This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
Polysiloxane Softener Coatings on Plasma-Treated Wool: Study of the Surface Interactions
Cristina Canal, Ricardo Molina, Enric Bertran, Pilar Erra*
Low temperature plasma (LTP) improves the shrink-resistance of wool fabrics but impairs their softness, so different polysiloxane coatings were applied. Modiﬁcations in surface hydrophilicity and topography of fabrics and ﬁbres have been recorded through drop test, contact angle and SEM, respectively. LTP improves the deposition of the polysiloxanes which, depending on their functionalities alter the original hydrophilicity of the wool surface. Softness and shrink-resist results of the fabrics point out to a possible relationship between hydrophilicity of the wool ﬁbre surface and the shrinkage behaviour of the fabrics. A possible mechanism of interaction between the different polysiloxane groups and the surface of untreated (UT) and LTP-treated wool is proposed.
Wool is a natural ﬁbre mainly constituted by keratins. Keratins contain high amounts of disulﬁde bonds from cystine residues, crosslinking mainly adjacent protein chains and thus restricting their conformational rearrangements. Morphologically, the ﬁbres are formed by cortical and cuticular cells and cell membrane complex. Cuticular cells are located in the outermost part of the ﬁbre, surrounding the cortical cells. The cuticle consists of a layer
C. Canal, P. Erra Surfactant Technology Department, Institute of Chemical and Environmental Chemistry of Barcelona – Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientıﬁcas, c. Jordi Girona 18-26, 08034 ´ Barcelona, Spain Fax: (þ34) 93 204 5904; E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org R. Molina, E. Bertran Optical and Applied Physics Department, University of Barcelona, Avda. Diagonal 647, 08028 Barcelona, Spain
Macromol. Mater. Eng. 2007, 292, 817–824 ß 2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim
of ﬂat scales of approximately 1 mm thickness overlapping one another like tiles on a roof, and forming a ratchet-like structure, which provokes a directional frictional effect which has traditionally been considered the main reason for felting shrinkage of wool fabrics. Felting shrinkage is a process which comprises the compacting and entanglement of ﬁbres submitted to mechanical action, friction and pressure in the presence of heat and humidity and accounts for the undesirable and irreversible reduction of the area of the fabrics. From the chemical point of view, the outermost part of cuticle cells is of hydrophobic nature due to the presence of a ‘fatty layer’, a thin layer of 18-methyl eicosanoic acid (18-MEA) covalently bound via a thioester linkage to the protein layer of the cuticle. It has recently been pointed out that the presence of this fatty layer on the surface could inﬂuence the shrinkage behaviour of wool fabrics during aqueous washing.[3,4] Traditional shrink-resist treatments use chemicals that may produce a highly polluted waste water. In addition, they may even damage the bulk of the ﬁbre. Low
Milli-Q water (pH 6. Bertran. When the charged polysiloxane with amide group (RA) (Figure 1).[8–10] LTP chemistry ane softener emulsions of different functionalities: one takes place while the gas remains at relatively low cationic (RI). the Preliminary studies of our group revealed that. close to room temperature.22 tex½/mm was used throughout the work. conventional textile determination of contact angle thanks to their chemical and softeners are applied on LTP-treated wool fabrics. and consists of neutral particles (molecules. but morphological superﬁcial similarities. the stiffness of although they confer better handling. In addition. handle evaluation and scanning electron microsurface is oxidized progressively by forming –C –OH. Different techniques have been used [drop test. as they modify the wool ﬁbre surface to a depth of nanometers without altering the bulk properties of the ﬁbre. Plasma processes need only small amounts of selected chemicals and do not produce waste water or chemical efﬂuents.[13. while fabrics were washed with a nonionic surfactant. Molina.[16. used for contact angle measurements producing reproducible Kim and Kang also found that the hygral expansion of wetting force measurements. its uncharged counterpart (RS) and an untemperatures.C. plasma is generated by an oxidative gas. KGaA. surface. Weinheim 818 DOI: 10. free radicals RA and RS. excited atoms. at the same time worsening of its Human hair ﬁbres were used as a model for the wool ﬁbre in the softness. Before treatments. interaction. The aim of this paper is to investigate the Macromol. such as air. –C – O. Chemical structure of the three modiﬁed polysiloxane softeners used in the present study RI. thoroughly LTP improves signiﬁcantly the shrink-resistance of wool rinsed with deionized water and dried at ambient temperature. 