stephen graham

WAR AND THE CITY

estern military strategy was long premised on the avoidance of urban combat, with air strikes the preferred method of subduing large conurbations. Cities were seen as targets, not battlefields. But today, the cityscapes of the global South have emerged as paradigmatic conflict zones. Since the end of the Cold War, America’s militarized thrust into the Middle East and Central Eurasia has focused Pentagon planners’ attention on the burgeoning Arab and Third World cities that are now deemed de facto sites of current and future warfare for us forces. While the ‘revolution in military affairs’ emphasized overhead dominance, the losing battle for the streets of Iraq has sharpened the Pentagon’s focus on battles within the micro-geographies of slums, favelas, industrial districts and casbahs, as well as on globe-spanning stealth and surveillance technologies.1 For defence strategists, the October 1993 defeat of elite Army Rangers by armed teenage boys on the streets of Mogadishu was seen as a wakeup call. The civilian resisters inflicted 60 per cent casualties on the American troops. But, as Mike Davis has pointed out, the us military was initially slow to incorporate scenarios of Third World urban warfare into its training programmes. In 1996 the Army War College’s journal was warning that ‘the future of warfare lies in the streets, sewers, high-rise buildings, and sprawl of houses that form the broken cities of the world’.2 In 1999, a contributor to the Marine Corps Gazette argued urgently that most military training sites were out of phase with ‘the urban sprawl that dominates critical areas of the world today . . . We know we will fight mostly in urban areas. Yet, we conduct the vast majority of our training in rural areas—the hills of Camp Pendleton, the deserts of Twentynine Palms, the woods of Camp Lejeune, the jungles of Okinawa.’3 A rand Report on the provision of military training

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These are the new training fields for the us and uk forces that will be dispatched to Baghdad. Marine Corps Gazette. wandering donkeys. Unmarked on maps. Their Cities’. ‘Our Soldiers.5 Dress rehearsals The construction of simulation military targets is not new. ‘The urbanization of Empire: Megacities and the laws of chaos’. continuous loop tapes playing calls to prayer. 3 Col. vol. During World War ii.122 nlr 44 sites. . They are capsules of space designed to mimic the strategic environment of the ‘feral city’. concurred: us armed forces have thus far been unable to adequately reproduce the challenges their soldiers. ‘Preparing for the Proven Inevitable: An Urban Operations Training Strategy for America’. Iraqi towns and cities. ‘Feral Cities’. Social Text. cited in Mike Davis. presenting a jarring contrast to the surrounding stripmall suburbia. no. sailors. and largely unnoticed by urban-design. 2 Maj. the Berlin Wall and the Soviet Union. marines and airmen meet in the towns and cities of Iraq and Afghanistan . Parameters. Spring 1996. on occasion. Santa Monica 2006. 22. architecture and planning communities. 56. ersatz minarets and mosques. vol. xv. 4. Fallujah. simulations and case studies still remind us of the Cold War rather than Mogadishu. Arabic graffiti. civilian ‘populations’ are bused in to wander about and role-play in Arab dress.. Some are replete with lines of drying washing. Ramadi. no. as one us military theorist has called it—now seen as a critical arena for future wars. these sites constitute a kind of shadow global-city system.4 A hidden archipelago of mini-cities is now being constructed across the us sunbelt. 203. More than a decade after the demise of the Warsaw Pact. the plains of Germany and the islands of Singapore. ‘Time to get serious about urban warfare training’. streets of exact-replica Berlin tenements were created at Mike Davis. London 2006. Others have ‘slum’ or ‘favela’ districts. p. Naval War College Review. . rand National Defense Research Institute. other Third World cityscapes are rising out of the deserts of Kuwait and Israel. or Afghan villages. 9–15. pp. is rapidly being urbanized. 5 Richard Norton. Ralph Peters. 4. 263. April 1999. Thomas Hammes. commissioned by the us Congress in the aftermath of the invasion of Iraq. pp. Planet of Slums. 1 . 2004. 2004. too many urban training sites. like the rest of the world. with built-in olfactory machines that can simulate the smells of death and decay. Najaf or Karbala—for warfare. 4 Russell Glenn et al. the downs of Southern England.

