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Heating & HVAC Glossary: A Detailed Glossary List of All Heating, Air Conditioning, and HVAC Terms

Below are some commonly used terms in the heating, ventilation and air conditioning industry. These may be useful when dealing with contractors or assessing a solution to a problem you might have. ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ

[A]
Absolute Humidity: The weight of water vapor in a given amount of air space. Absolute humidity is measured by grains per cubic foot. Absorption Cycle: Absorption chillers differ from mechanical vapor compression chillers in that they utilize a thermal or chemical process to produce the refrigeration effect necessary to provide chilled water. There is no mechanical compression of the refrigerant taking place within the machine as occurs within more traditional vapor compression type chillers. Most commercial absorption chillers utilize lithium bromide (a salt) and water as the fluid pair. Accumeter: The metering (flow control) device inside a Carrier centrifugal chiller. Its unique design always feeds the cooler with liquid refrigerant, which has a much greater cooling capability than a gaseous refrigerant. Accurator: A piston type metering device that feeds the proper amount of liquid refrigerant into the evaporator. Air Change: The amount of air required to completely replace the air in a room or building; not to be confused with re-circulated air. Air Conditioner: Assembly of equipment for the simultaneous control of air temperature, relative humidity, purity, and motion. Air Cooled: Uses a fan to discharge heat from the condenser coil to the outdoors. Air-Cooled System: A type of air conditioning system that uses freon as a refrigerant and air as a condensing medium. Typically, the air-cooled condenser is located outside and refrigerant lines are piped to it from the indoor unit. Air Diffuser: Air distribution outlet or grille designed to direct airflow into desired patterns. Air Flow: The distribution or movement of air. Air Handler: The portion of the central air conditioning or heat pump system that moves heated or cooled air throughout a home's ductwork. In some systems a furnace handles this function. Annual Fuel Utilization Efficiency (AFUE): A rating that denotes the efficiency of gas heating equipment. It is the amount of heating your equipment delivers for every dollar spent on fuel. A higher rating indicates more efficient equipment. This rating is calculated in accordance with the Department of Energy test procedures. ARI Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Institute is a non-profit, voluntary organization comprised of heating, air conditioning and refrigeration manufacturers. ARI publishes standards for testing and rating heat pumps and air conditioners to provide you with a standardized measure of comparison. So, ARI ensures a level of quality within the industry. Atmospheric Pressure: The weight of a 1 square inch column of the earth's atmosphere. At sea level this pressure is 14.696 pounds per square inch. Auto Changeover: A control package that provides for automatic switching from a primary air conditioning system to a backup in the event of a failure of the primary system. ^Top

[B]
Balance Point: An outdoor temperature, usually between 30 F and 45 F, at which a heat pump's output exactly equals the heating needs of the home. Below the balance point, supplementary electric resistance heat is needed to maintain indoor comfort. Bimetal: Two metals with different rates of expansion fastened together. When heated or cooled they will warp and can be made to open or close a switch or valve. Blower: An air handling device for moving air in a distribution system. Boiling Point: The temperature at which the addition of any heat will begin a change of state from a liquid to a vapor. BTU (British Thermal Unit): The standard of measurement used for measuring the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of one pound of water by one degree (Fahrenheit). BTUH - The number of BTUs in an hour. BTU/hr: The abbreviation for British thermal units per hour. The amount of heat required to raise one pound of water one degree fahrenheit per hour, a common measure of heat transfer rate. ^Top

[C]
Capacity: The ability of a heating or cooling system to heat or cool a given amount of space. For heating, this is usually expressed in BTU's. For cooling, it is usually given in tons. Carbon Monoxide: Carbon Monoxide (CO) is a colorless, odorless gas produced by burning any fuel. CO is poisonous and symptoms of CO poisoning are similar to those of the flu: headaches, fatigue, shortness of breath, nausea and dizziness. The Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) recommends a yearly, professional inspection. Central Air Conditioner System: System in which air is treated at a central location and carried to and from the rooms by one or more fans and a system of ducts. Centrifugal Compressor: A type of compressor used in vapor compression refrigeration cycles where a rotating impeller is the device which compresses the refrigerant vapor. The vapor is drawn into the impeller axially, and is discharged radially after energy is added to the vapor within the impeller. Centigrade (Measure of Temperature): A temperature scale with the freezing point of water 00 and the boiling point 1000 at sea level. CFM (Cubic Feet per Minute): The abbreviation for cubic feet per minute, commonly used to measure the rate of air flow in an air conditioning system. Charge: Amount of refrigerant in a system. Chilled Water System: A type of air conditioning system that has no refrigerant in the unit itself. The refrigerant is contained in a chiller, which is located remotely. The chiller cools water, which is piped to the air conditioner to cool the space. Comfort Air Conditioning: Comfort air conditioning systems are designed for the comfort of people, not the protection of computer-based electrical systems. Unlike people, computers generate dry (sensible) heat, but not humidity. Only about 60-70% of a comfort system's total capacity is dedicated to the removal of sensible heat, while 30-40% is for dehumidification. With a large percentage of their total capacity devoted to the removal of moisture, comfort systems can lower room humidity far below acceptable standards. A larger comfort system is required to obtain the same sensible capacity as a precision cooling system. Compressor:

