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Thai International Students’ attitudes towards reading E-Books: A Statistical Analysis of the Prevalence of E-Books as Educational Tools amongst international students
BUSN 6140 Business Research BUSINESS RESEARCH REPORT
Table of Content Abstract Introduction Research Objective Literature review - The Model Hypotheses development Research methodology - Sample Plan and Size - Questionnaire Design - Data Collection Data Analysis - Limitations - Further studies - Recommendation Reference Appendices 25 25 26 28 30 12 9 10 12 2 2 5 5
and ability to successfully manipulate ematerials. compatibility (approximating the book experience). large storage capacity. driven by the trend of digital convergence. Thus. Digital content providers must thus consider both technological issues and the behavior of the users. and more convenient to transport. and access by either wired or wireless internet. Once reader interest and usability are assessed this paper will aim to determine whether international schools can benefit financially from such a change in materials. E-books can improve the reading experience by providing access to a wealth of information or to richer forms of parallel information through built-in dictionaries. 2010). the prevalence of electronic reading amongst the populace is significantly lower than in its more developed neighbors such as Japan and Taiwan. an e-reader can potentially contain thousands of e-books. faster. driven by the trend of digital convergence. limited only by its memory capacity. tablets and mobile devices such as Apple’s IPAD. They enable the quick dissemination of information and are being utilized by international organizations such as the United Nations to distribute valuable statistics efficiently. These traits – convenience (the ability to use it anywhere and anytime). and text-to-speech functions (Renner. electronic books. In the space that a comparably sized print book needs. directly from publishers and through the internet. Additional advantages of e-books include their stand-alone capability (no computer required). Thailand. Chang. They can be purchased at almost all popular book stores. this paper aims to quantify middle to upper class Thai international student’s interest in using E-Books. users can quickly and easily access the internet and download information when traveling (Lai. digital reading devices are likely to evolve into multifunction platforms. fast downloading. thin cases. With e-books. Introduction E-Books are digitized. and media richness (hyperlinking) – represent potentially important determinants of user willingness to be explored in this study. their popularity has only increased in the last decade (Flood. hyperlinks. From a consumer’s perspective. Digital reading devices are likely to evolve into multi-function platforms.BUSN 6140 Business Research BUSINESS RESEARCH REPORT Abstract The trends of digital reading are driven by the advanced continuous development of the world’s information technology system and devices. It is much lighter. The paper concludes with the discussion of managerial implications and offers recommendations to the International Institutions in Bangkok. Although E-Books are not a new phenomenon. Given the growing importance of digital reading. 2008). Introduced in the early 1970s E-Books struggled for almost thirty years to gain a foothold in the publishing market. e-readers represent a form of smart reading. 2012). E Readers were difficult to use. E-Books can be read on specific eBook readers such as the Kindle by Amazon as well as on PC’s. as a developing nation. could not take notes and the lack E-BOOK| 3 . Furthermore.
For governments E-Books may allow a greater percentage of their populations’ access to education. For publishers E-Books offer the chance to maintain higher diversity without concern for in store inventory (Doiron. the prevalence of E-Book readers amongst the populace is significantly lower than in its more developed neighbors such as Japan and Taiwan. Will students use their tablets for non-educational purposes? How quickly will students be able to become proficient in E-Book usage? Will E-Books be widely available in multiple languages? To address these concerns will require a significant longitudinal study on E-Book usage as well as test studies in representational schools. Recent changes in E-Book readers though. 2010). have left many questioning whether the government’s new program will succeed. Yet the Thai government’s surprising recent decision to begin replacing paper based textbooks with e-books is a groundbreaking financial decision that may save the Thai taxpayers billions of baht (Boonnoon. Utilizing a 67 million baht investment to purchase tablets from China for all governmentally schooled elementary school students. As this study will examine E-Book usage in Thailand an examination of the local Thai EBook market in general will form the context for this study. 3. individuals and publishers alike. Irregardless of the growing diversity of materials. As a developing nation. Furthermore a lack of statistical information on E-Book usage has made few if any posed to predict trends in the local eBook market. E-BOOK| 4 . due to a lack of significant analysis of students’ E-Book habits. E-books are beneficial to governments. the Thai government seeks to save more than 50% of their current textbook budget recouping the initial investment within the first five years. which allow students to bookmark. Thailand may prove to be the world’s test case. read several E-Books simultaneously and access the internet have led to a surge in E-Book sales since the year 2000. As a progenitor in the field.BUSN 6140 Business Research BUSINESS RESEARCH REPORT of ematerials made them highly inefficient. For readers E-Books allow easy access to diverse sources as well as almost live access to news and statistics worldwide. Yet opponents concerns about the efficacy of E-Book usage in schools include: 1. Unfortunately E-Book usage in educational institutions worldwide has remained low. As E-Books can have a significant impact on the cost of education their usage can make education more widely available to individuals of different social classes as well as to poorer nations which cannot afford paper based textbooks for all of their students. 2. take notes. Yet the lack of understanding of the Thai education market. the low cost of purchase and the increased usability of E-Readers will ensure that E-Books will continue to gain prominence throughout the world. 2011). with few if any schools replacing textbooks with E-Books.