a mosque and a refugee camp. To ensure accuracy. a sense of spectacle ensured that atomic and thermonuclear bombs were exploded near simulated suburban homes. New York 2002.6 These buildings were used by the us Chemical Warfare Corps to fine-tune the incendiary bombs that would raze Japanese and German cities. Göttingen 2007. 6 7 . Even during the Cold War.7 The city replicas of the 21st century involve a different relationship to political violence. 65–84. have reflected that: It is difficult to pinpoint what it is about the place that is so disturbing. It is wired up with the latest surveillance equipment to monitor the trainee Israeli soldiers as they practise blasting their way into Palestinian homes. and the buildings hosed to mimic the temperate climate of Berlin. however. It’s a menacing intrusion into the intimate.graham: War and the City 123 the Dugway Proving Grounds in Utah. Perhaps it’s the combination of the vicariousness and the violence. the tenements were filled with authentic German furniture.8 Mike Davis. Adam Broomberg and Oliver Chanarin. An early example of this new approach was the $14 million mock-Arab city constructed at Israel’s Tze’elim base in the Negev desert. an American architect who had worked in Japan and who scoured the us for authentic types of Russian spruce for their construction. . Laura McEnaney. Alongside them stood a cluster of Japanese wood and rice-paper houses created by Antonin Raymond. 8 Adam Broomberg and Oliver Chanarin. The site. two Israeli photographers who succeeded in making a detailed study of the site. constructed by the prop department at the Israeli National Theatre. are programmed to pop up in windows and at street corners during live-fire exercises. The ‘town’ is split into four quarters. a range of mechanical cut-out caricatures of bearded Arab men. pp. Dead Cities And Other Tales. Grotesquely. and families of mannequins placed around the table having mock meals. Civil Defense Begins at Home. known as ‘Chicago’. designed by the exiled German architect Eric Mendelsohn. their purpose is to prepare ground troops for military occupation and counter-insurgency warfare. It’s as if the soldiers have entered the enemy’s private domain while he’s sleeping or out for lunch . shops. with apartment buildings. Princeton 2000. . Rather than rehearsals for urban annihilation through total war. was explicitly built to generalize the lessons of Israeli incursions into Palestinian cities and refugee camps. Chicago. a marketplace. complete with white picket-fences.

Arabic or Russian. To simulate a war-torn environment. as well as 1. One of the most important new urban-warfare training facilities is Zussman Village at Fort Knox. along with their tanks. 9 . Kentucky.10 A speciality is the use of vapourized propane that can be converted into aerial fireballs. the Pentagon plans to have over sixty mout training zones around the world. that American Special Forces were introduced to ‘Arab realities’ in the run-up to the first Gulf War. $13 million ‘city’ is able to accommodate hundreds of role-playing ‘insurgents’. the site is deliberately smothered in mud. To address future ‘Military Operations on Urban Terrain’ training needs. petrol stations. the rand team recommendations include the construction of four new ‘cities’. as well as rubber snakes bought from local toy shops. While some will be little more than air-portable sets of containers. sewers.500 us military personnel. although in the assessment of the 2006 rand Report these remain inadequate. at Fort Hood in Texas. raw sewage and contaminated water can be produced on demand. personnel carriers and helicopters. Zussman Village includes mock junkyards. mosques. casualty rates in urban combat for untrained soldiers are around 25–30 per cent.124 nlr 44 It was here. July 2001. in the Kentucky/ North Carolina/Georgia region and the American Southwest. ‘Army training site brings to life the horrors of war’. and the unmaintained sewer system is filled with live possums and rats. Full-dress rehearsals at the site have included an attempted assassination of Saddam Hussein and the battle for Fallujah. these will be located at the existing Fort Polk base in Louisiana. 10 Roxana Tiron. train tracks and bridges. simulating the exploding cars and burning buildings troops will encounter in Iraq. The synthetic odours of rotting bodies. others will be extensive sites that mimic whole city districts. who wear keffiyehs and are armed with ak-47s and rpgs. ‘Middle-Eastern cities’ have sprouted at military bases in the us over the last few years. National Defense Magazine. with more than 300 structures each. Here a new 30-acre. It is equipped with radio and tv stations that can broadcast in Hebrew. the photographers report. with ‘airports’ or surrounding ‘countryside’. electrical substations.9 By 2010. cemeteries. A ‘Third World slum’ is currently under construction by the railroad. As explained by the Kentucky engineering firm that provided the technology: With the aim of being accessible to soldiers’ home districts.

