EDITORIAL REVISION

May 2009

Process Industry Practices Vessels

PIP VECV1001 Vessel Design Criteria ASME Code Section VIII, Divisions 1 and 2

PURPOSE AND USE OF PROCESS INDUSTRY PRACTICES In an effort to minimize the cost of process industry facilities, this Practice has been prepared from the technical requirements in the existing standards of major industrial users, contractors, or standards organizations. By harmonizing these technical requirements into a single set of Practices, administrative, application, and engineering costs to both the purchaser and the manufacturer should be reduced. While this Practice is expected to incorporate the majority of requirements of most users, individual applications may involve requirements that will be appended to and take precedence over this Practice. Determinations concerning fitness for purpose and particular matters or application of the Practice to particular project or engineering situations should not be made solely on information contained in these materials. The use of trade names from time to time should not be viewed as an expression of preference but rather recognized as normal usage in the trade. Other brands having the same specifications are equally correct and may be substituted for those named. All Practices or guidelines are intended to be consistent with applicable laws and regulations including OSHA requirements. To the extent these Practices or guidelines should conflict with OSHA or other applicable laws or regulations, such laws or regulations must be followed. Consult an appropriate professional before applying or acting on any material contained in or suggested by the Practice.

This Practice is subject to revision at any time.

© Process Industry Practices (PIP), Construction Industry Institute, The University of Texas at Austin, 3925 West Braker Lane (R4500), Austin, Texas 78759. PIP member companies and subscribers may copy this Practice for their internal use. Changes, overlays, addenda, or modifications of any kind are not permitted within any PIP Practice without the express written authorization of PIP.

PRINTING HISTORY September 1997 Issued February 1999 Complete Revision August 2000 Revision February 2007 Complete Revision May 2009 Editorial Revision

Not printed with State funds

EDITORIAL REVISION
May 2009

Process Industry Practices Vessels

PIP VECV1001 Vessel Design Criteria ASME Code Section VIII, Divisions 1 and 2
Table of Contents 1. General Requirements ............... 3
1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 Purpose .......................................... 3 Scope ............................................. 3 ASME Code Requirements ............ 3 National Board Registration ........... 4 Jurisdictional Compliance............... 4 Units of Measurement .................... 4 Process Industry Practices ............. 4 Industry Codes and Standards ....... 5 Government Regulations................ 6 Other References ........................... 6 5.3 External Pressure Design .............. 9 5.4 Load Combinations ...................... 10 5.5 Wind Load .................................... 12 5.6 Seismic Loads .............................. 12 5.7 Cyclic Service ............................... 12 5.8 Formed Heads.............................. 13 5.9 Nozzles ......................................... 13 5.10 Manways ...................................... 14 5.11 Flanges ......................................... 15 5.12 Vessel Supports ........................... 19 5.13 Anchor Bolts ................................. 21 5.14 Internals ........................................ 22

2. References .................................. 4

6. Materials.................................... 22
6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5 General ......................................... 22 Source of Materials ...................... 23 Dual (Multiple) Marked Materials . 23 Corrosion/Erosion Allowance ....... 23 External Protection of Austenitic Stainless Steel Equipment from Stress Corrosion Cracking ........... 24 6.6 Support Materials ......................... 24 6.7 External Attachments ................... 25

3. Definitions ................................... 6 4. Responsibilities .......................... 7
4.1 Documentation to be Provided to the Manufacturer ............................ 7 4.2 Language ....................................... 7 4.3 Designer’s Responsibility ............... 7

5. Design ......................................... 8
5.1 Design Pressure and Temperature ................................... 8 5.2 Minimum Design Metal Temperature (MDMT) and Coincident Pressure ....................... 9

7. Examination, Inspection and Pressure Testing ...................... 26
7.1 Welded Pressure Joint Requirements ............................... 26 7.2 Testing .......................................... 26

Process Industry Practices

Page 1 of 27

EDITORIAL REVISION May 2009 Appendices Appendix A – General Considerations for Pressure Relief Valve Application Appendix B – Welded Pressure Joint Requirements Appendix C – Equivalent Pressure Formulas for Bending Moment and Axial Tensile Load Page 2 of 27 Process Industry Practices .

1.3 Waste Heat Recovery Vessels Steam generating vessels associated with waste heat recovery operations shall be constructed and stamped with the Code “U” symbol in accordance with Code Section VIII. 1. operating environments. 1.3. these practices shall be employed with engineering judgment and supplemented as appropriate with requirements related to specific materials of construction. General Requirements Note to Readers: This Practice contains design criteria for pressure vessels built to Division 1 or Division 2 of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code.3. Dual Code symbol stamping of such vessels (both Section I “S” symbol and Section VIII. Division 1 {or 2} of the Code. Applicable Code Scope Exemptions The Code Scope exemptions that represent across-the-board acceptance are those covered under Code Paragraphs U-1(c)(2)(h) {1.2.1 1. but are covered in PIP VESSM001.4 1.PIP VECV1001 Vessel Design Criteria ASME Code Section VIII. and vessel geometries. These exemptions are not intended to prohibit the use of other Scope exemptions in Code Paragraph U-1(c)(2) {1.4.2.2}.2. Many recognized and generally accepted good engineering construction practices are included herein.4.2. 1.1 This Practice shall be used in conjunction with PIP VEDV1003 and/or PIP VEDV1003_EEDS.2 h} and U-1(c)(2)(i) {1. service fluids.3. provisions of this Practice may be overridden or supplemented by an Overlay Specification. Division 1 “U” symbol) is not permitted. However.3 ASME Code Requirements 1.2 Scope 1.3 1. Section VIII Division 2 requirements are shown in braces { }. Vessels with layered construction are outside the scope of this Practice. Divisions 1 and 2 EDITORIAL REVISION May 2009 1. Standardized pre-designed (off-the-shelf) vessels are not within the scope of this Practice.2. however. such use shall be by agreement with the User.2. Accordingly.2 1. PIP VEFV1100 (Applicable Details). This Practice is also intended as guidance for the development of purchase specifications covering the construction of new pressure vessels which meet the philosophy and requirements of Section VIII. in light of the many diverse service applications of Code vessels.2 Pressure vessels within the scope of this Practice shall satisfy all applicable requirements. Process Industry Practices Page 3 of 27 .2 i)}.4. Division 1. henceforth referred to as the Code. including Code symbol stamping. and PIP VESV1002 in order to comprise a complete vessel purchase specification.1 Purpose The primary focus of this Practice is to communicate vessel design criteria and methodology from the User to a Designer.2.

except as otherwise noted. and references shall be considered an integral part of this Practice.) 1. 2. 2. metric (SI) units may be included for reference only and shall not be interpreted as a precise conversion. Horizontal. Studded Joints – – PIP VESSM001 . Vortex Breakers PIP VEFV1125 . industry codes and standards.Vessel.EDITORIAL REVISION May 2009 PIP VECV1001 Vessel Design Criteria ASME Code Section VIII. but is not limited to.Vessel Standard Details (29 Details and Index) PIP VEFV1105 . References Applicable parts of the following Practices.3. the rules and standards established by EPA and OSHA.4 National Board Registration National Board registration of vessels stamped with the Code “U” {“U2”} symbol is required. Internal Ladders PIP VEFV1129 . Horizontal. Saddles Supported on Steel PIP VEFV1116 . and federal rules and regulations. The edition in effect on the date of contract award shall be used. state.Vessel. Manway Hinges PIP VEFV1117 .6 Units of Measurement US customary (English) units shall be regarded as standard for domestic US locations. county.Vessel Drawing/Data Sheet and Instructions PIP VEDV1003_EEDS .1 Process Industry Practices (PIP) For the following reference documents. Saddles Supported on Concrete PIP VEFV1106 . the latest edition issued at the date of contract award shall be used.Specification for Small Pressure Vessels and Heat Exchangers with Limited Design Conditions PIP VESV1002 . This includes. 1. Manway Horizontal Davit PIP VEFV1124 . – – – PIP VEDV1003 .Vessel Fabrication Specification ASME Code Section VIII.Pressure Vessels Electronic Entry Data Sheet PIP VEFV1100 .Vessel. Manway Vertical Davit PIP VEFV1118 .5 Jurisdictional Compliance All aspects of the work shall comply with applicable local.Vessel.Vessel. Short titles are used herein where appropriate. Divisions 1 and 2 1. Divisions 1 and 2 Page 4 of 27 Process Industry Practices .Vessel.Vessel. (See Section 2. or applicable national standards at the point of installation.Vessel.