817–824 ß 2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. and promoting an ablation effect.17] Furthermore.[12–14] scopy (SEM)] to allow elucidation of the reasons for the – shrinkage and handling variations of LTP-treated wool Also. and metastable particles). and can reduce the environmental impact caused by the use of chemicals in the textile industry. it produces.8 mN Á mÀ1 was used as the wetting liquid. charged particles (ions and effects of coating LTP-treated wool fabrics with polysiloxelectrons) and UV and Visible radiation. To solve such a problem. and the ﬁbre-to-ﬁbre and Experimental Part interyarn friction are increased leading to improvement in Materials dimensional stability as well as the frictional coefﬁcient  increase for an apparent harsher handling. tear strength and hygral expansion are reduced. – HOC – O groups. E. Mater. contact oxygen or water vapour. the cystine residues are oxidized to cysteic acid fabrics and to explain the possible interactions between residues increasing the anionic groups on the wool ﬁbre the surface and the polysiloxane softeners. hair ﬁbres LTP-treated wool fabrics increases with silicone postapunderwent the same washing process already described for plication. Decane (purum.5). P.200700023 .1002/mame. so the plasma method is efﬁcient. the fatty layer on the wool ﬁbre angle. Botany knitted merino wool fabric with a cover factor of 1. Figure 1. R. 292. Before treatments. 2007. fabrics. Canal. Plasma is a partially ionized gas generated by an electrical discharge. Eng. the wetting properties of the surface are improved and therefore the adhesion properties. with a surface tension of 72. Erra temperature glow discharge plasmas (LTP) are considered as an emerging technique to obtain wool with shrinkresistant properties by environment friendly methods. it resulted in an hair ﬁbres allows their vertical introduction in the wetting liquid  increase in the shrinkage area to undesirable values.15] Due to these oxidative processes. which they attribute to the effect of reduced yarn wool fabrics. economical.
Afterwards. which is commonly used for the quick evaluation of the wettability of fabrics. While the wetting time of untreated (UT) wool fabrics is above 3 h (and therefore considered a nonwetting fabric). RA and RS. RS possesses a potentially reactive amine end group in the side chain which can be protonated at acidic pH. according to previous studies. respectively. wetting behaviour can be used as a measure of the superﬁcial changes experienced by ﬁbres. decane. ﬁbres due to their experimental advantages. prior to SEM observation. . Sweden) with the ISO 6330 5A wash cycle program as a base to determine the total felting shrinkage of wool samples. Results and Discussion Methods The methods used are the same as those described in ref. we have used two techniques. RA possesses an amide end group in the lateral chains and is consequently nonionic. Ljungby. Calculations of the contact angle and perimeter were done as described elsewhere applying the following equation: Fw ¼ g L p cos u Treatments Low Temperature Plasma A laboratory radiofrequency reactor operating at 13. The distance between the electrodes was 8. The samples treated with RS were padded at 1% owf and pH ¼ 5. on the surface of the fabric and measuring the time required for its absorption. Softness Evaluation Softness evaluation was carried out with the aid of (n À 1) nonexpert panelists. They have the same basic polymeric silicone molecular structure and differ in some functional groups (Figure 1). The panelists were required to assess the fabrics according to their softness. Three softener polysiloxane microemulsions provided by Rudolf Chemie (Germany) were used. and a potentially reactive amine side chain.  Wettability According to Kamath.8 mN Á mÀ1 was employed as the zero contact angle liquid to determine the ﬁbre perimeter. and the determination of contact angle on individual ﬁbres by the Wilhelmy balance method which provides quantitative data on surface hydrophilicity of ﬁbres and avoids the inﬂuence of the capillary forces of the fabric.[13. 