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# AOE 3124 – Spring 2001 Aerospace Structures

PVW and 1st Castigliano’s Theorem Example # 4: Problem 2

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The structure shown below has four elastic bars connected by smooth pins. The elastic bars have the same EA. Bar 2-1 is subject to a thermal change of ∆ T12 . Length of bar 2-1 is L. Determine: 1. Horizontal and vertical displacements at node 1 by using: (a) Principle of Virtual Work, (b) Castigliano’s First Theorem. 2. Member forces 3. Magnitude and direction of the reaction force at node 5

∆T12
2 L 1

θ

3

30°

P

4

45°

5

60°

The following is known: E = 10 × 106 psi A = 1.0 in2 L = 100 in θ = 45◦ ∆ T12 = −200◦ F 1 α = 13 × 10−6 ◦ F P = 10000 lbs

AOE 3124 – Spring 2001 Aerospace Structures PVW and 1st Castigliano’s Theorem Example # 4: Problem 2 Page 2 of 6 GENERAL INFORMATION Note that node order has been reversed. Bars αij cos αij sin αij Lij [in] Eij Aij [lbs] 1 × 107 kij = Eij Aij Lij [lbs/in] 100000 √ 50000 3 √ 50000 2 t Nij = (E A α ∆T )ij [lbs] uij = q2j−1 − q2i−1 vij = q2j − q2i 1-2 180◦ + 0◦ 180◦ + 30◦ 180◦ + 45◦ 180◦ + 60◦ -1 √ 0 100 -26000 q3 − q1 q4 − q2 1-3 − 3 2 −1 2 200 √ 3 1 × 107 0 q5 − q1 q6 − q2 1-4 1 − √2 1 − √2 √ 100 2 1 × 107 0 q7 − q1 q8 − q2 1-5 −1 2 √ − 3 2 200 1 × 107 50000 0 q9 − q1 q10 − q2 q3 = q4 = q5 = q6 = q7 = q8 = q9 = q10 = 0 I. DEFLECTIONS USING PRINCIPLE OF VIRTUAL WORK Using Mathematica to simply results we get: Bars 1-2 sij = uij cos αij + vij sin αij q1 √ √ δsij δq1 t Nij = kij sij − Nij 26000 + 100000 q1 √ 1-3 3 q1 2 + q2 2 3 δq1 2 + δq2 2 75000 q1 + 25000 3 q2 1-4 q √1 2 + q √2 2 δq1 √ 2 + δq2 √ 2 50000 q1 + 50000 q2 √ 1-5 q1 2 √ + 3 q2 2 δq1 2 √ + 3 δq2 2 25000 q1 + 25000 3 q2 . That’s why we add 180◦ to the angle.

q2 δq2 δWext = 7071. q2 ) δq1 + (−7071. q2 = 0 Solution to this system of equation is solved in Mathematica: q1 = −0. q1 δq1 − 94506. q1 − 94506.07 δq2 − 94506.9 − 212807. q2 ) δq2 = 0 This leads to two system of equations: −18928. q1 − 94506. q1 − 94506. δq1 + 212807.07 δq1 − 7071.9 − 212807.07 − 94506. q1 δq2 − 94506. q2 δq2 = (−18928. q2 δq1 + 94506. q2 δq1 − 7071. q1 δq1 + 94506. q1 δq2 + 94506. q1 − 94506.9 δq1 − 212807.0254131 in .07 δq2 Using Mathematica: δWext − δWint = 0 = −18928.07 − 94506.100234 in q2 = 0.AOE 3124 – Spring 2001 Aerospace Structures PVW and 1st Castigliano’s Theorem Example # 4: Problem 2 Page 3 of 6 Using Mathematica to simply results we get: Bars 1-2 √ Nij δsij 26000 δq1 + 100000 q1 δq1 √ 1-3 37500 √ 3 q1 δq1 + 37500 q2 δq1 + 37500 q1 δq2 + 12500 √ √ 3 q2 δq2 √ 1-4 25000 2 q1 δq1 + 25000 2 q2 δq1 + 25000 2 q1 δq2 + 25000 2 q2 δq2 1-5 12500 q1 δq1 + 12500 √ 3 q2 δq1 + 12500 √ 3 q1 δq2 + 37500 q2 δq2 We add and symplify using Mathematica: δWint = Nij δ sij = 26000. q2 = 0 −7071.