the edition listed in Table U-3 {1.Large-Diameter Carbon Steel Flanges (Nominal Pipe Sizes 26 through 60. 600 and 900) API 579 .Damage Mechanisms Affecting Fixed Equipment in the Pulp and Paper Industry WRC Bulletin 489 . NPS 1/2 through NPS 24 ASME B16.Welding and Brazing Qualifications – – – – – – – • ASME B1.PIP VECV1001 Vessel Design Criteria ASME Code Section VIII.1} shall be used.Repair of Pressure Equipment and Piping American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE) – – American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Manufacturers Standardization Society of the Valve and Fittings Industry.11 .Steel Pipeline Flanges WRC Bulletin 488 .Pressure Vessels. Socket-Welding and Threaded ASME B16.Power Boilers Section II . C. Divisions 1 and 2 EDITORIAL REVISION May 2009 2.Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code Section I .Materials. NPS 26 through NPS 60 ASME PCC-1 .Forged Fittings. 400.9 . Inc. Divisions 1 and 2 Section IX .2 Industry Codes and Standards For the following reference documents. 300. Classes 75.Factory-Made Wrought Buttwelding Fittings ASME B16. B. Parts A. if Table U-3 {1.Large Diameter Steel Flanges. D Section VIII .5 .Pipe Flanges and Flanged Fittings.1} of the Code lists an edition or addenda different than the latest edition issued.1}.Welded Steel Tanks for Oil Storage API 605 . 150. For documents not listed in Table U-3 {1.Damage Mechanisms Affecting Fixed Equipment in the Refining Industry ASCE 7 . the latest edition or addenda issued at the date of contract award shall be used.Damage Mechanisms Affecting Fixed Equipment in the Fossil Electric Power Industry Welding Research Council (WRC) – – – • Process Industry Practices Page 5 of 27 .47 . • American Petroleum Institute (API) – – – • • API 650 .Guidelines for Pressure Boundary Bolted Flange Joint Assembly ASME PCC-2 .Unified Inch Screw Threads (UN and UNR Thread Form) ASME B16.Damage Mechanisms Affecting Fixed Equipment in the Refining Industry WRC Bulletin 490 . (MSS) – MSS SP-44 .1 .

Definitions Code: ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code Section VIII. 1966. References to Division 2 are identified in braces { }. Building Science Series Number 32.” L. Department of Labor. testing. 1972.4 Other References – Dynamic Response of Tall Flexible Structures to Wind Loading. (ISBN-0-7844-0262-0) – – – 3.Permit-Required Confined Spaces for General Industry 2. an organization comprised of chief inspectors of various governmental jurisdictions in the United States and Canada. or the Manufacturer. In accordance with the Code definition. 1959. “Wind Loads on Petrochemical Facilities. Joseph Vellozzi. Vessel Drawing/Data Sheet {User’s Design Specification}) consistent with User criteria for use by the Manufacturer.5. S. Manufacturer (Supplier): The party entering into a contract with the Purchaser to construct a vessel in accordance with the purchase order. the Manufacturer is the party that possesses a valid Certificate of Authorization to manufacturer pressure vessels with the ASME Mark. This applies to Division 1 and Division 2 vessels. “Stresses in Large Cylindrical Pressure Vessels on Two Saddle Supports. design.g.D. Wind Loads and Anchor Bolt Design for Petrochemical Facilities. Pressure Vessels and Piping: Design and Analysis.EDITORIAL REVISION May 2009 PIP VECV1001 Vessel Design Criteria ASME Code Section VIII. certification (Code stamp and Manufacturer’s Data Report).E. A Decade of Progress. Wiley & Sons Publishers.” ASCE Task Committee on WindInduced Forces.3 Government Regulations • U. National Bureau of Standards. {Manufacturer’s Design Report} and pressure relief cyclic service: Services that require fatigue analysis per 5. inspection.. third party consultant. Brownell and Young. such as a User specification or a project specification. National Board: The National Board of Boiler and Pressure Vessel Inspectors. but could be the User. examination. Vol. fabrication. Division 1{or 2} and reference section such a Section II and Section IX and any Code Cases accepted by the User. Divisions 1 and 2 2. Overlay Specification: Technical requirements that supplement or override the provisions of this document.146(k)(3)(ii) . U..S. Zick. construction: An all-inclusive term comprising materials. P. Ph. Process Equipment Design. The Designer is frequently an engineering contractor.2 of ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code Section VIII Division 2. Page 6 of 27 Process Industry Practices . Designer: The party responsible for defining and specifying the mechanical design requirements (e. 2. Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) – OSHA 29 CFR 1910.P. Department of Commerce. The Manufacturer may or may not be the Supplier.

Type of Category A. Pressure Vessels Electronic Entry Data Sheet.1. to comply with OSHA 29 CFR 1910.2 Language The language of all documents shall be either English or include the English translation.3 Designer’s Responsibility The Designer is responsible for the design of the vessels in conformance with this Practice and the documents referenced herein.1 Design requirements to be provided to the Manufacturer shall be per PIP VEDV1003.3 4. Divisions 1 and 2 EDITORIAL REVISION May 2009 Owner: The party who owns the facility wherein the vessel will be used.5 4. design calculations or drawings) by the Purchaser or User does not alter this responsibility. “User” refers to the operator of the equipment. 4.2. Appendix B.1. or applicable national standard at the point of installation.) 4. as shown in PIP VESV1002. (See Section 5..1. {User’s Design Specification per 2.1.8. B.6 Quality Overview Plan. may also be used.10. User’s Inspector: The person or company authorized by the owner and/or user to inspect pressure vessels to the requirements of this practice and the User’s requirements.g.4 4. Process Industry Practices Page 7 of 27 . 4. Responsibilities 4. Documentation Schedule and Manufacturer’s Data Package.1.146. if any. with additional drawings or details as necessary. including: a. C. PIP VEDV1003_EEDS. Purchaser: The party actually placing the order for the vessel or vessel components. The owner is normally also the User but in certain cases is not. Type and degree of nondestructive examination to be applied to the joints (see Appendix B) 4. User: The party responsible for establishing construction criteria consistent with the Code philosophy and service hazards.2} List of permanent attachments.PIP VECV1001 Vessel Design Criteria ASME Code Section VIII. and D joints (see Appendix B) b. Appendix A.2 4. Review of Designer’s documentation (e. This may be the User or the User’s Designated Agent. as shown in PIP VESV1002.1.1 Documentation to be Provided to the Manufacturer The following information shall be provided to the Manufacturer with the purchasing inquiry: 4. Welded pressure joint requirements.

Normal shutdown g. Divisions 1 and 2 5.. Startup following a turnaround or an emergency shutdown h. this margin is also dependent upon the operational characteristics of the pressure relief device.90. when a pilot-operated pressure relief device is used. and when metal-seated. Emergency operations f. liquid head and other sources of pressure variation.98. such as: a. Temporary operations d. 5. the design pressure is sometimes established by dividing the maximum anticipated operating pressure by a factor as high as 0.1. For example. the design pressure is frequently established by dividing the maximum anticipated operating pressure by 0. As will be noted with reference to Appendix A. Page 8 of 27 Process Industry Practices . when the maximum anticipated operating pressure of a gas/vapor service can be identified with confidence.1 The design pressure and coincident maximum metal temperature shall be determined by the Designer by carefully considering all operating phases and associated loadings (e.g. Normal operations c.2 Upset conditions Safety. For example.1. Design 5.1 Design Pressure and Temperature 5. health and environmental restrictions on material release during a relief event causing increased pressure in the vessel. The margin above the maximum anticipated operating pressure selected to establish the design pressure and coincident maximum metal temperature shall be carefully considered for each vessel component as a function of the overall objective with respect to pressure relief. where minimization of severely flammable or acutely toxic environmental hazards is a controlling design requirement. Initial startup b. steam out. Cleaning. coupled with the uncertainties in determining what actual pressures will be developed. Refer to the Overlay Specification for any margins to be applied to the maximum operating pressure(s) and coincident temperature(s). and decontamination i. direct spring-operated valves will be used. However.EDITORIAL REVISION May 2009 PIP VECV1001 Vessel Design Criteria ASME Code Section VIII. j. such as that resulting from flow) that the vessel may experience during the specified project life. Emergency shutdown e. the establishment of a design pressure and associated Maximum Allowable Working Pressure (MAWP) that will provide containment without actuation of the pressure relief device may be a consideration.