The pump that moves the refrigerant from the indoor evaporator to the outdoor condenser and back to the evaporator again. The compressor is often called "the heart of the system" because it circulates the refrigerant through the loop. Compression: The reduction of volume of a vapor or gas by mechanical means. Compression Ratio: The ratio determined by dividing the discharge pressure, in PSI, by the suction pressure in PSI. Condensation: The process by which a gas is changed into a liquid at constant temperature by heat removal. Condensation Point: The temperature at which the removal of any heat will begin a change of state from a vapor to a liquid. Condenser: A device that transfers unwanted heat out of a refrigeration system to a medium (either air, water, or a combination of air and water) that absorbs the heat and transfers it to a disposal point. There are three types of condensers: air-cooled condensers, water-cooled condensers, and evaporative condensers. The evaporative condenser uses a combination of air and water as its condensing medium. Most residential systems have an air-cooled condenser. Condenser Coil: A series or network of tubes filled with refrigerant, normally located outside the home, that removes heat from the hot, gaseous refrigerant so that the refrigerant becomes liquid again. Condensing Unit: Part of a refrigerating mechanism which pumps vaporized refrigerant from the evaporator, compresses it, liquefies it in the condenser and returns it to the refrigerant control. The outdoor portion of a split system air conditioner contains the compressor and outdoor coil ignoring the reverse cycle operation, also the outdoor in a heat pump system. COP (Coefficient of Performance): This is a measure of the energy efficiency of a chiller. Cooling Anticipator: A resistance heater (usually not adjustable) in parallel with the cooling circuit. It is 'on' when the current is 'off", adding heat to shorten the off cycle. Cooling Capacity: A measure of the ability of a unit to remove heat from an enclosed space. COP - Coefficient of Performance of a heat pump means the ratio of the rate of useful heat output delivered by the complete heat pump unit (exclusive of supplementary heating) to the corresponding rate of energy input, in consistent units and under operating conditions. Cooling Load: Heat which flows into a space from outdoors and/or indoors. ^Top

[D]
Damper: Found in ductwork, this movable plate opens and closes to control airflow. Dampers are used effectively in zoning to regulate airflow to certain rooms. Defrost Cycle: The process of removing ice or frost buildup from the outdoor coil during the heating season. Dehumidification: The reduction of water vapor in air by cooling the air below the dew point; removal of water vapor from air by chemical means, refrigeration, etc. Department of Energy (DOE): A federal agency that sets industry efficiency standards and monitors the use of various energy sources. Direct Expansion Systems: One of two types of basic cooling media (the other is chilled water). Direct expansion systems utilize freon for cooling and dehumidification. The three most common methods of heat rejection are air cooled, water cooled and glycol cooled. Direct Vent: Pulls outside air for combustion and vents combustion gases directly outside. Downflow:

Refers to a type of precision air conditioning system that discharges air downward, directly beneath a raised floor, commonly found in computer rooms and modern office spaces. Downflow Furnace: A furnace that pulls in return air from the top and expels warm air at the bottom. Duct: A pipe or closed conduit made of sheet metal, fiberglass board, or other suitable material used for conducting air to and from an air handling unit. Ductwork: Pipes or channels that carry air throughout a building. ^Top

