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Module 1: Introduction to Finite Difference Method and Fundamentals of CFD Lecture 1: Finite Difference Method

The Lecture deals with: Classification of Partial Differential Equations Boundary and Initial Conditions Finite Differences

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1) If the coefficients A. it is convenient to consider the case of a second-order differential equation given in the general form as (1. otherwise it is a non-linear equation. otherwise it is non-homogeneous. the coefficients may contain (highest) derivative. and F are either constants or functions of only (x. y) (do not contain or its derivatives). E. or its first derivative but not the second 1 of 1 6/19/2012 4:30 PM . D. If the aforesaid equation is homogeneous. it is said to be a linear equation. C. B. An important subclass of non-linear equations is quasilinear equations.htm Module 1: Introduction to Finite Difference Method and Fundamentals of CFD Lecture 1: Finite Difference Method Classification of Partial Differential Equations For analyzing the equations for fluid flow problems.Objectives_template file:///D:/chitra/nptel_phase2/mechanical/cfd/lecture1/1_2. In this case.

the boundary conditions must be applied on all confining surfaces. the Navier-Strokes equations are elliptic. A Physical Problem may be Steady or Unsteady. 1 of 1 6/19/2012 4:30 PM . These are Boundary Value Problems.1 if if if the equation is Parabolic the equation is Elliptic the equation is Hyperbolic Unsteady Navier-Strokes equations are elliptic in space and parabolic in time. At steady-state.Objectives_template file:///D:/chitra/nptel_phase2/mechanical/cfd/lecture1/1_3.htm Module 1: Introduction to Finite Difference Method and Fundamentals of CFD Lecture 1: Finite Difference Method Classification of Partial Differential Equations Refer to eqiation 1. In Elliptic problems.

2) Poisson equations: (1. two-dimensional condition satisfies the Laplace equation if no volumetric heat source is present in the domain of interest and the Poisson equation if a volumetric heat source is present. The temperature distribution for steady-state. and irrotational flows satisfies the Laplace equation. constant-property.Objectives_template file:///D:/chitra/nptel_phase2/mechanical/cfd/lecture1/1_4.htm Module 1: Introduction to Finite Difference Method and Fundamentals of CFD Lecture 1: Finite Difference Method Classification of Partial Differential Equations In this slide we'll discuss Mathematical aspects of the equations that describe fluid flow and heat transfer problems.3) Laplace equations and Poisson equations are elliptic equations and generally associated with the steady-state problems. inviscid. Laplace equations: (1. 1 of 1 6/19/2012 4:30 PM . incompressible. The velocity potential in steady.

1 of 1 6/19/2012 4:31 PM . the second-order terms on the right hand side become trivial. and a souce term S is included. with the help of the conditions given earlier. the appropriate equation can be represented as (1.4) The one-dimensional unsteady conduction problem is governed by this equation when and are identified as the time and space variables respectively. and are velocity components.6) is parabolic in time and elliptic in space. The unsteady conduction problem in two-dimension is governed by an equation of the form (1. By comparing the highest derivatives in any two of the independent variables.5) is parabolic in time and elliptic in space. For unsteady two-dimensional problems.htm Module 1: Introduction to Finite Difference Method and Fundamentals of CFD Lecture 1: Finite Difference Method Classification of Partial Differential Equations The parabolic equation in conduction heat transfer is of the form (1. denotes the temperature and B is the thermal diffusivity. and the equation become hyperbolic in time and space.6) denotes velocity. The boundary conditions at the two ends an initial condition are needed to solve such equations. (1. the terms on the left side dominate. Fluid flow problems generally have nonlinear terms due to the inertia or acceleration component in the momentum equation.5) Here denotes the time variable. For very high-speed flows. usually called the convection terms. temperature or some other transported property. The pressure gradients in the momentum or the volumetric heating in the energy equation can be appropriately substituted in S. B is the diffusivity for momentum or heat. An initial condition and two conditions for the extreme ends in each special coordinates is required to solve this equation. (1. and S is a source term. These terms are called advection terms.Objectives_template file:///D:/chitra/nptel_phase2/mechanical/cfd/lecture1/1_5. Eq. The energy equation has nearly similar terms. it can be concluded that Eq. which involve the motion of the flow field.