Water over 140°F (60°C). The mean metal temperature during shop and future field pressure testing shall also be considered during the vessel design stage. Process Industry Practices Page 9 of 27 . such procedures make it appropriate to consider operations below the MDMT stamped on the nameplate.3 External Pressure Design In a manner similar to that described in Section 5. Figure 4-2 from API 650 may be used to establish the lowest 1-day mean temperatures insofar as applicable. the advantages of using the provisions of Code Case 2203. Design solely on the basis of simultaneous loading of internal pressure in adjacent compartments is not acceptable. Divisions 1 and 2. Vessels that are subjected to steam-out conditions shall be designed for full vacuum.2 above. Divisions 1 and 2 EDITORIAL REVISION May 2009 5. and other loadings which may occur during operation (see above bullet list) and test conditions. provided the reduction in MDMT for the coincident general primary membrane tensile stress results in a temperature that is no colder than that permitted in Code Paragraph UCS-66(b) {3.2. Non-jacketed vessels Vessels subjected to operating pressure less than atmospheric shall be designed and Code stamped for full vacuum.1. when considering the effects of auto-refrigeration on carbon and low-alloy steels. the Designer shall establish the external design pressure and coincident temperature by determining requirements for external pressure based on the expected operation of the vessel and adding a suitable operating margin.1.1. When atmospheric temperatures govern the metal temperatures during startup or normal operations. 5. For example.PIP VECV1001 Vessel Design Criteria ASME Code Section VIII.1 and of the Code rules in Paragraph UG-20(b) {4.11.1. 5.1.2 e)}. For multi-chamber vessels. startup and shutdown) are often appropriate from a materials of construction selection point of view.” may be an option. With permission from the authority having legal jurisdiction over the installation of pressure vessels (should one exist).5}.2 Minimum Design Metal Temperature (MDMT) and Coincident Pressure The MDMT and coincident pressure to be marked on the Code nameplate shall be selected by the Designer in consideration of the operating phases such as those listed in Section 5.1. Section VIII. or Steam Service. Divisions 1 and 2.4 5. Section VIII. common component(s) of multi-chamber or compartmented vessels shall be designed for the most severe combinations of pressure.. Consideration shall also be given to external pressures caused by sudden cooldown of gases or vapors in the vessel or by the sudden emptying of the vessel contents.1.5 5.5. 5.3 In lieu of the requirements of 5.1. entitled “Pressure Vessels with Overpressure Protection by System Design.3. Reliable administrative procedures to control the pressure/coincident temperatures during transient operations (e. temperature.1. use of Code Case 2211. entitled “Omission of Lifting Device Requirements for Pressure Relief Valves on Air. Note that prior jurisdictional acceptance may be required and that this Code Case Number shall be shown on the Manufacturer’s Data Report.g. the lowest 1-day mean atmospheric temperature at the installation site shall be considered.” shall be considered.

insulation fireproofing.2.6 of PIP VESV1002. if any.) 5. For vessels with more than one independent chamber.1.8}. platforms. including that on trays. design basis shall consider that the vessel will be field tested in its normal operating position.2.3 Pressure Load (L3) Pressure Load is the MAWP (internal or external at the coincident temperature) considering the pressure variations through the vessel. (See Section 5. refractory lining.1. Unless otherwise specified.EDITORIAL REVISION May 2009 PIP VECV1001 Vessel Design Criteria ASME Code Section VIII. 5.6 Wind Load (L6) Wind Load shall be determined in accordance with Section 5.4.4 Thermal Load (L4) Thermal Loads are the loads caused by the restraint of thermal expansion/interaction of the vessel and/or its supports.1. including internals. catalyst or packing. 5.4.4. 5. piping. 5.4.2 Jacketed or compartmented vessels Jacketed or compartmented vessels that are designed for vacuum in the compartment under consideration shall have the common components designed for an external pressure equal to the sum of internal design pressure of the adjacent compartment plus the vacuum design pressure of the compartment under consideration. Page 10 of 27 Process Industry Practices . and other permanent attachments.2. 5.3.5.4.1.5 Test Load (L5) Test Load is the weight of the test medium.1. MAWP may be equal to the design pressure (see Code footnote 34 {2.2 Operating Live Load (L2) Operating Live Load is the weight of the liquid at the maximum operating level.4.1 Dead Load (L1) Dead Load is the installed weight of the vessel.4 Load Combinations 5. usually water.1 Design Loads and Load Combinations Design loads are defined and classified as follows: 5.1.4.1 d)1)}). Divisions 1 and 2 5.1. see Code Paragraph UG-19(a) {4.

8 Seismic Load (L7) Seismic Load shall be determined in accordance with Section 5.1 5.2 b)} for pneumatic testing.4.2.4.2. The general primary membrane tensile stress in the corroded condition (or when no corrosion allowance is specified) under this load combination shall not exceed 90% of the Specified Minimum Yield Strength at 100°F (38°C) {that specified in 4.25)L6 When specified by User.6.2 L1+L6 Erected Condition with full Wind Load L1+L2+L3+L4+L6+L8 Design Condition with full Wind Load (include both full and zero pressure conditions (L3) for check of maximum longitudinal tensile and compressive stress) L1+L2+L3+L4+L7+L8 Design Condition with Seismic Load (include both full and zero pressure conditions to determine L3 for check of maximum longitudinal tensile and compressive stress) L1+(F)L3+L5+(0.1.2.4.7 5.4.4.3 5.4.1 and those caused by superimposed equipment shall be considered as applicable 5.2.6 of PIP VESV1002 and testing requirements in Section 7.) 5.2. Code Case 2055 on pneumatic testing of pressure vessels can be used. Divisions 1 and 2 EDITORIAL REVISION May 2009 5.6.11. initial (new uncorroded) hydrostatic test condition and future (corroded) hydrostatic test condition with vessel in normal operating position and with 50% of design wind velocity (25% of wind load).5 Lift Condition: See Section 5.1. established the minimum required test pressure at every point in the vessel.1.4 Process Industry Practices Page 11 of 27 .2 Load Combinations Vessels and their supports shall be designed to meet the most severe of the following load combinations. 5.2 of PIP VESV1002 for allowable stresses with wind or seismic loads. When applicable.8. unless other combinations are required by the applicable building code at the point of installation: (See Section 5.1. when multiplied by the lowest ratio (for the materials of which the vessel is constructed) of the stress value S {allowable stress S} for the test temperature of the vessel to the stress value {allowable stress S} for the design temperature.6.) 5.PIP VECV1001 Vessel Design Criteria ASME Code Section VIII.2 a)}for hydrostatic testing or 80% of the Specified Minimum Yield Strength at 100°F (38°C) {4. Piping and Superimposed Equipment Loads (L8) Loads caused by piping other than the Dead Load in Section 5.2.4.4.4. F is the appropriate Code test factor that.2. with the controlling load combination indicated in design calculations. Test factor F shall be per appropriate Code for the test medium used.1. (See examples of design considerations described in 5.

quite frequently fall into this category. Note: Local codes or regulations may require compliance with other rules for wind load design. piping. The following guidelines {5. seismic loads shall conform to ASCE 7.1. platforms. for example.5 Wind Load 5.6 Seismic Loads Unless otherwise dictated at the point of installation.1 ASCE 7 Unless otherwise specified at the point of installation.4 of this Practice) provides guidelines and examples for the determination of the total wind-induced forces on pressure vessels.5. thereby preventing the generation of the vortices with the undesirable predominant frequency. 5. ladders and piping) will be effective as spoilers provided the maximum circumferential distance between them is 108 degrees (30% of the vessel circumference).) In the case of cylindrical pressure vessels that have been determined to be candidates for wind-induced vibration. (In general. See reference document “Dynamic Response of Tall Flexible Structures to Wind Loading”.3} are recommended as a starting point when determining if cyclic analysis will be required..2 Force on Vessel Attachments ASCE 7 does not provide the complete methodology needed to account for wind-induced forces on common appurtenances to pressure vessels such as ladders. but including skirt height) greater than 15 may vibrate due to vortex-excited resonance unless sufficient external appurtenances or wind spoilers are present to disrupt the airflow over the vessel. handrails.5. 5. piping. 5. wind loads shall conform to ASCE 7.EDITORIAL REVISION May 2009 PIP VECV1001 Vessel Design Criteria ASME Code Section VIII. Code Paragraph UG-22(e) {4. the addition of spoilers is typically more feasible than changing the natural frequency of the vessel or providing supplementary damping.5.7 Cyclic Service The required service for all vessels shall include consideration by the Designer of cyclic service.2. 5. etc. it has been found that spoilers are only required for the top third of the vessel height and that normal attachments in this region (e. If most detail items (ladders.4} mandates that cyclic and dynamic reactions from any mechanical or thermal loading source be considered in design.3 Wind Induced Vibration Vertical vessels having an h/D ratio (not including insulation thickness.1. Divisions 1 and 2 5. platforms. including those from appurtenances. etc. Note: Local codes and regulations may require compliance with other rules for seismic design.5.) of the vessel are known or can be estimated with reasonable accuracy. The report entitled “Wind Loads on Petrochemical Facilities” (see Section 2.g. The need for a Page 12 of 27 Process Industry Practices . Batch operation vessels and vessels having agitators. the Detailed Method described in this report shall be used for the vessel design.