[E]
Economizer: In a chiller with a two-stage centrifugal compressor, the discharge from the first stage impeller and the inlet to the second stage impeller are at a pressure level approximately half way between the cooler pressure and condenser pressure. With this arrangement, an economizer may be used. This is a shell within which refrigerant liquid from the condenser drops down to the interstage pressure, flashing off some of the refrigerant which is drawn directly into the second stage impeller. This reduces the amount of refrigerant which has to be compressed by the first stage impeller, improving the refrigeration cycle efficiency. Efficiency A rating on comfort equipment is similar to the miles per gallon rating on your car. The higher the rating number, the more efficient the system and the lower your fuel consumption will be. Electronic Air Cleaner: An electronic device that filters out large particles and contaminants in indoor air. It then electronically pulls out tiny particles that have been magnetized, such as viruses and bacteria, drawing them to a collector plate. Emergency Heat (Supplemental or Auxillary Heat): The back-up heat built into a heat pump system. Energy Efficiency Ratio (EER): Means the ratio of the cooling capacity of the air conditioner in British Thermal Units per hour, to the total electrical input in watts under ARI-specified test conditions. Enthalpy: Heat content or total heat, including both sensible and latent heat. The amount of heat contained in a refrigerant at any given temperature with reference to -40F. Evaporator: Absorbs heat from the surrounding air or liquid and moves it outside the refrigerated area by means of a refrigerant. It is also known as a cooling coil, blower coil, chilling unit or indoor coil. Evaporator Coil: A series or network of tubes filled with refrigerant located inside the home that take heat and moisture out of indoor air as liquid refrigerant evaporates. ^Top

[F]
Fahrenheit (Represented as degrees "F"): The scale of temperature measurement most commonly used in the United States of America. Filter: A device used to remove dust and other particles from air for the purposes of reducing the load on the respiratory system and to protect the HVAC equipment. Filters vary greatly in particle arrestance; the higher the MERV rating, the better the filter. Free Cooling System: Typically a water cooled or glycol cooled system with an additional coil that provides chilled water cooling when the outdoor ambient is cold thereby reducing or eliminating compressor operation. Provides efficient system operation in Nothern climates. Free Delivery: There are no ducts and the unit may be installed in the field without ducts if needed. Ground-Source - The ground or soil below the frost line is being used as the heat source or heat sink for a heat pump.

Freon:

A general term used to identify, any of a group of partially or completely halogenated simple hydrocarbons containing fluorine, chlorine or bromine, which are used as refrigerants. Furnace: That part of an environmental system which converts gas, oil, electricity or other fuel into heat for distribution within a structure. ^Top

[G]
Generator: In an absorption cycle, the vessel in which the lithium bromide solution is reconcentrated by boiling off the previously absorbed water. Glycol-Cooled System: A type of air conditioning system that uses freon as a refrigerant and a water/glycol solution as a condensing medium. Typically, the glycol-cooled condenser is located inside the air conditioner with the rest of the refrigeration components. Water/glycol is piped to the unit from a drycooler or other suitable source. The glycol keeps the solution from freezing during winter operation. Ground Water-Source: Water from an underground well is being used as the heat source or heat sink for a heat pump. ^Top

[H]
Heat Exchanger: A device for the transfer of heat energy from the source to the conveying medium. Heat Gain: The amount of heat gained, measured in BTU's, from a space to be conditioned, at the local summer outdoor design temperature and a specified indoor design condition. Heat Loss: The amount of heat lost, measured in BTU's from a space to be conditioned, at the local winter outdoor design temperature and a specified indoor design condition. Heat Pump: An air conditioner that contains a valve that allows it to alternate between heating and cooling. Heat Source: A body of air or liquid from which heat is collected. With any heat pumps, the air outside the home is used as the heat source during the heating cycle. Heat Transfer: The movement of heat from one place to another, between two substances, or within a substance. Heating Capacity: The rate at which a specific device can add substantial heat to a substance, expressed in BTUh (British Thermal Units per hour). Heating Seasonal Performance Factor (HSPF): means the total heating output of a heat pump in British Thermal Units during its normal usage period for heating divided by the total electrical energy input in watt-hours during the same period. Horizontal Furnace: A furnace that lies on its side, pulling in return air from one side and expelling warm air from the other. HVAC: Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning. Humidification: The process of adding moisture to the air within a space. Humidistat: A device designed to regulate humidity input by reacting to changes in the moisture content of the air. Humidity: The amount of moisture in the air. Air conditioners remove moisture for added comfort. ^Top

[I]