292. which was evacuated to a pressure of approximately 10 Pa before introducing the plasma gas. 31. Mater. The perimeter of the scanned ﬁbres was determined from the wetting force (Fw) measured in a completely wetting liquid.Polysiloxane Softener Coatings on Plasma-Treated Wool . at room temperature.5 cm. Rucoﬁn SIQ. delivered by a burette. Weinheim www. Eng. 2007. The characteristics of this reactor are described elsewhere. pH ¼ 5.56 MHz was employed using water vapour as plasma gas.mme-journal. the samples treated for both 120 and 300 s show immediate absorption (0 s) and Wettability Hydrophilicity of fabrics has been evaluated according to the AATCC Test Method 39-1980 by determining the wetting time in seconds using the drop test. g L the liquid surface tension and u the Determination of Shrink-Resistance The shrink-resistance test was performed in accordance with Woolmark test method no. (1) p being the ﬁbre perimeter. The test schematically consists in depositing a droplet of water of constant volume. Polysiloxane Softener Coatings Polysiloxane softening coatings were carried out in the conditions suggested by the company which provided the polysiloxanes but always using the minimum concentration recommended. Human hair ﬁbres were used instead of wool Macromol. In Figure 2. pressure and incident power were kept constant at 100 Pa and 100 W. . ﬁbre-liquid contact angle. An average of eight or nine keratin ﬁbres were scanned over 1 mm at a speed of 0. All samples were Au–Pd coated with a BAL-TEC SCD Sputter Coater. Scanning Electron Microscopy The topography of wool ﬁbre surface was studied by SEM using a JEOL JSM-5610 Scanning Electron Microscope for the observation of wool fabrics. During treatments (120 and 300 s). Rucoﬁn GWA and Rucoﬁn GWS and will be identiﬁed as RI.25 and a liquor to wool ratio of 20:1 at 40 8C for 20 min. Results are the average of at least ﬁve measurements. KGaA. 817–824 ß 2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. The samples were placed in the vacuum chamber.25 to obtain a liquor pickup of 80% and further dried at 110 8C for 10 min.21] Hair ﬁbres had undergone the same treatments as wool fabrics. In this work. drop test. and the sample was hung equidistant between the electrodes. the samples were squeezed in a padding mangle and dried at an ambient temperature. where n was the number of samples to evaluate.de 819 . in a Wascator washing machine model FOM 71 (Electrolux-Wascator AB. where cos u was assumed to be unity. Fluka) with a surface tension of 23. Dynamic Contact Angle Measurements The contact angles of individual ﬁbres were calculated from the dynamic wetting force (Fw) measurements carried out in an electrobalance KSV Sigma 70 contact angle meter by applying the Wilhelmy method. RI possesses two quaternised amine groups which confer cationic character to the molecule at any pH.5 mm Á minÀ1 for both the advancing and receding modes using Milli-Q water as wetting liquid. Treatments with RA and RI were carried out by exhaustion at 1% owf. drop test results reveal the important increase of wettability of wool fabrics conferred by the LTP treatment for 120 and 300 s.
the shrink-resistance effect produced by LTP on wool fabrics is attributed to the various changes promoted in the surface of wool such as the formation of new hydrophilic groups – as conﬁrmed by XPS studies. By means of the deposition of the product on the ﬁbre due to the increase of contact angle measurements carried out on single ﬁbres. P. RA and RS on UT or LTP-treated wool reveals different behaviours.8 Æ 1.6 Æ contact angle (Figure 3) shows that LTP modiﬁes the 1. in the presence of water during washing. –C – O. Canal. UT hydrophobic ﬁbres. –SOÀ ) on – 3 the surface of ﬁbres and to the total or partial elimination Shrink-Resistance of the fatty layer by LTP treatment.C. Weinheim 820 DOI: 10. Wetting time (in seconds) of UT and LTP-treated fabrics (for 120 and 300 s) and – below and hydrophobic – above). post-application of the polysiloxane RS confers hydrophobic character to the surface of LTP-treated ﬁbres. KGaA. The increase in wettability is due to the generation of new hydrophilic groups ( –COH. Mater. adhesion promoted by LTP or that RS polysiloxane the inﬂuence of the capillary forces present in the wettability measurement on fabrics by drop test is molecules adopt a speciﬁc orientation on the plasmatreated wool surface. surface of wool ﬁbres turning them from hydrophobic Contact angle values being slightly higher in LTP-treated (102. respectively. Molina.26] This results in the An important reduction of the area shrinkage of fabrics chemical homogenization of the scale surface which is in treated only with LTP can be observed in Figure 4.17] All these factors contribute to an increase of wettability and of interﬁbre friction. –COOÀ. R.