9.) exceed 1000 cycles in the desired design life of the vessel: 5.1.3 In establishing nozzle and manway projections. venting.1 Number of Cycles {See 5.1.8 Formed Heads Formed heads in vessels over 2 inches (50 mm) thick typically have hemispherical or 2:1 ellipsoidal heads.7.7.5. Vortex breakers shall be provided on pump suction nozzles. Divisions 1 and 2 EDITORIAL REVISION May 2009 fatigue analysis by the Manufacturer shall be stated on the Data Sheet by the Designer.7. Minimum projection from the outside of the vessel wall to the nozzle face shall be: a.1 5. Nozzles (including attached piping) within or passing through vessel support skirts shall be adequately supported for the operating conditions and for protection during shipping and handling.3 The expected number of full range (design) pressure cycles. and draining.1.2.2.5. decontamination.9 Nozzles 5. 5. Paragraph 5.+2.7.9. Clearance for flange studs and nuts shall be considered when nozzles penetrate insulation or platforms.) For vessels supported by a skirt. see Code Section VIII. pressure relieving.7. 10 inches (250 mm) for nozzles larger than NPS 8 (DN 200) 5. (See PIP VEFV1124.9.2 Fatigue Loading Data The applicable fatigue loading conditions shall be stated on PIP VEDV1003. 5. pumpout.+3. clearance shall be provided for removing flange stud bolts from between the flange and vessel and for accessing flange stud nuts. Differential thermal expansion between the skirt and nozzle in both the vertical and horizontal directions shall be considered. 8 inches (200 mm) for nozzles up to and including NPS 8 (DN 200) b. Division 2. including startups and shutdowns The expected number of operating pressure cycles in which the range of pressure variation exceeds 20% of the design pressure The expected number of thermal cycles where the metal temperature differential between any two adjacent points exceeds 50ºF (28ºC) {For a definition of adjacent points.2 5. 5.1 Vessels shall be provided with sufficient connections to permit purging. the flange of any nozzle in the bottom head shall be located outside the skirt.3} Code vessels shall be considered to be in cyclic service when the total number of cycles in the following three items (1. 5.PIP VECV1001 Vessel Design Criteria ASME Code Section VIII.3 d)1)and 2).2 Process Industry Practices Page 13 of 27 .} 5.

146.10.Manways spaced 20 trays apart b.1 Vessels with mixers/agitators shall be provided with at least one manway that does not require removal of the mixer/agitator. including the suitability of a retrieval system at manways for personnel rescue as described in OSHA 29 CFR 1910.5 Vessels larger than 3 feet (1 m) ID that are subject to internal corrosion. Larger diameter manways shall be used to satisfy additional needs such as.Manways spaced 30 trays apart c. Tall towers (> 120 trays) .10. 5. size.10. 18 inches (450 mm) above the top tray. In no case shall manways be less than NPS 20 (DN 500).2 Manways are required on towers with feed and distribution trays. “Inspection Openings. 5.2. etc. Medium towers (60-120 trays) .3 Manways shall be usable from a ladder. platform.10. Vessels in this size category may justify the use of body flanges. packing.8 Consideration should be given by the User for safe access and egress through a manway. 5.10 Manways 5. Internal ladders shall not be used in corrosive or erosive service. or mechanical abrasion shall be equipped with one or more flanged and blinded manways.1 The location.10. quantity. long projection due to thick insulation.2. Minimum requirements regarding manway and inspection openings are covered in Code Paragraph UG-46 {4. 5. 5.4 Vessels 3 feet (1 m) ID and smaller that are subject to internal corrosion. erosion. erosion. and configuration of the vessel may justify manways other than (or in addition to) those mandated by the Code.Manways spaced 40 trays apart 5. A manway shall also be located about 3 ft (1 m) above the bottom head seam and one at the top. or equivalent Page 14 of 27 Process Industry Practices .5. 5.2.10.7 mm) increment. and location of access platforms shall be considered when locating manways. maintenance requirements.10. or grade. installation of internals/catalyst.” 5. or mechanical abrasion shall be equipped with inspection openings as described in Code Paragraph UG-46 {4.10.3 Packed towers shall have manways at all locations where there is feed distribution or redistribution of liquid.16}.5.7 To provide utility for entry and exit. Tray towers shall have manways spaced as follows: a. 5.10. Divisions 1 and 2 Round up the dimension from the face of the nozzle to the vessel centerline or reference line to the next larger 1/2-inch (12.10.2 Service conditions. but not limited to.EDITORIAL REVISION May 2009 PIP VECV1001 Vessel Design Criteria ASME Code Section VIII.10. vessel geometry.16}. Internal ladders or grab rungs may be needed at manway locations for entry and exit. See PIP VEFV1125. 5. and size of manways and internal ladder rungs shall be specified to ensure that all interior areas are accessible as required. 5.6 Manways less than NPS 24 (DN 600) shall not be allowed without written approval from Owner. Short towers (< 60 trays) .

and austenitic stainless steel flanges of the integral hub.146 means “the equipment (including a retrieval line.1. (Consider both size and location.1. the options available (as follows in Sections 5. Weld neck flanges shall be used except as permitted elsewhere in this specification. Hinged manways require Owner approval due to potential pinch point. welding neck flange style that are dimensionally the same as flanges covered under the now obsolete API 605.” Permanent attachments. Process Industry Practices Page 15 of 27 .1 The Designer is responsible for ensuring that the facings. low-alloy.11. Divisions 1 and 2 EDITORIAL REVISION May 2009 national standard.11. low-alloy. bolt circle.11 Flanges 5. Body flanges in this size range may be either per ASME B16.11. welding neck style that are dimensionally the same as MSS SP-44 flanges.10 Consideration may be given for use of suitable process connections as manways and handholes. and a lifting device or anchor) used for non-entry rescue of persons from permit spaces. if appropriate. Manways on the top of vessels oriented with a vertical nozzle neck axis shall be equipped with a davit in accordance with PIP VEFV1118. Series A (NPS 26 through NPS 60) These are standard carbon. The materials covered are identical with those in Materials Groups 1 and 2 of ASME B16.47.5. Machinery nozzles may be provided with flanges of Series B dimensions.11.5.47. The materials covered are identical with those in Materials Groups 1 and 2 of ASME B16.11.4) to the User shall be carefully selected as a function of the need. 5. For nozzles larger than NPS 24 (DN 600) and for body flanges of any size. Series A and Series B flanges are not dimensionally compatible in all sizes.9 Manways shall be equipped with either a davit or a hinge to facilitate handling of the blind flange. Flanges for all flanged vessel nozzles equal to or smaller than NPS 24 (DN 600) shall meet the requirements of ASME B16. if any. 5.5 or custom-designed per the Code. Manways oriented with the nozzle neck axis in a horizontal plane shall be equipped with a hinge in accordance with PIP VEFV1116 or a davit in accordance with PIP VEFV1117.10. wristlets. 5. chest or full-body harness.) 5.1.2 ASME B16. Therefore.1. and size of bolts of vessel nozzles match the mating piping flanges. “Retrieval system” as defined by OSHA 29 CFR 1910. Attach the davit-socket bracket to the nozzle neck when lap joint flanges are employed. 5. Series A and Series B flanges are not dimensionally compatible in all sizes. Line valves and machinery nozzles may be provided with flanges of MSS SP-44 dimensions. shall be specified by the User.PIP VECV1001 Vessel Design Criteria ASME Code Section VIII. vessel nozzle flanges that meet the dimensions of Series A flanges may be either necessary or desirable.5.1 through 5. number of bolts. vessel nozzle flanges that meet the dimensions of Series B flanges may either be necessary or desirable. Therefore.1 ASME B16. Series B (NPS 26 through NPS 60) These are standard carbon. and austenitic stainless steel flanges of the integral hub.10.

5 and ASME B16.47 flanges are sometimes below recommended guidelines. the flanges may not be suitably designed for externally applied moment or axial thrust loadings (e.5 or ASME B16. or a length-through-hub dimension. slip-on) covered in ASME B16. lap joint. For NPS 26 through NPS 60. since the slip-on flange is more commonly used.47 are not appropriate for the service conditions.16}. or seismic loadings). provided the resulting flange meets the requirements for a lapped flange.10} for Rigidity Index requirements. or for those flanges designed in accordance with Code Appendix 2 {4.47 flanges. For certain of the smaller sizes in each pressure class.47 are based primarily on pressure loadings and accordingly. including flange thickness.47. wind.11.11. flange manufacturers typically modify the small slip-on flanges to make the lapped style. The pressure-temperature ratings of both ASME B16.1.1. This modification consists of machining the corner radius of the bore as specified in ASME B16. as imposed by mating piping.g.5. b. Rigidity requirements of ASME B16. The caution is focused on larger sizes where the length-through-hub (dimension Y) for lapped flanges is greater than that of the slip-on style. 5. d. even when flanges are subjected only to pressure loadings within the pressuretemperature ratings. weight. 5. See Appendix C for the method usually employed for considering such mechanical loadings. Service requirements result in significant mechanical loadings other than pressure.16.. resulting in leak-tightness problems. The latter change is permitted in Interpretation 3-5 of ASME B16.g..2 Lap Joint Flanges NPS 24 (DN 600) and Smaller When ASME B16.5 lapped flanges are specified.5 lapped flanges. the length-through-hub (dimension Y) of the slip-on flange and the lapped flange are the same.4 Custom-Designed Lap Joint Flanges See paragraph 5.5 or ASME B16.EDITORIAL REVISION May 2009 PIP VECV1001 Vessel Design Criteria ASME Code Section VIII. c. Page 16 of 27 Process Industry Practices . the desired flange style is other than the welding neck type (e. e.9 of PIP VESV1002 for requirements specific to custom designed lap joint flanges.3 Custom-Designed Flanges Custom-designed flanges may be required when: a. the User is cautioned to make the checks/inspections necessary to ensure that the flanges actually are ASME B16. (This is true through NPS 12 (DN 300) for Class 150.) Accordingly.11.5 (dimension r) and removing the raised face. etc. Design conditions for the intended service application exceed the pressure-temperature ratings of ASME B16. through NPS 8 (DN 200) for Class 300. Divisions 1 and 2 5. See Code paragraph 2-14 {Table 4.10. Materials of construction covered in ASME B16.