Indoor Unit: This is usually located inside the house and contains the indoor coil, fan, motor, and filtering device, sometimes called the air handler. Indoor Coil: Refrigerant containing portion of a fan coil unit similar to a car radiator, typically made of several rows of copper tubing with aluminum fins. Infiltration: Air flow into a space usually through walls and leaks around doors and windows. Insulation: Any material that slows down the transfer of heat. Integrally Controlled Motor (ICM): A variable-speed motor that operates at low RPM when possible for efficiency and quiet operation. ICM motors are more than 90% efficient versus 60% efficiency for conventional motors. Isolation Valves: Valves used for the transfer and isolation of refrigerant charge in the cooler or condenser, allowing refrigerant to be stored inside a chiller during servicing. ^Top

[J]
No Definitions at this time. ^Top

[K]
(K) Factor: The insulating value of any material. Also known as conductivity. Kilowatt (kW): Equal to 1,000 watts. Kilowatt-hour (kWh) - A common unit of electrical consumption measured by the total energy created by one kilowatt in one hour. ^Top

[L]
Latent Cooling Capacity: An A/C system's capability to remove moisture from the air. Latent Heat: The heat energy needed to change the state of a substance (i.e.: from a liquid to a gas) but not it's temperature. LCD: An abbreviation for a screen type - Liquid Crystal Display. Load Calculation: A mathematical design tool used to determine the heat gain and heat loss in a building so that properly sized air conditioning and heating equipment may be installed. ^Top

[M]
Matched System: A heating and cooling system comprised of products that have been certified to perform at promised comfort and efficiency when used together, and used according to design and engineering specifications. Microprocessor Controls: A control system that uses computer logic to operate and monitor an air conditioning system. Microprocessor controls are commonly used on modern precision air conditioning systems to maintain precise control of temperature and humidity and to monitor the units operation. ^Top

[N]
Natural-Draft Furnace: A furnace in which the natural flow of air from around the furnace provides the air to support combustion. It also depends on the pressure created by the heat in the flue gases to force them out through the vent system. NFPA: National Fire Protection Association. ^Top

[O]
Operating Cost: The day-to-day cost of running your home comfort equipment, based on daily energy use. Outdoor Coil/Condensing Unit: The portion of a heat pump or central air conditioning system that is located outside the home and functions as a heat transfer point for collecting heat from and dispelling heat to the outside air. ^Top

[P]
Package System: A piece of air conditioning and heating equipment where all components are located in one cabinet. Used occasionally in residential applications, the package unit is installed either beside or on top of the home. Packaged Unit: A self-contained heating and/or air conditioning system. Payback Analysis: Overall measure of the efficiency and value of your home comfort system. By combining your purchase price and ongoing operating costs, a payback analysis determines the number of years required before monthly energy savings offset the purchase price. Precision Air Conditioning: Precision A/C systems are primarily designed for cooling electronic equipment, rather than people. These pre-packaged systems offer excellent reliability and typically have a high ratio of sensible-tototal cooling capacity and a high CFM/ton ratio. Purge Device: A device which removes air and water vapor from the refrigerant inside a chiller. A purge is a necessity in negative pressure designs, but is not necessary in positive pressure designs where air and water vapor are kept out of the system by the internal pressure. ^Top

[Q]
No Definitions at this time. ^Top

[R]
Refrigerant: A substance that produces a refrigerating effect while expanding or vaporizing. Refrigerant Lines: Set of two copper lines connecting the outdoor unit and the indoor unit. Register: Combination grille and damper assembly covering an air opening or end of an air duct. Relative Humidity:

The ratio of the amount of vapor contained in the air to the greatest amount the air could hold at that temperature. Normally expressed as a percentage. Return Air: Air drawn into a heating unit after having been circulated from the heater's output supply to a room. Reversing Valve: A device in a heat pump that reverses the flow of refrigerant as the system is switched from cooling to heating. ^Top