[15. 817–824 ß 2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. As expected.[15. 2007.21] Application of softener polysiloxane microemulsions. E. LTP-treated samples post-treated with RI or RA polysiloxanes show an increase in wetting time (Figure 2) and in contact angle values (from around 508 to values slightly below 908) (Figure 3) (908 being considered the frontier between hydrophilic Figure 2. it is important to take into account the inﬂuence of the ﬁbre-medium interFigure 3.28 or 112. Macromol. Eng.1002/mame. Erra opposition to the superﬁcial chemical heterogeneity of UT ﬁbres as shown in previous results.28 on LTP-treated samples for 120 or 300 s.78 after samples than in UT samples could indicate a greater 120 s of LTP and similar values after 300 s).5 Æ 3. Bertran. therefore reﬂect hydrophilic fabric surfaces.7 Æ 2. UT samples post-treated with polysiloxanes remain hydrophobic independently of the softener applied (Figure 2 and 3). subsequently treated with polysiloxanes. RI.200700023 . Advancing producing contact angle values of 112. avoided. Advancing contact angle of UT and LTP-treated keratin ﬁbres (for 120 and 300 s) action. On the other hand. 292.[13.[21. and hence the ﬁbres have greater difﬁculties to move relative to each other. According to previous studies. However.15] total or partial elimination of the fatty acids covalently linked to the epicuticle of wool ﬁbres and etching effect.68 in UT ﬁbres) to hydrophilic (50. and subsequently treated with polysiloxanes.
This conﬁrms the great relevance of hydrophilicity of the wool ﬁbre surface on the shrink-resistance of wool fabrics. KGaA. therefore.3 Æ 4. Microphotographs of (a) UT. Both results are comparable. may tend to compact themselves to minimize contact with water. after the application of RS are highly hydrophobic. Although shrinkage results obtained by the combined process of plasma þ RI or plasma þ RA are above the values by which they could be considered as machine washable. 292. they recorded a reduction in felting of 70% with LTP and 43% with LTP þ Basolan MW (a cationic polysiloxane) with respect to UT wool. Eng. (b) LTP treated for 120 s. (c) LTP treated for 300 s wool ﬁbres. In contrast. the ﬁbre surface interacts readily with water molecules of an aqueous medium and. LTP-treated fabrics with RI and RA polysiloxanes exhibit hydrophilic properties (advancing contact angles below 908) and area shrinkage values below 40%. and advancing contact angle results (Figure 3).de 821 . SEM pictures [Figure 6(b) and 6(c)] reveal that the LTP conditions used neither eliminate nor reduce the scale height (which was also conﬁrmed by AFM analysis). Figure 6. UT fabrics with RI and RA-modiﬁed polysiloxanes are hydrophobic (uadv ¼ 99. . which will lead to ﬁbre--ﬁbre anchoring and irreversible felting shrinkage.Polysiloxane Softener Coatings on Plasma-Treated Wool . 2007. Meanwhile.6 Æ 1.78 and 104.mme-journal. Fabrics with lower shrinkage correspond to ﬁbres exhibiting low advancing contact angle values.48. . Our results of fabric felting shrinkage show a reduction of 82% with LTP and of 56% with LTP þ RI with respect to UT fabrics. on D (density of felted balls). This is in accordance with the percentage area shrinkage results shown in Figure 4. they have allowed achieving a 56 and 63% reduction of the area shrinkage in the second washing cycle with respect to UT wool fabrics. showing area shrinkage values even higher than UT wool (Figure 4). UT and LTPtreated fabrics. Area shrinkage (%) after two washing cycles of wool fabrics UT and LTP treated and subsequently treated with polysiloxanes. after LTP treatment. Figure 4. For instance. Sensorial evaluation of the softness of fabrics submitted to different treatments. which indicates that felting shrinkage variations obtained through the application of LTP and a cationic polysiloxane are comparable although the chemical formula and the product formulation might not be the same. Mater. Conversely. Weinheim www. Macromol. the compacting process of ﬁbres is reduced and so is the natural tendency of wool for felting shrinkage. Such results suggest a correlation between hydrophilicity/hydrophobicity of the wool ﬁbre surface and the shrink-resistance properties of the fabrics. if we take into account the results of Kan et al. respectively) and show area shrinkage values similar to UT fabric (70%). Indeed. so the main effect responsible for the shrinkage reduction seems to be related with the hydrophilic nature of the outermost part of the ﬁbre surface after LTP. 817–824 ß 2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. Figure 5.