cultural planning and boosterism. Two hundred of these are Arab-Americans. the rand researchers awarded the highest points to those with ‘clutter.graham: War and the City 125 Most of our military operations are conducted at night. prison. hospital. all the windows are broken [and trees] have fallen down in the street. . based on whether they are programmed to be ‘friendly’.13 An officer at the us Baumholder Base in Germany reported that solAvailable at www.200 role-playing extras.000 Iraq-bound soldiers between 2003 and 2005 alone—are 1. who impersonate Iraqi tribesmen. filth’. dressed in Arab gear. Col. torn up.wareinc. ‘Army expands home-based mout training’. shanty towns. Screenwriters are on hand to write ‘character sheets’ for each participant.0000-acre site. In a mirror-image reversal of the more familiar global marketing contests in which cities parade their gentrification. J.com. Included in the exercises—carried out by 44.11 The largest us urban-warfare complex of all. a us squadron commander. debris. ‘neutral’ or ‘hostile’ towards the us forces. It’s human nature to take that second to stare at a fire or explosion. however. global-South cities. p. Military Training Technology. 13 rand. under ‘Turnkey Projects’. James Cashwell. police and civilians. walled compounds’. detailed down to kebab stands. reported after an exercise in an urban-warfare training city at George Air Force base in California that ‘the advantage of the base is that it is ugly. is emerging at the Joint Readiness Training Center at Fort Polk. Louisiana. ‘slums. Eighteen mock-Iraqi villages are being constructed in this 100. and even ‘mass graves’ created by burying rotting bones from local butchers’ shops. but in combat. R. asylum structures’. When an explosion occurs and a soldier is wearing night-vision goggles.’12 Evaluating existing mout sites for the features deemed most challenging in undertaking military operations within large. It’s perfect for the replication of a war-torn city. his vision goes blank. . The action and the violence are much closer and much faster. Urban warfare has a much higher rate of casualties than in the open battlefield. ‘Preparing for the Proven Inevitable’. mostly originating from Iraq itself. such as the Marines’ Twentynine Palms facility in California. ‘subterranean complexes’ and simulated ‘government. Wilson. here the marks of success are decay and an architecture of collapse. He needs to learn how to react to this type of situation and resist the urge to have his concentration lapse. 243. March 2003. 11 12 . soldiers need to react quickly .

schools. . 28. would consider the structural repair costs prohibitive’. p. Chicago. Spring 2005. vol. rand Cited in Terry Boyd. December 2002. 15 Associated Press. and the rand Report recommends further investigation into the use of abandoned factories.126 nlr 44 diers repeatedly asked for donkeys. staging major amphibious and airborne landings (also designed to generate recruitment interest) before acting out the disablement of electricity. In these. The Lay of the Land: Center for Land Use Interpretation Newsletter. making their living mainly as extras in urban-war and terrorist exercises. live-fire exercises would probably not be possible. . ‘Urban combat training center will be Army’s largest’.’ However. 26 July 2006. modelled on the Urban Warrior and Project Metropolis exercises that took place between 1999 and 2000.14 Some locations integrate multi-sensory systems for projecting special effects. even burning flesh. ‘Playas. Citizen Review Online. Oakland and Charleston. Marines ‘invaded’ Little Rock. ‘since the owners . Stars and Stripes. which has already been used as a ‘generic American suburb under simulated attack’ to instruct anti-terrorist squads for the Department of Homeland Security. ‘Training site replicates Iraqi village’. 63. New Mexico: A Modern Ghost-town Braces for the Future’. hospitals and entertainment complexes. transport and water infrastructure in abandoned hospitals and sewer networks. a few remaining residents cling on in Playas. goats and other animals in the mout training site to help simulate life in Iraqi cities. 17 rand.16 The rand team suggests that Playas could be improved as a training site if ‘the architecture of the abandoned town were modified to include walled compounds of the type that us troops in Iraq and Afghanistan must at times isolate and clear. Alaska can provide the smell of diesel fumes. 16 See Steve Rowell. Another proposal is to use densely populated metropolitan areas for mout training. Fort Wainwright.17 Despite being portrayed as a ‘ghost town’. burning rubber. strip malls. 14 . Such exercises will remain necessary. communications. offices.15 The rand Report also explored the possibility of appropriating entire ‘ghost towns’ within the continental usa that have been deindustrialized and largely abandoned. Attention has focused on the former copper-mining town of Playas in southwest New Mexico. A network of ‘lowpopulation’ towns in North Dakota is also being considered for such a role. ‘Preparing for the Proven Inevitable’.

