. Some of them are essential for our survival while most are used for satisfying our wants. Natural resources are materials and components (something that can be used) that can be found within the environment. and most forms of energy. A natural resource is often characterized by amounts of biodiversity and geodiversity existent in various ecosystems. in a natural form. and air.DISTRIBUTION OF NATURAL RESOURCES IN RURAL AND URBAN AREAS INTRODUCTION Natural resources occur naturally within environments that exist relatively undisturbed by mankind. or it may exist in an alternate form which must be processed to obtain the resource such as metal ores. A natural resource may exist as a separate entity such as fresh water. as well as a living organism such as a fish. Every man-made product is composed of natural resources (at its fundamental level). Natural resources are derived from the environment. Natural resources may be further classified in different ways. oil.

Once renewable resources are consumed at a rate that exceeds their natural rate of replacement. for example).Natural Resources: Definition and Classification Natural resources are naturally occurring substances that are considered valuable in their relatively unmodified (natural) form. coffee. Acommodity is generally considered a natural resource when the primary activities associated with it are extraction and purification Thus. petroleum extraction. fishing. which can restock (renew) themselves if they are not over-harvested but used sustainably. the standing stock (see renewable energy) will diminish and eventually run out. and forestryare generally considered natural-resource industries. Renewable resources:Renewable resources are generally living resources (fish. Non-living renewable natural resources include soil and water. reindeer. Flow renewable resources include renewable energy sources such as the following renewable power sources: solar. Schumacher in his 1970s book Small is Beautiful. A natural resource‟s value rests in the amount of the material available and the demand for it. geothermal. tides and wind. and forests. The rate of sustainable use of a renewable resource is determined by the replacement rate and amount of standing stock of that particular resource. biomass. hunting. while agriculture is not.F. mining. . Classification of natural resources Natural resources are mostly classified into renewable and non-renewable resources. The term was introduced to a broad audience by E. landfill gas. The latter is determined by its usefulness to production.

Difference between urban and rural What is urban? The term „urban‟ refers to town and city areas where development may have reached a quite significant stage. In fact. Urban areas have been established as a consequence of urbanization and as a result. re-grown or regenerated as fast as it is consumed and used up. The main focus of urban areas are its many improved social facilities such as transport. business prospects. Many environmentalists proposed to tax on consumption of non renewable resources. land. Biotic resources are derived from living organisms. Abiotic resources are derived from the non-living world e. the lives and occupations of the urban population depends upon it. urban areas are well planned and structured in order to provide more room for more residential space. Urban areas are usually classified according to the . Some non-renewable resources can be renewable but take an extremely long time to renew..Resources can also be classified on the basis of their origin as biotic and abiotic. educational facilities and social interaction which pave the way for better standards of living. and air.g. Mineral and power resources are also abiotic resources some of which are derived from nature. take millions of years to form and so are not practically considered „renewable‟. Non-renewable resources:A non-renewable resource is a natural resource that exists in a fixed amount that cannot be re-made. for example. Fossil fuels. An urban area benefits rather largely from the advancements of development. water.

etc whereas rural areas are mainly dependant on natural resources and agriculture as a form of living. And yet. in order for a certain area to be termed as urban. In certain countries such as Australia. Development is in its full swing at urban areas and technology is at its best within these premises as well. education facilities. the term „urban‟ refers to town or city areas which are well populated whereas the term „rural‟ refers to village areas or hamlets with a lesser amount of population. The facilities in these areas are pretty much basic. rural areas have not seen the likeness ofdevelopment much yet and is quite under developed with regards to technology . What is the difference between rural and urban? Many differences exist between rural and urban areas. answering only to the very basic needs of human beings.density of population and also the use of land. it requires to have at least a thousand residents with more than two hundred people per square kilometer while two urban areas with less than two kilometers in between are considered one urban zone. transportation. Rural areas and its population basically depend upon agriculture and natural resources as a living and the living conditions in such areas cannot be termed as excessively comfortable. What is rural? The term „rural‟ usually refers to villages or hamlets where development and technology has not yet been felt to a great extent. For starters. Another difference between the two is that urban areas depend much on the social facilities such as business prospects.

And yet. . as agriculture being the main occupation of its people. one needs not have higher levels of education to engage in such an activity. While the lifestyle in urban areas is of a higher well. urban population tends to be more educated or education oriented than the rural population. Rural areas have only very basic facilities which may not even be sufficient to fulfill the most basic of all human needs. The reason for this is that the education facilities in urban areas are much more developed than the educational facilities in rural areas and it is essential that one has a good education in order to gain a good employment in urban areas. Another factor which differentiates the two is that while urban areas may be excessively subjected to pollution. there is no or minimum amount of pollution existing in rural areas which are thus considered as rather conducive to health. Rural areas are rich in culture and nature whereas urban areas might be rather busy in terms of lifestyle and they may not have sufficient time for engaging in cultural activities. one may not be that interested in education in rural areas. The life in rural areas is quite hard because of the lack of facilities. With regards to education.

Land use involves the management and modification of natural environment or wilderness into built environment such as fields.nutrient recycling .are critical to our economy. III. Lands are either government owned .DISTRIBUTION OF NATURAL RESOURCES A. The urban Scenario The rural Scenario Changing land use and impact on rural life Land administration and policy Protection of land rights of tribal people . Crop lands . I.forest lands . natural resources provide fundamental life support in the form of both consumptive and public good services. II. Increasing Urbanisation Consumption and Sustanibility Effects of piecemeal approach to resource management B. which in turn is the basic building block in the livelihoods of all people. Ecological processes maintain soil productivity . I. Natural Resources: The foundation of livelihoods for the poor. Land: Land use is the human use of land.privately or are part of common property resources. the cleansing of air and water and climatic cycles. V. III. pastures and settlements. IV.grazing lands . II. Soils are foundation of agriculture .

28 countries with a total population of about 335 million experienced “water stress”. In 1990. fibre. I. fuel wood. Forest estimates Changing Scenario of forests Inadequacy Social forestry . Forests: Grassland. III. Forest and wetlands also regulate foods by absorbing rain and recharging aquifers. medicine and food. II. Water: Situation the world over: water is one of the most important natural resources and is at the same time becoming and increasingly scarce commodity in many parts of the world.C. I. III. including timber. IV. Situation in India Deteriorating condition of water resources Urban water crisis Wrong unsustainable use Safe drinking water and sanitation D. wetlands and forests provide resources directly to billions of poor people living in rural areas. II. V. IV.

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