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Lead compensation basically speeds up the response and increases the stability of the system. Lag compensation improves the steady-state accuracy of the system, but reduces the speed of the response. If improvements in both transient response and steady-state response are desired, then both a lead compensator and a lag compensator may be used simultaneously. Rather than introducing both a lead compensator and a lag compensator as separate elements, however, it is economical to use a single lag-lead compensator. Basic Characteristics of Lead, Lag, and Lag-Lead Compensation Lead compensation essentially yields an appreciable improvement in transient response and a small change in steady-state accuracy. It may accentuate high-frequency noise effects. Lag compensation, on the other hand, yields an appreciable improvement in steady-state accuracy at the expense of increasing the transient-response time. Lag compensation will suppress the effects of high-frequency noise signals. Lag-lead compensation combines the characteristics of both lead compensation and lag compensation. The use of a lead or lag compensator raises the order of the system by 1. The use of a lag-lead compensator raises the order of the system by 2, which means that the system becomes more complex and it is more difficult to control the transient response behavior. The particular situation determines the type of compensation to be used. Comparison of Lead, Lag, and Lag-Lead Compensation. 1. Lead compensation achieves the desired result through the merits of its phase lead contribution, whereas lag compensation accomplishes the result through the merits of its attenuation property at high frequencies. 2. Lead compensation is commonly used for improving stability margins. Lead compensation yields a higher gain crossover frequency than is possible with lag compensation. The higher gain crossover frequency means a larger bandwidth. A large bandwidth means reduction in the settling time. The bandwidth of a system with lead compensation is always greater than that with lag compensation. Therefore, if a large bandwidth or East response is desired, lead compensation should be employed. If, however, noise signals are present, then a large bandwidth may not be desirable, since it makes the system more susceptible to noise signals because of an increase in the high-frequency gain. 3. Lead compensation requires an additional increase in gain to offset the attenuation inherent in the lead network. This means that lead compensation will require a larger gain than that required by lag compensation. A larger gain, in most cases, implies larger space, greater weight, and higher cost. 4. The lead compensation may generate large signals in the system. Such large signals are not desirable because they will cause saturation in the system.

The response curves shown depict the nature of improvements that may be expected from using different types of compensators. Figure 9-27(a) shows a unit-step response curve and unit ramp response curve of an uncompensated system. Also. or lag-lead compensators. lag. Since the system bandwidth is reduced.5. and lag-lead compensator. a lag-lead compensator may be employed. while at the same time the system bandwidth and stability margins can be increased. reasonable improvements in both the transient response and steady-state response can be expected. simple compensation by use of these compensators may not yield satisfactory results. 8. and thereby low-frequency gain can be increased and the steady-state accuracy can be improved.Typica1 unit-step response and unit ramp response curves for the compensated system using a lead. Figure 9-27 Unit-step response curves and unit-ramp response curves. . By use of the lag-lead compensator. (b) lead compensated system. If both fast responses and good static accuracy are desired. any high frequency noises involved in the system can be attenuated. (d) lag-lead compensated system. different compensators having different pole-zero configurations must be employed. (a) Uncompensated system. (c). the low-frequency gain can be increased (which means an improvement in steady-state accuracy). Although a large number of practical compensation tasks can be accomplished with lead. lag.The system with a lead compensator exhibits the fastest response. the system has a slower speed to respond. but with marked improvements in the unit-ramp response. Because of the reduced high-frequency gain. 7. The system with a lag-lead compensator will give a compromise. Then. (c) lag compensated system. Graphical Comparison. and (d). respectively. Lag compensation will introduce a pole-zero combination near the origin that will generate a long tail with small amplitude in the transient response. 6. for complicated systems. the total system gain can be increased. are shown in Figures 9-27(b). while that with a lag compensator exhibits the slowest response. Lag compensation reduces the system gain at higher frequencies without reducing the system gain at lower frequencies.

For example. which must be added.1. which means a much smaller steady-state error (b) Decreases on and therefore has the disadvantage of producing an increase in the settling time 2. Why Use Derivative The derivative control mode gives a controller additional control action when the error changes consistently. How far into the future? That’s what the derivative time (Td) is for. is larger than the increase in Km for the system 3. using the passive network of Fig. Therefore the additional gain A.2 * 6% = 1. Kc = 0. the predicted error is 6%. which improves the transient response settling time What is Derivative? You can think of derivative control as predicting the error in future. If the Controller Gain. 10. then the derivative control mode will add an additional 0. not prediction. (Derivative control actually uses extrapolation. thereby improving steady-state accuracy (b) Results in a large increase in on and therefore significantly reduces the settling time (c) The transfer function of the lead compensator. based on the current slope of the error. (10. Lead compensator (a) Results in a moderate increase in gain Km. Lag compensator (a) Results in a large increase in gain Km (by a factor almost equal to α). which improves the steady-state response (b) Results in a large increase in on.33)]. contains the gain _ [see Eq. if the error changes at a rate of 2% per minute. It also makes the loop more stable (up to a point) which allows using a higher controller gain and a faster integral (shorter integral time or higher integral gain). These have the effect of reducing the maximum deviation of process variable from set point if the process receives and external disturbance.16a. which is less than unity. It is the prediction horizon.2. . so we’ll just go with that.2% to the controller output. Lag-lead compensator (essentially combines the desirable characteristics of the lag and the lead compensators) (a) Results in a large increase in gain Km.) Once the derivative mode has predicted the future error. But hey. we all understand how prediction works. it adds an additional control action of Controller Gain * Future Error. and the derivative time Td = 3 minutes.

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