at the Twentynine Palms Marine base in the California desert. 152. into a ‘virtualized reality’ model. The project’s designers argue that the simulations at Fort Sill. For the first time. including all the major cities. ‘Preparing for the Proven Inevitable’. ‘Hollywood magic prepares Marines for combat’. In the ‘Urban Terrain Module’ at Fort Sill. built with the help of Hollywood professionals. because ‘no purpose-built urban training site and no simulation for many years to come will be able to present the heterogeneity and complexity of a modern megalopolis’. with unprecedented levels of realism. In the near future they hope the environments will be modified to project digital mapping data from Iraq or other urban war zones. so that troops could rehearse ‘on the actual terrain that they would occupy someday—maybe in a future theatre of war’. accurate to within one metre. are so convincing that the borders between the virtualized and physical elements are increasingly indistinguishable to us soldiers training there. This apparently allows trainees 18 19 rand. Heidi Loredo.19 Beyond these ‘hybrid’ or ‘mixed reality’ simulations lies a universe of purely computerized ones. July 2004. Oklahoma. such a complex would allow an entire brigade to simulate taking a large Iraqi town. and live artillery fire would be possible. In 2004.graham: War and the City 127 argues. Nevertheless. The Report’s most ambitious suggestion is for the construction of a 20 x 20 km ‘mega-mout’ complex. Marines. In these. incorporating a complete 900building town. 83. this remains the aim. pp. . which can project digitally generated ‘virtual humans’ with suitably swarthy ‘Arab’ features onto special screens inside the house. the Computer Science Corporation combined satellite and laser-scanned imagery with digital pictures from the ground to ‘build’ much of Iraq.18 Costing $330 million by 2011.Com. a one-house space decorated in ‘Middle-Eastern’ style is embedded within a media studio. Virtual Baghdad Electronic simulation technologies blend seamlessly into these physical constructions. air power could be integrated with ground forces. including port and industrial facilities. electronic mapping and satelliteimage technologies of cities that us troops are about to attack or occupy are used to provide digital renditions that can be experienced ‘immersively’.

the soldier is trained for that. co 2001. Army of gamers The ‘military–industrial–entertainment–media complex’ has played a central role in naturalizing the idea that American and allied forces should be pitched in battle against the inhabitants of Arab and Third World cities. an 8-square-mile swathe of Jakarta that includes 1. with their daily rhythms mapped in virtualized real time: roads are relatively empty at night. these simulations render Iraq as pure digital battlespace.22 The two most popular video game franchises in 2005 were Full Spectrum Warrior and America’s Army. using combat patrols to report back on the latest destruction wrought by artillery or aerial bombardment. he can get killed. 22 James Der Derian. 2006. Known as ‘Urban Resolve’. ‘traffic and civilian presence increases around mosques at the appropriate times for daily prayers’. 20 .128 nlr 44 to ‘drive’ from Kuwait to Turkey via real-time models during war games. If he gets to the real environment and the door is on the wrong side of the building. July 2005. Military Geospatial Technology.’20 Much larger urban simulations are used for the war-gaming activities by which us defence planners map out future combat scenarios. vol. but clogged with vehicles during rush hours. The virtual models have such an impact on troops that csc has to warn: ‘if you put a door on the side of the building. Small Wars. It includes over a hundred thousand ‘vehicles’ and ‘civilians’. The same technology is now being adapted to provide a virtualized rendition of Baghdad. Virtuous War: Mapping the Military–Industrial–Media– Entertainment Network. no.21 One aim is to keep these computer simulations of urban battlefields constantly updated. ‘Geospatial data bolsters virtual training’. 4. Their immersive simulations work Quoted in Harrison Donnelly. the simulation has used some of the us military’s most sophisticated supercomputers to project American forces into a full-scale war in the Indonesian capital in 2015. 21 See Peter Wielhouwer. Both games centre overwhelmingly on the task of occupying stylized Arab cities. ‘Preparing for future joint urban operations: The role of simulation and the Urban Resolve experiment’. For one of these. Boulder. Entirely lacking in even virtual people.6 million buildings has been digitized and ‘geo-specifically’ simulated in three dimensions. developed respectively by the us Marines and the Army. 4.

