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for Band Saw Blades
By HAROLD P. STRAND
Fig. 1. Welding a band saw blade is easy with this handy unit. The white spot between the electrodes is the white hot steel at the moment of the weld.
WNERS of band saws can use a butt-welder to weld easily and quickly the ends of blades varying in width from .125 to ½ in. A welder will allow the saw to do internal cutting, when it is necessary to cut the blade so it can be passed through a center hole in the work. Blade stock can be bought in continuous coiled lengths and cut off to the right measure, and welded. Broken blades can often be salvaged by cutting off new ends and welding, or damaged sections can be cut out and new pieces inserted. The welder can be used to join small steel rods, such as extensions to twist drill shanks up to about .188, in. in diameter. This feature is useful in model work for butt-welding small parts of similar type. Operation of the welder is simple. Cut off square the ends of the blade to be welded, grind if necessary so they will meet perfectly. Then
Fig. 1A. Testing the welded blade in the gage after grinding. The blade, less the teeth, must be able to pass through the .027 gap of the gage, so it will not catch in the saw guides. Also note the guard for the wheel and the extra toggle switch for the light below, added later. HOME-BUILT POWER TOOLS
place them with the joint in the center of the gap of the main clamps and tighten the screws. Line up the ends, tapping them so they butt in good alignment. For blades of narrow width, such as .125 in., the #1 position of the selector switch will probably be best. For those up to about .438 in. use the #2 position, with #3 taking the oth-
fitted with switch 1 pc. ¾" angle iron. 10-32.002 longer than thickness of panel. 1 1/8" long. cut and welded to form angle brackets (panel braces) 2 5/8" stacking of E laminations or strips of silicon steel. of extra flexible insulated wire. 98 Fig. etc. plungers. O and C terminals (control switches) 1 pc. Annealing is done in the lower clamps. 6¼" x 7/8" x 1/8" cut to make two pieces as req. 3. 8½ x 10½" or larger to suit parts used (base) 2 pcs. 115 volt A. The joint is allowed to reach a bright cherry red. (approx. 2. Bakelite 3" x l ½" x 1/8" (insulation of fixed electrode) 2 Bakelite sleeves 3/8" O. 3" x 1 ½" x 1/8" (plate welded to back of sliding electrode) 1 pc.D. 2" long. 1¾" wide as per drawing (transformer core). Formex rectangular magnet wire. about . ¼" I. 1¾" long (electrode clamping screws) 7 ¼" #20 brass hex nuts for same 2 steel spacer sleeves 9/16" O. brass stock. If it is too soon. 3/16" dia. ½" x ½" x ½" (block fitted to lower end of arm) 1 pc. until the cut-off switch opens the circuit at the precise moment when the sliding electrode moves to make the weld. ¼" I. washers. moves but a few thousandths from its on to its off position. . ¾ x 3/16" angle iron. cut and placed on two separate spools. (secondary terminals) 1 4-point Ohmite tap switch and indicating knob 2 Micro Switches. mild steel. (sliding electrode) 1 capacitor motor. Make adjustments on the knob. (operating arm shaft) 2 3/8" x 24 hex nuts (for shaft) 1 pc..D.054 wire (attaches to vertical arm) 4 pcs. . . (cut and shaped for inside vertical arm) 1 ¾" x 24 cap screw.MATERIALS LIST—BUTT-WELDER 1 pc. moving it but the slightest amount. 1" x ½" x 3/8" (electrode clamps) 2 brass thumb screws. 1725 speed with 3" fine grit wheel. However. threaded on end.165 or larger (transformer secondary) 1 pc. for side brackets 1 Struthers-Dunn or similar single pole relay. 2 ¾" long (electrodes) 2 pcs. mild steel. about 6 ft. coil 1 small receptacle and attachment plug (grinder motor supply) 1 single pole cartridge type fuse block and 10 ampere fuse 7 ft. bolts.105 x . steel plate.C. copper bus stock. 3/8" long (insulation of fixed electrode) 1 steel spacer sleeve 3/8" O. Angle iron as req. which governs the timing of the automatic cut-off switch. ¾" angle iron 12½" long. (lower switch adjusting screw). 3 3/8" long.D. (lower switch operating arm) 1 pc. flat brass stock. with the selector switch on #1 position. 5 turns . 1" long (electrode clamping screws) 2 pcs. steel stock 1 ½" x 3/8" x 1/8" (electrode stop) 2 pcs. ½" long(sliding electrode) 1 expansion spring 5/16" O. 1/30 H. copper solder lugs (secondary terminals) 1 pc. the power will be cut off before proper temperature has been reached.D. screws. 