Switching Systems

Switching System 1878 manual operator 1892 step-by-step 1918 cross-bar 1960 ESS—first generation 1972 ESS—second generation 1976 ESS—third generation

Operation manual Electro-mechanical Electro-mechanical Semi-electronic Semi-electronic

Method of Switching space/analog space/analog space/analog space/analog space/analog

Type of Control human distributed stage-by-stage common control common control stored program control stored program common control

Type of Network plug/cord/jac k stepping switch train X-bar switch reed switch reed switch pulse code modulation

electronic

time/digital

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Basics of Switching Systems
Switching Network

Switching Network

Switching Network

Switching Network

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• In a folded network with N subscribers, there can be a maximum of N/2 simultaneous calls. • The switching network may be designed to provide N/2 switching paths, the network then is said to be non-blocking. • Blocking Network (Switching Paths<N/2)

• The probability that a user may get blocked is known as blocking probability. • Switching exchanges are designed to meet an estimated maximum average simultaneous traffic, usually known as busy hour traffic. (20-30% activity)

3

Elements of a switching system
• • • • • Trunk Interface (Incoming and Outgoing) Subscriber Line Interface (I and O) Service Circuit Interface Junctors Subscriber and Service line scanning and distributor units. • Control: Direct or Common Control • Operator console • Trunk circuit scanning and distributor units.

Incoming Trunk Interface Subscriber Line Interface Service Circuit Interface Switching Network

Outgoing Trunk Interface Subscriber Line Interface Service Circuit Interface

J U N C T O R S

Subscriber And Service Line Scanning and Distributor Units

Control

Operator Console

Trunk Circuit Scanning and Distributor Units

To Incoming Trunks

4

Switching Systems (Classification)
Switching Systems

Manual

Automatic

Electromechanical

Electronic (SPC)

Strowger (Step-by-Step)

Space Division Switching

Crossbar

Time Division Switching

Manual Switch-Boards
• The first switching Systems utilized operators at manual switchboards. • The operators asked the caller for the number they wanted to call and then established the connection by plugging in a cord between terminal jacks

5

RST
• • • • R – Ring S – Sleeve T – Tip One wire of a wire pair is commonly referred to as the tip and other is referred to as ring, even on digital wire pairs

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Manual

LB exchange

CB exchange

Magneto exchange

If 200 subscribers terminate on a switch board, what will be the maximum number of simultaneous calls
Ans. 100

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Switch boards

Single Termination

Multi Termination

Cyclic Assignment

Single termination board
Local Connection Transfer Lines

Non-Local Connection

8

Subscriber Lines

Multi-Termination Boards

Cyclic Assignment
300-399 0-99 100-199 200-299 300-399 0-99

700-799

400-499

500-599

600-699

700-799

400-499

9

• Almon Strowger was an undertaker who created the first automatic telephone switching machine. • He wasn't a natural scientist nor was he immediately interested by telephones. What really spurred him on was when he imagined that his undertaking business was missing out because the lady at the phone exchange was connecting callers to a rival funeral business. • Customers didn't immediately take to the system, and Strowger soon tired of it himself, selling his stake for a modest sum to buy a hotel. His system was later sold for $2.5 million and installed in exchanges worldwide until the 1960s.

Almon Brown Strowger (1839-1902) operator - get off the line!

Advantages: Automatic Switching Systems • Language independent. • Privacy • Establishment and release of calls are faster • Time required to establish and release a call remains more or less of the same order. • 24×7 • Reliable

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Functions : Automatic Switching Systems

• Signaling • Control • Switching

• Electromechanical switching
– Step-by-step switch (Strowger switch)

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Uniselector

Two-Motion Selector

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Two-Motion Selector

Two-Motion Selector

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Limitations of strowger systems
• It uses ‘direct progressive control’ • The control elements of the switch are integrated into the switching matrix • A call may be blocked even if an alternate path exists through the switch. • Alternate routing for outgoing trunks is not possible. • Signaling schemes other than dial pulses are not directly usable • Number translation is impossible.

Crossbar switching
• a crossbar switch (also known as cross-point switch, or matrix switch) is a switch connecting multiple inputs to multiple outputs in a matrix manner. • The cross-points of a cross bar switch are mechanical contacts with magnets to set up and hold a connection. • The term crossbar arises form the use of horizontal and vertical bars to initially select the contacts.