and its usage in certain test countries such as Japan. 2011). a substantial literature review will be difficult. Since the year 2000. convenience. and interactive feedback between authors and readers. though. the literature review will focus on this history and these nations. E-Books have six main advantages over paper based books: (1) distribution. England and the United States has been briefly studied. comics and other leisure reading. According to Schilit (1999). lower publishing costs. and the ability to successfully manipulate E-Materials. The eBook was first used in 1970. few utilized them. Although first gaining prominence for novels. and (6) supporting different modes of reading. As eBook readers have improved.BUSN 6140 Business Research BUSINESS RESEARCH REPORT Research Objective As international schools are unrestricted by the Thai ministries recent decision to replace paper based books with E-Books. perceived ease of E-BOOK| 5 . These six constructs include media richness (MR). Once reader interest and usability are assessed this paper will aim to determine whether international schools can benefit financially from such a change in materials. (2) mobile information access. making an analysis of eBook usage in the developing world almost impossible. (4) searching (5) filtering. Schilit’s findings were supported by a similar studies conducted by Cox and Ormes (2001) and Burk (2001) which argued that e-books are more beneficial than paper based books not only for readers but for publishers as well as they have no limitation on environment for readers. eBook usage has increased exponentially. This paper aims to quantify middle to upper class Thai international student’s interest in using E-Books. In order to assess readers interest and usage capabilities this study will examine the effect of six constructs on the dependent variable namely users intent to use E-Books. it must respond to the needs of their high paying students. fast access to information. Unfortunately no significant research has been conducted on developing nations. larger storage capacity. faster publishing speed. (3) organizing. United Nations and most governments worldwide has increased peoples usage of this medium for academic purposes and education. Literature review Due to a dearth of research on the prevalence of eBook usage. defined as the easy. E-Books have gained many advantages over paper based books (Ballhaus. Due to lack of efficient eBook readers. As the history of the eBook has been clearly delineated by several authors. its usage by credible organizations such as the World Trade Organization (WTO).
which can be used as a strong indicator for the success of E-Books since users may use dedicated e-book readers for reading or learning. An examination of similar time saving technologies such as the internet.. 2002 and Seiders et al. (5) location. (1989). and high storage capability. and virtual communities (Lin. The compatibility with the user’s lifestyles or the convenience of use are additional strong indicators for the success of technology.. 2006. In a rapidly changing world in which multi-tasking has replaced focused singular activities. 2008). wireless communication technologies and other value-added services developed from mobile business shows that their convenience ensures stable growth and consistent market share.. If waiting occurs it constitutes a loss of time and may be construed as psychological suffering by consumers”. Lee. compatibility(CM) defined as suitability to one’s lifestyle-easy to transport. technologies are judged on their ability to increase an individual’s ability to multitask and to lower the amount of time required by a task. 2007 the “time spent by consumers when making purchases can be viewed as an investment or a cost and plays an important role in consumer perceptions of the convenience of a service. and perceived barriers (PB).0 (Shin and Kim. 2006.. Tam based studies have provided substantial evidence supporting the idea that PE and PU have a significant impact on users decision to implement new technology. 2000. the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) has been used to evaluate computer usage behavior. According to MuellerVeerse (2000) seven characteristics of mobile value-added services add to their growth potential and market stability including: (1) ubiquity. (4) convenience. 2008). ecommerce (Bosnjak et al. These constructs have been chosen because of their proven success in testing user acceptance of new technology.. Gefen and Straub. 2000. Developed by Davis et al. Web 2. 2006) both PE and PU proved strong indicators of the upcoming technologies future success. Plouffe et al. 2001). Not only the ability to access several E-Books simultaneously but the ease with which users gain access resources such as dictionaries and translators and the internet should positive effect users experience and purchasing patterns. perceived usefulness (PU). According to Berry et al. Furthermore empirical support for the influence of PEOU and PU has been demonstrated in the context of e-learning (Chiu and Wang. 2008).BUSN 6140 Business Research BUSINESS RESEARCH REPORT use (PE). 2002). (2) availability. digital libraries (Hong. 2008.. For example in virtual worlds (Fetscherin and Lattemann. Rocaa and Gagne ´b. broadband internet (Oh et al. 2003). According to TAM perceived usefulness (PU)-defined as the “degree to which a person believes that using a particular system would enhance his or her job performance” and perceived ease-of-use (PE) “the degree to which a person believes that using a particular system would be free from effort” are the two main factors influencing a user’s decision to try a new technology or replace an existing technology with a new one. 2003. E-BOOK| 6 . (3) security. Gefen et al.
(Daft and Lengel.” The faster. as well as its ability to express and clarify uncertain information. Another construct. According to Boehlefeld (1996) differences in methods of information expression in different media.BUSN 6140 Business Research BUSINESS RESEARCH REPORT (6) instant connectivity. when understood. As such a direct correlation between users’ perception of E-Books media richness and their interest in purchasing the product can be detected. the PEU and compatibility. As E-Books allow for the rapid dissemination of information. provide users with the ability to access multiple sources of information in a highly organized digestible format increasing the geographical distance and communication of information they have a high media richness. in turn affecting their perceptions of E-Books’ usefulness and subsequently the readers’ intention to use. increase the efficiency of such media in turn helping people to understand how to use such media. Further studies on mobile technologies by Wu and Wang (2005) found that there was a direct causal relationship between users intention to use a product. Such compatibility and convenience extends beyond the readers use of E-Books. Media with greater richness can convey greater amounts of information. these functions and services can increase users’ perceptions of convenience towards e-book readers. The interrelatedness of user compatibility/convenience. Another definition offered by Dennis and Kinney (1998) argue that “media richness refers to the immediacy of feedback and multiple cues. Such interconnectedness has been supported by studies such as Chau and Hu (2001) whose examination of the adoption of long-distance medical technologies by professional medical personnel found that compatibility has a strong impact on perceived usefulness. Daft and Lengel (1986) later expanded on their ideas in their Media Richness Theory which “locates the connection between information richness and media in the capacity of media to convey rich information. Furthermore. (2003) showed that compatibility is strongly correlated with users’ perceived ease of use in the context of broadband internet. Such richness has been reflected in recent technology as the ability of the technology to process several different tasks. and (7) personalization. PEU and PU is the key reason that to interpret these factors will require multivariate analysis. 1984). more accurately the information can be expressed the higher the information’s richness. as well as reduce uncertainty and vagueness in communication”. Lim and Benbasat (2000) also observed that media richness is positively correlated with perceived usefulness. Media richness/Information richness has been defined by Daft and Lengel (1984) as “the ability of a communication medium to reproduce the information sent over it. Another study by Oh et al. and the ability of information to change individuals’ understanding in a given period of time respectively”. Media richness also has an effect on the users’PEU whose interrelatedness will be further explored in this study. Convenience of purchase further adds value to E-Books which can be purchased online which makes then always available. As e-book readers represent a new type of electronic media in which content is delivered over wireless or wired internet and their E-BOOK| 7 . Overall.