[S]
SEER (Seasonal Energy Efficiency Ratio): A rating that denotes the efficiency of air conditioning equipment. It is the amount of cooling your equipment delivers for every dollar spent on electricity. It is the ratio of cooling delivered by a system, measured in BTUs, to the dollar cost of the electricity to run the system, as measured in watt-hours. This ratio is determined using specified federal test procedures. The higher the SEER, the more efficient the unit. The more efficient the unit, the lower the operating cost. Sensible Cooling Capacity: An A/C system's capability to remove heat from the air. (lower the temperature). Sensible Heat: Heat energy that causes a rise or fall in the temperature of a gas, liquid or solid when added or removed from that material. Sensible heat changes the temperature by changing the speed at which the molecules move. Setpoint: The temperature to which a thermostat is set for desired comfort level. Single Package: A year-round heating and air conditioning system that has all of the components completely encased in one unit outside the home. Split System: A central air conditioner consisting of two or more major components. The system usually consists of a compressor-containing unit and condenser, installed outside the building and a non-compressor - containing air handling unit installed within the building. This is the most common type of system installed in a home. Storage Tank: A steel shell in which the refrigerant charge for a chiller may be temporarily stored while the chiller is serviced. Supercooled Liquid: Liquid refrigerant cooled below its saturation point. Subcooler: This is a section of some condensers in which the temperature of the condensed refrigerant liquid is reduced. This improves the energy efficiency of the chiller. Subcooling: Creating a drop in temperature by removing sensible heat from a refrigerant liquid. Superheated Vapor: Refrigerant vapor heated beyond its saturation point. Superheating: Creating a rise in temperature by adding heat energy to a refrigeration vapor. Supplementary Heat: The auxiliary or emergency heat, usually electrical resistance heat, provided at temperatures below a heat pump's balance point. Switchover: A device in a heat pump that reverses the flow of refrigerant as the system is switched from cooling to heating. ^Top

[T]
Temperature: The measure of the intensity of heat that a substance possesses.

Thermidistat: Highly sophisticated programmable thermostat that senses the outdoor temperature, indoor air temperature, and indoor relative humidity. A microprocessor communicates with the heating and cooling equipment to determine the most efficient way to achieve perfect comfort. When used with a variable speed blower motor, this cite can reduce humidity even when cooling isn't necessary (as when the indoor temperature is 70 degrees but relative humidity is high, eg, when it's raining). Thermostat: A temperature control device, typically found on a wall inside that consists of a series of sensors and relays that monitor and control the functions of a heating and cooling system. Tonnage: The unit of measure used in air conditioning to describe the cooling capacity of a system. One ton of cooling is based on the amount of heat needed to melt one ton (2000 lbs.) of ice in a 24 hour period. One ton of cooling is equal to 12,000 Btu/hr. ^Top

[U]
Upflow: A type of air conditioning system that discharges air into the conditioned space via a top-mounted discharge plenum or through an overhead duct system. Upflow Furnace: A furnace that pulls return air in from the bottom and expels warm air from the top. ^Top

[V]
Vacuum Pump: A pump used to remove air and moisture from a refrigeration system at a pressure below atmospheric pressure. Vapor Barrier: A moisture-impervious layer applied to the surfaces enclosing a humid space to prevent moisture travel to a point where it may condense due to lower temperature. Vapor Seal: A vapor seal is an essential part of preventing moisture infiltration into or migration out of a critical space, such as a data processing center or other room that contains sensitive electronic instrumentation. Essentially, a vapor seal is a barrier that prevents air, moisture, and contaminants from migrating through tiny cracks or pores in the walls, floor, and ceiling into the critical space. Vapor barriers may be created using plastic film, vapor-retardant paint, vinyl wall coverings and vinyl floor systems, in combination with careful sealing of all openings (doors and windows) into the room. Ventilation: The process of supplying or removing air, by natural or mechanical means, to or from any space. Such air may or may not have been conditioned. Ventilator: A ventilator captures heating or cooling energy from stale indoor air and transfers it to fresh incoming air. ^Top

[W]
Water Cooled System: A type of air conditioning system that uses freon as a refrigerant and water as a condensing medium. Typically, the water-cooled condenser is located inside the air conditioner with the rest of the refrigeration components. Water is piped to the unit from a cooling tower or other suitable source. Water Source: Water is being used as the heat source or heat sink for a heat pump. Sources of underground water are wells and sources of surface water are lakes, large ponds, and rivers. Watt:

A unit of power that equals one joule per second. Named after James Watt. ^Top

[X]
No Definitions at this time. ^Top

[Y]
Year-Round: Air Conditioner which uses gas or oil for heating. ^Top

[Z]
Zone System: A method of dividing a home into zones and enabling you to control the amount of comfort provided to each. Zoning: The practice of providing independent heating and/or cooling to different areas in a structure. Zoning typically utilizes a system controller, zoning dampers controlled by a thermostat in each zone, and a bypass damper to regulate static pressure in the supply duct. ^Top Need more Heater or HVAC definitions or terms? Our Certified Heating Technicians are available 24 hours a day 7 days a week. Simply call our Toll Free number 1-800-Any-Tyme - Remember to dial the Y in Tyme, or select your Southern California City or County and you will be given a local phone number for an AnyTyme Technician in your specific area.