3/16" steel rod. #1 size or larger (secondary jumper) 4 100 amp.D.043 wire (sliding electrode) 1 extension spring 5/16" O. 8" x 10" x 1/8" (panel) 1 pc.P. ½" long. since the Micro Switch.) #18 Formex magnet wire. an initial adjustment will have to be made on the small knob at the right side of the unit. the blade will be burned off. bent and cut to fit. 1 ½" x ½" x 3/8 (annealing clamps) 2 10-32 thumb screws ½" long (annealing clamping screws) 1 pc. cut and shaped to form operating arm 1 3/8" steel collar to be welded to arm 1 10-32 and 1 8-32 Allen set screws 4 ¼" #20 flathead brass screws. long. 3 3/8" x ½" x ½". threads not to run quite up to head. The grinder provides a chance to grind off the rough edges of the weld at both sides of the blade. half on each (transformer primary) 4 pcs. 5/16" x 18. commercial type. ers.D. Short pieces of blade can be used for a test. common. clockwise to shorten the timing and counter clockwise to increase it. brass stock. ½" I. Fig. #16 two-wire rubber cord 1 attachment cap 3½ lbs.D. After satisfactory adjustment has been made.D. ¾" plywood.D. which it operates. (annealing push button) 1 pc. Also 10-32 nut and small compression spring to fit over rod 1 indicating radio knob to fit shaft 1 small flange type push button. ½" plywood 6" x 5½" (motor base) Perforated sheet steel as required to box in unit Misc. ¼" long.038 wire (vertical arm return spring) 1 compression spring 13/32" O. about . If this timing is too late. 4¼" x ¾" x ¼". cold rolled steel plate.
Four strips of rectangular Formex wire are use for the secondary winding. alternate the positions of the E and straight pieces so as to cover the butt joints of each layer secondary wire must be used. and the sliding electrode will move slightly as spring tension presses the joint together. then release the button.. 6. 8. 5). Remove blade from clamps and place in lower annealing clamps (Fig. according to the size of the stock to be heated. Then the power will automatically Fig. 1 volt. The tions are given in Fig. use strips of silicon transformer The core for the transformer was taken from an HOME-BUILT POWER TOOLS 99 . If you can't locate simimeeting their full width. be cut off. The window area given wider the blade. built in the shop. 4). The main component is a heavyduty transformer (Fig. COIL HEIGHT: AFTER TAPING MIN CORE BUILT UP FROM SILICON STEEL STRIPS ALTERNATE POSITIONS OF EACH LAYER SO JOINTS ARE COVERED STACK CLEARANCE DIA. appearance will be found on both sides of the blade and the ends will butt in good alignment (Fig. Hold the lever down a few seconds until the joint is somewhat cooled. 3). TRANSFORMER 10A FUSE TO ANGLE IRON CUT AND WELDED GRINDER OUTLET MAX. 1). the greater the care must be is the minimum size that will accommodate the taken to have the ends of the blade square and coil when wound. The coil is shown complete.WIDTH OF COIL AFTER TAPING CUT LENGTH OF PIECES TO FIT COIL AS SHOWN WILL REQUIRE LARGER BASEBOARD ON UNIT FOR GREATER SPACE OR LONGER IF NECESSARY this will usually stay for some time. Remove rough edges of weld from both sides of blade on the grinder (Fig. It is designed for 1 5 volt. so handle it carefully to avoid breaking. the joint will be very hard and brittle from welding. 2). With the selector switch on #1 position. This type of welding requires anywhere from 100 to 200 amps. Work done with the welder in which a blade and a 3/16 in. lar laminations. press the annealing button.SECONDARY LEADS E TYPE LAMINATIONS REQUIRED STACKING TAPED COIL SAME TURNS AS OWEN PRIMARY LEADS SIDE DETAILS FIBER INSULATION NEXT LAYER STRIP MAXIMUM . In a good weld. the highest current will be required old one formerly used in a motor control unit when welding wide blades and steel rods. 9. the and the necessary dimensions of the E lamina#3 position of the switch should be used. 1 60 cycle primary. If one end has climbed over the other. the ends did not butt properly when placed in the clamps. With the blade in the clamps (Fig. following the first operation. 4. press down in a positive and reasonably quick manner on the operating lever. However. a raised ridge of uniform Fig. steel rod hare been butt-welded is shown above. ready for taping. Allow blade to become a bright cherry red. with three secondary voltages. and very heavy Fig. There will be a quick show of white heat. through the selector switch on the panel. To stack the core around the coil. Since with the succeeding one. 2 volts and 3 volts.