improved the dimensional stability. Wool ﬁbres treated by LTP for 120 and 300 s [Figure 6(b) and 6(c)]. Softness Evaluation Softness evaluation by nonexpert panelists. (c) LTP 300 s þ RI. which suggests that the frontal of the scales is more hydrophilic than the dorsal as it is more exposed to mechanical damage. preferably adsorbed in the scale edges. the diameter of the ﬁbres was measured to be around %18–22 mm. 292. However. Eng. which were considered to have an ‘agreeable handle’. The cuticular cells (scales) of the surface can be clearly distinguished. Macromol. Deposition of the polysiloxane RA (nonionic) is much more uniform in UT wool [Figure 8(a)] than RI. Figure 7 shows SEM micrographs of UT and 120 and 300 s water vapour LTP-treated fabrics with RI polysiloxane. which they explained by the surface coating effect of the silicone polymer.C. wrinkle resistance and performance properties of the wool. etching effects due to the reactive species of plasma start to create microcraters on the wool surface. Weinheim 822 DOI: 10. Molina. That is in accordance with Kamath’s research. E. In contrast. which acts as a lubricant between the ﬁbres. (b) LTP treated 120 s þ RA. Mater. Kim and Kang found that the plasma pre-treatment of the cuticle surface of the wool ﬁbres increased the reactivity of the wool fabric towards silicone polymers. apparently do not show morphological differences with respect to UT ones. UT ﬁbres [Figure 7(a)] show irregular deposition of the polysiloxane RI. Erra Figure 7. KGaA. application of the modiﬁed polysiloxanes on UT and LTP-treated wool fabrics produced high acceptance of the fabrics. That could be explained by taking into account that the cationic groups of the RI polysiloxane may preferably interact with the hydrophilic frontal area of the scales. However. leaving bare part of the hydrophilic material under the epicuticle. A previous work found that the increased friction coefﬁcients with plasma pretreatment are again reduced with the subsequent silicone application. the only roughness of the wool ﬁbre coming from the overlapping of the cuticle cells. SEM pictures of wool (a) UT þ RA. While LTP-treated ﬁbres show a uniform adsorption of RI on the surface [Figure 7(b) and 7(c)]. RI can interact with both the frontal and dorsal areas of the scales leading to a uniform deposition. Canal.200700023 . When RS is applied on UT wool [Figure 9(a)]. Figure 8(b) and 8(c) of LTP þ RA-treated wool also show a very uniform deposition. R. (b) LTP 120 s þ RI. an enlargement of Figure 6(c) reveals that. 2007. Scanning Electron Microscopy From the SEM micrographs [Figure 6(a)] of the UT merino wool fabric. from 300 s of LTP treatment. an important deposition is observed on the surface as well as the presence of ‘artefacts’ which we attribute to the Figure 8. (c) LTP treated 300 s þ RA. after the hydrophilicity increase and homogenization of the ﬁbre surface through LTP. SEM pictures of wool (a) UT þ RI. Bertran.1002/mame. 817–824 ß 2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. P. shown in Figure 5 is the result of a consensus of 50% of the panelists who conﬁrmed that fabrics treated with only LTP were found to be harsh and slightly unpleasant. which can be explained by the fact that its nonionic character may impair the deposition on the hydrophilic scale edges.