Latest Heating Information:

Heating Repair Services For most homeowners, a home repair list should include making sure the home stays warm as the weather gets colder. ()

Duct Cleaners & Furnace Cleaning The cleaning that an Air Duct Cleaner can do on your furnace consists of cleaning any accessible components of the furnace that the air moves across. However, these same components must be cleaned while in place and under no circumstances are they to be removed or altered in any way. Duct Cleaning companies are equipped with many unique proprietary tools that afford them the ability to clean the furnaces conveyance components while they remain in place.

Make Your Duct System More Efficient There are two elements to your heating system that need to work in tandem to deliver warm air in an efficient manner. ()

Furnace Filter Tip With your furnace in constant use during the winter months, check out the new high-efficiency pleated home air filters that help your furnace pump cleaner air into your home. ()

Furnace Cleaning, Maintenance & Tune-ups This winter is coming fast, faster then you or your house may be ready. Besides the fear of the rising oil prices, you shouldnt have to worry about your furnace or heater not working properly. ()

More Heating Repairs, Tips & Guides

AFUE (Annual Fuel Utilization Efficiency) A measure of a gas furnaces efficiency in converting fuel to
energy. The higher the rating, the more efficient the unit. For example: A rating of 90 means that approximately 90 percent of the fuel is used to provide warmth to your home, while the remaining 10 percent escapes as exhaust.

BTU (British Thermal Unit) The heat necessary to raise the temperature of 1 pound of water 1 degree
Fahrenheit. In your home, BTUs measure 1) the heat given off when fuel is burned for heating, and 2) the heat that is extracted from your home during cooling.

CFM (Cubic Feet per Minute) A standard measurement of airflow. A typical HVAC system requires 400
CFM per ton of air conditioning.

Capacity The output or producing ability of a piece of cooling or heating equipment. Cooling and heating
capacities are measured in BTUs.

Comfort-R Airflow System An exclusive feature of a high efficiency home comfort system from Trane.
This method of ramping airflow gives you greater humidity control in cooling and provides warmer air during heating start up.

Compressor The heart of an air conditioning or heat pump system. Located outside, the compressor pumps
refrigerant into the home in order to meet the cooling requirements of the system.

Condenser Coil or Outdoor Coil In an air conditioner, the coil dissipates heat from the refrigerant, changing
the refrigerant from vapor to liquid. In a heat pump system, it absorbs heat from the outside air.

Damper Found in ductwork, the damper is a movable plate that opens and closes to control airflow. Dampers
can be used to balance airflow in a duct system. They are also used in zoning to regulate airflow to certain rooms.

Ductwork Pipes or channels that carry air throughout your home. In a home comfort system, ductwork is critical
to performance as critical as the equipment itself, in fact.

Evaporator Coil or Indoor Coil Located inside your home in the indoor unit, this is where the refrigerant
evaporates as it absorbs heat from the air that passes over the coil. Along with the condenser coil, it forms the 2 halves of your air conditioning system.

Gas Furnace Heat Exchanger Located in the furnace, the heat exchanger transfers heat to the surrounding
air, which is then pumped throughout your home.

HVAC (Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning) The general industry term encompassing a variety
of home comfort equipment, including air conditioners, furnaces, thermostats, filters, ductwork and filters.

HSPF (Heating Seasonal Performance Factor) This rating is used in measuring the heating efficiency of
a heat pump. The higher the number, the more efficient the unit.

Package Unit A heating and cooling system contained in one outdoor unit. A package unit is typically installed
either beside or on top of the home, or sometimes in the attic.

Refrigerant A chemical that produces a refrigerating effect while expanding and vaporizing. Most residential air
conditioning systems contain R-22 refrigerant. R-22 is regulated by international controls under the Montreal Protocol and in the United States by the Environmental Protection Agency. It is scheduled to be in production until the year 2020. Its used in approximately 95% of air conditioning equipment manufactured in the U.S. today.

