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Instrumentation Vocals Drum Machine Drum/Percussion Samples Synthesisers Samplers Turntables Performance and Arrangement House, Trance and Techno are types of up-tempo Dance music. Tempo usually ranges from around 120bpm up to 140bpm. Designed for dancing in clubs and played by DJs/Programmers rather than by musicians. Four-to-the-floor bass drum, and hi-hat emphasis on the off-beat quavers (taking influence from disco). Synth stabs or syncopated staccato stabs on the piano. Use of synth for the bass lines, though some tunes had no bass line. Synth riffs and pad chords Samples taken from a wide range of instrumental music, singing and clips off the radio/TV. Anthemic or epic feel to songs, with rousing melodies over breakdowns (with no drums), which build back into the re-entry of the drums. Structure is built upon the building up and breaking down of textures and rhythmic elements using a range of loops, riffs and ostinati. Drum ‘n’ Bass uses frantic, fast, syncopated drum patters combined with elements of dub, reggae, soul, funk and jazz. Rapping is used on some songs; soul-influenced vocals are common. Technology and Production Use of computer-based sequencers to create the music Cheap cost of computer-based systems compared to conventional recording technology made music production accessible to many more people than before. Drum machines or sampled drums – both loops and single hits. Synthesisers widely used. Different styles use synthesisers in different ways, or have certain signature sounds or playing techniques associated with the style. Sampling used extensively – sampled vocals common, together with treatments such as stuttering, gapping and pitch-shift. Main Artists MARRS Coldcut Bomb the Bass S-Express Aphex Twin The Orb The KLF Basement Jaxx Paul Oakenfold Fatboy Slim Moby The Prodigy The Chemical Brothers
Orbital Roni Size Goldie Groove Armada Daft Punk Leftfield St. Germain Trentmøller
Influences Disco Reggae and Dub Hip hop Synth Pop Soul Funk Jazz Key Facts and Terminology Beginning during the mid-80s, the Chicago house party scene used disused warehouses for allnight dance events. Other USA urban areas were soon following the trend. Started gaining popularity in Europe in the late 80s, with dance parties known as raves being held in fields and warehouses. During the 90s, electronic music was very influential in the pop scene, with artists like Kylie, Madonna and Pet Shop Boys drawing on house, techno and triphop influences. However, many electronic artists remained outside mainstream chart sales. Most artists are Club DJs as well as music producers, often remixing other artists’ work in their own style. From the late 1980s, many mainstream pop singles were also released as various dance mixes on 12” single and CD. Some singles were released on more than 4 formats to boost sales and therefore success. Some dance mixes bore little relation to the original single. The house scene in the UK was closely tied to the indie scene – both shared an underground and DIY ethic to music production and sales, and clubs like The Hacienda in Manchester had DJs playing house music and electronic dance styles, as well as many live indie bands. The Ministry of Sound in London established itself as a leading club for the new dance sound. The clubs on the Mediterranean island of Ibiza were also important venues for playing house, trance and the new styles that emerged, together with venues in France, Italy, Germany and Spain.