This can promote the formation of ionic or covalent bonds between the functional groups of the polysiloxanes (RI. which seem to be much more dependent on the hydrophilic characteristics of the surface of ﬁbres. After LTP. and (c) LTP treated 300 s þ RS. Nevertheless. leaving the amide groups exposed to the outer surface. Macromol. That would justify the hydrophilic character observed in Figure 2 and 3. Eng. (b) LTP treated 120 s þ RS. the application of RS (nonionic polysiloxane with an amine end group) on LTP-treated fabrics renders the surface highly hydrophobic and produces very high shrinkage values. 817–824 ß 2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. a hydrophobic interaction between RA molecules forming a bilayer could take place.Polysiloxane Softener Coatings on Plasma-Treated Wool . In that case. and (c) RS on LTP-treated wool ﬁbre surface. it does not seem to have any inﬂuence on the shrink-resistance values. leaving some quaternary ammonium groups and primary amine side groups oriented towards the outer part of the surface. 2007. the cationic group of RI could interact with the LTP-treated surface. which would be in accordance with the contact angle results of Figure 3. Conclusion Low temperature plasma. generated from water vapour modiﬁes the wool surface. Surface modiﬁcation of wool by LTP improves polysiloxane Figure 10. KGaA. possible elimination of material from the softener layer due to tension effects and its low adhesion towards the scale surface. For the same reason. Combined application of LTP and RI (cationic polysiloxane with two quaternised amine groups and an amine side chain) or RA (nonionic polysiloxane with an amide end group) has allowed to obtain fabrics with an improved softness with respect to UT fabrics and a reduction of the area shrinkage of 56 and 63% respectively. the uniform deposition of RS on LTP-treated fabrics [Figure 9(b) and 9(c)] could be explained by the bond formation between the ﬁbre surface and the amine groups of the polysiloxane which would leave the hydrophobic chains of the molecule oriented towards the outer part of the molecule justifying its hydrophobicity (Figure 2 and 3). RS) and the anionic groups (COOÀ. Similar results have recently been found by other authors with a polysiloxane softener of a very similar chemical structure by using the AFM technique. Meanwhile.mme-journal. Mater. 292.de 823 . SEM pictures of wool (a) UT þ RS. Lastly. as though dealing with UT wool fabrics. Scheme of the proposed deposition of the polysiloxanes (a) RI. Therefore. the amide side group of RA could interact with the hydrophilic groups created on the wool surface and leaving the hydrocarbon chains oriented towards the outside. rendering it highly hydrophilic and increasing its shrink-resistance. the RS polysiloxane deposition on the LTP-treated fabrics is more even. Weinheim www. . Figure 10 schematically shows a possible interpretation of the observed phenomena. SOÀ ) formed by the LTP 3 treatment throughout the wool ﬁbre surface. the dorsal of scales becomes hydrophilic and chemically homogeneous. Figure 9. (b) RA. The advancing contact angle determination on single ﬁbres evidenced that postapplication of the functional polysiloxane softeners on LTP-treated fabrics may increase hydrophobicity of the surface depending on the molecular structure of the softener applied. . which could be attributed to the better adhesion ﬁbre-polysiloxane. Whether deposition of the polysiloxanes on the surface is even or not.
