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Missioni

spaziali ai pun, Lagrangiani

Space Missions to Lagrangian Points


Past Missions ISEE-3: The International Sun-Earth Explorer 3 Launch Sep. 1978 Location Earth-Sun L1 Orbit Halo Agency NASA Scientific Goal Investigate Solar-Terrestrial relationships, magnetosphere and cosmic rays. Study the solar wind and its interaction with Earth's magnetosphere. Study the Sun, from its deep core to the outer corona, the solar wind and cosmic rays. Measure the composition of energetic particles from the Sun, the heliosphere and the Galaxy. Produce an accurate full-sky map of the cosmic microwave background temperature fluctuations (anisotropy), the oldest light in the universe. Collect and return solar wind samples to Earth.

WIND SOHO: Solar Heliospheric Observatory

Nov. 1994

Earth-Sun L1

Lissajous

NASA ESANASA

Dec. 1995

Earth-Sun L1

Halo

ACE: Advanced Composition Explorer

Aug. 1997

Earth-Sun L1

Lissajous

NASA

WMAP: Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe

Jun. 2001

Earth-Sun L2

Lissajous

NASA

Genesis

Aug. 2001

Earth-Sun L1

Lissajous

NASA

Astrodinamica

Missions to L1: ISEE-3 (1978)


The International Sun-Earth Explorer (ISEE) program consisted of 3 satellites: ISEE-1, ISEE-2, ISEE-3 (NASA). Halo orbit around Earth-Sun libration point L1:
Ax = 175000 km Ay = 666670 km Az = 1200 km

1. First spacecraft stationed in a libration point orbit 2. First continuous monitor of solar-wind conditions upstream the Earth. 3. First real-time warning system for geomagnetic storms. 4. First use of multiple lunar swingbys for orbital control in the Earth-Moon System. 5. First exploration of Earths magneto-tail between 80 and 240 Earth radii. 6. First use of lunar gravity-assist manoeuvre to launch spacecraft towards a body outside the Earth-Moon System. 7. First encounter with a comet (9-11-1985)
Astrodinamica

Missions to L1: WIND


WIND, was launched on November 1, 1994, on a mission to study the solar wind and its interactions with the Earths magneto-sphere. Winds nominal mission comprised 3 years in a Double Lunar Swingby (DLS) trajectory, in which pairs of lunar flybys alternately raise and lower apogee and maintain orbital alignment near the Sun-Earth line. The DLS trajectory allowed Wind to study different regions of the magneto-sphere and the upstream solar wind with a minimum of propellant. In addition, Wind was the first spacecraft to complete the difficult Lunar Back-flip Trajectory in April 1999 Wind also utilized high Earth orbits (or petal orbits, as are they known within the Wind Project) at varying ecliptic inclinations. With a further extension of the mission, Wind visited L2 and spent considerable time in a Lissajous orbit at the Sun-Earth L1 point (Ax = 10000 km, Ay = 350000 km, Az = 25000 km).
Astrodinamica

Missions to L1: SOHO


Halo orbit around Earth-Sun libration point L1:
Ax = 206448 km Ay = 666672 km Az = 120000 km

The L1 Sun-Earth Halo orbit offers an optimal location for the Sun observation with an uninterrupted view of the Sun. All previous solar observatories orbited the Earth, from where their observations were periodically interrupted by eclipses Experiments:
Solar Corona Helioseismology Particle Experiments
Astrodinamica

Missions to L1: Genesis


Lissajous orbit around Earth-Sun libration point L1: Ax = 25000 km Ay = 800000 km Az = 250000 km The near optimal Genesis trajectory launch segment was obtained using the stable manifold of the nominal Lissajous orbit and the return leg by using the unstable manifold; Acquisition: Genesis was placed in a Lissajous orbit around the Sun-Earth libration point L1 on November 16, 2001, with solar-wind collection starting shortly thereafter, on December 3. The spacecraft completed 5 orbits by April, 2004, making approximately two orbits per year. Maneuvers: To maintain its sun pointing, the spacecraft executes an autonomous 1 deg/day precession. Station keeping: 3 manoeuvres each orbit. Return: In April, 2004, it departed from the Lissajous orbit, swings past the Earths (there is no lunar flyby), and passed close to L2 point. This trajectory puts the spacecraft in position for a daylight re-entry.

Missions to L1: ACE


Lissajous orbit around Earth-Sun libration point L1: Ax = 81755 km Ay = 264071 km Az = 157406 km

ACE was placed in a modified halo orbit around the Sun-Earth L1 libration point. This orbits is a broken Lissajous approximation to a true halo orbit providing Sun-EarthACE angles of ten and five degrees respectively. Period of this orbit is about 178 days. Pointing constraints: point within 20 deg of the Sun at all times; this two constrains require ACE to perform reorientation manoeuvres as frequently as every 5 days. Spinstabilization at 5 rpm adopted.
Astrodinamica

Missions to L2: WMAP


WMAP produced a full-sky map of the fluctuations (anisotropy) of cosmic microwave background temperature (CMB); first mission to use L2 as its permanent observing station; Lissajous orbit around Earth-Sun libration point L2:
Ay = 264000 km Az = 264000 km

Orbits L2 every ~6 months and requires occasional station keeping manoeuvres (usually about every 3 months to remain in position); The L2 point offers an exceptionally stable environment and an unobstructed view of deep space, with the Sun, Earth, and Moon always behind WMAPs protective shield. WMAPs large distance from Earth protects it from near-Earth emission and other disturbances. At L2, WMAP maintains a fixed orientation with respect to the Sun for thermal and power stability.
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Future missions at Lagrangian points


Future Missions
Constellation X

Launch
2013

Location
Earth-Sun L2

Orbit
Lissajous

Agency
NASA

Scientific Goal
X-ray astronomy (black holes, Einstein s theory of general relativity, galaxy formation, evolution of the universe, recycling of matter and energy, nature of dark matter...) Determining the shape of the Universe, explain galaxy evolution, understand the birth and formation of stars, determine how planetary systems form and interacts, determine how the Universe built up its present chemical/ elemental composition and probe the nature and abundance of Dark Matter. To look for Earth-like planets, and signs of life on them, and to provide imaging of space in the 5 to 28 micron band. To search for Earth-like planets that might harbour life. TPF will take family portraits of stars and their orbiting planets and determine which planets may have the right chemistry to sustain life. Probe the epoch of reionization due to the first stars when the Universe was less than 1/20 its present age, trace the formation and evolution of star-forming and active galaxies since their inception, explore the connection between black holes and their host galaxies, reveal the details of star and planet formation in nearby debris-disk systems, search for and quantify prebiotic molecules in the interstellar medium.

NGST/JWST: Next Generation Space Telescope

2012?

Earth-Sun L2

Lissajous

NASA/ ESA

Darwin TPF: Terrestrial Planet Finder

2014

Earth-Sun L2

Halo

ESA

2015

Earth-Sun L2

Lissajous

NASA / ESA

SAFIR: Single Aperture FarInfrared Observatory

2020

Earth-Sun L2

NASA

Astrodinamica