As such these barriers are a significant factor for students when they anticipate their intended usage of E-Books. As schools are still predominantly using paper based textbooks students are encouraged by their schools. Wilfrid Laurier University.BUSN 6140 Business Research BUSINESS RESEARCH REPORT users believe that an e-book reader is capable of delivering rich information or content a positive relationship between media richness and users PEU may exist. Waterloo on “Teachers’ Perceptions: barriers and supports to using technology in the classroom” the largest barriers to the utilization of new technology in the school are teachers lack of comfortability with the new technology. find and purchase the needed materials and cope with differences between the paper based books used and school and their own E-Books. Such factors include those factors which make it more difficult for students to gain access to E-Books or to successfully manipulate them. Perceived barriers include all factors which hinder the use of E-Books(Nelson. This is further exacerbated by the lack of instruction in the use of E-Books in Thai International schools. media richness should affect users’ perceptions of usefulness and their intention to use e-book readers. E-BOOK| 8 . Students must themselves learn to utilize eBook technology. a lack of proper integration by the schools into the curriculum and a lack of proper instruction on how to manipulate the new technology. and have financial motivation (schools provide paper based textbooks free of charge but not E-Books) to continue to utilize paper based textbooks. According to a recent study by EILEEN WOOD & JULIE MUELLER. 2008). Hence. The most clearly delineated barrier is the lack of use of E-Books in the Thai international school system.
Compatibility with lifestyle (CM) 5. A rotational component will matrix will be used to reduce the constructs and examine any correlations between them.BUSN 6140 Business Research BUSINESS RESEARCH REPORT Research model Independent Constructs: 1. Ultimately the study will examine the effect of the six constructs on the usage frequency and intended usage frequency of E-Books. Perceived Usefulness (PU) 2. E-BOOK| 9 . Convenience (CN) Dependent Variable: Frequency of Use of E-Books/ Intended Frequency of Use of E-Books • For the purpose of this study media richness will refer to the student’s perception of their ability to access diverse materials more efficiently than with paper based materials. Media Richness (MR) 3. Perceived barriers will include the lack of access to E-Books or the lack of usage of E-Books in their schools. Usage frequency and anticipated usage frequency will be adopted as a measure of both students’ interest and their comfortability with the technology of E-Books. Perceived barrier (PB) 6. Perceived Ease of Use (PE) 4. Lastly a two way Anova test will be carried out to ascertain whether demographics such as gender and age effect the correlations between the reduced constraints and the intended frequency of use. As all of the students surveyed were middle to upper class financial constraints will not be considered.
ability to use and purchasing decisions concerning E-Books will not be affected by their perceived usefulness.BUSN 6140 Business Research BUSINESS RESEARCH REPORT Hypothesis Perceived Ease of Use (PEU) Null Hypothesis: Students interest in. Media Richness Null Hypothesis: Students interest in. ability to use and purchasing decisions concerning E-Books will be affected by their perceived usefulness. ability to use and purchasing decisions concerning E-Books will be affected by their perception of E-Books media richness. Alternative Hypotheses Students interest in. Alternative Hypotheses Students interest in. ability to use and purchasing decisions concerning E-Books will not be affected by their perceived ease of use. Alternative Hypotheses Students interest in. ability to use and purchasing decisions concerning E-Books will not be affected by their perception of E-Books media richness. ability to use and purchasing decisions concerning E-Books will be affected by their perceived ease of use. Perceived Usefulness Null Hypothesis: Students interest in. Alternative Hypotheses E-BOOK| 10 . Compatibility Null Hypothesis: Students interest in. ability to use and purchasing decisions concerning E-Books will not be affected by their perception of E-Books compatibility with their lifestyles.
Alternative hypothesis: Gender has an effect on students' frequency and intended frequency of use of E-Books. • Hypothesis 1 o Null hypothesis: Gender has no effect on students' frequency and intended frequency of use of E-Books. ability to use and purchasing decisions concerning E-Books will be affected by their perception of the barriers to their use of E-Books. o • Hypothesis 2 o Null hypothesis: Age has no effect on students' frequency and intended frequency of use of E-Books. Financial data will not be examined as it was used solely to limit the group not as a tested variable. ability to use and purchasing decisions concerning E-Books will be affected by their perception of E-Books compatibility with their lifestyles Convenience Null Hypothesis: Students interest in. E-BOOK| 11 . ability to use and purchasing decisions concerning E-Books will not be affected by their perception of the convenience E-Books afford. ANOVA To test the effect of demographics on the intended frequency of use of E-Books a two way ANOVA test will be conducted to demonstrate the effects of gender and age on the participants. ability to use and purchasing decisions concerning E-Books will not be affected by their perception of the barriers to their use of E-Books. Alternative Hypotheses Students interest in.BUSN 6140 Business Research BUSINESS RESEARCH REPORT Students interest in. Perceived Barriers Null Hypothesis: Students interest in. ability to use and purchasing decisions concerning E-Books will be affected by their perception of the convenience E-Books afford. Furthermore students’ majors will not be considered as there was not enough consistency that is there were not enough students in each major to be statistically significant. Alternative Hypotheses Students interest in.
