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Pronunciation: What Are the Expectations?

Marcus Otlowski otlowski [AT] cc.kochi-u.ac.jp The usefulness of teaching pronunciation is a widely debated subject in the language teaching world. Some of the current research would suggest that teachers can make little or no difference in improving their students pronunciation. In contrast, there is research that indicates that the teacher can make a noticeable difference if certain criteria, such as the teaching of suprasegmentals and the linking of pronunciation with listening practice, are fulfilled. If the above views indicate the split in opinion about the teaching of pronunciation, can pronunciation be successfully taught, and if so, what are the pedagogical implications for the classroom teacher and the learner? This article, in light of the current research and opinions, asks the question 'Is it reasonable to expect all students to do well in learning the pronunciation of English?' The article consists of an examination of the role of pronunciation in current and past language programs, recent research on pronunciation and the learner, current pedagogical thinking on pronunciation and learning, and some proposed new roles for the teacher and student in the communicative classroom. It is hoped that this short overview of the role of pronunciation in EFL/ESL programs will prompt more teachers to reconsider the relationship between the learner and pronunciation.

Introduction
This paper examines whether it is reasonable to expect all students to do well in learning the pronunciation of a foreign language. For the purpose of this paper 'foreign language' will be deemed to be English and 'pronunciation' is defined as ' A way of speaking a word, especially a way that is accepted or generally understood.' (American Heritage Dictionary, 3rd.,1992) The paper looks at the role of pronunciation in language programmes, the recent research on pronunciation and the learner, current ideas on pronunciation and learning, and the proposed new roles pronunciation, the teacher, and the student should have in today's communicative language programme.

Background
The role of pronunciation in the different schools of language teaching has varied widely from having virtually no role in the grammar-translation method to being the main focus in the audio-lingual method where emphasis is on the traditional notions of pronunciation, minimal pairs, drills and short conversations. (Castillo, 1990:3) Situational language teaching, developed in Britain, also mirrored the audio-lingual view of the pronunciation class (Richards and Rodgers,1986). Morley (1991:484) states, 'The pronunciation class...was one that gave primary attention to phonemes and their meaningful contrasts, environmental allophonic variations, and combinatory phonotactic rules, along with ...attention to stress, rhythm, and intonation.' During the late 1960's and the 1970's questions were asked about the role of pronunciation in the ESL/EFL curriculum, whether the focus of the programmes and the instructional methods were effective or not. Pronunciation programmes until then were 'viewed as meaningless noncommunicative drill-and-exercise gambits' (Morley,1991:485-6). In many language programmes the teaching of pronunciation was pushed aside, as many studies concluded 'that little

relationship exists between teaching pronunciation in the classroom and attained proficiency in pronunciation; the strongest factors found to affect pronunciation (i.e. native language and motivation) seem to have little to do with classroom activities' (Suter,1976: 233-53,Purcell and Suter, 1980:271-87).

Recent Research
The above view that 'little relationship exists between teaching pronunciation in the classroom and attained proficiency in pronunciation' was supported by research done by Suter (1976:233-53) and Suter and Purcell (1980:286) on twenty variables believed to have an influence on pronunciation. They concluded that pronunciation practice in class had little affect on the learner's pronunciation skills and, moreover 'that the attainment of accurate pronunciation in a second language is a matter substantially beyond the control of educators'. They qualified their findings by stating that variables of formal training and the quality of the training in pronunciation could affect the results, as would the area of pronunciation that had been emphasized, that is segmentals ( individual sounds of a language) or suprasegmentals. ( The "musical patterns" of English, melody, pitch patterns, rhythm, and timing patterns [Gilbert, 1987:33-39].) Pennington (1989:203-227) questioned the validity of Suter and Purcell's findings as the factors of formal pronunciation training and the quality of the teaching, if not taken into account, could affect any research results. He stated that there was 'no firm basis for asserting categorically that pronunciation is not teachable or that it is not worth spending time on...'(p.20). It is quite clear from the research mentioned above that the role of pronunciation training in the learner's language development is widely debated, with researchers such as Suter, Purcell, and Madden (1983:6980) all thinking that pronunciation training is relatively ineffective, and in opposition researchers such as Pennington believing that teachers, with formal training in pronunciation and teaching suprasegmentals in a commuciative language programme, can make a difference. Between these opposing views, Stern (1992:112 ) says 'There is no convincing empirical evidence which could help us sort out the various positions on the merits of pronunciation training'. If the above views represent the split in the teaching of pronunciation, what can the teacher do to improve their students' pronunciation, if improvement can be obtained?

