters and manuals written in the local language can be effectively utilized for creating the awareness regarding the benefits and uses of biogas. habits. which could be used for other productive activities that enable women to be socially.2 Technological:-
The technology change rates. A complex range of energy resources is available and each plays a different role in meeting the national needs.
Natural gas in compressed form is already being used successfully as vehicle fuel. therefore the environmental issues like greenhouse effect and correct waste disposal methods as well as providing energy for all the people in rural areas is gaining much attention in the current scenario. So. There are some of the biogas production projects already running but they all are on the very small-scale level. wind energy. Urbanization. biogas plant at the commercial level is going to have a firm standing in the presence of this indirect competition.000 bbl/d in 2010.1 Energy Supply & Demand:India’s recent economic acceleration together with rapid rates of population growth is having a significant impact on the country’s energy supply and demand balances. poor transmission and distribution system and inefficient energy use. The current situation in the Indian energy sector is that the important energy resources have been depleted and whatever resources are available are simply too expensive to buy or already acquired by the countries which had planned and acted long time ago. Population growth. So. Biogas has been explored as an alternative to petrol and diesel to lighten the import burden.
8. solar energy. The indirect competition in the energy sector is being fostered by the other alternative renewable energy resources including natural gas.
Gaseous fuels like Natural gas.1 Competition:On the commercial level production of biogas in the country there is no competition at all in the market. The current situation in India is that it is producing 64. Exploiting the energy resources creates the environmental hazards that threaten the long-term development prospects and social welfare. and coal and petroleum products.
The gap between domestic energy supply and demand is widening because of inadequate production.
7. Shift in consumer demands towards energy intensive products.2 Current Trends:-
The following factors are contributing to the sharply rising demand for the conventional energy supplies in India:
. But due to its cost-effective and environment friendly nature. is facing is facing the serious challenge of energy deficit.
8. like other developing countries of the region.000 bbl/d and has ambitious plans to increase its current output to reach 100. India. firewood. Indian population is growing at a very rapid pace and more than half of this population lives in rural areas. Sameer would not face any kind of direct competition in the commercial sector..
vehicle emissions and industrial activity has contributed to a number of environmental and a health hazard. Finally.8.3 Environment:-
8. millions of gallons of wastewater.
. The overall impact of the biogas technology in terms of environmental conservation is considerably beneficial as the process provides an environmentally sound means of managing animal and plant wastes. chief among them is water pollution. we get natural fertilizer (manure) from biogas sludge. which is why biogas offers a safe and clean source of alternate energy. Unchecked use of hazardous chemicals.000 tons garbage collected in the major cities. it generates less air pollution by the combustion of biogas instead of wood or animal dung.4 Availability of Biomass:Availability of Biomass in India in 50. it slows down the deforestation trend. of India is attempting to raise the living standards of its citizens and has meant that the economical development has largely taken precedence over environmental issues. Secondly. millions of cotton stalks and rice husk etc. thus achieving numerous environmental benefits. Much of the country suffers from a lack of healthy and clean drinking water due to industrial waste and agricultural runoff that contaminates drinking water supplies. An important advantage of the biogas programme is that it results in considerable reduction in fuel wood demand especially in the rural areas. The substitution of fuel wood by biogas leads to three main benefits: Firstly.It is very economical and friendly way of disposing off the municipal waste that is collected in tons every day in the big cities but unfortunately no efforts have been made in this particular direction in India.