47% were male and 53% were female with students chosen using stratified sampling to ensure an a higher proportion of students under age 22. perceived ease of use. Students will be surveyed concerning their gender. “Disagree”. That is. • Hypothesis 3 o Null hypothesis: There is no interaction between students' gender and age to the frequency ad intended frequency of use of E-Books. “Less Likely Agree”. and Parts B will utilize the six-point Likert scales with anchors as “Strongly Disagree”. and perceived barriers to the use of E-Books. convenience. “Less Likely Disagree”. the effect of all constructs on the students’ frequency of use and intended frequency of E-Books is different for all ages and genders. employment. “Agree”. Questions will be varied and repeated to ensure continuity of response. That is. and an even proportion of college and graduate students. The ages ranged from 13-22. Parts A will be composed of multichotomous and dichotomous questions. Parts B will be composed of 23 items comprising six dimensions – perceived usefulness. Methodology: Sample Plan and Size The sample size is 150 students who attend international school in Bangkok. o Alternative hypothesis: There is interaction between students' gender and age to the frequency ad intended frequency of use of E-Books. and “Strongly Agree. media richness. Financial data will be collected to ensure that all participants are middle to upper class. native language and main reading language in order to form a qualitative assessment of the market. college or graduate school. with students studying either in high school. A Likert scale will be utilized to measure students’ attitudes. A questionnaire is divided into 2 main parts. school majors. Out of the sample collected.BUSN 6140 Business Research BUSINESS RESEARCH REPORT o Alternative hypothesis: Age has an effect on students' frequency and intended frequency of use of E-Books. the effect of all constructs on the students’ frequency of use and intended frequency of use of EBooks is the same for all ages and genders. Questionnaire Design Both a qualitative and a quantitative approach is used in this research. Data Collection TARGET GROUP E-BOOK| 12 . compatibility.
The group is divided into three age segments with 41. all of whom study in English. While 60% of the students are native Thai speakers.7 100.0 ve Percent 15. the information collected on employment status and salary demonstrate a higher unemployment rate and lower salary base than would be expected for middle to upper class individuals.0 24. As all of those surveyed are students as their primary occupation.0 24.3 60. Stamford. Chulalongkorn. 66% read e-books only in English. etc. Students are the second most likely segment of the population to try new technologies after computer workers. 3. International students are the most likely segment of the Thai population to read in English.3 100.3% in the under 22 age group. Native Language Cumulati Frequenc Valid English Thai other Total y 23 90 37 150 Percent 15. the primary language in which E-Books are published Data Analysis The sample group is composed of students. Many of those surveyed expressed that they still reside at home or receive an allowance from their parents which compensates for their unemployment or lower salary and will still make it possible for them to purchase e reading materials. 38% in the 23-34 age group and 20% in the over 34 age group. Students have been chosen to be the focus of the study for several reasons: 1. Asumption University (ABAC). Thammasart.0 The main language(s) you e-read in Frequenc y Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent E-BOOK| 13 . Students are the fasting growing segment of the population to read E-Books 2.7 100.0 Valid Percent 15. Sasin Graduate School. A larger percentage of those surveyed have been chosen in the younger group as it represents the group most likely to utilize new technology and the schools with the biggest financial incentive to switch from paper based to etextbooks.BUSN 6140 Business Research BUSINESS RESEARCH REPORT The target group of the research is students at International Education Institutions in Thailand including Mahidol. The financial decisions of international schools are most largely affected by their students preferences 5.3 75. Educational materials in eBook format will be utilized primarily by students 4.3 60.
0 99.7 35.0 88.3 20.0 100.0 12.7 20.0 Cumulative Percent 28.2 100.0 Missing Total Age Frequenc Valid under 22 23-34 above 35 Total System y 62 57 30 149 1 150 Percent 41.0 Cumulative Percent 76.0 22.0 2.0 10.7 Valid Percent 28.7 14.7 3.3 87.0 Missing Total Monthly Personal Income/Allowances Frequenc Valid unemployed less than 10000 10000-19999 20000-29999 30000-39999 above 40.7 7.4 21.1 100.8 100.7 96.0 20.0 Valid Percent 41.0 15.0 16.0 16.9 100.8 11.4 100.6 23.3 38.3 100.8 100.6 79.7 51.0 Valid Percent 76.0 67.0 20.0 98.0 72.2 100.0 Cumulative Percent 41.BUSN 6140 Business Research BUSINESS RESEARCH REPORT Valid English Thai other Total System 99 30 18 147 3 150 66.0 67.3 20.3 .0 Missing Total Employment Status Frequenc Valid Student/Unemployed Employed Total System y 111 34 145 5 150 Percent 74.6 38.6 100.4 12.7 95.000 Total System y 41 10 22 30 24 16 143 7 Percent 27.3 4.0 Missing E-BOOK| 14 .7 100.3 6.