except for lapped flanges.11.3. and for flange thickness not exceeding 3 inches (75 mm) 5.6 Vessel is not for lethal service (Code requirement) 5. The height of a raised face shall be 1/16 inch (1.5 (a) or (b)} for design temperatures not exceeding 650ºF (345ºC). or (10a){Figure 4.5 mm) or a greater height when required by ASME B16. shall either have a raised face or shall have a construction that provides outer confinement to the gasket if required by Section 5.5 Flange Facing and Surface Finish 5.2 Custom-designed flanges per Code Figure 2-4(8).11.3. 5.5 standard forged flanges for design pressures and coincident temperatures not exceeding the pressure-temperature ratings for Class 150 flanges as specified in ASME B16. unless a higher temperature is justified by a complete stress analysis and approved by the User 5. For some User-designated services.3.5. with a corresponding coincident temperature exceeding 400ºF (205°C).5 MDMT is not colder than minus 20ºF (-29°C) for carbon and lowalloy steels 5.5 mm) 5.4 Threaded and Socket Weld Flanges Threaded and socket weld flanges shall not be used.) 5.6.3.5 or ASME B16. (9). (See Section 5.] 5. Process Industry Practices Page 17 of 27 .7 Vessel or nozzle is neither for cyclic pressure or temperature service nor subjected to cyclic loadings from associated equipment 5.11.3. Divisions 1 and 2 EDITORIAL REVISION May 2009 Some flange manufacturers have furnished the modified versions of these slip-on flanges as lapped flanges.PIP VECV1001 Vessel Design Criteria ASME Code Section VIII.11. (10).16.3. as a result.1 Flanges. flat-face flanges or ring joint facings may be required.4 Carbon or low-alloy steel flanges attached to solid high-alloy necks are limited to design temperatures no higher than 450ºF (230°C).11.11.3. (9a). The strength of the short-hubbed flanges cannot generally be justified by Code calculations.5 and.5.8 For vessels not in hot hydrogen service [Hot hydrogen service is defined as hydrogen partial pressure exceeding 100 psia (700 kPa-a).11.3 Corrosion allowance does not exceed 1/16 inch (1. except that the maximum design temperature shall not exceed 450°F (230°C) 5.11.11.11.1 ASME B16.3. These flanges do not comply with ASME B16.11.3 Slip-on Flanges Slip-on flanges are limited to use under the following conditions: 5.47.11.11. (8a). calling them short-hubbed lapped flanges. do not comply with either the Code or OSHA when Code construction is mandated.3. or as specified by the User.5.11.

9 Flanged Joints with Dissimilar Metals Austenitic stainless steel or nonferrous alloy flanges may be bolted to carbon steel flanges provided that the differential diametrical expansion will not result in diametrical interference of recessed (e.B} 5. The use of threaded connections is not recommended because of the potential for crevice corrosion and notch sensitivity. MDMT colder than minus 20°F (-29°C) d. 90. 5.11. The minimum size shall be NPS 1-1/2 (DN 40).EDITORIAL REVISION May 2009 PIP VECV1001 Vessel Design Criteria ASME Code Section VIII. Design temperature hotter than 500°F (260°C) c. 5.3 Confined Gaskets For any of the following conditions.11.2 For standard flanges and for custom flanges and shop-fabricated and factory made lap joint stub ends. 5.11.5. Threaded connections for vents and drains or instrument connections are permissible when specified by the User. spiral-wound with outer gauge ring. tongue and groove) joints and does not exceed 1/32 inch (0.) are exempted.11. etc. 125.11. the minimum size shall be NPS 3/4 (DN 20) Schedule (Sch) 160 or 6000# coupling. (See ASME B16. Hinge pins shall be solid (not rolled) and of the same material as the swing bolts.2 and Appendix FF {4. gasketed flange joint designs (body flange and nozzle joints) larger than NPS 24 (DN 600) shall provide outer confinement of the gasket: a. 5. the gasket contact surface shall have either a serrated concentric or serrated spiral finish having a resultant surface finish from 125 .4 μ m) average roughness.) Nozzle sizes NPS 1-1/4. double-jacketed corrugated metal gaskets with a corrugated metal filler.250 μ inch (3.6 Piping Connections All piping connections to vessels shall be either flanged or butt-welded. 3-1/2. 65.5. Joint requires metallic gasket Note: Robust metal reinforced gaskets (e..2 – 6.7 Quick Opening Closures Swing bolts (eye bolts) shall be of one-piece construction without welding. See Code paragraph UG-35. and 550) shall not be used. Design pressure 300 psi (2 MPa) or higher b.8 mm). When used.11.8 and Annex 4. Cyclic pressure or temperature service e. and 22 (DN 32.11. 5.g. Divisions 1 and 2 5. 2-1/2.g. Bolting joining a carbon steel Page 18 of 27 Process Industry Practices ..8 Lap Joints Flanged joints for stainless steel and nonferrous alloy components may be of the lap-joint type with carbon or low-alloy steel flanges when the nominal diameter of the vessel component does not exceed NPS 24 (DN 600) and the maximum temperature stamped on the Code nameplate is not warmer than 300°F (150°C).

3} of the Code. Therefore.) (See Note 2. 5. (See Section 5. Vessel h/D ratio does not exceed 5 (Height is the distance from base of support to the top tangent line of the vessel.3 Skirts or lugs shall be used to support towers or large vertical vessels and are preferred for vessels having top-entering agitators. A spacer ring of the same material as the nozzle flange may be provided behind the flange to increase the effective stud length (see note on PIP VEFV1129). The Manufacturer shall furnish the studs and spacer ring (when required) for each studded connection on the vessel. 5.1 b)}.12.12.2. 5.11.12. Operating temperature does not exceed 450°F (230°C) b.1 Skirts shall have a minimum thickness of 1/4 inch (6 mm).12.) 5. shall be in accordance with ASME PCC-1 Figures 1 and 2.10 Bolting Considerations for Studding Connections When studded connections are used. 5.3.2. when used.2. the thickness of the spacer ring shall be at least as thick as the mating flange thickness. the design of leg-supported vessels with agitators requires the application of experiencebased engineering judgment to ensure that displacement stiffness and stress levels essential to satisfactory operation are provided.5.2 Vertical vessels shall normally be designed as self-supporting units and shall resist overturn based upon wind or earthquake loadings loadings per Paragraph UG-22 {4.) Note 1: Vessels having agitators experience transient transverse forces due to dynamic bending moments from the agitator and sloshing of the liquid. Divisions 1 and 2 EDITORIAL REVISION May 2009 flange to a stainless steel or nonferrous alloy flange shall be of low-alloy steel. 5.12.1 The MDMT for the vessel support assembly shall not be warmer than the lowest 1-day mean atmospheric temperature at the installation site.PIP VECV1001 Vessel Design Criteria ASME Code Section VIII.5.1.12 Vessel Supports 5.2.2 Vertical Vessels 5. Note 2: Caution is advised for leg-supported vessels that may be within h/D ≤ 5 but could have excessive Process Industry Practices Page 19 of 27 . When used. The studded connection shall be checked to assure the remaining thickness of the drilled holes complies with UG-43(d){4. Indicator type studs for studded connections.) c.2.4 Leg supports shall be limited to spherical and cylindrical vessels that meet the following: a. Service is noncyclic and nonpulsating (See Note 1.12. the holes in the studded connection and the studs may be machined per PIP VEFV1129.

4 and Code Appendix G-6 {4. measured to centerline of anchor bolts.3 The bottom of the saddle supports may extend at least 1 inch (25 mm) below nozzles or other projecting vessel components.12.3.1 Horizontal vessels shall be designed for two saddle supports attached by welding. 5. 5. 5. in/in/°F (mm/mm/°C) DL = Length between saddle supports. The diameter of the bolt holes and width of the slot shall be 1/4 inch (6 mm) larger than the bolt diameter.3. Divisions 1 and 2 axial and/or bending loads on the legs or an overstress condition in the vessel wall.3.3.3}).12. °F (°C) The anchor bolts are to be located at the center of the bolt holes (fixed saddle) or the midpoint of the slot (sliding saddle). Otherwise. a temporary member shall be attached at each support to provide necessary extension until the vessel is placed in permanent position. The length of the slot shall be: 2αDLΔT where: α = Coefficient of thermal expansion of shell material. P. Design of saddle supports and calculation of localized shell stress may be determined by the L. Page 20 of 27 Process Industry Practices . 5.12. Zick method. (See Section 2.2 One of the saddles shall be designated as the fixed saddle in which holes shall be provided to receive the anchor bolts. The other saddle shall be designated as the sliding saddle in which slotted holes shall be provided.12.3 Horizontal Vessels 5. saddle supports shall be located a maximum distance of Ro/2 from the head tangent line.12. Slide plates are to be furnished by others. The minimum saddle support contact angle shall be 120 degrees. when the operating temperature exceeds 250°F (120°C) or the calculated thermal expansion exceeds 1/4 inch (6 mm). For vessels. inches (mm) ΔT = Greatest absolute value of: ambient temperature at installation [but not warmer than 70°F (20°C)] minus the maximum or minimum shell temperature to be stamped on the Code nameplate. where Ro is the shell outside radius. Examples of standard details that may be used (non-mandatory) are shown on PIP VEFV1105 and PIP VEFV1106.4 Saddles to be used in conjunction with weigh cells or slide plates require design considerations to accommodate the applicable loadings. All sliding saddles shall be provided with slide plates.EDITORIAL REVISION May 2009 PIP VECV1001 Vessel Design Criteria ASME Code Section VIII.15.