DEFLECTIONS USING CASTIGLIANO’S FIRST THEOREM Using Mathematica and simplifying Bars sij = uij cos αij + vij sin αij 1 2 2 kij sij t Nij sij 1-2 √ q1 2 50000 q1 −26000 q1 1-3 3 q1 2 + q2 2 √ 25000 3 √ 3 q1 2 + q2 2 2 0 1-4 q √1 2 + q √2 2 √ 25000 2 q √1 2 + q √2 2 2 0 1-5 q1 2 √ + 3 q2 2 25000 q1 2 √ + 3 q2 2 2 0 Bars t Uij = 1 kij s2 − Nij sij ij 2 1-2 2 50000 q1 + 26000 q1 1-3 √ 25000 3 √ 3 q1 2 + q2 2 2 1-4 √ 25000 2 q √1 2 + q √2 2 2 1-5 25000 q1 2 √ + 3 q2 2 2 U= √ 2 Uij = 50000 q1 +26000 q1 +25000 3 √ 3 q1 2 + q2 2 2 √ +25000 2 q √1 2 + q √2 2 2 +25000 q1 2 √ + 3 q2 2 2 .AOE 3124 – Spring 2001 Aerospace Structures PVW and 1st Castigliano’s Theorem Example # 4: Problem 2 Page 4 of 6 II.

07 lbs Q2 = −7071. 212807 94506 94506 94506 q1 q2 = 7071. {Qt } is the vector of the thermal loads ([lbs]).07 ∂U ∂q2 = Q2 94506. q1 + 94506.07 + −26000 0 By solving this system of equations. the displacements turn out be the same as for the PVW (as it should be): q1 = −0. (Note that the stiﬀness matrix is symmetric for our problems.) {q} is the vector of unknown displacements ([in]).07 −7071. q2 = 7071.0254131 in .100234 in q2 = 0. Therefore.07 lbs Using Mathematica and simplifying: ∂U ∂q1 = Q1 26000 + 212807. q2 = −7071.AOE 3124 – Spring 2001 Aerospace Structures PVW and 1st Castigliano’s Theorem Example # 4: Problem 2 Page 5 of 6 Loads Qk ’s : Q1 = 7071. [K] is the stiﬀness matrix ([lbs/in]). {Q} is the vector of the applied forces ([lbs]). q1 + 94506.07 These equations can be rearranges in the following form: k11 k12 k21 k22 q1 q2 = Q1 Q2 + Qt 1 Qt 2 where.

positive right.721 lbs Therefore. REACTION FORCE Note that Q9 denotes the horizontal component of the reaction at node 5.44 lbs) cos 60◦ = 0 Q9 = 702.07 lbs N15 = 25000 q1 + 25000 √ 3 q2 =-1405. The axial force in bar 1-5 acts on the free body diagram of node 3. positive up.44 lbs) sin 60◦ = 0 Q10 = 1217. FORCE MEMBERS Nij is the internal force acting on each bar. IV. after substituting the values for q1 and q2 and simplifying using Mathematica we get N12 = 26000 + 100000 q1 = 15976. and Q10 denotes the vertical component of the reaction at node 5.AOE 3124 – Spring 2001 Aerospace Structures PVW and 1st Castigliano’s Theorem Example # 4: Problem 2 Page 6 of 6 III. Therefore. N15 60° Q10 N15 5 Q9 Q9 + N15 cos 60◦ = 0 Q9 + (−1405.17 lbs N14 = 50000 q1 + 50000 q2 = -3741.15 lbs − → R3 = 702.6 lbs N13 = 75000 q1 + 25000 √ 3 q2 = -6417. and note that the force is assumed tensile in the equations below.44 lbs Negative values indicate compression and the positive values indicate tension.15j lbs . Q10 + N15 sin 60◦ = 0 Q10 + (−1405.721i + 1217.