two way Anova test will be conducted measuring the effects of gender and age on the students’ frequency of use and intended frequency of use respectively.0 Cumulative Percent 16.7 73. such results could demonstrate a hindrance to replacing all paper based textbooks with E-Books.BUSN 6140 Business Research BUSINESS RESEARCH REPORT Total Education Frequenc Valid high school graduate bachelor degree above master degree Total y 25 85 40 150 Percent 16.66% use laptops).3 percent of those surveyed only read books from 1-10 days a month could support the conclusion that students prefer paper based books or could reflect a lack of availability in their schools. A low 16 percent use their edevice to read etextbooks though this may reflect a lack of usage by their educational facilities themselves rather than a personal choice on the part of the students. As enewspapers and E-Books are related to education these high percentages reflect an opportunity for growth in the market.7 100. the data gathered does not reflect for what purpose these devices have been purchased nor what percent of time spent using these devices is spent on reading E-Books. 36% use IPADs and 48.3 100.7 56. and E-Books as use emagazines and the web browsing function on their edevice.0 Valid Percent 16.7 26. 7% percent read for three hours of more. Between-Subjects Factors Value Label Men Women Missing Value N 70 79 1 15 Gender 1 2 9 E-BOOK| .33% use iPhones. To test the effect of the demographics of those surveyed on their intended frequency of reading EBooks two.0 150 100. The clearest threat to the spread of eBook usage in schools is the students’ preferences for only reading E-Books for short periods of time as is reflected in the fact that 40. the percentages for “what ematerials do you read”? is quite similar with almost as many individuals using enewspapers.7 % only read E-Books for 30 minutes or less.7% of those surveyed own a device capable of reading E-Books. 94.3% read between 30 minutes and one hour and a mere . 31.7 26. though as the three most used devices are devices whose main function is not reading E-Books. (41. Surprisingly.7 56. The fact that 77.7 100. As a majority of schools require students to study for an hour or more at a time.0 95% of those surveyed have in fact read E-Books before though where and why has not been ascertained.
Multivariate analysis aims to reduce and summarize a series of interrelated variables to simultaneously quantify their effect on a dependent variable.262 101.101 . More specifically this study attempts to observe the effect of six constructs on the interest in and purchasing decisions of E-Books by Thai international school students. gender. perception of ease of use.213 .05%.184 Sig.101 .BUSN 6140 Business Research BUSINESS RESEARCH REPORT Age 1 2 3 9 under 22 22-34 above 34 Missing Value 62 57 30 1 Tests of Between-Subjects Effects Dependent Variable: IT Type III Sum of Source Squares Corrected 2.832 0 Corrected 104. Although the mean.216 .727 .309 1.429 276. Part A of the survey measured nonmetric variables related to students past and anticipated behavior with EBooks. age and gender and age together do not have a statistically significant effect on frequency of use of eBook and intended frequency of use of E-Books. perceived media richness.712 F .741 .000 .576a Model Intercept Gender Age Gender * Age Error Total 276.146 1. and to determine whether the factors must be standardized. perceived usefulness.373 Total As all three p values are greater than . standard deviation. perceived convenience and perceived barriers.547 .797 3026.309 1.603 388. Part B of the survey utilized a Likert scale to measure metric values related to students’ interest in E-Books.300 .131 . To test the interrelatedness of the constructs and their effect on the dependent variable multivariate analysis using a rotational component matrix will be implemented. standard deviation and n analysis were found for each of the survey questions this data may be misleading as it assumes equal distances E-BOOK| 16 .427 . and analysis n (to determine the number of surveys included in the analysis) were conducted for each of the survey questions to ascertain the variability in the data.00 df 6 1 1 2 2 143 150 149 Mean Square . The mean. perceived compatibility with their lifestyle. .
354 Analysis N 141 141 141 141 141 141 141 141 141 141 141 141 E-BOOK| 17 . but currently. reading e-books replaces reading paper-based books Reading e-books enables me to get reliable information/content. but I don’t know where to get access to e-books I want to read.080 1.109 1. I find e-books expensive compare to paper-based books.201 1. Reading e-books saves my effort in reading.066 1.012 .37 Std. 4.460 1. I would read e-books. Deviation . Descriptive Statistics Mean E-book enables me to download information/content quickly when reading.BUSN 6140 Business Research BUSINESS RESEARCH REPORT between the different numbers on the Likert scale.148 1.74 3. e-books are not available in my native language. A 95% confidence interval was not calculated as the small size ensured that any predictions would not be predictive of the mean population at large.70 4. Reading e-books is my favorite manner of reading. Reading e-books provide diverse types of information/content such as voice and image.328 1.998 1.41 4. For me. Reading e-books enables me to get rich information/content.62 3. Reading e-books enables me to read information/content quickly. Reading e-books does not conflict with my past manner of reading.18 3.471 1.18 4. I would read e-books.947 1.33 4.48 4.57 3.00 4.91 4.
but I don’t know where to get access to e-books I want to read. Reading e-books does not conflict with my past manner of reading.000 1.000 1.714 . Reading e-books enables me to read information/content quickly.653 .574 .687 .759 .000 1.000 Extraction .000 1. Reading e-books is my favorite manner of reading.000 1. Reading e-books saves my effort in reading.000 1. For me. I would read e-books. 1.000 1.662 E-BOOK| 18 . reading e-books replaces reading paper-based books Reading e-books enables me to get reliable information/content. I would read e-books. e-books are not available in my native language.683 . but currently.748 . I find e-books expensive compare to paper-based books.744 .000 1.684 .627 . Reading e-books provide diverse types of information/content such as voice and image.000 1.BUSN 6140 Business Research BUSINESS RESEARCH REPORT Communalities Initial E-book enables me to download information/content quickly when reading.644 .000 1.000 1. Reading e-books enables me to get rich information/content.