ASME B1.13 Anchor Bolts 5.3 Anchor bolts shall be selected with the following threads and the tensile stress area shall be selected accordingly: a. other local codes may be more stringent than these values. A-307 Grade B. Low-alloy steel: A-193 B7.) 3. Also.4 For vessels on concrete foundations. stainless steel or other high alloy materials may be used. shall not exceed the following (see the following Note): a.4 MPa).1 5. ASME B1. Carbon or stainless steel: 20. Note: This value is based on the use of concrete with an ultimate strength. Note: The neutral axis shift method does not apply for vessels supported by steel structures.000 psi (207 MPa) Note: For vessels on concrete foundations. the allowable stress of anchor bolts may be limited by the strength and dimensions of the concrete for the bolt spacing selected. f'c.000 psi (138 MPa) b. as well as the yield strength.7 MPa) concrete].1 b. Bolts 1 inch (25 mm) and smaller in diameter: Coarse thread series.7 MPa) for which the minimum allowable bearing is (0. The design loadings for anchor bolts embedded in concrete may be determined by either the simplified method (neutral axis of bolt pattern at centerline of vessel) or the shifted neutral axis method (See Section 2.1 Materials for anchor bolts shall be selected from one of the following: 1. the design concrete bearing stress used shall be 1658 psi (11. with due consideration for possible chloride exposure. Low-alloy steel: 30.13.85)f'c [approximately 1658 psi (11.2 The allowable design stress. Process Industry Practices Page 21 of 27 . 5. 5.4 MPa) for 3000 psi (20.13. of 3000 psi (20. Bolts larger than 1 inch (25 mm) in diameter: 8 thread series. Divisions 1 and 2 EDITORIAL REVISION May 2009 5. the use of the latter method is recommended for large vertical vessels because of the economic benefit. Higher values may be used consistent with the ulitmate strength chosen (if known) and other provisions of state-of-the-art concrete foundation design.4. in which cases shall govern. Allowable stresses used in the final design shall be agreed to by the structural engineer.65)(0. However.PIP VECV1001 Vessel Design Criteria ASME Code Section VIII.13. as calculated using the tensile stress area of the threaded portion.13. or F-1554 Gr 36 2. (Note: Some users have reported environmental cracking of B7 anchor bolts as a result of the hydrogen from the corrosion process. Carbon steel: A-36. Brownell and Young). For corrosive conditions.

1. (See applicable General Notes to the allowable stress tables in Section II.) The anchor bolt circle shall be selected to provide radial clearance for the bolt tensioning device when low-alloy steel bolting is required. weld overlay. 5. Part D.3. Threaded J-bolts in the bent area are not allowed.2 Vessel internals such as distributors. the addition of grab rungs may be necessary. 5. internal rigging clips shall be provided to facilitate handling of the internals.14 Internals Process design of trays and other removable internals are outside the scope of this Practice. 5.1 Removable internals shall be sized to pass through designated vessel openings. 5. If J-bolts are used. or alloy shell. Materials 6.14.1. Section 3.3 Unless otherwise specified on the data sheet.2(d) and (l). so that the addition of a corrosion allowance is not required. 6.1 Care shall be taken to comply with the temperature limitations for the material. etc. and thermowells shall not be located near manways in a manner that would interfere with personnel access or rescue.7 Anchor bolting shall be furnished and installed by the User. Notes in Table 2 of B16.14.5.2 Page 22 of 27 Process Industry Practices . On vessels with internals where a vessel manway is not located in the top head.13. 5.6 Anchor bolts for vessels shall not be less than 3/4 inch (19 mm). 5. dip tubes. (See PIP VEDV1003. unless the bolts are stainless steel. Special consideration shall be given to the area directly below manways and to head knockers above manways.) The cost of heating the test fluid for shop or future field hydrostatic tests [so that the temperature of the pressure-resisting components is MDMT plus 30°F (17°C) during the test] shall be a consideration when selecting the materials of construction and the associated MDMT to be stamped on the vessel. the material for internal attachments shall be the same nominal composition as the cladding. they shall be fully stress relieved at 1100°F (595°C) for one hour per inch of diameter prior to hot dip galvanized coating.EDITORIAL REVISION May 2009 PIP VECV1001 Vessel Design Criteria ASME Code Section VIII. Anchor bolts shall straddle normal centerlines. 6.13. Divisions 1 and 2 5. In some circumstances.14. baffles.1 General 6.5 Anchor bolts embedded in concrete foundations shall be zinc-coated (hot dip galvanized or mechanically zinc-coated).13.

8. the rating for an SA-182 GR F304 B16.3. dual or multiple marking signifies that “the material so marked meets all of the requirements of all of the specifications. a note in the “Remarks” section of the Manufacturer's Data Report Form may contain the phrase: “The shell and head material meet all of the requirements of SA-240304 and SA-240-304L.” (See Code Interpretation VIII-1-92-166).1 6.2}: 6. Compatibility with existing equipment d. flanges and pipe fittings per UG-44) {3. classes.2 Source of Materials If the User restricts sources of fabrication materials. However.3 Dual (Multiple) Marked Materials ASME guidelines for dual or multiple marking of materials are given in Appendix 7 of Section II Part D of the Code. this means.2 The Purchaser shall specify if dual marked materials may be used.4 Corrosion/Erosion Allowance 6. the prospective manufacturers shall be informed at the time of bidding. and types with which it is marked. However. By the same standard. as appropriate. By the same standard. the material listed on the Manufacturer’s Data Report Forms shall be the material grade chosen from the allowable stress or ratings tables.. Allowances specified by the Designer shall be based on need and can best be determined by past experience in similar operating environments. it shall be compatible with design life requirements.2.1 Basis The required design life shall be based on written agreement between User and Engineering Contractor. 6. Process Industry Practices Page 23 of 27 . for example. grades.4. the material listed in the Manufacturer’s Data Report Form shall be SA-240 Type 304. Divisions 1 and 2 EDITORIAL REVISION May 2009 6.PIP VECV1001 Vessel Design Criteria ASME Code Section VIII. since this is the source of the information used by the Manufacturer. Some reasons for restrictions may include but are not limited to: a. Compliance with User procurement policies 6.g. that the allowable stress values given in Section II Part D of the BPV Code for a regular grade of Type 304 stainless steel plate may be used in design for SA-240 plate material with a dual marking of 304/304L. a materials engineer shall examine the process and make judgment on the expected corrosion rate. Corrosion allowance shall not be arbitrary.5 flange may be used when it is dual marked SA-182 GR F304/F304L. When using only one set of allowable stress values for the dual-marked Grade designation. For example. rather. such as with a new process. If no past experience is available. if the allowable stresses for SA-240 Type 304 are used in design for the shell and heads. Maintenance of a specific alloy composition b. this same material information shall be included on the Data sheet and/or drawings covering the pressure parts involved.3. Under these ASME guidelines.” Therefore. the following requirements apply for dualmarked materials and Standard pressure parts that comply with Code requirements (e. Compliance with government requirements c.

c. Bolted parts are frequently constructed of different materials and need to be assessed separately. and WRC Bulletins 488. Appendix A.4. Other equipment operating nearby may influence corrosion (e. 489 and 490. Increase of inlet nozzle size 6. Divisions 1 and 2 6.EDITORIAL REVISION May 2009 PIP VECV1001 Vessel Design Criteria ASME Code Section VIII.2 6. but not less than 12 inches (300mm).2. Page 24 of 27 Process Industry Practices . Erosion loss usually occurs within a definable area. 6.2 Corrosion Loss Additional metal thickness shall be added to compensate for anticipated loss due to metal reacting with the environments to which it is subjected (including cleaning operations.4. Informative and non-mandatory guidance regarding metallurgical phenomena is provided in Section II.1 The skirt for stainless steel or other high-alloy steel vessels shall be of a material with essentially the same coefficient of expansion as the head to which it is attached when the maximum temperature stamped on the Code nameplate is hotter than 450°F (230°C). shall consider all damage mechanisms associated with the service fluid at design conditions..6. Weld overlay of the area with the intent that the overlay is sacrificial b.).2. The length of this high-alloy steel portion of the skirt shall be 2 ( Rt ) .4. API RP 571. 6. shutdowns.1 Internal corrosion loss due to the process conditions affects all pressure-containing parts. especially in coastal areas and under insulation. if appropriate d.4. etc. when selecting the materials of construction.4 References for Damage Mechanisms The User. 6.6 Support Materials 6.g. Internal refractory linings. Internal structural parts may experience corrosion loss on more than one surface. Addition of a welded wear plate with the intent that the plate is sacrificial Note: Use caution when using this method in hydrogen service.5 External Protection of Austenitic Stainless Steel Equipment from Stress Corrosion Cracking Insulated austenitic stainless steel equipment that is susceptible to atmospheric chloride stress corrosion cracking shall be protected by a suitable external protective coating and the use of a low chloride insulation. Part D.4. cooling towers). External corrosion may result from exposure of bare metal to the atmosphere.3 Erosion Loss Additional metal thickness shall be added in specific locations where metal loss is expected due to stream flow that is of high velocity or abrasive for any reason. and compensation can be made as follows: a. 6.

