Characteristics and Assessment

Barbara Fernandes, M.S; CCC-SLP


Given the fact that each language has its own syntactic idiosyncrasies (Ardila et al.,2000 p.4) specific manifestation of aphasia differ depending on the structure of the individual’s native language.
–  1. to inform native Portuguese speaking clinicians about the available resources and tools for the assessment and treatment; –  2. to provide information to clinicians serving these immigrants around the world( bilinguals?); –  3. to enrich and increase our understanding of aphasia in bilinguals and monolinguals in general;





Portuguese is spoken by 250 million speakers around the world; it is ranked number 6 according to the number of speakers; it is the language with the largest number of speakers in South America (Wikipedia, 2006); The number of Portuguese speakers leaving abroad is between 2.3 to 3 million;

( Wikipedia.Portuguese colonies The closest language to Portuguese is Galician. 2007) Dialects and orthography– keeping it in mind during the assessment. there was a time they were one language. .}  }  }  }  }  The Latin Language The earliest surviving records of a distinctively Portuguese language – 9th century The 14th to the 16th century.


while maintaining steady eye contact. Brazilians prefer face-to-face communication to written communication Extreme diglossia Expect to always be called by your first name regardless of your authority power ◦  Brazilian Vernacular and standard Brazilian Portuguese .  Men shake hands when greeting one another.}  }  }  }  }  }  }  }  }  Conveying emotional information through touch = a sign of friendship and concern. kisses on both cheeks is cultural and expected. It is considered acceptable to interrupt someone who is speaking. Personal space? What is it? Women tend to touch more than man.

“According to the National Aphasia Association (1999). Aphasia is defined as an impairment of language due to injury to the brain. affecting the production or comprehension of speech and the ability to read and write.” Languages of the world X Aphasia .

.. . o) and indefinite( uma. Portuguese belongs to the inflectional language group (Lecours. -ã. as rosas) and are spcified by gender. 2000) Portuguese is a pro drop language .-gem. um) articles. articles may also be used in the plural (a -ade.ez. 2007) Portuguese has both definite(a.ção.dão .são. Articles are derived from the word form the gender of the noun is often predictable based on its lexical form : –a. .}  }  }  }  }  }  Portuguese is a branch of the Romance languages (Columbia Encyclopedia.

Results from this study reveal that the reading comprehension tests yield worse performance in oral spelling errors. the Token Test and the Boston Naming Test.Mansur at all (2002) studied 192 Brazilians with speech and language disturbances. What would be a good explanation for that? Should this item be removed from the protocol? . 133 of whom were diagnosed with Aphasia. Patients were examined using the Boston Diagnostics Aphasia Examination.

Understanding of Portuguese syntax allows clinicians to observe the patterns that are exhibited in agrammatic individuals }  . 2006).}  The manifestations of agrammatism depend on the morphosyntactic characteristics of the language ( Ardila.

processing capacity decreases as the amount of information to be coded increases. (2003) a common characteristic of agrammatic speakers is the difficulty with articles. According to the same author (2003)..}  The articles According to Bastiaanse et.. . Al.

2003 p364) . }  The degree of difficulty of native agrammatic patients of Brazilian Portuguese with null subjects of different grammatical persons is also not uniform Novaes ( 2003) studied the pattern of subject deletion in aphasic individuals.”( Novaes.5% Aphasic Individuals: 58. }  Normal Individuals : 29.What is it? The hypothesis: null subjects in Brazilian Portuguese are mentally represented in two different ways: as pronouns in the 1st person and as variables in the 3rd person.17% 83.64% “the production of null subjects in aphasic individuals is significantly larger than in normal individuals.

Null Subject .

now ec forgot. he entered the car”. ec entered in the car.) “Now. he fell in the car.}  }  }  }  }  }  }  }  }  }  }  }  }  }  Example of a null subject (of 1st person) produced by SS Interviewer: Qual o nome delas? (What the name of them?) “What are their names?” Aphasic: Agora. (He fell. . (Now. agora ec esqueci. ec entrou no carro. Example of a null subject (of 3rd person) produced by OL Interviewer: O que aconteceu com o Figueira? (What happened to Figueira?) “What happened to Figueira?” Aphasic: Ele caiu. ec caiu no carro.) “He fell. ec fell in the car. I forgot”.

Lima. ◦  Both speakers had been classified as agrammatic aphasics according to their performance on the BDAE ◦  The participants judged the grammar of 128 phrases containing the following violations: (1) NP-movement. (3) Long Wh-movement. and (4) Double Wh-movement. (2) Short Wh-movement. Ricardo & Celso Novaes (2000) studied the grammatical judgment of two agrammatic Portuguese speakers. ◦  The analysis of the participant’s behaviors indicated that both patients’ errors were concentrated in the structures containing violations involving traces of phrases and the participants’ errors were concentrated on the misjudgment of ungrammatical phrases .

