You are on page 1of 37

SCIENTIFIC DESIGN OF BAMBOO STRUCTURES

Dr. Suresh Bhalla Department of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, Hauz Khas, New Delhi -110016 EMAIL: sbhalla@civil.iitd.ac.in

CONTENTS
WHY BAMBOO FOR CONSTRUCTION DESIGN PHILOSOPHY ANALYSIS AND DESIGN OF SHED STRUCTURES (COTTAGE INDUSTRY/ RURAL WAREHOUSE) ALTERNATE DESIGNS FOR LESS CRITICAL STRUCTURES (TENSEGRITY/ GEODESIC DOMES) CONCLUSIONS PUBLICATIONS/ REFERENCES

WHY BAMBOO FOR CONSTRUCTION


Construction industry is one of the most polluting industries of the worls
Production of 1 ton of cement emits > 1 ton of CO2 in the atmosphere Production of 1 ton of steel emits > 2 ton of CO2 in the atmosphere

ADVANTAGES OF BAMBOO
Production of 1 ton of bamboo consumes> 1 ton of CO2 of the atmosphere
MILD STEEL Ultimate strength = 410 MPa Yield strength = 250 MPa strength = 38 MPa Youngs modulus = 200 GPa modulus = 27 GPa Density = 7850 kg/m3 Density = 2400 kg/m3

CONCRETE Tensile
(Grade M 30)

Compressive Youngs

strength = 3.8 MPa


Tensile

BAMBOO
Dendrocallamus giganteus (Ghavami, 2007)

Compressive Youngs

strength = 120 MPa

strength = 55 MPa

modulus = 140 GPa

Density = 700 kg/m3

ADVANTAGES OF BAMBOO
Bamboo offers competitive strength to mass ratio.

However, its drawback is susceptibility to termite attack which can be set aside by suitable treatment

DESIGN APPROACH
(INDUSTRIAL SHED) WORKING STRESS METHOD FACTOR OF SAFETY = 4 LINEAR ELASTIC BEHAVIOUR ALLOWWABLE STRESSES : Tension : 30 MPa Compression : 13 MPa (l/r = 80) Ghavami (2007) for Dendrocallamus Giganteus (40mm dia, 10mm thickness) Two spans considered: 10m, 6m

CONFIGURATION: CONVENTIONAL STEEL SHEDS

1800

CONFIGURATION: CONVENTIONAL STEEL SHEDS

100.00

CONFIGURATION: CONVENTIONAL STEEL SHEDS

5000

5000

5000

DETAILS OF STRUCTURE
5m 0.4 m 10 m 5x5 = 25m Front elevation. Side elevation

Bamcrete column

Bamboo bow beam for supporting roof

Developed by Dr. Sudhakar and Dr. S. Gupta

STRUCTURAL IDEALISATION
GI Sheeting
h = 1.7m

Hinge
H = 5m

L = 10m

DEAD LOADS AND IMPOSED LOADS


Do not induce any moment on the column due to flexible connection of the bamboo arch with the columns. Sheeting and purlins = 15kg/m2 Tied arch = 200kg Columns as 40kg/m.

AXIAL FORCE = 6.75 kN


(at column base)

Imposed load = 75kg/m2 ( IS 875 part 2, 1987)

AXIAL FORCE = 18.75 kN


(at column base)

WIND ANALYSIS
(IS 875 part III, 1987)
For Delhi region, basic wind speed Vb of 47m/s. Probability factor (risk coefficient) k1 = 1.0 (assuming a mean probable life of 50 years) The terrain, height and size factor k2 = 1.0 (class A and category 2) Topography factor k3 = 1.0 Design wind speed VZ = k1 k2 k3 Vb = 47m/s

Design wind pressure = 0.6Vz2 = 1.325 kNm-2

WIND PRESSURE COEFFICIENTS


(IS 875 part III)
0.7 0.7 Wind

Wind

0.8

0.7

0.6

0.5

0.7

0.5

0.7 0.9 Wind 0.7 (a) 0.9 0.7

0.1 (b)

0.7

0.7

(c)

(d)