Compatibility with the Code nameplate maximum and minimum design metal temperatures c. the materials and thicknesses selected shall be suitable for the maximum and minimum design metal temperatures and the imposed loadings. Differential thermal expansion characteristics and associated stresses e. Whether or not the attachment is essential to the structural integrity of the vessel (see Code Paragraph UCS-66(a) {3. Suitability for the anticipated loadings Process Industry Practices Page 25 of 27 .3 6. The Manufacturer may propose other materials for the attachments with due consideration being given to the following: a. Divisions 1 and 2 EDITORIAL REVISION May 2009 where R is the mean skirt radius and t is skirt thickness. the attachments shall be of the same type material (ASME Code P-number) as the pressure part to which attached except austenitic stainless steel external welded attachments may be any 300-series stainless steel.2. Painting requirements g. accordingly.7 Corrosion allowance for the skirt and base ring shall be specified separately from the vessel corrosion allowance. The lower portion of these skirts may be constructed of carbon or low-alloy steel.6.11. but not less than 12 inches (300 mm). the entire skirt may be made of carbon or low-alloy steel.3 c)}) d. 6. 6. External Attachments As a minimum. the level of applied general primary membrane stress shall be considered to be the same as the maximum level applied to the pressure boundary component to which they are attached.PIP VECV1001 Vessel Design Criteria ASME Code Section VIII. Carbon and lowalloy steel attachments welded to pressure-retaining components shall be considered as being essential to the structural integrity of the vessel.6. Potential problems associated with welding dissimilar materials b.2 For vessels with a design temperature lower than -20°F (-29°C). the skirt shall be the same material as the head for a minimum length of 2 ( Rt ) . for purposes of establishing the attachment impact test requirements. When the maximum temperature stamped on the Code nameplate is between -20°F (–29°C) and 450°F (230°C). In all cases. Corrosion resistance f.

2. The vessels shall be constructed of materials that ensure fracture toughness during the test. “Pneumatic Test” and Code Paragraph UW-50 {Not Division 2 Applicable}. 7. 7. consideration shall be given to the type of welded pressure joints to be furnished in the pressure-boundary components.3 and 8. the Code has provided the Welded Joint Category system in Code Paragraph UW-3 {4.2.1 Welded Pressure Joint Requirements Consistent with the service-specific needs of each vessel.2}. Inspection and Pressure Testing 7.1.2 Pneumatic Test Caution: Pneumatic testing presents hazards that require careful attention as part of the engineering design of the pressure vessel to ensure personnel safety during the test. Notes A through C of the Nondestructive Examination Notes (Page 2 of the Form) are standard examination notes that may be selected by the User. The remaining options or User-defined options may be added as appropriate. 7.”) Due to the additional hazards of pneumatic testing.1 Hydrostatic Test Vertical vessels being tested in the erected position.EDITORIAL REVISION May 2009 PIP VECV1001 Vessel Design Criteria ASME Code Section VIII. Also included in these Appendices is a completed form showing the requirements described in Sections 7.2.2.1. In order to provide a means of communicating the requirements to the prospective manufacturers in a manner that is not open to dispute. and some structural Page 26 of 27 Process Industry Practices . illustrating the use and usefulness of this form for communicating welded pressure joint requirements to manufacturers for quotations and purchase specifications. vessels shall be manufactured and inspected to minimize the possibility of failure during the test. nozzle attachments.2. Divisions 1 and 2 7.1. specific Code requirements shall be met.3}. 8. Additional nondestructive examination may be required of main seams.5}.4 of PIP VESV1002.) As a minimum.2. (Reference Code Paragraph UG-100 {8.2 Testing The following paragraphs provide guidance and references to design and execution considerations relative to hydrostatic and pneumatic pressure testing. whether shop or field. See also Code Paragraph U-2(a) {2.5. Consideration shall also be given to the type/degree of nondestructive examination to be applied to these joints. A Welded Pressure Joint Requirements Form for documenting and transmitting the needed information for each welded joint category (location) is included in Appendix B. Examination. “Nondestructive Examination Of Welds On Pneumatically Tested Vessels. Use the Welded Pressure Joint Requirement form Appendix B to specify the welded pressure joint type and associated nondestructive examination requirements. shall have consideration given to the additional pressure and weight due to the fluid head. (See User’s responsibilities under the Code as outlined in the Code Foreword.5. 7.

2. Process Industry Practices Page 27 of 27 .3 Proof Test (Code reference . Divisions 1 and 2 EDITORIAL REVISION May 2009 attachments.PIP VECV1001 Vessel Design Criteria ASME Code Section VIII.2 applicable}) Proof tests are highly individualized and are not included in this Practice. service that would not allow residual water in the process. and designs that would force great over design of the vessel and foundation only to support a water full test may be considered for pneumatic testing.”{not Div.1 provides guidance on energy calculations for pneumatic tests and safe distances for personnel during the test. All such nondestructive examination shall be performed in accordance with Code methods and acceptance criteria. Acoustic emissions monitoring during pneumatic testing may successfully locate flaws in the vessel and shall be considered for field erected vessels. Large diameter low-pressure designs. “Proof Tests To Establish Maximum Allowable Working Pressure.Paragraph UG-101. 7. ASME PCC-2 Article 5. vessels with exceptionally large volume.

Appendices Appendix A – General Considerations for Pressure Relief Valve Application Appendix B – Welded Pressure Joint Requirements Form Appendix C – Equivalent Pressure Formulas for Bending Moment and Axial Tensile Load .

Appendix A General Considerations for Pressure Relief Valve Application .

The recommended maximum equipment operating pressure is slightly below. and when not. The influence on operating margin. Pilot-operated valves will not leak below 98% of set pressure. Pilotoperated valves are used in this fashion as remote. Page A-2 Process Industry Practices . blowdown valves. manual. emergency. is considered. requiring 25% overpressure to be full open. Direct spring and pilot-operated relief valves are available for use on applications that are required to meet Code requirements. Pilot-operated pressure relief valves are supplied with filters to protect against foreign matter and are generally recommended for relatively clean service. Operational characteristics of direct spring-operated and pilot-operated pressure relief valves shall be known by the User as well as the Designer. to use pilotoperated valves is given below. O-ring soft seat disk type direct spring-operated valves will not leak below 95% of set pressure. Divisions 1 and 2 General Considerations for Pressure Relief Valve Application A general comparison of operational characteristics is given for the different types of pressure relief valves in common industrial use. USE • • Clean gas or vapor service Clean liquid service • • • • • DO NOT USE Corrosion of wetted part is possible Polymerization process Coking service Abrasive or dirty service Freezing of contents at ambient temperature is possible The point where leakage begins to be a concern when using direct spring-operated valves depends on the disk seat design. the start-to-leak limit for the valve. Many older liquid service safety valves. from set pressure. but many times considered to be equal to. However. The reseating pressure for pilotoperated valves is typically specified in the same range as the direct spring valves. The approximate reseating pressure for direct spring-operated valves is 93% of the set pressure in gas or vapor service and 85% of set pressure for National Board tested safety relief valves in liquid service. A summary detailing when.EDITORIAL REVISION May 2009 PIP VECV1001 Vessel Design Criteria ASME Code Section VIII. have a reseating pressure as low as 70% of the set pressure. The versatile pilot-operated valve has some significant application limitations. the reseating pressure of pilot-operated valves can be lowered to a value slightly above atmospheric by adding a manual blowdown connection which can be operated either locally or remotely. Metal-to-metal contact seats will begin to leak at about 90% of set pressure.

Appendix B Welded Pressure Joint Requirements Form .