SEER (Seasonal Energy Efficiency Ratio) Similar to a cars miles per gallon measure of fuel efficiency,
the SEER is a measure of cooling efficiency for air conditioners and heat pumps. The higher the SEER, the more energy efficient the unit. The governments minimum SEER rating is 10.

Split System The combination of an outdoor unit (air conditioner or heat pump) with an indoor unit (furnace or
air handler). Split systems must be matched for optimum efficiency.

Thermostat A thermostat consists of a series of sensors and relays that monitor and automatically control the
functions of a heating and cooling system.

Ton A unit of measurement used for determining cooling capacity. One ton is the equivalent of 12,000 BTUs per
hour.

Zoning A method of dividing a home into different comfort zones so each zone can be independently controlled
depending on use and need.

Industry Terms
Heating and Cooling Industry (HVAC) Terms & Definitions This page contains the most common heating and cooling industry terms and definitions. Understanding these terms will assist you with selecting the proper

heating and cooling equipment for your application. Cooling BTU Output Industry standard of measuring the capacity of a system, denoting how much cooling BTU is "put out". Cooling Ton Industry standard of expressing the size of a cooling system. 1 ton = 12,000 BTU, 2 Ton = 24,000 BTU etc. Pre-Charged System Hamilton Condenser, Coil and Line Sets are all pre-charged with the proper amount of refrigerant for the system to operate, once the connections are made. Quick Connect Fittings Hamilton uses threaded brass fittings on the Condenser, Coil and Line Set that eliminate all soldering, brazing and charging. Keeps the system pre-charged so that once the connections are made, the system is operational. SEER Rating The rating used to denote the efficiency of a system. The standard efficiency is rated at 10 SEER. The higher the SEER, the more the energy savings on the energy usage and subsequently, the energy bill. Split System Consists of 3 components: Condenser, Coil and Line Set.

Central Air Conditioning Systems Terms

Application Refers to how a furnace will be used, such as Upflow, Downflow or Horizontal. AFUE The rating used to denote the efficiency of a furnace. Standard Efficiency is 80% AFUE while High Efficiency is considered 90% AFUE or higher. The higher the AFUE, the more savings on the energy usage and subsequently, the energy bill. "Air Conditioning Ready" Furnace Refers to a furnace's compatibility with typical thermostat wiring configurations for HEATING & COOLING. An Air Conditioning Ready Furnace usually has a "multi-speed" blower motor, capable of handling a variety of air conditioner sizes (i.e. 2-3.5 tons). CFM Stands for "cubic feet per minute." This refers to the speed of the blower motor. It takes 400 CFM to push 1 ton of air. Furnace Size The BTU output which matches or exceeds your home's estimated heating cost. Furnace Type

Central Heating Terms

The fuel source that operates or "runs the furnace". It is either natural gas, propane (LP) gas, electric or oil. Furnace Model The direction in which the heated air flows or is discharged from the furnace. Heating BTU Output The total amount of heat that a furnace must "put out" or produce to properly heat a home. Plenum Metal 'box-like' chamber attached to the supply air opening of a furnace. Used as the beginning of the air distribution system. Return Air Drop Metal 'box-like' chamber attached to the return air opening of an upflow furnace. Used as the beginning of the return air system, this ductwork kit usually contains a "built-in" furnace filter rack.

HVAC Industry Certifications


AGA Approved The American Gas Association (AGA) represents 195 local energy utility companies that deliver natural gas to more than 56 million homes, businesses and industries throughout the United States. The American Gas Association advocates the interests of its energy utility members and their customers, and provides information and services promoting demand and supply growth and operational excellence in the safe, reliable and cost-competitive delivery of natural gas. ARI Certification The Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Institute (ARI) consists of manufacturers who voluntarily participate in independent testing to ensure that their product will perform according to published claims. GAMA Certification The Gas Appliance Manufacturers Association (GAMA), is a national trade association of manufacturers of residential, commercial and industrial appliances and equipment, components and related products. GAMA's scope includes oil-fired and electric equipment as well as gas-fired equipment. GAMAs members account for over 90% of U.S. sales of gas and oil-fired space heating equipment and gas, oil and electric water heaters. UL Listed Underwriter's Laboratory (UL) is the trusted source across the globe for product compliance. Benefiting a range of customers - from manufacturers and retailers to consumers and regulating bodies - weve tested products for public safety for more than a century.