Current Ideas on Pronunciation and Learning


Changing outlooks on language learning and teaching have influenced a move from teacher centred to learner centered classrooms. Concurrently, there has been a shift from specific linguistic competencies to broader communicative competencies as goals for teachers and students (Morley,1991:481-520). Morley states the need for the integration of pronunciation with oral communication, a change of emphasis from segmentals to suprasegmentals, more emphasis on individual learner needs, meaningful task-based practices, development of new teacher strategies for the teaching, and introducing peer correction and group interaction. (Castillo,1991:4) Research has shown that teaching phonemes isn't enough for intelligibility in communication (Cohen,1977:71-7). With the emphasis on meaningful communication and Morley's (1991:488) premise, that 'Intelligible pronunciation is an essential component of communication competence' teachers should include pronunciation in their courses and expect students to do well in them. Without adequate pronunciation skills the learner's ability to communicate is severely limited. Morley believes that not attending to a student's pronunciation needs, 'is an abrogation of professional responsibility (1991:489)'. Other research gives support to Morey's

belief in the need for 'professional responsibility' when the results show that 'a threshold level of pronunciation in English such that if a given non-native speaker's pronunciation falls below this level, he or she will not be able to communicate orally no matter how good his or her control of English grammar and vocabulary might be' (Celce-Murcia, 1987:5). Gilbert (1984:1) believes the skills of listening comprehension and pronunciation are interdependent: 'If they cannot hear English well, they are cut off from the language...If they cannot be understood easily, they are cut off from conversation with native speakers.' Nooteboom (1983:183-94) also has suggested that speech production is affected by speech perception; the hearer has become an important factor in communication discourse. This illustrates the need to integrate pronunciation with communicative activities; to give the student situations to develop there pronunciation by listening and speaking. The current research and the current trend reversal in the thinking of pronunciation shows there is a consensus that a learner's pronunciation in a foreign language needs to be taught in conjunction with communicative practices for the learner to be able to communicate effectively with native speakers.

Pronunciation and Communicative Teaching


Students can be expected to do well in the pronunciation of English if the pronunciation class is taken out of isolation and becomes an 'integral part of [the] oral communication' class (Morley,1991:496). The goal of pronunciation should be changed from the attainment of 'perfect' pronunciation (A very elusive term at the best of times.), to the more realistic goals of developing functional intelligibility, communicability, increased self-confidence, the development of speech monitoring abilities and speech modification strategies for use beyond the classroom (Morley, 1991:500). The overall aim of these goals is for the learner to develop spoken English that is easy to understand, serves the learner's individual needs, and allows a positive image of himself as a speaker of a foreign language. The learner needs to develop awareness and monitoring skills that will allow learning opportunities outside the classroom environment. The communicative approach to pronunciation teaching requires teaching methods and objectives that include 'whole-person learner involvement' (Morley,1991:501). Morley states there are three important dimensions the teacher should catered for in any pronunciation programme; the learner's intellectual involvement, affective involvement, and physical involvement. The learner's involvement in the learning process has been noted as one of the best techniques for developing learner strategies, that is, the measures used by the learner to develop his language learning (Morley, 1991:506). It is the teacher's responsibility to develop the learning process so the learner has the greatest chance to develop the learning strategies that are unique to each individual learner. The teacher also has a special role to play in the communicative learning programme, a role that Morley describes as one of 'speech coach or pronunciation coach' (1991:507). Rather than just correcting the learner's mistakes, the 'speech coach' 'supplies information, gives models from time to time, offers cues, suggestions and constructive feedback about performance, sets high standards, provides a wide variety of practice opportunities, and overall supports and encourages the learner' (Morley,1991:507). It can be seen the teacher's role is not only to 'teach' but to facilitate learning by monitoring and modifying English at two levels, speech production and speech performance.

