LESSON 1 STATIVE VERBS AND COLLOCATION STATIVE VERBS

A. Not normally used in the Continuous – they describe states that stay the same rather than actions or events that change. The most common stative verb is BE. Others include: 1. emotional states (love, doubt, care) and senses (smell): I only want to ask you a simple question. Do you prefer to travel by bus or by train? 2. mental processes (believe, feel, remember): Do you realise / Are you realising what they’re doing? I suspect / am suspecting we’re not making as much profit as we should. I understand / am understanding everything you’re saying. 3. verbs that describe a sense of permanence because they are not actions: How many cars does / is your family own / owning? I think what we need / are needing for the trip depends / is depending on the weather. This dress fits / is fitting me perfectly. B. When stative verbs can be used in the Continuous. 1. when they have an active meaning: I’m tasting this to see if there is enough salt. She’s being rather obstinate at the moment. 2. when they emphasise change or development: More schools will be including Shakespeare in their syllabuses. 3. sometimes using Simple or Continuous involves a change in meaning: I’m thinking about going to see Hamlet. (= trying to reach a decision) I think Shakespeare’s brilliant. (= my opinion) I’m seeing her later. (= I have an appointment) I see what you mean. (= I understand) 4. we use verbs that refer to physical feeling (hurt, ache, feel) in the Simple or Continuous with little or no difference in meaning: My head aches / is aching. How are you feeling / do you feel now?

extremely d. : I’m sure I know her. a. 5. 6. I think about you all the time. I don’t like ice-cream. What happens next ………. highly c. The review committee ……… three practising lawyers and a retired businessman. 2. a. 10. I am ………. Put the corresponding letter of the right word into the blank of each sentence. Understanding how to use computers is essential in this job. complicates 4. a. Are you still feeling sick? b. doubt whether he will actually carry out his threats. He believes that aliens kidnapped his daughter. This box is containing all the relevant documents. I’ve been thinking about you for some time. a. entails c. sincerely d. with everything you say. usual c. He is believing that aliens kidnapped his daughter. The verdict depends on whether the jury believed the key witness. 1. As always. That voice sounds ………. a. desperately 8.. 2. 4. entirely on you. 1. deserve 2. a. I understand how to use computers and so I can do this job.. strongly c. earns c. The verdict is depending on whether the jury believed the key witness. desperately 7. I ……… hope there won’t be a repetition of theses unfortunate events. concerns d. seriously 6. Don’t worry: this is nothing that ……… you. I’m not liking ice-cream. 8. a.. He’s an idiot. possess d. 9. encloses 3. b. b. b. absolutely d. I can see somebody moving in the trees over there. remembered 9. in agreement 5. Do you still feel sick? 7. highly b. b. but I’m ……… enjoying myself. owes b. consists b. realise c. He’s being an idiot.. It may be raining. This box contains all the relevant documents. agreeing c. deeply c. She has a baby boy. She’s having a baby boy. b. a. is made up d.PRACTICE 1. matters b. b. In the following pairs of sentences decide if one or both are acceptable. comprises c. a. b. get b. After so many years. a. a. it is great to see him ……… his ambitions. 3. a. familiar d. a. a. b. He finally got the reward he so richly ………. deserves d. a. agreeable d. justifies 10. known b. deeply b. agree b. a. a. b. I ………. a. I keep seeing somebody moving in the trees over there. . thoroughly b. a.

adjective + noun: I remember my formative years. noun + noun: The government has just unveiled its policy review. 3. and the combination has a special meaning. 1. we can think of idiomatic expressions and dependent prepositions as types of collocation: The children arrived safe and sound. revolves c. Open collocations – in “open” collocations. 2. 1. sometimes choosing which collocation to use depends on the position of the word in the sentence: We may agree unconditionally. we need a full understanding of the meanings of individual words. She was back in a flash. they sound unnatural and wrong. B. D. 1. C. but there is often no logical reason why some words collocate and others don’t: We can talk about a fragile peace. relies COLLOCATION A. learn it and use it like any other part of the vocabulary. we can sometimes choose between fixed collocations that mean the same thing: I’ll be back in a flash. What is collocation? – words that occur frequently “collocate”. .a. Fixed collocations – in “fixed” collocations. an unsteady peace or a weak peace) 2. (= they collocate) There are no rules we can use to learn collocations. particular words occur together. If we try. (= they don’t collocate) Time flies / goes by / wears on / passes. I’ll be back in the blink of an eye. adverb + adjective: I’m hopelessly addicted to coffee. 4. Time speeds / travels / rides / moves. Words that don’t collocate never occur together. but we don’t normally unconditionally agree. We discover a collocation. trusts d. (but not a tender peace. verb + noun: We will honour our pledge to reduce unemployment. depends b. 2. we can choose from a limited set of words to combine with another word. Grammatical forms. or an uneasy peace.

standardised b. moving on 4. a. Wine growers in Bordeaux recorded a ………. and distant past. I think they should be ashamed of themselves. limit 2. part of a longer phrase: It’s always interesting to delve into the past. I still see my old class mates now and …………… a. beat . rhythm d. I’m satisfied ………… your progress so far. boom 3. for completing this task. running b. a. bumper b. There is a time ………. barrier b. short c. hurried b. My watch seems to be ………. harvest this year. forwarding b. far b. a. passing c. dependent preposition: Personally. occasionally b. watches before setting of in different directions. rotating 2. pulled d. gaining c. I’m ………… committed to the idea of equality of opportunity. a. a. year for Europe. unconditionally 8. a. sometimes d. with 9. pressed 5. tempo b. a. 1. wholeheartedly b. acquaint 4. 1989 was a ……….. agree with everything you said. Put the corresponding letter of the right word into the blank of each sentence.. affected by the behaviour of the crowd. adversely b. predictable d. close c. synchronised 7. update b. I think her performance was ……. a. momentuous 6. following d. The team won the championship four years …………… a. foreseeable 6. Put the corresponding letter of the right word into the blank of each sentence. then c. wrongly 10. a. 1. This iniquitous system of taxation is unlikely to change in the …… future. a. I ………. I’d better ……… you on the latest developments. a. I recall learning about such things in the ………. PRACTICE 1. The music increases in ………… towards the end of the movement. for b. progressing d. a. a. monumental b. They all ………. I’m afraid I’m really ………… for the time at the moment. lovingly b. 6. time c.5. passionately 2. here 3. several minutes a day.. a. dark b. dim 5.

stages of the battle. end 8. dead d. exactly b. intermediated.. He was wounded in the ………. punctually c. just . a.7. middle c. The performance will start …………… on six. closing b. a.

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