Wind pressure coefficients in accordance with IS 875 part 3 (a) Walls: Wind normal to ridge (b) Walls: Wind along ridge (c) Roof: Wind normal to ridge (d) Roof: Wind along ridge

ANALYSIS OF CROSS FRAME


10.6 kN/m 10.6 kN/m h = 1.7m w2 = 8.61 kN/m H = 5m w1 = 0.66 kN/m
L=10m

R1

R1

5w1H/8

w2 = 8.61 kN/m w1 =0.66 kN/m

5w2H/8 w2l2/8
53 kN

R1H/2 R1H/2

w1l2/8
53 kN

Wind normal to ridge, inside pressure

R1 = 3(w1+ w2)H/8 (A) (B)

Summary of forces at bottom of column for four wind conditions

S. No.
1 2 3 4

WIND CASE
Wind normal to ridge, inside suction Wind normal to ridge, inside pressure Wind along ridge, inside suction Wind along ridge, inside pressure

TENSILE FORCE (kN)


3.2 53 0 46.3

MOMENT (kNm)
74.5 70.5 4.2 4.2

HORIZONTAL FORCE (kN)


39.8 35.6 4.2 4.2

DESIGN OF TIED BAMBOO ARCH


y w Arch H = 1.7 m Tie L = 10m x x y Ft Fa

y=

4H Lx x 2 2 L

w L4 + 16 H 2 ( L 2 x) 2 Fa = 8H

Ft =

wL2 8H
40mm dia, 10mm thick (typ)

1 2

DEAD LOADS LOADS DEAD LOADS LOADS

+ +

LIVE WIND

45 (C) 78 (T)

37 (T) 64 (C)
200mm

Both tie and arch

200mm

S. No.

LOAD COMBINATION

FORCE IN ARCH (kN)

FORCE (kN)

IN TIE

DESIGN OF BAMBCRETE COLUMNS


S. N o. 1 2 LOAD COMBINATION AXIAL (kN) FORCE BENDING MOMENT (kNm) 75 (T) 70 (C)
S. No. 1 2 3 4 WIND CASE Wind normal to ridge, inside suction Wind normal to ridge, inside pressure Wind along ridge, inside suction Wind along ridge, inside pressure

DEAD LOADS + WIND CASE 1 DEAD LOADS + WIND CASE 4

4 (C) 47 (T)

Transverse frame

1200mm

200 x 3 = 600mm

BRACINGS
L

Longitudinal bracing
Longitudinal frame

Top/ bottom chord bracing

200mm

PURLINS
Wind Loads
10 0m

0 10

mm

Under biaxial bending

Dead Loads

DESIGN OF FOOTING

T H
Natural ground level 12 @ 300mm c/c 12 @ 250mm c/c

M 450mm (Flooring Depth) 700mm 2000mm 300mm 80mm (Base Course)

2500mm

DESIGN OF BASE CONNECTION OPTION 1


Axial Design force in tension: 16kN

Bamboo of column
This portion to be cast at the time of placing the bamcrete column

Development Length: L = F/(.D.T) F = Axial Force; D = Diameter of Bamboo; T = Bond strength of bamboo in concrete

Type I base connection

Development length, L

Construction joint

Pedestal

Footing

The Bond strength required to be determined by Laboratory Test.

DESIGN OF BASE CONNECTION OPTION 2


Axial Design force in tension: 16kN
8 no Mild Steel Tube;
Bamboo of column Bolts

D (internal) = 50mm, t = 8mm Suitable length projected above

Steel tubes
150mm Pedestal

Development length;
Footing

= 1.4 Nmm-2 (limit state) as per IS 456 (2000) for M 25 concrete; Force = 1.5 x 16 kN L = 115mm L (Provided) = 150mm

Type II base connection

DESIGN OF 6M SPAN STRUCTURE

500mm 100mm 100mm

ARCH/TIE

500mm

COLUMN

BRACING

100mm

BRACING

100mm

100mm

DESIGN OF FOOTING (6M SPAN)

T H
Natural ground level 12 @ 300mm c/c 12 @ 250mm c/c

M 450mm (Flooring Depth) 700mm 2000m m 300mm 80mm (Base Course)