Conclusion
All students can do well in learning the pronunciation of a foreign language if the teacher and student participate together in the total learning process. Success can be achieved if each have set, respectively, individual teaching and learning goals. Pronunciation must be viewed as more than correct production of phonemes: it must be viewed in the same light as grammar, syntax, and discourse, that is a crucial part of communication. Research has shown and current pedagogical thinking on pronunciation maintains that 'intelligible pronunciation is seen as an essential component of communicative competence' (Morley, 1991:513). With this in mind, the teacher must then set achievable goals that are applicable and suitable for the communication needs of the student. The student must also become part of the learning process, actively involved in their own learning. The content of the course should be integrated into the communication class, with the content emphasizing the teaching of suprasegmentals, linking pronunciation with listening comprehension, and allowing for meaningful pronunciation practice. With the teacher acting as a 'speech coach', rather than as a mere checker of pronunciation, the feedback given to the student can in itself encourage learners to improve their pronunciation. If these criteria are met, all students, within their learner unique goals, can be expected to do well learning the pronunciation of a foreign language.

Bibliography

Castillo, L. (1990) L2 Pronunciation Pedagogy: Where have we been? Where are we headed? The Language Teacher . Vol.XIV, No. 10. 3-7. Celce-Muria, M. (1987) Teaching pronunciation as communication. In J. Morley ed., Current perspectives on pronunciation. pp. 5-12, Washington, D.C.: TESOL. Cohen, A. (1977) Redundancy as a tool in listening comprehension. In R. Dirven ed. Listening comprehension in foreign language teaching: Research and classroom applications. TESOL Quarterly , 16/1, 71-77. Gilbert, J. (1995) Pronunciation Practices as an Aid to Listening Comprehension In D.J. Mendelson and J. Rubin ed. A Guide for the Teaching of Second Language Listening. pp. 97-112. San Diego: Dominic Press. Gilbert, J. (1984a) Clear Speech. Pronunciation and Listening Comprehension in American English. Students Book. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Gilbert, J. (1984b) Clear Speech. Pronunciation and Listening Comprehension in American English. Teachers manual and answer key. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Morley, J. (1991) The Pronunciation Component in Teaching English to Speakers of Other Languages. TESOL Quarterly 25/1 51-74. Noteboom, S. (1983) Is speech production controlled by speech perception? In van den Broecke et al. ed. Sound structure. Studies for Antonie Cohen pp. 183-94. Dordrecht: Foris. Pennington, M. (1989) Teaching Pronunciation from the top down. RELC Journal, 20/1 21-38 Purcell, E. and R. Suter (1980) Predictors of pronunciation accuracy: A reexamination. Language Learning. 30/2, 271-87. Richards, J. and T. Rodgers (1986) Approaches and Methods in language teaching, New York: Cambridge University Press. Suter, R. (1976) Predicators of Pronunciation accuracy in second language learning. Language Learning. 26, 233-53 Stern, H.H. (1992) Issues and Options in Language Teaching. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

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TERJEMAHAN

Pronunciation: Apa yang Diharapkan?


Marcus Otlowski otlowski [AT] cc.kochi-u.ac.jp Manfaat pengajaran Pronunciation (Pengucapan) telah banyak diperdebatkan di seluruh dunia. Beberapa peneliti berpendapat bahwa para guru hanya berhasil meningkatkan sedikit dari kemampuan pronunciation siswa bahkan terkadang tidak ada. Sebaliknya, ada pula peneliti yang mengindikasikan bahwa guru dapat membuat perubahan yang cukup jika criteria tertentu dipenuhi, seperti pengajaran suprasegmental dan hubungan antara pelajaran pronunciation dan praktek listening (mendengarkan). Namun, pertanyaannya ialah dapatkah pronunciation diajarkan dengan sukses? Kalaupun demikian, apakah implikasi pedagogisnya dalam kelas bagi guru maupun siswa? Artikel ini melalui penelitian yang jelas menanyakan pendapat beberapa orang mengenai apakah cukup beralasan untuk mengharapkan para siswa mampu mempelajari pronunciation bahasa Inggris dengan baik? Artikel ini juga berisi penelitian terhadap peran pronunciation dalam program bahasa tertentu di masa lalu, penelitian terbaru terhadap pronunciation dan siswa, pemikiran pedagogis pada pronunciation dan pembelajaran, dan beberapa tugas baru untuk guru dan siswa dalam menciptakan kelas yang komunikatif. Diharapkan gambaran singkat mengenai peran pronunciation dalam program ELF/ESL ini dapat mendorong kesadaran para guru untuk mempertimbangkan kembali hubungan kemampuan berbahasa siswa dengan pronunciation.