 C. J. Johan. 2007. M. 76. Erra. Sci. 407. Okoniewski. Molina. 113. Soc. 69. H. P. E. Molina. The results obtained have evidenced a relationship between increased surface hydrophilicity and reduced area shrinkage of the fabrics. Canal. R. ‘‘Cold Plasma in Materials Fabrication. Textile Res. Leeds. Erra. P. Plasma Process. J. Negri. 295. K. Formatex. E. 38. Tascon. 2007. P. Grill.200700023 . Cosmetic Chem. S. `  M. J. Molina. IEEE Press. K. M.  IPPC Reference Document on Best Available Techniques for the Textile Industry European Comission. Mater. Compte. Jocic. H. J. Vol. 301. 2007. Textile Res. 252. Bertran. E. P. The handle of LTP-treated wool fabrics is largely improved with the application of any of the polysiloxane softeners studied. Polymer Sci. Kamath. 285. C. J. E. C. P. Freeland. Applied Surf. 2003. 39. J. Costa. 201.  W. Li. Erra. 3. Gonzalez´s. Dpt. Johansson. David. W. Hudson. Denning. Erra. Acknowledgements: The authors are grateful to the MCYT (MAT2002-02613 project) for the ﬁnancial support.  P. 549.  A.  A. Mendez-Vilas. KGaA. 1977. PhD Thesis. 1999. F. 69. 6. 824 Macromol. Bartos. England 2005. Adhesion Sci. 1984. to the quality group 2001SGR-00357. M. 28. Jovancic. P. F.  T. H. 11. J.  G. Rivett.200700023 Keywords: chain. L. 1994. M. Zawadzki. Gazicki. cold plasma. ‘‘Mechanical Properties and Structure of Alpha-Keratin Fibres: Wool. p. J. S. Gaboriau. 445  I. Erra.  R. 1469. Kang. Molina. J. J. J. University New South Wales Press. 2006. R. Textile Res. 109. 71. R. 69.  C. 2001. Yuen. 292. shrinkresistance. Dansizer. Mun ˜oz and Mrs. Garcıa-Sanz. ‘‘Science. 2002. P. Canal. P. M. S. W. 1999. F.. p. M. surface treatment. Molina. W. Technol. G. Textile Res. W. Chan. 309. 1998. Accepted: May 4. 1982. G. R. 53. Human Hair and Related Fibres’’. 273. D. R. R. Erra deposition in all cases. 811. R. Molina. Ricard. Fısica Aplicada i Optica. 817–824 ß 2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. Bertran. Huang. A. T. 242. D. Textile Res. Zuchairah. N. to FEMAN associated unit for the plasma treatments. Yuen. Textile Res. New York 1993. H. Bertran. R. Appl. Ed. 2005.  C. Kim. R. ‘‘Polymer Surface Modiﬁcation: Relevance to Adhesion’’. Miao. J. J 1997. AATCC Rev. 413.  Y. in press. LabajosBroncano L. W.  C. K. Julia. P. VSP. S. DOI: 10. L. L. Bertran. Polym. Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya 2005.  K. 40. Textile Res. 39. K. M. D. Yubero. ´ Elipe. Andujar. M. 2007. J. Canal. C. Pailthorpe. Molina. J.  T.  R. Espino F. 2003. Julia. A.  R. Molina. P. Jocic. D. 128. 1999. Technology and Education of Microscopy: An Overview’’. 68. K.  P. Revised: April 16.  F. Chan. 64. J. P. Vesa. R. Molina. Yasuda. 237. Surf. Erra. Erra. wool  M. 2007. Canal. ´  R. Comelles. H. E. Erra. Appl. M. A. Badajoz 2005. A. J. 67. From Fundamentals to Applications’’. Viera. polysiloxane softeners. Melliand Textilberichte – Int. 2. G. M. University ´ of Barcelona 2002. Jovancic. Mittal.  C. 35. M.1002/mame. Kan. Bertran. Miao. Wergmann. Erra. 1994. 2001. J. P. Kang. M. Cuesta. 72. J. A. M. Kan. Cornell. W. J. K. Eur. Proceedings 11th International Wool Research Conference. Phys. M. Feughelman. Colloid Interface Sci.  R. Polym.  C. and would also like to acknowledge Mr. J. 4. A. Badajoz 2003. Rakowski. Molina. A. Molina. 1993. Molina. J. H. P. J. Kan. J. Jovancic. Tasuda. Molina. 1417. Dolcet for their help with the experimental work and Mrs. P. 2007. Eng. P. Erra. Guise. Vacuum . 2006. E. E. R. J. P. Escusa for her collaboration in SEM.  C. Formatex. 63. T. Sci. Schreiber. 814. 2006. Sidney 1997.  C. Tasco P. ´n. Yuen. Vol. ´ Bertran. J. F. Paul. Received: January 22. Textile Res. Canal. Appl.  R. Textile Reports . Julia. PhD Thesis. ‘‘Formatex Microscopy Book Series – Current Issues on Multidisciplinary Microscopic Research and Education’’. Comelles. Mrs. J. p.  Q. Phys. 51. 2002. Canal. Oscar Batlle from Rudolf Iberica for providing the products. Weinheim DOI: 10. Textile Res. K. D. Interface Anal. Bertran. D.C. E. E. Canal. C. 16. 1. B. An. Seville. 36. The Nederlands 2004. Ricard. C. L.1002/mame. M. Jocic.  R. Textile Res. D. Erra. H. J. Kim. 35.
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue reading from where you left off, or restart the preview.