This finish end should be cut off with a hacksaw to about an 8 in.015 Duro or similar insulating paper over the form block before winding. All leads must be brought out at one of the narrow sides of the form.. Stack the core. to 2. where it made close contact with the core. 11. Strips cut 1¾ in. Solder the heavy copper lugs to the ends of the secondary (Fig. Then tie up the coil. 7). will also give an area close enough to 4 in. in the case of the laminations detailed. long. Fig. This is then tightly tied around and over the insulated primary coil. in.625 in. or one #15 can be substituted. all leads come out at narrow side of coil. At the sides of the coil.D. laid together. length for the present. To this lug. Four turns are required and as this wire is quite stiff. Both the taps and the start and finish ends should be equipped with cotton sleeving of different color for identification and added insulation. Block should be about . Wind on the four turns carefully. to build up a core (Fig. 26 gage.105 x . Completed transformer with side supports of angle iron.625 in.165. so coil will fit over this leg properly. taking care to clean off insulation well.. to tighten the laminations at that point. Fig. the height can be adjusted to give around the same area. bolt one end of the lug-equipped heavy jumper of #1 flexible cable. so that the butt joints of the preceding layer will be covered by the next. The secondary wire used by the author consisted of four rectangular Formex wires. Solder one lug to the bent end of start of winding. Tap out the center block carefully and place four added tie strings around the coil at the four corners. so the exact length of the long lead can be determined by fitting. as taps about 8 in.Fig. and secure with Scotch tape. Place a short piece of large sleeving over the long lead before attaching the lug. Usually it is possible to do quite a bit of compressing before the I.625 in. and wound on as one heavy conductor. Later it is cut again to fit correctly up to one of the electrode terminal bolts. shaping the wire as you go. bake it in an oven for 3 to 4 hours at 200-275° F. through the slots provided in the form and remove the sides. about an inch from the end. wide and stacked to about 2¼ in. place it in a vise with two blocks of wood and compress it carefully. 8 shows the coil after winding. but in the case illustrated the finished coil would not have fitted in the core. steel. place another layer over the finished primary. which should be cut about 6 ft. Do this after the panel has been finished. If laminations with a greater window area are on hand. as close as possible to coil. . Loops are brought out at the 150th and 200th turns. of the coil is reduced so it will not fit over the center leg. Start by bending one end of the four strips. or it will not be possible to install the coil on the core later. 9). Strings placed around coil keep secondary in shape. A wooden V block under the coil greatly facilitates this work. 10 shows the completed transformer with its side brackets of angle iron. Wooden wedges have been driven between the ends of the coil and the core center leg. Use your 6-volt soldering iron transformer to solder the heavy copper lugs to the secondary. place the E pieces in alternate position.. . 10. gives an approximately 4 sq. The end is also bent and tied to the start with a strong string. with a center leg of 1. which. thin fiber was used when stacking to avoid having a grounded coil. 11) using a six-volt soldering iron transformer. long. to 90°. After draining. If it is found that the finished coil is too large to fit in between the outside legs of the E laminations. The primary consists of a total of 354 turns of two #18 Formex wires wound on together in parallel. then replace the block for support while the secondary is wound on.. Winding the Coil Be careful to make the center block of the coil form slightly larger than width and stacking of core. if a core of this type is selected. Then tightly wind the coil with white cotton coil 100 tape and dip in insulating baking varnish. since coil may spring out after removal from form. cross-sectional area to the core. taped lightly at intervals. Should the width vary somewhat from 1. Lacking oven facilities. Fig. dip the coil in air drying insulating varnish and hang up in a warm place for a day or two. Stacking the Core When stacking the core (Fig. just prior to taping. With a turn of . it can best be put on by hand. shorter than depth of window space so coil will fit down in position just below the ends of the E.125 in. use wire of greater size if possible.