This allows the war-zone experience to be replayed in what is called ‘Virtual Iraq Exposure Therapy’. Noah Shachtman.graham: War and the City 129 powerfully to equate these environments with ‘terrorism’ and to stress that they need ‘pacification’ or ‘cleansing’ by military means. ‘Why War Is Really Just a Game. Such is the familiarity of most military recruits with Playstation controls that the us Marines have even mimicked these in the consoles for their new remote-control urban-surveillance vehicle. Patients are forced to go through recreations of the events that have distressed them most: being inside mined or bombed vehicles or helicopters. Here again. 23 24 Andy Deck. The University of Southern California’s Institute for Creative Technologies.23 Unsurprisingly. due to be extended to treatment centres across the United States. 2004. racialized representation of ‘the terrorist’—figures to be annihilated in a blurred combination of military training and entertainment. a major player in the crossover between war and entertainment. Complex and self-reinforcing connections between war and entertainment in the digital age deepen the long-established role of films and toys as outlets for militaristic propaganda. as the shadowy. when the city’s inhabitants appear in these games they are portrayed.’ Wired. has adapted Full Spectrum Warrior’s immersive simulations of Arab cities as the basis for treating traumatized soldiers. the fictional country of ‘Zekistan’ features stylized Islamic architecture. buildings are either dark and menacing. almost without exception. . rather than confront their social realities. The video-game features of the ‘therapy’ are deemed by its designers to ‘resonate well with the current generation of war fighters’. Artcontext website. 24 May 2002.000 men and women who join the us Army each year are ‘casual’ video-gamers. or coming under attack while patrolling Iraqi streets. Dragon Runner. or else in flames. ‘No Quarter: Demilitarizing the playground’. the only role for Arab cities is as a terrain for urban war. sitting out mortar attacks on their compounds. currently being used on Iraq’s streets. An estimated 90 per cent of the 75. 30 per cent consider themselves ‘hardcore’. These video games also demonstrate the extent of the American entertainment industry’s commitment to ‘a culture of permanent war’. is reflected in the treatment of the increasing numbers of us Iraq war veterans suffering from Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder. In America’s Army.24 The extent to which us military managers have preferred to inhabit virtualized Arab cities.

The American ‘pilots’ of these machines are actually located in an anonymous trailer complex at Nellis Air Base. since that might ‘create more trauma’.26 One effect. ‘you walk back into the rest of life in America’. the militaristic gloss and relentless sanitization serve to produce an ideological reinforcement and subliminal legitimation of us foreign-policy imperatives. 25 26 . by collapsing the real with the artificed. or Israeli. Jean Baudrillard.130 nlr 44 although one Navy psychologist stressed that it was important to make sure that the simulations were ‘not too realistic’. SignOnSanDiego. ‘At the end of the work day’. terrorist attack and natural disaster.25 Alien homelands The complex constellation of urban-warfare simulations discussed here work most powerfully as a collective.Com. Bloomington 1991. by dehumanized and racialized ‘terrorists’ that must— necessity is one of the rules of the game—be erased by Western. the urban war-zone images produced by the simulacral collective speak just as much to the fragmenting landscapes and racialized politics of America’s cities. on the edge of Las Vegas.27 In fact. is to naturalize Arab and global-South cities as little but physical battlespace. us military simulacra still focus on Los Angeles as well as on Baghdad. planning major operations to re-take American cities See Rick Rogers. The Gulf War Did Not Take Place. A further dissolution of boundaries takes place in the piloting of the armed Predator drones that are increasingly used in the us and Israeli surveillance and assassination strikes. 19 May 2003. At the same time. us defence planners’ programmes continue to factor in mock-ups of American city districts. military intervention. They fly combat sorties without ever leaving their desks. us News. to the extent that any simple boundary between the two disappears. ‘Military to try virtual combat stress remedy’. Their various physical. populated. electronic and hybrid manifestations operate. their commanding officer explained. in which law-enforcement and National Guard personnel undertake operations against civil unrest. ‘The joystick war’. 27 Quoted in Richard Newman. In addition to a simulated ‘Middle East’. from Lebanon and the Occupied Territories to Afghanistan and Pakistan. when peopled at all. as do all simulations. as we have seen.