A large segment of the population is socially disadvantaged.}  According to Connor (2001) to possibility that the results of the low socioeconomic status subjects are interpreted as an apparently more severe speech disorder are higher when compared to subjects from a higher socioeconomic status. Brazilian population involves a broad spectrum of educational levels. }  }  . including individuals who are illiterate and who experience a high degree of sociocultural deprivation.

The evaluation process The problem with standardized test }  }  . pg 305) .}  The challenge “difficulties are related to the structure of the language and its peculiarities as well as the cultural context of each country ” and Mansur (2001. Radanovic }  Speech therapists should familiarize themselves with the manifestations of aphasia in Portuguese speakers.

. 2004). “focus on identifying most preserved linguistic structures and the ones that were more severely impaired in order to guide treatment.}  }  Developed by Jakubovicz in 1996 It is the only aphasia test created and validated for the Brazilian Population. rather than identifying the type of aphasia” (Pacheco.

}  This test includes: ◦  a) a questionnaire for the family. ◦  d) a test of organization of syntax. ◦  e) a test of linguistic transposition. and ◦  h) a test of expressive syntax . ◦  b) a test of expressive language (written and spoken). ◦  c) a categorization test. ◦  g) test of reading abilities. ◦  f) a test of writing ability.

.2002). Radanovic and Mansur (2002) study: 1. there was an influence of the schooling on performance on only two items (the word discrimination and the body parts identification). and those which failed to fulfill the aims of the task after the translation (Radanovic. this study reveal that the overall performance of the Brazilian population does not differ from the American or the Colombian population.The Boston diagnostic Aphasia Examination (BDAE): The adaptation of the BDAE to Portuguese language include replacement of stimuli with strong cultural connotations. 2.

Greco. and Araujo (2005) study: “cut off scores are a combination of body parts identification.” . commands.}  Radanovic. and complex ideation material was the most efficient in differentiating normal individuals from aphasics.

A paper based and computer based version of the Token test developed by Renzi and Vidalgo in 1962 were developed for the Brazilian population The Galveston orientation and Amnesia Test (GOAT) Silva and Sousa (2007) translated and validated the GOAT to Portuguese. The results from their study concluded that the Portuguese version of the GOAT is a valid instrument in assessing the orientation and amnesia level of brain injured Portuguese speakers. .

no information on translation. however. Lesser e Coltheart. Western Aphasia Battery }  The WAB was translated to Portuguese. validation or normalization was found in the literature .}  This test is a translated and adapted version of the PALPA to the Portuguese population developed by Kay.

.Versions of the pairs Portuguese-English and PortugueseSpanish are available. This test is useful for clinicians assessing bilingual Portuguese speakers around the world.

(Lauterbach.The validation and standardization of the German AAT to the Portuguese language (PAAT) maintained the same formal structure as its original version. as well as four subtests: repetition. written language. . and a token test. naming. and a comprehension subtest. 2006) The PAAT include a semistructured interview.

T. (2006) evaluated the performance of the Brazilian population on the Portuguese version of the Boston Naming test. & Araujo.G.. Schooling issues… .Mansur. Greco.M. the translated version can be used without any adaptation for the Brazilian population if the level of education is taken into consideration. Although the schooling variable had the most influence on providing biased scores.

The Boston Diagnostic Aphasia Examination. Duduchi.” . d) The Boston Naming Test.a)  b)  c)  d)  The Peabody Test. The Token Test. and Capovila (2007). the advantage of computer-based over the paper-based examinations is that the former can measure reaction time. “ According to Macedo. Firmo.


Over 45 million words and allows for search for parts of speech. phrases. and sorrowing words. and grammatical construction. }  frequency and distribution of the words. word frequency. }  semantically-based queries }  Naming treatment }  .

}  . }  Specific characteristics of the symptomatology of aphasia in the Portuguese language still remain to be studied.the vast majority of the research studies only corroborate findings from studies in other languages.

Scherer et al(2006) used imaging studies to study semantic and syntactic processing of bilinguals Portuguese/ French speakers }  the activation map showed a common network involving Wernick’s and Broca’s areas for both syntax and semantics. }  .

}  . (2003) conducted a study with four bilingual Japanese Portuguese patients with Alzheimer’s disease who demonstrated fluency aphasia.Meguro et al. }  Oral reading ability was most impaired in the case of Kanji (irregular words in Japanese). however comprehension of these words were not impaired. followed by irregular words in Portuguese.