1{Tables 4. (1) OF TABLE UW-12{4. 6) Category D welds shall be per Figure UW-16.2 & 4.2} HEAD -TO-SHELL CATEGORY B OTHER BODY FLANGES CATEGORY C NOZZLE FLANGES FIGURE 2-4 {TABLE 4. 4. (1) OF TABLE UW-12{4. 4.2.16.16. Nozzle necks designated to extend beyond the inside surface of the vessel wall shall have a fillet weld at the inside corner.2.All nondestructive examination shall meet or exceed ASME Code requirements and shall be performed per Code methods.1.10. when used.5} SEE GENERAL NOTE (6) TYPE NO. After forming. Divisions 1 and 2 Welded Pressure Joint Requirements DESIGN BASIS SHELL AND CONE THICKNESS BASED ON: JOINT EFFICIENCY E = _________ DISHED HEAD THICKNESS BASED ON: JOINT EFFICIENCY E = _________ WELDED PRESSURE JOINT REQUIREMENTS JOINT LOCATION PARAGRAPH UW-3{4. shall be closed in accordance with UW-34 {6.9} with the weld meeting the Category A weld joint requirements shown in the table.2. 5) The flat plate from which formed heads are to be made shall be either seamless or made equivalent to seamless in which all Category A welds are Type (1) and fully radiographed per UW−51{7.5. 4) Separate internal nozzle reinforcing plates are not permitted. 3) Permanent weld joint backing strips are not permitted. Comparable ASME Code Section VIII.EDITORIAL REVISION May 2009 PIP VECV1001 Vessel Design Criteria ASME Code Section VIII.2. Division 2 references are shown in brackets { }.13} using full penetration welds through vessel wall and through inside edge of external reinforcing plates.3} before forming. if it remains in the final construction. 4.2. ITEM NUMBER: ____________________________________ WELDED PRESSURE JOINT REQUIREMENTS PRESSURE VESSELS VESSEL ASSEMBLY DWG.2} CATEGORY D GENERAL NOTES: 1) Unless otherwise indicated. all references on this form are to ASME Code Section VIII.5) CATEGORY A (SEE NOTE 5) TYPE OF JOINT NDE (SEE LETTERED NOTES) TYPE NO. Division 1 paragraphs. the spin hole.2.11.1.9 and FIGURES 4.2.2. 2) Joints supplied shall be either detailed or identified by use of standard AWS welding symbols on the vessel Manufacturer's drawings.16. and figures. tables.: __________________________ PAGE 1 OF 2 DRAWN BY CHECKED BY DATE DRAWING NUMBER Page B-2 Process Industry Practices .

2}.5}] General Note: Notes D through H are examples of user options that are sometimes selected for critical services. Butt welds exempt from radiography by Paragraph UW-11(a)(4) {Table 7. When joint thickness exceeds 2 inches (50 mm).: Reference paragraphs are contained in Division 1 of the ASME Code. MT = Magnetic Particle Examination PT = Liquid Penetrant Examination PAGE 2 OF 2 Process Industry Practices Page B-3 . When design is based on a joint efficiency of 1. 4. Spot radiography shall be per Paragraph UW-52{Table 7. Examination (using MT or PT) of completed welds shall be made after PWHT for the following: 1. Divisions 1 and 2 EDITORIAL REVISION May 2009 Nondestructive Examination Notes A. Full radiography shall be per Paragraph UW-51{7. see Paragraph UW11(a)(4){Table 7.4. The Manufacturer is cautioned to select the appropriate increments of weld for establishing the spot radiography requirements for the vessel. For exclusions.00.3.3 }.3 & 7.2}.4. examine (using MT or PT) the root pass after back-chipping to sound metal and all accessible surfaces of completed welds of Categories A. 2.2}. D. Vessels or vessel parts for which impact testing is required Welds joining non-impact tested low-alloy steels thicker than 1-1/4 inches (32 mm) Welds joining carbon steels thicker than 2 inches (50 mm) When required by Code G. see Paragraph UW-11(b) {Table 7. (Only applies to designs employing impact-tested steels when Category A joints are based on a joint efficiency of 1.2} shall have accessible surfaces of completed welds MT or PT examined. For exclusions. 7. 7. this applies only to Categories B and C butt joints. C. B. Rules of UW-11(a)(5)(b) {not Division 2 applicable}shall be satisfied. F. Other options may be provided as appropriate. and D butt type joints.4.PIP VECV1001 Vessel Design Criteria ASME Code Section VIII. [See UW-52 {7.) Item Number: Vessel Assembly Dwg.4. E. C. this applies only to Categories B and C butt joints.1.00. For welded pipe components. B. 3.3}. examine (using MT or PT) Categories C and D non-butt type joints after back-chipping or gouging root pass to sound metal and accessible surfaces of completed weld.5. Spot radiography shall be per Paragraph UW-52{7.5.2. For welded pipe components.

tables. if it remains in the final construction. 2) Joints supplied shall be either detailed or identified by use of standard AWS welding symbols on the vessel Manufacturer's drawings.1.2. the spin hole. and 8.2} B HEAD -TO-SHELL CATEGORY B OTHER B BODY FLANGES CATEGORY C NOZZLE FLANGES FIG. All nondestructive examination shall meet or exceed ASME Code requirements and shall be performed per Code methods.2} B B CATEGORY D ITEM NUMBER: ________PIP 123456___________________ VESSEL ASSEMBLY DWG. the following completed form shows the requirements described in Sections 7. With reference to the lettered Nondestructive Examination Notes (page 2 of the form). E = __0.2. DESIGN BASIS SHELL AND CONE THICKNESS BASED ON: JOINT EFFICIENCY.10. 3) Permanent weld joint backing strips are not permitted.1.9}with the weld meeting the Category A weld joint requirements shown in the table.5. all references on this form are to ASME Code Section VIII.11. Divisions 1 and 2 EXAMPLE Use Of “Welded Pressure Joint Requirements Form” To illustrate the use and usefulness of the Welded Pressure Joint Requirements form for communicating welded pressure joint requirements to manufacturers for quotation and purchase specification purposes. Division 2 references are shown in brackets { }. Comparable ASME Code.2.: ___PIP 123456______________ PAGE 1 OF 2 DRAWN BY WELDED PRESSURE JOINT REQUIREMENTS PRESSURE VESSELS CHECKED BY DATE DRAWING NUMBER Page B-4 Process Industry Practices .4 of PIP VESV1002. 4.2. Division 1 paragraphs.13} using full penetration welds through vessel wall and through inside edge of external reinforcing plates. (1) OF TABLE UW-12{4.1.2.16. (1) OF TABLE UW-12{4.5.2.2.3.3} before forming.2. & 4.1. note that other options are available for convenient use or may be provided.2.85_______ DISHED HEAD THICKNESS BASED ON: JOINT EFFICIENCY.15.1.5} CATEGORY A (SEE NOTE 5) TYPE OF JOINT NDE (SEE LETTERED NOTES) TYPE NO. and FIGURES 4.1.5. -TYPE NO. 5) The flat plate from which formed heads are to be made shall be either seamless or made equivalent to seamless in which all Category A welds are Type (1) and fully radiographed per UW−51{7. Nozzle necks designated to extend beyond the inside surface of the vessel wall shall have a fillet weld at the inside corner. and figures. E = __0. 4.2.1{Table 4. shall be closed in accordance with UW-34 {6.85_______ WELDED PRESSURE JOINT REQUIREMENTS JOINT LOCATION PARAGRAPH UW-3{4. 4) Separate internal nozzle reinforcing plates are not permitted. 8.4. 2-4 {TABLE 4. 7.16.1. After forming.5 } SEE GENERAL NOTE (6) -GENERAL NOTES: 1)) Unless otherwise indicated.EDITORIAL REVISION May 2009 PIP VECV1001 Vessel Design Criteria ASME Code Section VIII. 6) Category D welds shall be per Figure UW-16.9. when used.

Appendix C Equivalent Pressure Formulas for Bending Moment and Axial Tensile Load .

6. in-lb Other Terms = Same as above Page C-2 Process Industry Practices . used in the calculation of total hydrostatic end load. H. in-lb Sustained axial tensile force applied at flange.. in the flange design calculations shall be replaced by the following design pressure: PFLG = P + PEQ The equivalent pressure PEQ is determined as follows: PEQ = Where: M= F= G= 16M + 4F πG 3 πG2 Sustained bending moment applied across full section at flange during the design condition.16. Divisions 1 and 2 Equivalent Pressure Formulas for Bending Moment and Axial Tensile Load When sustained bending moments or axial thrust loadings are applied to the flanged joint during operation in sufficient magnitude to warrant consideration in the flange design.EDITORIAL REVISION May 2009 PIP VECV1001 Vessel Design Criteria ASME Code Section VIII. the design pressure. seismic moment) applied across full section at flange during the design condition.785 G2 PFLG Dynamic Bending Moment PEQ = 8M πG3 Where: M= Bending moment. in (See Appendix 2-3 {4.) Note: Experience has shown that axial tensile forces resulting from a properly designed piping system have no significant effect on the flange design and hence are typically not included in the PEQ determination. used in the flange calculations is determined as follows: H = 0.16. and 4.12} of the Code for full definition. but including dynamic bending moment (e. Therefore. as defined above.g. P. lb Diameter at location of gasket load reaction.1 c). H. the hydrostatic end load.