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Compliant Silver Nanowire-Polymer Composite Electrodes for Bistable Large Strain Actuation
Sungryul Yun, Xiaofan Niu, Zhibin Yu, Weili Hu, Paul Brochu, and Qibing Pei*
Stretchable electronics promise a wide range of devices capable of reproducing the functions of many biological systems, such as artificial eyes, skin, noses, and muscles.[1–3] These applications require compliant electrodes that have low mechanical impedance (modulus), low electrical impedance (remain highly conductive even under large stains), and are durable (no degradation of mechanical and electrical properties after numerous deformation cycles). Several approaches to stretchable compliant electrode have been reported. High shear processed thermoplastic elastomer/multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) nano-composite[4,5] and polymer gel/metal nanoparticle composites with buckling geometry[6,7] have been introduced for stretchable conductive electrodes. Embedded three dimensional (3D) metallic wires in poly(dimethylsiloxane) PDMS have been demonstrated for use in stretchable 3D electronic components or micro-fluidic devices. Single walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) ribbons as well as large scale graphene films embedded in PDMS have been developed for stretchable and transparent electrodes.[9,10] A wavy layout of silicon nanomaterials and thin metal integrated circuits on PDMS opened routes toward stretchable foldable silicon complementary metal-oxide semiconductor devices (Si-CMOS)[11–14] and a hemispherical electronic eye camera. Stretchable E-skin has been demonstrated using a net shaped structure incorporating a plastic film and organic semiconductor based thermal and pressure sensors. Interconnecting this structure with a SWCNT/ionic liquid/fluorinated copolymer elastic conductor contributed to realizing stretchable high performance transistor arrays.[2,17] Another promising bio-inspired technology, artificial muscles, particularly dielectric elastomer actuators (DEA) require compliant electrodes that possess rubbery elasticity and maintain high conductivity at strains as large as 100%. Carbon grease, sprayed-on carbon nanotubes (CNTs), graphite powder, conducting polymers, and corrugated metal coatings have been used to generate large actuation strains, but these materials have shown poor mechanical adhesion with DEA and are unsuitable for miniaturization.[3,19–23] On the other hand, metal cluster diffusion and metal ion implantation are compatible with conventional microfabrication techniques to form patterns on the micrometer scale with better adhesion to DEA materials.
Dr. S. Yun,[+] X. Niu,[+] Dr. Z. Yu, W. Hu, P. Brochu, Prof. Q. Pei Department of Materials Science and Engineering Henry Samueli School of Engineering and Applied Science University of California Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [+] S. Y. and X. N. contributed equally to this work.
Adv. Mater. 2012, 24, 1321–1327
Gold ion implanted electrodes on dielectric elastomers have an initial sheet resistance, Rs of 0.1–1 kΩ/sq when loaded above their threshold concentration. The allowable strain without loss of electrical conduction is approximately 175%.[25,26] Shape memory polymers (SMPs) are another category of smart material with large strain actuation. The shape memory operation requires a means of heating which could be performed by resistive Joule heating for control convenience. Embedded Ni powders, carbon black (CB) nanoparticles,[28,29] CNTs,[30–32] and CNT/CB composites have been employed for Joule heating of SMPs. The cycle lifetime of such nanoparticle composites in repeated large strain deformation is limited due to progressive aggregation. The high-loading content of conductive fillers required to maintain conductivity in these composites modifies the mechanical properties and optical transmission of the shape memory polymer. More recently, we have introduced a new type of smart material, bistable electroactive polymers (BSEPs), which combines the properties of shape memory polymers and dielectric elastomers, allowing for large strain bistable actuation. The operation of the BSEP requires a compliant electrode that can support strains greater than 100%. A Joule heating electrode is also needed that can sustain similarly high strains. Ideally, a single compliant electrode can support both high actuation strain and Joule heating. Here, we report the synthesis of a new compliant electrode based on a silver nanowire (AgNW)-polymer composite that can be applied to all of the aforementioned smart materials. The composite electrodes consist of an ultrathin layer of AgNW buried in the surfaces of poly(tert-butylacrylate-co-acrylic acid) poly(TBA-co-AA) films, a BSEP polymer. The surfaces of the films are highly conductive (Rs: as low as 10 Ω/sq) and remain low (Rs: 102–103 Ω/sq) at strains as high as 140%. The electrodes are also capable of being used for Joule heating; composite films can be actuated up to 68% area strain using Joule heating. The combination of the AgNW composite electrodes and BSEP materials allows for the demonstration of repeated bistable electrically-induced actuation and relaxation in a thin film architecture. The actuator has the potential to be used in a number of applications including haptic display devices. The preparation of the composite electrodes is illustrated in Figure 1(a). AgNWs with an average diameter of about 60 nm and an average length of about 20 μm were dispersed in methanol and drop cast on a glass substrate. The resulting thin AgNW coating was annealed to form a fused interconnected network. The Rs and optical transparency of the nanowire coating depends on the density of AgNWs (mg per square meter as surface area). Higher AgNW density leads to lower Rs but higher optical loss. The thin AgNW coatings were transferred and embedded inside a copolymer of tert-butyl acrylate (TBA) and acrylic acid