Although E-BOOK| 19 . reading e-books replaces reading paper-based books Reading e-books is my favorite manner of reading. . Rotation converged in 6 iterations.757 . Reading e-books saves my effort in reading. Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis Rotation Method: Varimax with Kaiser Normalization a.785 . 11-15 times a month a score of 3. tSuch scores were then averaged with the students response concerning anticipated frequency of use if e materials were readily available. Reading e-books enables me to get rich information/content.BUSN 6140 Business Research BUSINESS RESEARCH REPORT Rotated Component Matrixa Component PU/Media Richness Reading e-books enables me to get reliable information/content. E-book enables me to download information/content quickly when reading. Reading e-books does not conflict with my past manner of reading. and media richness as well as the correlation between low scores in perceived barriers and high frequency of use/ anticipated frequency of use. I would read e-books.592 PEU Compatibility Perceived with lifestyle Barrier Using the mean score for the related questions on each of the constructs a univariate analysis was conducted to observe the correlation between high scores in 3 of the constructs namely perceived ease of use. A dummy scale was created to compare current frequency of use as calculated monthly defined according to the following scale: 1-5 times a month received a score of 1. but I don’t know where to get access to e-books I want to read.787 .719 .703 . but currently. I find e-books expensive compare to paper-based books.701 .800 .847 . 16-20 times per month a score of 4 and 20-25 times per month a score of 5 and more than 25 times per month a score of 6. Reading e-books enables me to read information/content quickly.718 .772 . e-books are not available in my native language. compatability. 6-10 times a month received a score of 2. I would read e-books.788 . For me. Reading e-books provide diverse types of information/content such as voice and image.
E-BOOK| 20 .BUSN 6140 Business Research BUSINESS RESEARCH REPORT finding the mean. distorts the radical difference between actual measurements (real frequency) and anticipated frequency (a more biased measurement) based on the data available it is the most consistent means of generating a quantitative measurement of frequency/anticipated frequency of use.
000a a.0% Confidence Interval for B Correlations Lower Upper Bound Bound Zero-order Partial 4.BUSN 6140 Business Research BUSINESS RESEARCH REPORT Regression Analysis Regression analysis was utilized to ascertain whether the null hypothesis that the four constructs derived from the reduced correlation matrix would not affect the dependent variable: intended frequency of use could be rejected.398 .072 .008 94.002 a.147 .000 .028 142.089 1.157 95. Model Summaryb Change Statis tics Std.338 16.406 . PerceivedBarrier b.977 4 Sig.328 2. Compatibility with lifestyle. According to the null hypothesis perceived ease of use. Perceived Usefulness / Media Richness. Perceived Ease of Use.147 .931 Model 1 R df2 133 .247 .004 1. Compatibility with lifestyle. I intend to use them for reading e-books on a weekly basis .707 5. Perceived Ease of Use. Perceived Usefulness / Media Richness.039 .998 . Error .581 a a.122 Collinearity Statistics Part Tolerance VIF (Constant) Perceived Usefulness / Media Richness Perceived Ease of Use Compatibility with lifestyle PerceivedBarrier .117 .002 . PerceivedBarrier b.291 .419 .165 .350 .377 . perceived usefulness and media richness would not positively correlate with higher intended frequency of use and perceived barrier to use would not correlate negatively with intended frequency of use. I intend to use them for reading e-books on a weekly basis . . Predictors: (Constant). Dependent Variable: Assuming that I have access to an electronic device. . and Perceived Barrier are related to the people’s intent to use e-book readings on a weekly basis with the first three independent variables increasing ones frequency and the final construct decreasing it.537 .000 . F Change .072 .418 .208 .841 .066 4.100 .447 .072 Standardize d Coefficients Beta t 58. Perceived Ease of Use.338 .246 .372 . These results support the fact that of those surveyed all who possessed e-reading devices had in fact read EBooks.996 .561 . I intend to use them for reading e-books on a weekly basis .423 Sig.008 -.707 Model 1 df 4 133 137 Regression Residual Total F 16.101 . We can infer that Perceived Usefulness / Media Richness. Predictors: (Constant).103 Std.074 . we can conclude that the constructs (Perceived Usefulness / Media Richness. Perceived Ease of Use.000 .073 .178 .977 Sig.318 .376 . Dependent Vari abl e 1 : Assumi ng that I have access to an el ectr oni c devi ce.998 . E-BOOK| 21 .392 .998 1.000 (less than 0.150 .760 5.040 .05).000 DurbinWatson 1.002 1. Coefficientsa Unstandardized Coefficients Model 1 B 4. Error of R Square Adjusted R the Change F Change df1 R Square Square Estimate .002 1. I i ntend to use them for readi ng e-book s on a w eekl y basi s. Compatibility with lifestyle. Perceived Barrier) are related to the dependent variable as they each have a significance that equates to . Compatibility with lifestyle. Dependent Variable: Assuming that I have access to an electronic device. Dependent Variable: Assuming that I have access to an electronic device. From the tables above.036 Mean Square 12. ANOVAb Sum of Squares 48.274 .407 .
