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MASS AND ENERGY BALANCES (PMD 1001-N) ______________________________________________________________ DATE: May/June TIME: ______________________________________________________________ INSTRUCTIONS TO CANDIDATES This paper contains FIVE questions in sections A and B. Answer THREE questions, including at least ONE from each of the two sections. Cpm tables are provided. ALL questions are of equal value.

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SECTION A A1. Chlorine dioxide gas is used in the paper industry to bleach pulp produced in a Kraft mill. This gas is produced by reacting sodium chlorate, sulphuric acid and methanol in lead-lined reactors according to the following reaction. 6NaClO3 + 6H2SO4 + CH3OH a) 6ClO2 + 6NaHSO4 + CO2 + 5H2O

Based on the above equation, calculate the following, assuming 90 % conversion of NaClO3: (i) Molar composition of the product stream, assuming stoichiometric amounts of each reactant are fed to the reactor. (ii) The reactant flows (in kg) required to produce 10,000 kg h -1 of ClO2. [28 marks]


If 695 kg of NaClO3, 690 kg of H2SO4 and 32 kg of CH3OH are fed to the reactor, determine the limiting reactant(see diagram given below). [5 marks] CH3OH NaClO3 H2SO4 Reactor Products

DATA RAM: Na = 23, Cl= 35.5, O = 16, S = 32, H = 1, C = 12 (Ans: (a) (i) NaClO3 3.43 mol%,ClO2 = 30.86%, H2O = 25.71% (ii) NaClO3 = 17531 kg, H2SO4 = 1632 kg, CH3OH = 878 kg (b) Limiting reactant = CH3OH)


A mixture of hydrogen and methane is burned with air. Analysis of waste gas leaving the flare stack under steady state conditions gave the following result on a dry basis:N2 O2 CO2 Determine: 86.9 mol% 4.4 mol% 8.7 mol% a) Molar composition of the fuel mixture (H2 and CH4 ) [30 marks] b) The mole ratio of fuel mixture to air. [3 marks]

DATA For air, N2 = 79% v/v and O2 = 21% v/v (Ans: (a) H2 = 23.01 mol%, CH4 = 76.99 mol% (b) 1: 9.73


The feed to a unit consisting of two columns contains 30 mol% benzene(B), 55 mol% toluene(T) (methyl benzene), and 15 mol% xylene(X). The overhead stream from the first column is analysed to contain 94.4 mol% B, 4.54 mol% T, and 1.06 mol% X. The bottoms from the first column is fed to the second column. In this second column, it is planned that 92% of the original T fed to the first column shall be recovered in the overhead stream and that T shall constitute 94.6 mol% of that stream. It is further planned that 92.6% of the X fed to the first column shall be recovered in the bottoms from the second column and that X shall constitute 77.6 mol% of this bottom stream (see figure given below). If the above conditions are met, calculate: a) Overhead and bottoms flows of both column 1 and 2. [13 marks] Composition of the streams leaving column 2. [16 marks] c) Percentage recovery of benzene in the overhead stream from the first column. [4 marks] 94.40 mol% B 4.54 mol% T 1.06 mol % X B T 94.6 mol% X


30 mol% B 55 mol% T 15 mol% X


B T X 77.6 mol%

(Ans: (a) D1 = 28.62 kmol, B1 71.39 kmol, D2 = 53.49 kmol, B2 = 17.90 kmol (b) D2 composition B = 3.91 mol%, T = 94.60, X = 1.49 B2 composition b = 5.08 mol%, T = 17.32 , X = 77.6 90.03 % )

SECTION B B1. Coke is reacted with steam at 1077 C to produce synthesis gas according to the following two reactions. C(s) + H2O(g) C(s) + 2H2O(g) CO(g) + H2 (g) CO2 (g) + 2H2 (g) ------- 1 ------- 2

Saturated steam is supplied at 165 C and the product gasses leave at 1077 C. The coke bed initially weighs 20,000 kg, and steam is supplied at 1000 kg/h. As the overall reaction is endothermic, heat must be generated by passing air through the bed to burn some coke to maintain the bed temperature. If this is not done, the temperature of the bed will gradually decrease. Given that 95 % of the steam reacts with coke to produce CO and the balance to produce CO2, calculate the following: a) Composition of the synthesis gas if all the steam reacts with coke. [11marks] b) The initial drop in temperature of the bed per minute if coke is not burned in air to maintain the bed temperature. [22 marks] Data Cpm of coke = 0.625 kJ/kg K

For other Cpm values refer to the Cpm table. Component CO(g) CO2(g) H2O(v) hf at 25 C in kJ/kmol -110,600 -393,700 -242,200

(Ans; (a) Composition CO = 48.10 mol%, CO2 = 1.27, H2 = 50.63

Re a

2,764,000kJ / h ,

H Pro = 3,601,212 kJ/h

H or =

+7,071,921 kJ Temp Drop = 10.55 C


A mixture of hydrogen and carbon monoxide is burned completely in 500 % excess preheated air. The molar ratio of hydrogen to carbon monoxide in the feed mixture is 2 and the feed mixture enters at 25 C. If the adiabatic flame temperature is 1100 K, what was the temperature of the air entering the system?

DATA Component Standard heat of formation at 25 C, hf kJ kmol-1 - 393,700 - 110,600 - 242,200

CO2(g) CO (g) H2O(v)

Cpm of air between 25 C and 500 C = 30.05 kJ mol-1 K-1 For other mean specific heat values refer to the attached Cpm table. For air, N2 = 79% v/v and O2 = 21% v/v [33 marks]

(Ans; Air = 42.86 kmol,

H or = -767,500 kJ, H Pro = 1,135,953 kJ, H Rea = 368,453 kJ

Temp = 311 C