the lever to return it made a close but free to its original position. since the lower one is already closed.063 in. A right side view shows the adjusting 14) is used at the top of el. TO FIT BAKELITE PLATE SET SCREW HOLE 8" 2" 6-32 SCREWS FOR MICRO SWITCH STEEL PLATE STOP PLATE RETURN SPRING SCREW 10-32 STEEL PANEL PUSH BUTTON SLIDING ELECTRODE SPACER SLEEVE 4 POINT OHMITE TAP SWITCH BAKELITE COPPER BUS SPRING BEARS AGAINST SPACER SLEEVE ATTACH FLEXIBLE JUMPER SECONDARY LEAD HERE (START) FIXED ELECTRODE ATTACH FINISH END OF SECONDARY HERE SCREW STOP SPRING RETURNS ELECTRODE HOLES CAN BE LOCATED ON PANEL FROM THOSE ON ELECTRODES BETWEEN ENDS OF ANGLE IRON NUT BETWEEN SPRING PLATES 6-32 SCREWS FOR MICRO SWITCH CUT OFF SWITCH BRASS ARM SOLDERED TO BLOCK ¼" HOLE DRILLED IN ANGLE IRON FOR EXTENSION AND ADJUSTING SCREW FRONT VIEW ARM ASSEMBLY SLIDES WITH ELECTRODE TAP 10-32 CUT OFF SWITCH ARM BLOCK 18 THUMB SCREW BRASS BAKELITE SLEEVE BAKELITE COPPER BUS 20 BRASS SCREW BRASS STEEL PANEL ANGLE IRON BRASS CLAMP SCREW TURNED FOR SHOULDER 10-32 THUMB SCREW HEX NUTS SECONDARY LEAD SURFACE MILLED FLAT SAW CUT TO FITSTANDARD BLADES DETAIL OF FIXED ELECTRODE BACK VIEW position with an arm attached to the copper bus bar and an adjusting screw bearing against its plunger. 16). The relay contacts close and send a heavy current of low voltage to the welder electrode clamps. The slotted holes are knob. x 24 The panel (Fig. 15). a current flows through the relay coil.375 in. with the sliding of the movable electrode. which is placed in position so as to either as normally open or normally closed switches. 14).125 in. plywood base. 12. The bolts spring causes the comof the sliding member are pression of the ends of equipped with short steel the blade after heat has sleeves.. The main operating lever (Fig. the thickness of the panFiq. fit for these sleeves.tached to a . In A Micro Switch has been placed so that this way. This holes (Fig. which re101 HOME-BUILT POWER TOOLS . lever with a single screw while the other is not inin the center which sulated and is made to bears a g a i n s t a steel slide about . which regulates the timing of the weld.063 in. This one is a normally closed switch. This one should be a normally open limit the sliding motion to about . cured to the shaft so it Two clamp-type elecwill be moved by the trodes are used on the first one. the lower switch contacts are opened. The switches are connected in series and connect the line to the coil of the relay (Fig. by spacer sleeve on one of slightly slotting the bolt the bolts (Fig.switch Another switch is placed in a lower 10" 8-32 PANEL SCREWS START SWITCH 2 3 I OFF-NO WIRE 8. 18B) made of a piece of . These switches have three terminals back against the stop on the front of the panel with one common so that they may be connected (Fig. 18A) is at. which are cut melted the steel. which is used as a shaft steel plate. attached in a through the panel. Anabout . In operation.002 longer than other coiled spring (Fig. then. it is possible to tighten the nuts at the back of the panel and yet allow the piece to slide movement of the inside lever will compress its freely.32 SPRING SCREW ARM DRILL HOLES AS REQ. current flows until the steel has become plastic. With the ends of the blade preventing the sliding electrode from moving. 14). A short but panel (Fig. 18C) is sea ¾ in. 13) is cap screw (Fig. A coiled spring is fitted to keep this part plunger. 19). The right quite heavy compression hand one is insulated spring is secured to the and is fixed (Fig. pressing down on the lever causes the top switch to close and. On v e r t i c a l position with the back side a vertical two side b r a c k e t s to lever (Fig. 16).