The diffusion terms require two spatial boundary conditions for each coordinate in which a second derivative appears.1.Objectives_template file:///D:/chitra/nptel_phase2/mechanical/cfd/lecture1/1_6.1: Schematic sketch of an arbitrary Domain The conservation equations are to be applied within the domain.htm Module 1: Introduction to Finite Difference Method and Fundamentals of CFD Lecture 1: Finite Difference Method Boundary & Initial Conditions Formulation of the problem requires a complete specification of the geometry of interest and appropriate boundary conditions. The unsteady problems governed by a first derivative in time will require initial condition in order to carry out the time integration. 1 of 1 6/19/2012 4:31 PM . Figure 1. An arbitrary domain and bounding surfaces are sketched in Fig. The number of boundary conditions required is generally determined by the order of the highest derivatives appearing in each independent variable in the governing differential equations. 1.

is a vector denoting position on the boundary. 1 of 1 6/19/2012 4:31 PM . They may stated as (1. The boundary conditions are linear in the dependant variable .7) (1. (1.9) are usually referred to as Dirchlet.7) to (1. Neumann and mixed boundary conditions. are the direction-cosine components of unit vectors aligned with the coordinates. (1. and functions. respectively.9).8) (1.7) to (1. In Eqns.] denotes and are the the dot product. [. 1. The boundary conditions in Eqns.htm Module 1: Introduction to Finite Difference Method and Fundamentals of CFD Lecture 1: Finite Difference Method Boundary & Initial Conditions The spatial boundary conditions in flow and heat transfer problems are of three general types. and is the directional derivative normal to the boundary. is the nabla operator. The normal derivative may be expressed as are arbitrary (1.Objectives_template file:///D:/chitra/nptel_phase2/mechanical/cfd/lecture1/1_7.9) and denote three separate zones on the bounding surface in Fig.10) Here is the unit vector normal to the boundary.1.

2. Figure 1. and given by It is not necessary that or be uniform. and given by . provide us with the values at discrete points in the domain which are known as grid points. discrete Grid Points Let us assume that the spacing of the grid points in the direction is uniform. the spacing of the points in the direction is also uniform. Likewise. The numerical solutions. which shows a domain of calculation in the plane.2. 1. problems are solved on a grid which involves uniform spacing in each direction. Consider Fig. based on finite differences. In some class of problems. the numerical calculations are performed on a transformed 1 of 2 6/19/2012 4:31 PM . We could imagine unequal spacing in both between each successive pairs of grid points are as well. The same could be presumed for However.htm Module 1: Introduction to Finite Difference Method and Fundamentals of CFD Lecture 1: Finite Difference Method Finite Differences Analytical solutions of partial differential equations provide us with closed-form expressions which depict the variation of the dependent variable in the domain. where different values of used. and often result in higher accuracy. because this simplifies the programming. often. directions.Objectives_template file:///D:/chitra/nptel_phase2/mechanical/cfd/lecture1/1_8.

These typical aspects will be discussed later. According to our consideration. At present let us consider uniform spacing in each coordinate direction. and are constants.Objectives_template file:///D:/chitra/nptel_phase2/mechanical/cfd/lecture1/1_8. but it is not mandatory that be equal to 2 of 2 6/19/2012 4:31 PM .htm computational plane which has uniform spacing in the transformed-independent-variables but non-uniform spacing in the physical plane.

direction. 1 of 1 6/19/2012 4:32 PM .htm Module 1: Introduction to Finite Difference Method and Fundamentals of CFD Lecture 1: Finite Difference Method Let us refer to Fig. you have finished Lecture 1. To view the next lecture select it from the left hand side menu of the page or click the next button. If . which increases in the positive is the index of and in Fig. then the point immediately to the right is designated as and the point directly below is the point immediately to the left is The basic philosophy of finite difference method is to replace the derivatives of the governing equations with algebraic difference quotients. 1. The grid points are identified by an index and an index point which increases in the positive -direction.Objectives_template file:///D:/chitra/nptel_phase2/mechanical/cfd/lecture1/1_9.2. In the next lecture we'll look at some of the common algebraic difference quotients in order to be acquainted with the methods related to discretization of the partial differential equations. This will result in a system of algebraic equations which can be solved for the dependent variables at the discrete grid points in the flow field.1.2. Congratulations.

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