Pengenalan
Artikel ini mengkaji apakah cukup beralasan untuk mengharapkan para siswa mampu mempelajari pronunciation (pengucapan) dalam bahasa asing. Bahasa asing yang dimaksud di sini ialah bahasa Inggris dan pronunciation didefinisikan sebagai Cara mengucapkan sebuah kata, terutama cara yang diterima atau dimengerti secara umum (American Heritage Dictionary, 3rd.,1992). Artikel ini melihat perlunya peran pronunciation dalam program bahasa, penelitian terbaru terhadap pronunciation dan kemampuan berbahasa siswa, gagasan khusus mengenai pronunciation dan pembelajaran, serta rumusan peran baru pronunciation, guru, dan siswa dalam program komunikatif bahasa saat ini.

Latar Belakang
Peran pronunciation dalam pengajaran bahasa di dalam sekolah yang berbeda cukup beragam, dari sama sekali tidak memiliki peran dalam metode grammar-translation hingga menjadi focus utama dalam metode audio-lingual yang menekankan pronunciation dalam betuk tradisional, seperti pembelajaran berpasan-pasangan, latihan mengucapkan kata dan percakapan pendek. (Castillo, 1990:3) Pengajaran bahasa situasional yang dikembangkan di Inggris juga memfokuskan metode audio-lingual melalui kelas pronunciation (Richards and Rodgers,1986). Morley (1991:484) berkata,Kelas pronunciation..merupakan pelajaran yang memfokuskan perhatian pada fonem dan perbedaanperbedaannya yang penuh arti, variasi allofonnya, dan aturan fonetik serta..perhatian pada tekanan, ritme, dan intonasi. Sepanjang akhir tahun 1960an sampai 1970an, pertanyaan mengenai peran pronunciation dalam kurikulum ESL/EFL mengenai apakah focus program dan metode pengajarannya efektif atau tidak. Program pronunciation pada saat itu dianggap sebagai cara awal latihan nonkomunikatif yang tidak penting (Morley,1991:485-6). Dalam banyak program bahasa, pengajaran pronunciation dikesampingkan sebab hubungan antara pengajaran bahasa dalam kelas dan keuntungan yang diperoleh sangat kecil; factor-faktor yang lebih kuat (seperti bahasa asli dan motivasi) mempengaruhi peran pronunciation sehingga sangat jarang tampak pada aktivitas pembelajaran di kelas (Suter,1976: 233-53,Purcell and Suter, 1980:271-87).

Penelitian Terbaru
Pernyataan di atas hubungan antara pengajaran bahasa dalam kelas dan keuntungan yang diperoleh sangat kecil didukung oleh penelitian yang dilakukan oleh Suter (1976:233-53) dan Suter dan Purcell (1980:286) pada 20 variabel yang dipercaya mempengaruhi pronunciation. Mereka menyimpulkan bahwa praktek pronunciation di kelas memiliki pengaruh yang kecil dalam peningkatan kemampuan pronunciation siswa, dan terlebih bahwa pencapaian pronunciation (pengucapan) yang tepat dalam bahasa kedua merupakan masalah yang tidak mampu dipenuhi oleh siswa. Mereka menarik kesimpulan dengan menempatkan variable pelatihan formal dan kualitas pelatihan dalam pronunciation akan mempengaruhi hasil sebab lingkup pronunciation ini ditekankan pada pelajaran yang segmental (suara individu dari suatu bahasa) atau suprasegmental (pola musikal Bahasa Inggris, melodi, pola pitch, ritme, danaturan waktu [Gilbert, 1987:33-39]). Pennington (1989:203-227) mempertanyakan keabsahan kesimpulan yang dibuat Suter dan Purcell karena factor pelatihan pronunciation formal dan kualitas mengajar, jika tidak turut diperhitungkan dapat mempengaruhi hasil penelitian. Ia menyatakan bahwa tidak ada dasar yang kuat untuk menegaskan secara pasti bahwa pronunciation tidak dapat diajarkan atau bahwa pelajaran ini hanya membuang-buang waktu..(p.20). hal ini cukup jelas terlihat dari pernyataan peneliti di awal bahwa peran pelatihan pronunciation dalam pengembangan kemampuan berbahasa siswa telah banyak diperdebatkan oleh peneliti-peneliti, seperti Suter, Purcell, dan Madden (1983:69-80) yang semuanya beranggapan pelatihan ini relative kurang efektif. Sedangkan peneliti seperti Pennington percaya bahwa guru-guru, yang melatih pronunciation formal dan pengajran suprasegmental dalam program bahasa komunikatif, dapat membuat perubahan. Di antara dua perspektif yang berlawanan ini, Stern (1992:112) berkata,Tidak ada bukti empiris yang meyakinkan yang dapat membantu kita dalam menentukan posisi fungsi dari pelatihan pronunciation.