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Crossbar switching
• Uses ‘common control’ • Control function implementation is separate from the switch implementation • Logical addresses instead of physical line numbers

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• Early crossbar systems were slow in call processing as they used electromechanical components for common control subsystems.

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Stored Program control (SPC)
• Carrying out the exchange control functions through programs stored in the memory of computer led to the nomenclature stored program control. • SPC lead to full scale automation of exchange functions and introduction of variety of new services to the users.

SPC

Centralized

Distributed

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Centralized
Signal distributor Scanners

Processor

Maintenance Console

Memory

Secondary Storage: Call Recording, Program Storage etc.

• Redundancy may also be provided at the level of exchange resources and function programs. • A dual processor architecture may be configured to operate in one of three modes:- Standby, Synchronous duplex, and Load Sharing.

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Standby Dual Processor Config.
Exchange Environment

P1

P2

Secondary Storage

Synchronous Duplex
Exchange Environment

P1

C

P2

M1

M2

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Load Sharing
Exchange Environment

P1 ED M2

P2

M2

Distributed SPC
• In distributed control, control functions are shared by many processors within the exchange itself. • Exchange functions may be decomposed either “horizontally” or “vertically” for distributed processing. • Better reliability and availability • Owes its existence to low cost processors

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Levels of Control Functions (Horizontal decomposition)
Event Monitoring and Distribution

Call Processing

O & M and Charging

Dual Chain Distributed Control
Exchange Environment

EM & DP

EM & DP

CP

CP

O & MP

O & MP

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• 1965: Bell system installed the first electronic switching system (No. 1 ESS) • Allowed introduction of new features such as abbreviated dialing, call forwarding, call waiting,… • Simplified administration and maintenance tasks.

• 1976: AT&T’s No.4 ESS is a high capacity toll switch using SPC and digital electronics for its switching matrix.

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Drive Mechanism of Rotary Switch

Uniselector

1

2-motion selector

2-motion selector

2

Step-by-step switching
From Calling Subscriber Switching Network Part Selector Hunters Or Line Finders Line Equipment Part (Pre-selector Stage) Group Selector Stage 1st Selector, 2nd Selector, & so on…. Final Selector To Called Subscriber

Connector Part (Numerical Selector)

Selector Hunters
o Off hook --- interrupter mechanism activated --wiper steps till find a free selector group --- first selector once located --interrupter mechanism deactivated --- first selector sends dial tone --accept pulses --- group selection continues till final selector.

3

Line Finders
o Off-hook signal sensed by all line finders --interrupter mechanism of line finder whose associated first selector is free, gets activated --line finder wiper steps till it reaches the subscriber contact --- first selector sends dial tone.

Design Parameters
• • • • Number of Subscriber lines, N No. of Switching Elements, S Cost of Switching System, C = S×Cs + Cc + Cch Switching Capacity, SC – maximum number of simultaneous calls. • Traffic Handling Capacity, TC = SC / Theoritical Max. Load = SC / (N/2) = 2SC / N • Equipment Utilization Factor, EUF = Number of switching elements in operation when SC is fully utilized / total number of switching elements in the system.

4

Design Parameters
Number of Switching Stages, K Average Switching Time per stage, Tst Call set up time, Ts = Tst × K + T0 Cost capacity index, CCI = switching capacity / cost per subscriber line = N(SC) / C • Blocking Probabilty, PB or B • • • •

Design 1: 100-line exchange (uniselectors)

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Design 2: 100-line exchange (uniselectors) • 10 uniselectors in the second stage for every one uniselector in the first stage of Design 1.

Design 3: 100-line exchange (2-motion selectors)

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Design 3: 100-line exchange with selector finders

Design 4: 100-line exchange with line finders

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1000-line exchange

Common Control Switching System

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3X3 Crossbar Switching

6X6 Crossbar Matrix

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Connection in Crossbar • Energize horizontal bar --- energize vertical bar -- de-energize horizontal bar. • Energize vertical bar --- energize horizontal bar -- de-energize vertical bar.

• Suitable arrangement so that Latch is maintained, even after de-energizing the concerned bar.

Diagonal Crosspoint Matrix

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Blocking Crossbar Switch
• • • • • • Energize horizontal, A Energize vertical, P De-energize horizontal, A Energize horizontal, B Energize vertical P’ De-energize, B

• Energize A & B, • Energize P, • De-energize A & B

Local non-blocking, external blocking

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Local blocking, external blocking

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