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Non-Terrigenous Sediments and Rocks

Carbonate Sediments and Rocks


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No Simple Classification Scheme

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Most Common non-Terrigenous Sedimentary Rocks


Carbonates (>50% primary carbonate minerals)
Limestone (CaCO3)
Chemical biochemical

Dolomite (CaMg(CO3)2)
Chemical

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Carbonate Rock Classification


Allochems
Carbonate sand

Micrite
Micro Crystalline calcite

Cement (spar)

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Carbonate Rocks Constituents


The sand-sized grains that occur in carbonate rocks are called allochemical particles or allochems.
1. 2. 3. 4. Intraclasts Ooliths Peloids Skeletal particles (bioclasts) The interpretation of the depositional setting of carbonates is based on grain types, grain packing or fabric, sedimentary structures, and early diagenetic changes.
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Carbonate Rocks Constituents


The sand-sized grains that occur in carbonate rocks are called allochemical particles or allochems.
1. 2. Intraclasts (rock fragments): formed, transported and redeposited within the basin Ooliths: concentrically laminated carbonate structures, including: oolites -concentrically laminated structures,less than 2mm in diameter, thought to be abiogenic in origin pisolites - same as oolites, but greater than 2mm in diameter oncolites - spheroidal stromatolites (> 1-2 cm) Peloids: silt to fine grained sand sized carbonate particles with no distinctive internal structure; most thought to be fecal pellets Skeletal particles (bioclasts): whole microfossils, whole megafossils, broken shell fragments algae, forams, corals, bryozoans, brachiopods, gastropods, pelecypods, ostracods, etc.

3.

4.

3_G435.ppt

Carbonate Rocks Constituents


Intraclasts (early lithified carbonate fragments):
irregularly-shaped grains that form by syndepositional erosion of partially lithified sediment.

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Carbonate Rocks Constituents


Ooliths: concentrically laminated carbonate structures, including: oolites -concentrically laminated structures,less than 2mm in diameter, thought to be abiogenic in origin pisolites - same as oolites, but greater than 2mm in diameter oncolites - spheroidal stromatolites (> 1-2 cm)

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Carbonate Rocks Constituents


Pelloids: silt to fine grained sand sized carbonate particles with no distinctive internal structure; most thought to be fecal pellets

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Carbonate Rocks Constituents


Skeletal particles (bioclasts): whole microfossils, whole megafossils, broken shell fragments
algae, forams, corals, bryozoans, brachiopods, gastropods, pelecypods, ostracods, etc. Standard microfacies (fossil fragment type -> environment)

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Carbonate Rocks Constituents


Micrite:
microcrystalline carbonate particles of clay (<1-4 micron) size (subtranslucent matrix) formed by
chemical or biochemical ppt abrasion of allochems

implies deposition in a low energy environment just like in terrigenous mudstones


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Carbonate Rocks Constituents


Cement:
sparry (twinkling crystalline) orthochemical material formed in interstitial pore spaces of grainy carbonate sediment
cement in pores indicates original void space also recrystallized allochems or micrite

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Carbonate Rocks Constituents


Insoluble Residues
minor amounts of clay minerals and quartz occur in limestones, as insoluble residues, (so called because they do not dissolve in HCl) Most insoluble material is chert (siliceous) chert mostly originates from the shells of silica secreting organisms including diatoms, radiolarians, and some sponges.

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Classification Schemes: Folk Classification


Type I limestone,
Sparry Allochemical rocks: allochems > 50%, spar cement > micrite mud [4 rock types]
more energetic environment, some sorting

Type II limestone,
Micritic Allochemical rocks: allochems >10%, micrite mud > spar cement [4 rock types]lower energy environment, more poorly sorted than Type I

Type III limestone: Micrite: allochems < 10%


very low energy at the site of deposition (carbonate mudrock)

Biolithite: Reef rock


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Classification Schemes: Dunham Classification


Dunham Classification
Texture and allochem type incorporated into classification
sediment deposited in calm vs agitated waters mud-bearing vs mud-free sediment grain vs mud support bound (biologically)

depositional texture recognizable

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5 Principles of Dunham Classification


1. Presence or absence of lime mud; is there any mud at all. Calm waters allow for the accumulation of lime mud and indicates the absence of current induced agitation Grain Support: self supporting framework:
fluid circulation, diagenesis

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3. 4. 5.

Grain kind: standard microfacies types Grain size, rounding, and coating: hydrologic interpretations Biogenically ppt masses bound at time of deposition:
Boundstone organic framework laminations not consistent with gravity (stromatolite) roof over sediment filled cavities

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Folk Textural Spectrum Classification


Concocted to incorporate textural characteristics comparable to textural maturity in TC sediments
Mud component Sorting Rounding

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Dolomitic Rocks
Typically devoid of primary textures and structures; if primary textures are preserved
<10% dolomite: dolomitized (rock name) >10% dolomite: dolomitic (rock name) recrystallized carbonate: dolostone
saddle dolomite: burial dolomite of hydrothermal origin

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