Gagasan Khusus dalam Pronunciation dan Pelajaran Bahasa


Mengubah pandangan terhadap proses belajar-mengajar bahasa telah turut mengubah model pembelajaran guru focus kepada murid, dan sebaliknya. Di saat yang sama, bagian yang mewakili kemampuan linguistic khusus dan kemampuan komunikasi yang lebih luas sebagai tujuan yang ingin dicapai oleh semua guru dan siswa (Morley,1991:481-520). Morley menyebutkan pentingnya hubungan Pronunciation yang terintegrasi dengan komunikasi verbal, perubahan penekanan dari pembelajaran segmental ke pembelajaran suprasegmental, penekanan yang lebih pada kebutuhan pembelajaran siswa secara individu, praktek pengucapan yang penuh arti, peningkatan strategi pembelajaran baru, memperkenalkan koreksi antarteman dan interaksi antargrup. (Castillo,1991:4) Para peneliti telah menunjukkan bahwa pengajaran fonem tidak cukup untuk kemampuan komunikasi (Cohen,1977:71-7). Dengan penekanan pada komunikasi penuh arti dan dasar pemikiran Morley (1991:488), bahwa kemampuan pronunciation merupakan komponen kemampuan berbahasa yang sangat penting. Guruguru dapat memasukkan pronunciation ke dalam pelajaran mereka dan berharap siswa dapat mempelajarinya dengan baik. Tanpa kemampuan pronunciation yang sesuai, kemampuan pelajar dalam berkomunikasi akan sangat terbatas. Morley percaya bahwa tidak mempedulikan kebutuhan pronunciation siswa adalah penghapusan tanggung jawab pada profesi (1991:489)'. Peneliti lain pun banyak yang mendukung pendapat Morley, seperti Celce-Murcia (1987:5), Gilbert (1984:1), Nooteboom (1983:183-94), dll. Pengajaran Pronunciation dan Komunikasi Para siswa diharapkan dapat mempelajari dan mempraktekkan pronunciation dalam bahasa Inggris, jika pronunciation dijadikan bagian dari kelas komunikasi verbal (Morley,1991:496). Tujuan mempelajari pronunciation harus diubah dari pencapaian pengucapan sempurna ke tujuan yang lebih realistis, yaitu peningkatan keterampilan, komunikasi, rasa percaya diri, kemampuan berbicara, serta strategi modifikasi kata-kata untuk kepentingan komunikasi di dalam dan di luar kelas (Morley, 1991:500). Tujuan utama dari semua tujuan ini ialah untuk mengembangkan kemampuan berbicara siswa dengan menggunakan bahasa Inggris agar mudah dimengerti, menyediakan kebutuhan pembelajaran siswa secara pribadi, dan memberi gambaran positif terhadap dirinya sendiri sebagai pengujar bahasa asing. Para siswa perlu mengembangkan kesadaran dan melatih kemampuan berbahasa yang dapat mereka gunakan untuk kesempatan belajar di luar lingkungan kelas. Pendekatan komunikatif pada pengajaran pronunciation memerlukan metode mengajar dan tujuan yang mencakup keterlibatan semua peserta didik (Morley,1991:501). Morley juga menyatakan bahwa ada tiga dimensi yang paling penting yang harus ada dalam setiap progam pronunciation, yaitu keterlibatan intelektual siswa, keterlibatan perasaan, dan keterlibatan fisik. Keterlibatan para siswa dalam proses pembelajaran merupakan tekhnik terbaik untuk meningkatkan strategi belajar siswa yang merupakan tolak ukur keberhasilannya dalam mempelajari bahasa (Morley, 1991:506). Ini merupan tanggung jawab para guru. Guru juga memiliki peran khusus dalam menyusun program pembelajaran komunikatif, peran yang disebut Morley sebagai seorang pelatih pidato atau pelatih pronunciation (1991:507). Dibanding hanya mengoreksi kesalahan siswa, pelatih pidato juga memberikan informasi, memberi contoh dari waktu ke waktu, member petunjuk, saran serta umpan balik yang membangun mengenai penampilan, menentukan standar

pencapaian yang tinggi, menyediakan kesempatan praktek yang banyak, dan semua dukungan dan dorongan untuk kemajuan siswa (Morley,1991:507). Dapat dikatakan peran guru tidak hanya mengajar, tetapi juga memfasilitasi pelajar dengan mengawasi dan memodifikasi pembelajaran bahasa Inggris pada dua level, speech production dan speech performance.