075 1. This could be explained either by the fact that those surveyed all attend schools where the faculty are already comfortable with these materials or have enough experience with such materials to not require instruction or help. We can infer that Perceived Usefulness and Perceived Barriers do not have a statistically significant relationship with intended frequency of usage.340 . The fact that perceived barriers did not have a statistically significant relationship with intended frequency of usage disagreed with previous studies which predicted such barriers as the largest hindrance eBook usage.087 .234 . Perceived Usefulness / Media Richness.075 .993 137.379 .009 . I predict that I would use them on a weekly basis. Compatibility with lifestyle.000 1.05. Error of Adjusted R the R Square Square Estimate .000 1.216 F Change 9. that is less than 0.192 .366 .216 . Predictors: (Constant).391 .074 .0% Confidence Interval for B Lower Upper Bound Bound 4.284 102. Error . For the table above.246 -.249 .075 Standardize d Coefficients Beta t 57. having access to ematerials as they have a sig.002 5.196 .312 95.000 1. Dependent Variable: Given that I have access to e-books. Perceived Ease of Use.937 Change Statistics R Square Change .071 4. PerceivedBarrier b.000 .318 Sig.220 . .316 1.000 1.277 Model 1 df 4 136 140 Mean Square 8.464 a Std. I predict that I would use them on a weekly basis.049 . Predictors: (Constant).000 1.194 .536 .571 .075 . we can conclude that the constructs Perceived Ease of Use and Compatibility with lifestyle are related to the dependent variable.343 df1 4 df2 136 Sig.Dependent Variabl e 2 : Given that I have access to e-books.074 . Perceived Usefulness / Media Richness. PerceivedBarrier b. .395 .223 .073 . Dependent Variable: Given that I have access to e-books.221 .223 .089 .000 1.003 . Perceived Ease of Use. The students comfortableness with using E-Books as reflected in the fact that they gave a mean 4.025 a.639 3.774 2.415 . E-BOOK| 22 .33/6 score on the Likert scale for current ease of use with E-materials.000 Correlations Zero-order Partial Part Collinearity Statistics Tolerance VIF a.196 .395 . Dependent Variable: Given that I have access to e-books. F Change .395 . Coefficients a Unstandardized Coefficients Model 1 B (Constant) Perceived Usefulness / Media Richness Perceived Ease of Use Compatibility with lifestyle PerceivedBarrier 4. I predict that I would use them on a weekly basis.757 F 11. Compatibility with lifestyle.074 .000 a a.016 Sig.000 .000 DurbinWatson 2.000 1.075 Std.196 . I predict that I woul d use them on a weekl y basi s. ANOVAb Sum of Squares Regression Residual Total 34.221 . These results could reflect that those surveyed already had access to such materials and thus did not consider this factor as related to intended frequency of usage but rather related this construct only to current frequency of usage.223 .074 . Model BUSINESS RESEARCH REPORT BUSN 6140 Business Research Summary b Model 1 R .
199 4. Perceived Usefulness / Media Richness. .013 Std. etc.33/6 on the Likert scale for being able to get their ereaders to do what they need them to do could demonstrate that they are on a whole comfortable with eReaders and E-Books making perceived ease of use a less important determinant.125 . etc.445 152. PerceivedBarrier b.169 .) provide e-reading devices and access to e-books. Due to time constraints the survey could only be distributed to 150 persons.279 . etc.531 . We had anticipated that ease of use would be a significant factor in considering intended frequency of use.079 . Yet the fact that the students expressed a mean score of 4. survey construction problems.122 . Libraries. Dependent Variable: Given that Educational Institutions (Schools. This could be because students already have access or that they cannot imagine the difference between their current access and expanded access.000 .216 9.464 a Change Statistics Std.192 .000 1.000 1.359 . For example while the survey demonstrated that many students did not read E-Books for more than an hour per sitting.034 .270 .343 Sig. As such certain factors could not be separated from confounding variables.438 .117 . These results do not match previous studies.270 .000 1.Dependent Var i abl e 3 : Gi ven that Educational I nsti tuti ons (School s.343 4 df2 136 Sig.000 1. I predict that I would use them on a weekly basis. a sample size that is considered statistical poor for multivariate analysis.) provide e-reading devices and access to e-books. Furthermore given the high percentage of young participants’ survey bias is likely to be high. Dependent Variable: Given that Educational Institutions (Schools.079 . Libraries.079 . Coefficientsa Unstandardized Coefficients Model 1 B 4.292 . and a small sample size.724 .012 t 55.000 DurbinWatson 2.282 .270 . Limitations The research was limited by survey bias.012 .000 1.000 VIF 1.079 Standardize d Coefficients Beta . L i br ar i es. Error .000 . Book Stores.117 . .359 . Compatibility with lifestyle.000 (Constant) Perceived Usefulness / Media Richness Perceived Ease of Use Compatibility with lifestyle PerceivedBarrier a.001 .079 . From the table above.543 4.878 F 9. We can conclude that perceived barriers and perceived ease of use do not have a statistically significant relationship with the dependent variable. etc. The questions were not limiting enough.144 . Book Stores.131 . Book Stores. PerceivedBarrier b.937 .206 . Libraries.025 a. Predictors: (Constant). Perceived Ease of Use. Perceived Usefulness / Media Richness. The survey itself was constructed with more than a few inherent problems.374 .270 df 4 136 140 Mean Square 8. Perceived Ease of Use.05. Dependent Variable: Given that Educational Institutions (Schools.) provide e-reading devices and access to e-books.125 -. I pr edi ct that Model Summary BUSN 6140 Business Research BUSINESS RESEARCH REPORT b Model 1 R .355 .872 95.117 .556 1. the survey did not reflect whether this was the result of a lack of time. Book S tor es.0% Confidence Interval for B Correlations Lower Upper Bound Bound Zero-order Partial 4. Error of R Square Adjusted R the Change F Change df1 R Square Square Estimate .000a a.375 .824 119.) pr ovi de e-r eadi ng devi ce s and access to e-books. Predictors: (Constant). F Change .511 . Model 1 Regression Residual Total ANOVAb Sum of Squares 32.014 Collinearity Statistics Part .162 Sig.216 .218 -. I predict that I would use them on a weekly basis.359 . availability of resources.175 3. inability to use the E-Book or a preference for paper based materials. Many of the students did not understand the importance of the survey and looked E-BOOK| 23 . Compatibility with lifestyle. we can conclude that the constructs Perceived Usefulness / Media Richness and Compatibility with lifestyle are related to the dependent variable as they have a significance that is less than 0. especially since this question was directed at discovering whether access to books were in essence a perceived barrier.000 1.012 Tolerance 1. I predict that I would use them on a weekly basis.