2000m m

PARAMETRIC STUDY

Optimum frame spacing = 4.16m

ALTERNATE DESIGNS FOR LESS CRITICAL STRUCTURES (TENSEGRITY/ GEODESIC DOMES)

TENSEGRITY STRUCTURES
A special class of flexible space structures composed of a set of continuous tension members and a set of discontinuous compression members Tensegrity as a contraction of the two words tensionand integrity as patented in U.S.A. Fuller characterizes these systems as small islands of compression in a sea of tension A tensegrity is a system in a stable self-equilibrated state comprising a discontinuous set of compressed components inside a continuum of tensioned components

NEEDLE TOWER 30M HIGH

TENSEGRITY BRIDGE

Top ties

Struts

Leg ties

Bottom ties

SIMPLEX TYPE TENSEGRITY STRUCTURE

(a)

(b)

PERSPECTIVE VIEW

TOP VIEW

HALFCUBOCTAHEDRON

Panigrahi, R. (2008), Development, Analysis and Monitoring of Dismountable Tensegrity Structures, Ph. D. Thesis, Department of Civil Engineering, IIT Delhi

DISMANTLABLE POULTRY SHED (TENSEGRITY)

LOW COST GEODESIC POULTRY SHED

LOW COST GEODESIC POULTRY SHED

PLAN OF ACTION
ACTIVITY Sep Development design philosophy of

YEAR 1 (2008-09)
Nov Jan Mar May Jul Sep

YEAR 2 (2009-10)
Nov Jan Mar May Jul

Preliminary design of a typical shed structure Development of MATLAB analysis and design subroutines Conceptual fabrication of poultry shed Structural optimization for shed Revision of design philosophy as per inputs from investigators dealing with objective 1 Final design of various structures Fabrication of prototype structures

CONCLUSIONS
Analysis of a typical bamboo based shed structures, 10/6 m span and 5m height, has been carried out under various loads and their combinations. Design has been carried out in scientific manner, with working stress approach. Structure has been analyzed in a simple fashion, by considering behaviour of one typical frame Designed structure can serve as workshop for cottage industry, ware house or cattle shed. Alternate low cost designs for poultry shed (dismantlable) have been proposed

PUBLICATIONS
Bhalla, S., Gupta, S., Puttaguna, S. and Suresh, R. (2009), Bamboo as Green Alternative To Concrete and Steel for Modern Structures, Journal of Environmental Research and Development, accepted. (presented at the International Congress of Environmental Resarch, Goa, 18-20 Dec. 2008)

REFERENCES
CS Monitor, http://www.csmonitor.com/2008/0312/p14s01-stgn.html, (2008). Scientific American, http://www.sciam.com/article.cfm?id=cement-from-carbon-dioxide, (2008). Ghavami, , K., Bamboo: Low cost and energy saving construction materials, Proc. International Conference on Modern Bamboo Structures, 28-30 October, Changsha, China, 5-21, (2007) Bhalla, S., Sudhakar, P., Gupta, S. and Kordke, C., Wind analysis of bamboo based shed structure and design of base connection for bambcrete Column, Proc. International Conference on Modern Bamboo Structures, 28-30 October, Changsha, China, 259-265, (2007) Sudhakar, P., Gupta, S. and Kordke, C., Bhalla, S. and Satya, S., Report of conceptual development of bamboo concrete composite structures at a typical tribal belt in India, Proc. International Conference on Modern Bamboo Structures, 28-30 October, Changsha, China, 65-73, (2007) Gupta, S., Sudhakar, P., Kordke, C., and Aggarwal, A., Experimental verification of bamboo-concrete composite column with ferro-cement band, Proc. International Conference on Modern Bamboo Structures, 28-30 October, Changsha, China, 253-258, (2007) IS 875 Part 2, Code of practice for design loads for buildings and structures, imposed loads, Bureau of Indian Standards, (1987). IS 875 Part 3, Code of practice for design loads for buildings and structures, wind loads, Bureau of Indian Standards, (1987). Arya A.S. and Ajmani J.l., Steel Structures, Nem Chand & Bros., (1992).