As the scientific community becomes globalized and information from studies on the manifestations of aphasia in different languages becomes available. An increasing number of speech therapy face the challenges of a diverse society. Therefore. information on available tools. monolinguals. bilinguals and multilingual. research findings should be made available so that appropriate assessment and treatment can be provided to speakers of all languages. . our understanding of aphasia expands.

1.M. Evaluating receptive language via token test: Computadorized version versus traditional versions.}  }  }  }  }  }  }  }  }  }  }  }  }  }  }  Ardila.. Cortex.E. 6(1) 61-68 Mansur. J. PALPA-P.R.. Rosseli & Ostrosky-Solis (2000) Syntactic Comprehension. 254–257. 9 (4). Grammaticality judgments by agrammatic aphasics: Data from BrazilianPortuguese.. S.. New York. and Calculation Abilities in Spanish–English Bilinguals. Ricardo & Celso Novaes (2000). and Albert.L.. Jonkers. Fitzpatrick P. & Coltheart. K. ( 2005) Brazilians in America: 1. Verbal Memory.. I. & Araujo. Sao Paulo Medical Journal. Vol 7. Descriptive study of 192 adults with speech disturbances.G. Caló. M. Greco. Braz J Med Bio Research 38 (2).. Obler. R. Effect of socioeconomic status on aphasia severity and recovery. Brazil Magazine. 514-515.Portuguese Version : a reference guide for the Brazilian population..L.   Luiz. Columbia Encyclopedia (2007) Portuguese Language Sixth Edition.M. Brain and Language. (2001). M. Radanovic. Provas de Avaliação da Linguagem e da Afasia em Português [Tasks for the assessment of language processing and aphasia in Portuguese. 120 (6) 170-4 . (2003) Influence of educational level in Aphasia testing: experiences from standardizing the Portuguese version of AAT..   Bastiaanse. Gomes. JINS. L. Macedo. (2003). 277-292 Mansur.R Ruigendijk. Mendonca.M. 3-16. Firmo.:L. (2005) A study of the abilities in oral language comprehension of the Boston Diagnostic Aphasia Examination . Tocco. S.M. Lima. Kay. 78 . 39.M. 74.. M. 515–551.M.T. & Capovila (2007). Ruegg.3 million and growing fast. Avaliacao psicologica.E. PALPA-P]. Duduchi. 405-417 Castro. Brain and Language. L.. Columbia University Press. & Scaff. (2002).D.. Lesser. (2007). L. Applied Neuropsychology. Connor.T. & Zonneveld.L.. Lisboa: CEGOC. Cortex (2003) Lauterbach. Gender and case in agrammatic production.R.E. N..

Wikipedia.. Vicente. Boston naming test: performance of Brazilian population from Sao Paulo..P. M.}  }  }  }  }  }  }  }  }  }  }  }  Meguro. Lesage. (2004).. Castro. Araujo.. Megure. L. (2003). Benali... Ansaldo.Senaha.F. S. Arq Neuropsiquiatria 59 (3-A): 512..A. Noureddine.... Novaes. Neuropsychology and linguistic aphasiology: Evidence in favor of case studies. M.J. & Yamadori.M. Nitrin. 362-364. Ishizaki.L. 2008. 99 197-198.F. A. Chubacci.520. R.wikipedia. Brain and Cognition 55. Psychogeriatrics. Language deterioration in four Japanese-Portuguese bilingual patients with Alzheimer’s disease: a trans-cultural study of Japanese elderly immigrants in Brazil. from: http:// en.S. and Braga. (2003) Dissociation in Production of Null Subjects in Two Aphasic individuals. (2004). Radanovic. Radanovic and Masour (2002) performance of Brazilian population sample in the Boston Diagnostic Aphasia Examination: A pilot study. Scherer.L & Greco. (1987). A.L. Brain and Language. Hillsdale. [Rehabilitation of the aphasic individual: a perspective focused on daily living].A... Simões. Ambo. 18...R.C. 3: 63-68 Monsur. Retrieved April 26. Paradis. (2006).C.R. Toronto Working Papers in Linguistics 21: 89-102 Radanovic et al ( 2001) Primary progressive Aphasia. & Dillinger.Giroux. ( 2003).K. 115-133. NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Portuguese. Pro-Fono Revista de Atualiazacao Cientifica... & Walley. C. Reabilitacao fonoaudiologica do afasico em uma perspective focalizada no cotidiano.M. Teste de Afasia para Bilíngües [Brazilian Portuguese version of the Bilingual Aphasia Test]. S. (2006) An optical study of semantic and syntactic processing by bilinguals. .M. 13-20. 2. Novaes.Caramelli.L.H. Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research 35: 305 -317.M. Barueri (SP).G. M. A developmental analysis of similarity neighborhoods in European Portuguese. H. Taquemori. Journal of Portuguese Linguistics.

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