they have turned their attention to the spaces of the global South. Florida or the beltway in Virginia are now dominated by simulation corporations that blend military. Weizman calls this ‘design by destruction’. circled by biometric checkpoints and turned into de facto ghettos or camps— looking much like Palestinian villages.30 Thus.graham: War and the City 131 from uprisings or social protests. ed. Responding to the devastation of New Orleans.29 Attitudes of military and law enforcement personnel towards crises in American cities seem strongly influenced by ‘urban operations’ in the Middle East. In addition. especially in hightech metropolitan areas. reorganization and subversion of space’. construction. Pentagon theorists no longer concentrate so exclusively on a planetary battlespace. Their generation now involves important swathes of the us economy. In Orlando alone there are around a hundred military-simulator firms which generate some 17. in Anselm Franke. ‘Troops begin combat operations in New Orleans’. Army Times. one us Army officer talked openly about the need to launch urban-combat operations to ‘take back’ the city from ‘insurgents’ who were purportedly breeding anarchy and violence there. 29 Joseph Chenelly. 272–75. as in Iraq. As he puts it: ‘contemporary urban warfare plays itself out within a constructed. as was Jenin in 2002. Urban-war simulations help to demonstrate the shifts in us military doctrine in much more explicit form. The infrastructural systems that sustain the life of cities can be destroyed—as 28 Military simulacra also feature more directly in the fortunes of us cities. pp. both Israeli and Western military planners now stress the need not just to occupy. so that high-tech weapons and surveillance systems can work to their best advantage. and through the destruction. but physically to reorganize the space of colonized cities. Berlin 2003.28 The Los Angeles riots of 1992 appear on military urban-warfare Powerpoints about ‘lessons learned’ just as often as Grozny or Mogadishu. in an echo of the language used about Fallujah or Baghdad. real or imaginary architecture. research and entertainment dimensions. Areas deemed to be too dense and complex to be penetrated by the gaze of drones. over which the networked power of us air and space platforms rules supreme: instead. and are starting to rival Disney as a local economic force. ‘Military operations as urban planning’. 30 Phil Misselwitz and Eyal Weizman. . satellites and aerial targeting can be physically bulldozed. Local economies such as Orlando.. 2 September 2005. neighbourhoods can be wrapped in razor wire.000 jobs. Territories. as Eyal Weizman has emphasized.

less than a mile from the Green Zone’. ‘Sunni insurgents and Shia militiamen are too well-entrenched and. But if they did. It is widely recognized that the crude behaviour of the invading Anglo-American forces—search-and-destroy raids.31 As the occupation of Iraq enters its fifth year. opening fire on demonstrations—was an important factor in stimulating the resistance in Iraq. In March 2007 Ban Ki-Moon’s press conference announcing that the security situation in Baghdad had improved sufficiently for the un to expand its presence was punctuated by a rocket attack on the heart of the Green Zone. . At the start of 2007. and lived urbanism. of course. generally have more legitimacy in the eyes of Iraqis than government forces’. Nov–Dec 2005. to coerce resistant populations and political leaderships into surrender through the forced immiseration of enduring urban life without sewage systems or electricity. ‘The Abyss in Iraq’. Once again. they would not be there. Patrick Cockburn. of course. the most notorious instance. moreover. ‘Nowhere to Hide’. American forces still control only a small fraction of Baghdad. destroyed by military assault. this mimetic collective labours to produce the digital streets and immersive cityscapes of the Arab world as America’s ‘other’. Patrick Cockburn reported. 22 February 2007. Intimately tied to the entertainment industries. of these cities. Cockburn argues.132 nlr 44 in the urbicidal assaults on Iraq in 1991 and Lebanon in 2006—or manipulated. and bodies. of course. ‘Securing the city is a near impossibility’. They had been attempting to capture exactly the same terrain in March 2005.32 The us soldiers still attempting to take Haifa Street four years after the invasion should recall Sunzi’s advice: ‘Know the enemy’. the radical denial of the social and cultural worlds. arbitrary arrests. London Review of Books. The key to these increasingly detailed environments is. nlr 36. us troops with accompanying Iraqi units ‘tried to fight their way into Haifa Street. 31 32 See Patrick Cockburn. Gaza is. Israel provides the most influential paradigms for the new trends in Western urban warfare. The inculcation of racialized aggression works rather to obliterate understanding of the real places.