BUSN 6140 Business Research BUSINESS RESEARCH REPORT uninterested in completing it. A larger sample size and more carefully constructed survey should be done to reevaluate the results. 4) Financially E-Books are a better choice for schools. This could be due to survey bias. or sampling bias. students’ lack of concern. Steps to make students more comfortable with these devices provide better materials and include bonus features such as access to the internet as draws to use may overcome students’ biases and ensure the success of the program. Yet this survey has demonstrated there is a large difference between students perceptions and actual usage. As such many may not have taken the survey serious. Although few students expressed the desire to replace all paper by see textbooks with E-Books this study has demonstrated that to some extent each of the four constructs have an effect on the students intended frequency of use. 3) Teachers should be educated in such materials and be able to provide instruction as past studies support lack of teaching training as a major barrier to the acceptance of eMaterials. While this study did not agree with such findings a distinction should be drawn between real barriers and perceived barriers as many students are unaware of incognizant of the effects of barriers. there were wide variations in the relationships between the constructs and the dependent variable. the repetitiveness of the survey. which could have bored those taking the survey. Recommendations 1) Further studies should be completed to explain variation between this survey and previously conducted studies 2) International schools should capitalize on their students’ comfortability with E-Books by integrating them into the curriculum. and compatibility but yet had high scores for anticipated future use. Further Studies Further studies should include a longitudinal study encompassing several age groups from 622 with a sample size no less than 1000 students. as evidenced by the Thai government’s study which purported that switching to E-Books would enable them to recoup a 67 million baht investment in under 5 years. This can be demonstrated in the conflicting results: one survey reflected poor scores for ease of use. E-BOOK| 24 . Surprisingly while there was little variation in the questions used to measure intended frequency of use. This issue should be further explored in an observational study rather than a survey based study as it lends itself to survey bias.
com/research/user-attitudes-towarddedicated-E-Book-readers-reading-effects-convenience-compatibility-media-richness/#page-1 Li. (2010. Obermeier.BUSN 6140 Business Research BUSINESS RESEARCH REPORT References Alison Flood. “Dedicated e-reading devices: the state of the art and the challenges”.com/home/2010/09/16/business/Huge-growth-expectedin-e-book-market-30138078. Vol. Burk. MIS Quarterly. Retrieved from http://www. January 8).html Jung-Yu Lai.utoronto. and Lattemann. 2. E-Books in Higher Education: Nearing the End of the Era of Hype? Retrieved from E-BOOK| 25 . (2006). (2008). 9 No. “User acceptance of virtual worlds”. 325-31. South Bank University. Huge Growth Expected in E-book Market. May 2). Fetscherin. perceived ease of use. Davis. T.. pp. Vol. Mark R. Cox. Y. C. (2012. and Ormes. 19 No. Huge Rise in Ebook Sales Offsets Decline in Printed Titles.nationmultimedia. E-books.co. “Perceived usefulness. 3. (2001). (2008). Journal of Electronic Commerce Research. S. User Attitudes towards Dedicated E-book Readers for Reading. 13 No. A. 5 No. 3.mendeley. and user acceptance of information technology”. “Predicting and explaining the propensity to bid in online auctions: a comparison of two action-theoretical models”. Jirapan Boonnoon. Nelson. Retrieved from http://www. (2008. 4.ca/index. London. 2012). 102-15. M.uk/books/2012/may/02/rise-E-Book-sales-decline-print-titles Bosnjak.php/fdt/article/viewArticle/4908/1770 (accessed 2nd May. pp. Chih-Yen Chang. September 16). available at: http://jps. (1989).D. D. Journal of Consumer Behaviour. “E-book devices and the marketplace: in search of customers”. October 26).library.guardian. Vol. Library Hi Tech. 318-39. Retrieved from http://www. F. 231-42. M. (2010. R. pp. pp. and Tuten. (2001). Vol.
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747 .833 . Reading e-books enables me to get reliable information/content. Reading e-book helps increase my knowledge.568 . I would read e-books.659 .634 . but currently. Reading e-books enables me to choose information/content depending on my demands.479 . Reading e-books enables me to read information/content quickly. I would read e-books. I do not experience any difficulties reading e-books. Reading e-books enhances my reading effectiveness. but I don’t know which stores have the best prices for e-books.558 . I find e-books expensive compare to paper-based books. Overall.BUSN 6140 Business Research BUSINESS RESEARCH REPORT Appendix Rotated Component Matrixa 1 I think that Educational Institutions (Schools. reading e-books replaces reading paper-based books Reading e-books saves my effort in reading.714 .474 . turn pages) For me. I find it is easy to read e-books. In reading. I find it is easy to become familiar with reading e-books. Overall.529 .433 2 3 Component 4 5 6 7 8 E-BOOK| 27 .432 . Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis Rotation Method: Varimax with Kaiser Normalization a.606 . e-books are not available in my native language. Reading e-books does not conflict with my past manner of reading.708 . Reading e-books enables me to get rich information/content. .587 .602 . highlight.835 .416 .459 .780 . (e.663 . but I don’t know where to get access to e-books I want to read.g. I would read e-books. Reading e-books improves my reading performance. Reading e-books enables me to get information/content quickly.451 .) should replace all class reading to e-textbooks and e-books If all the materials that I want to read are available in e-books.719 .547 .423 -.646 . bookmarks.807 . I would replace normal reading with e-reading. E-book enables me to download information/content quickly when reading.681 .757 .464 . Reading e-books satisfies my current needs in reading. Book Stores. Reading e-books enables me to search for the information/content I need Reading e-books provide diverse types of information/content such as voice and image. reading e-book is helpful to me. I find it is easy to get an e-book to do what I want it to do.795 .536 . Reading e-books is consistent with my lifestyle. etc. Rotation converged in 6 iterations. Reading e-books is my favorite manner of reading.580 .491 .800 .586 . Libraries.
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