saw cut to a depth of ½ in. and DIA. SMOOTH SHANK CAP SCREW SHAFT B TAP 10-32 SCREW FOR SET ANGLE IRON COLLAR WELDED ON C OPERATING LEVER A DETAIL OF VERTICAL ARM MATERIAL-MILD STEEL Fig. 28. View of back of panel shows operating parts. 60~ 24 THREAD DIA. The finish end of the secondary can just be seen at the right. SET SCREW FIXED ELECTRODE SLIDING ELECTRODE SET SCREW LOCK WASHER TOP VIEW OF ELECTRODES Fig. With the selector switch on #1. and is ample for the light grinding of blades. mild steel stock. The primary leads are attached to the selector switch. RELAY NORMALLY OPEN CONTACTS 115 V.D. The lamp is shown in its socket. The other secondary lead is attached to the insulated electrode at the right. The annealing push button is a small but heavy duty commercial type. is given in Fig. which heats the portion between the annealing clamps quite slowly. especially on the wider blades. Note the small plug-in receptacle that has been mounted to the base at the left for connection of the grinder motor. 19) gives all of the connections. TRANSFORMER 10 AMP FUSE REC. apart. O. 20.W. connects from the start of the secondary to the movable electrode. A view of the back of the panel. and fitted with 10-32 thumb screws. wheel and running at 1725 rpm. with reasonably heavy contacts and a 115 volt 60 cycle coil. They are welded or screwed to the underside of the main clamps ½ in. showing the protecting cage and grinder is given in Fig. The heavy flexible jumper.W. approximately 1 volt will flow through the blade.STEEL PLATE WELDED ON SECONDARY LEAD .002 CLEARANCE PANEL STEEL PLATE WASHER WELDED 20 BRASS F. serves to close the relay for annealing. PRI. These clamps are merely pieces of ½ x 3/8 in. 102 . Fig. 0 LONGER 02 THAN PANEL THICKNESS I D. is visible. with all parts in place. flange mounted. suits in a shutting off of the power. SCREW SPACER SLEEVE HOLES IN PANEL SLOTTED ABOUT TO PROVIDE SLIDING MOTION STEEL SLEEVE . bolted to the secondary. The heavy jumper.W. 354T 200T 150T 2 LUGS BOLTED 4-TURN SEC.H. which should be extra flexible cable of at least #1 gage insulated copper stranded wire. Another rear view. 22 is a front view to illustrate panel details. but the light shield has been removed in above photo.D. 20. The latter is a 1/30 hp capacitor type fitted with a 3 in. The relay can be any type of single pole variety. The wiring diagram (Fig. COIL OUTLET FOB GRINDER 115V. It is placed at the right of the transformer. NORMALLY OPEN S. with a fuse block located at the left. SLIDING GROUNDED CLAMP FIXED INSULATED CLAMP ANNEALING PUSH BUTTON 4-POINT S. with its lug attached to the insulated electrode. OFF #1 FLEXIBLE CABLE NORMALLY CLOSED S. 21. O.
