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1. Development of Means of Communication and Transport Administrative convenience, military defence and economic exploitation were the factors that urged the British government to have planned development of modern means of transport. The British constructed a modern postal system and electric telegraph all over the country. In the words of Edwin Arnold, "Railways may do for India what dynasties have never done what the genius of Akbar the Magnificent could not effect by government, not the cruelty of Tipu Saheb by violence, they have made India a nation." The modern means of communications and transport enabled people living in different parts of the country to maintain regular contacts with one another which provided them not only a sense of unity but also the facility to organise an all-India movement. 2. Impact of Western Education : Perhaps the greatest contribution of the British rule to the growth of India nationalism was the introduction of western education in India. It brought about a profound intellectual transformation in India. Western education brought the Indians into touch with the works of great European thinkers and writers like Milton,Thomas Paine, Burke, J.S. Mill, Spencer, Locke, Voltaire, Rousseau and Mazzini and helped them imbibe the ideas of liberty, equality, fraternity, democracy and national freedom. The pioneers of Indian nationalism were moved by the aspirations for self-government, for political power and representative institutions. The study of English language not only helped build up a democratic and national outlook, it also did a great service to the cause of Indian nationalism by providing a medium of communication for the educated Indians throughout India to exchange views on a national scale. It cut across personal barriers and served as a lingua franca. Educated Indians began to meet and discuss common problems through the medium of English and to meet on a common platform to devise plans for independence of the country. 3. Economic Exploitation of India : The British economic policy in India led to impoverishment of the country. The main object of British policies was a systematic destruction of traditional Indian economy. The Indian reaction to the discriminatory economic policy of the British government was the rise of economic nationalism in India. India became a supplier of raw materials to the British industries, a market for the sale of British goods and a place for investment of British
5. "The Indian national movement was a part of the Indian Renaissance of India which manifested in the form of a general reform movement and produced striking religious and social reforms long before it issued in a movement for political emancipation.capital. the Arya Samaj. It promoted pa-Indian feelings and spirit of nationalism. It is through press that the Indian nationalists spread the message of patriotism and modern economic. Andhra Prakasika etc. 4. they realised the necessity of uprooting the British rule from India.They created selfconfidence and inculcated a sense of self-respect which in its turn brought dissatisfaction against the British rule. To quote or Zachaias. the Ramakrishna Mission and the Theosophical Society in their own respective ways. Economic exploitation by the British was increasing India's poverty. Systematic attempts were made to destroy the indegenous industries of India to make room for manufactured goods from England. It gave a great impetus to the spirit of nationalism. Amrit Bazar Patrika. the Pioneer. They represented attempts to revise the old religion in the spirit of the new principles of nationalism and democracy. generated faith in Indian culture and religion and tried to strengthen them by removing the evils. the Maratha. Despite government restrictions news papers like the Indian mirror. organising political movements and promoting nationalism. The British Indian administration was extremely costly. Indian economy was sacrificed for British economic interests. Bombay Samachar. Socio-Religious Reform Movements: The socio-religious reform movements also known as the Indian Renaissance were the first expression of national awakening. They preached love for India and everything Indian. The Hindu. became a powerful instrument of political education for the middle class and stimulated the growth of national feeling by making public the grievances of the people and also by exposing the failings and deficiencies ."The Brahmo Samaj. Gradually the people realised that it was drain of wealth from India which made India poor. Emergence of Modern Press and Nationalist Literature : Indian press played an equally important role in building and developing Indian nationalism. These movements breathed a new life into the degenerated Hindu and Muslim communities. revived the glory of ancient India. Samachar Darpan. social and political ideas among the people. Keshari. As all classes suffered economically because of the British rule. Similarly revivalism among the Muslims was provided by the wahabi Movement on the one side and by the personality of Sir Syed Ahmad Khan on the other. The Indian press has played a notable role in mobilising public opinion.
6. Majumdar has mightly remarked. S. But the British remained pepetual foreigners in India. Subramanyam Bharati and Altaf Hussain Hali were some of the writers who infused the spirit of patriotism in the minds of the common people.of the foreign rule. They branded all Indians irrespective of their caste. This decision led to a countrywide agitation and marked the beginning of the unity of action and solidarity of purpose. Vishnu Shastri Chiplunkar." This type of behaviour hurt the sentiments of the Indian people and they became conscious of this national humiliation and became united against the foreigners. Banerjee. were denied entry into Indian Civil Service on flimsy grounds. Aurobindo Ghosh etc." Nationalist literature in the form of novels. Earlier foreigners like the Turks. religion or clanwith the badge of inferiority. . restaurants and were not allowed to travel in the same compartments. B. "Western education and the Indian press were the two of the most important agencies destined to infuse into the people of India the spirit of national unity and to inspire them to achieve independence without bloodshed.N. Racial arrogance of the British : Racial arrogance of the British united the Indian people against the foreigners. Denial of Higher Jobs to deserving Indians : The charter Act of 1833 laid down that fitness was to be the criterion of eligibility for jobs. In 1877 the entrance age to ICS was reduced from 21 to 19 just to reduce the prospects of Indian candidates from the Indian Civil Service. Bankim Chandra. essays and patriotic poetry played an important role in creating national consciousness. It helped the educated Indians to unite for promoting their interests. Rabindranath Tagore. the Afghans and the Mughals who came to India accepted India as their motherland and settled here. 7.N. There were placards saying "Indians and Dogs are not allowed. But deliberate attempts were made by the British to debar Indians from higher posts specially the Indian Civil Service. Because of the white colour of the skin they adopted a feeling of racial superiority in dealing with Indians.B. It was again reiterated in the Queen's proclamation of 1858. Banerjee started an all-India compaign for restoring the entrance age of 21 and for simultaneous ICS examination in India. They were kept out of European clubs. S.
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