Kesimpulan
Semua siswa dapat mempelajari dan mempraktekkan pronunciation dalam bahasa asing denga baik jika mereka dan guru-gurunya bekerja sama dalam proses belajar secara penuh. Kesuksesan dapat dicapai jika kedua pihak telah menetapkan tujuan belajar-mengajar yang didinginkan dan tiap individu menghormatinya. Prounciation harus dilihat dari berbagai perspektif, tidak hanya dari benar/ tidaknya fonem yang dibentuk, tapi juga dari segi tata bahasa, sinteks, percakapan, dan semua bagian penting dalam komunikasi. Peneliti telah menunjukkan pemikiran pedagogis terhadap pronunciation dengan mempertahankan bahwa kemampuan pronunciation merupakan komponen penting dalam kemampuan komunikasi (Morley, 1991:513). Dengan dasar pemikiran ini, guru harus menyusun tujuan yang dapat dicapai yang tentunya sesuai dengan kebutuhan komunikasi siswa. Siswa juga harus mengambil bagian dalam proses pembelajaran, dan secara aktif terlibat. Isi pelajaran hendaknya terintegrasi ke dalam kelas komunikasi, dengan penekanan pada pengajaran materi-materi suprasegmental dan hubungan antara pelajaran pronunciation dan praktek listening (mendengarkan), serta memberikan praktek pronunciation yang penuh arti. Dengan mengibaratkan profesi pengajar sebagai pelatih pidato, hubungan timbal balik yang diberikan kepada siswa dapat mendorong mereka untuk meningkatkan kemampuan pronunciation mereka. Jika semua criteria ini terpenuhi, semua siswa, dalam tujuan belajar mereka yang unik, dapat diharapkan mampu mempelajari pronunciation (pengucapan) dalam bahasa asing dengan baik.

Referensi

Castillo, L. (1990) L2 Pronunciation Pedagogy: Where have we been? Where are we headed? The Language Teacher . Vol.XIV, No. 10. 3-7. Celce-Muria, M. (1987) Teaching pronunciation as communication. In J. Morley ed., Current perspectives on pronunciation. pp. 5-12, Washington, D.C.: TESOL. Cohen, A. (1977) Redundancy as a tool in listening comprehension. In R. Dirven ed. Listening comprehension in foreign language teaching: Research and classroom applications. TESOL Quarterly , 16/1, 71-77. Gilbert, J. (1995) Pronunciation Practices as an Aid to Listening Comprehension In D.J. Mendelson and J. Rubin ed. A Guide for the Teaching of Second Language Listening. pp. 97-112. San Diego: Dominic Press. Gilbert, J. (1984a) Clear Speech. Pronunciation and Listening Comprehension in American English. Students Book. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Gilbert, J. (1984b) Clear Speech. Pronunciation and Listening Comprehension in American English. Teachers manual and answer key. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Morley, J. (1991) The Pronunciation Component in Teaching English to Speakers of Other Languages. TESOL Quarterly 25/1 51-74.

Noteboom, S. (1983) Is speech production controlled by speech perception? In van den Broecke et al. ed. Sound structure. Studies for Antonie Cohen pp. 183-94. Dordrecht: Foris. Pennington, M. (1989) Teaching Pronunciation from the top down. RELC Journal, 20/1 21-38 Purcell, E. and R. Suter (1980) Predictors of pronunciation accuracy: A reexamination. Language Learning. 30/2, 271-87. Richards, J. and T. Rodgers (1986) Approaches and Methods in language teaching, New York: Cambridge University Press. Suter, R. (1976) Predicators of Pronunciation accuracy in second language learning. Language Learning. 26, 233-53 Stern, H.H. (1992) Issues and Options in Language Teaching. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

The Internet TESL Journal, Vol. IV, No. 1, January 1998 http://iteslj.org/

http://iteslj.org/Articles/Otlowski-Pronunciation.html