cut out to shape and bent up so it will fit on the front end of the motor and be secured with the motor tie bolts. with 6-32 screws. The lamp wires . get a view of the lamp assembly. The blade gage (Fig. 26).027 GAP FOR SHEET STEEL . In Fig. other for the lamp. MOUNTED ON LAMP GENERAL DETAILS OF MOTOR WITH UNDERSIDE OF SHIELD WHEEL GUARD AND LAMP TOP 5CPEEN lamp fixture and consists of a screw shell attached to a metal strap. TUBULAR CANDELABRA BASE LAMP tubular lamp (Fig. 15W. MOTOR made from heavy galvanized sheet SUPPORTING FIXTURE FOR ARBOR MADE TO FIT 2 TOGGLE SWITCHES steel. To this surface is secured. a spacer of . COVERS RUBBER the other side of the switch to the BLADE GAGE TUBULAR LAMP FRONT GROMMET OF LAMP TO BE MOUNTED BLADE SHOULD SLIDE THROUGH other side of the line. The wiring ON MOTOR GAGE NOT INCLUDING TEETH MAT'L. The small receptacle at the lower left supplies the grinder motor. 22. bent DIMENSIONS BASED ON to fit as shown. A third addition is a gage placed on the front end of the motor.COLD CANDELABRA SOCKET AND STRAP FROM A diagram shows these connections in PANEL TYPE PILOT LAMP FIXTURE ROLLED STEEL detail (Fig. so better vision is assured for placing the ends of blades (Fig. lamp. steel stock. SHEET STEEL 6-32 SCREWS HOLD ASSEMBLY to the tray under the wheel with two TO ORIGINAL WHEEL TRAY 6-32 screws. TO CLEAR 6-32 SCREW wider support (Fig. Thus a switch 1" is provided for the motor and anDETAILS OF WHEEL GUARD MATERIAL. 29) consists of a piece of 1/8 in. Since standard blades The next step is to make a front shield for the are . The wheel guard (Fig. 28 this shield is shown removed to through this gage (Fig. S. GAL. this allows .025 in thickness. a piece of the same steel with Fig. with the protecting cage removed.). To the tabs on CAD HOME-BUILT POWER TOOLS 103 . The socket RECEPTACLE was taken from a panel type pilot CAP.025 SAY BLADES TO FIT are spliced to one side of the 115 volt MOTOR TO 110 VOLTS BOLTS line and one terminal of the new TO FIT MOTOR BEND STRAP 90º 6-32 SCREWS BLADE switch. 24) is HP 1725 RPM. welded joint for thickness after grinding. 1A. This provides a flat surface about 1 x ¾ in.P. A short jumper connects SHIELD DETAILS OF 115-V. 15W.24 GA. GAL. Two small screws MOTOR HEIGHT WHEEL and nuts hold the socket to the tray.. This front view shows the panel details. 27). The welder can be dressed up further and at the same time made more convenient to use by enclosing the grinding wheel for better safety and adding a light over the electrodes.24 GA.027 between.002 clearance. TOGGLE through drilled holes in the strip and MOTOR RAISED SWITCHES TO CLEAR the tray. A view of the completed job. Wires soldered to the WHEEL NUT IF REQUIRED terminals of the socket are carried to PLYWOOD BASE the wiring at the side of the motor LAMP where the single toggle switch is reWIRING DIAGRAM placed with two switches on a new DIA. and some of the same galvanized steel is All blades after grinding should be able to pass used. HOLES FOR TOGGLE SWITCH socket to take a 15 watt 115 volt PLYWOOD TO 115 V. to test the Fig. 25).the shield have been soldered 6-32 nuts so the screws holding the wheel guard in place can pass through and engage these nuts. bent up as shown and attached SHAFT AND WHEEL MAT'L. 21. To the underside of the TRAY tray is attached a candelabra base DIA. 23).
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