© 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim
Addition of AA in the polymer composition can help improve the adhesion between the AgNW network and the polymer matrix. The depth varies in the range of 200 to 600 nm depending on the coating density of AgNW on glass (147 to 588 mg/m2). The Rs of the composites increases with strain as shown in Figure 2a. In order to test the stretchability of the conductive composites. The concentration of acrylic acid in the copolymer affects its glass transition temperature (Figure S1. The transition temperature increases from 55 °C in PTBA to 66 °C in poly(TBAco-AA) with 5% AA by weight. This would lead to an increase in the power consumption. The sheet resistance (Rs) of the conductive surface is typically 10 Ω/sq at 588 mg/m2 and 88. photographs of the composite at specified AgNW density (e). The concentration of AA in the matrix plays an important role in the rate of increase of the resistance. samples containing 0–5% AA were heated to 80 oC. A poly(TBA-co-AA) sheet without AgNW (UV transmittance: 91% at 550 nm) is used as a reference (d). 24. Schematic illustration of the fabrication process of AgNW-polymer composites (a). the cross-section (c). longer heating and cooling times. Figure 1 (b and c) shows scanning electron microscope (SEM) images of the conductive surface and cross-sections of the AgNW composite electrode. Optical transmittance spectra of the composites. Further increasing the AA content is undesired since it would increase the actuation temperature of BSEP to a prohibitively high value. at which the polymers are sufficiently soft to allow large-strain deformation. SEM image of the conductive surface of a AgNWpoly(TBA-co-AA) composite (TBA:AA is 100:5) (b). No degradation of surface conductivity was observed. 1321–1327 .advmat. Supporting Information). but its hydrophobicity leads to poor interface bonding with AgNWs. Low surface resistance can be obtained at extremely low AgNW loadings.com © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. (AA) (poly(TBA-co-AA)) by in-situ photopolymerization. At 5% AA.com COMMUNICATION 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 d 147 mg/m 2 Transmittance (%) 295 mg/m 2 440 mg/m 2 588 mg/m 2 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 1100 Wave length (nm) Figure 1. The optical transmittance at 550 nm decreases from 80% at an AgNW loading of 147 mg/m2 to 45% at 588 mg/m2 (Figure 1d and e).MaterialsViews. Weinheim Adv. the AgNWs (588 mg/m2) in the composite are observed as deep as 600 nm in the polymer matrix. and increased discomfort for haptic display devices. KGaA. At cross-sections. the electrode can be stretched to 160% strain while wileyonlinelibrary. The AgNW network is clearly shown on the surface of the composite that was in contact with glass as well as embedded in the thin layer beneath.www. The conductive surface was subjected to repeated adhesion and peeling tests with Scotch tape.de www.6 Ω/sq at 147 mg/m2. 1322 The homopolymer of TBA (PTBA) has been shown to be a good shape memory material. 2012. This photo-polymerization and transfer process preserves the AgNW network that is interpenetrated within the polymer matrix. Mater.
were individually applied to the active area (1 cm2) of the composite. The baseline Rs (at 0% strain) also shows an increasing trend. 1321–1327 © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA. 1. Samples with different AgNW density (147 to 588 mg/m2) were made using poly(TBA-co-AA) with 5% AA.[36. The Rs of the composite continues to increase with the number of strain cycles and then appears to stabilize.3. Evolution of Rs profiles of AgNW composites with increasing strain (a). The AgNW composites (density of AgNW: 588 mg/m2) were Joule heated using a DC power supply. Weinheim wileyonlinelibrary. However.www.[38–41] but also metal ion implanted electrodes. The heating rate and heating response to reach a steady state temperature is faster than a recently developed SWCNT film heater. the composite still maintains a highly conductive network during deformation. the temperature on the AgNW composite electrode increases sharply and saturates with time. a temperature as high as 85 °C can be reached in 5 seconds. 24. The Rp/Rb increases with the number of strain cycles in the initial few cycles and then stabilizes.advmat. thanks to partial anchoring of the AgNW in the elastic matrix. The resistance increase during elongation is mostly restored with Rs increasing from 10 to 11 Ω/sq after 10 cycles. 70 and 90%.com 4 www. The compliance of the conductive composite at large strains is significantly higher than not only other flexible electrodes made from metal nanowires. Figure 2b shows the Rs profile of conductive composites being cyclically stretched and relaxed between 0 and 50% strain at 80°C. Adv. Rs versus strain curves were measured to evaluate the stretchability of the conductive composites. As shown in Figure 4a and b. the peak resistance recovery was 95% with Rp/Rb below 5. The enhancement in stretchability might be correlated to an increase of fused interconnections among AgNWs as AgNW density is increased. Five different levels of electric power. The Rp/Rb continues to increase without stabilization which can be correlated with the viscoelasticity of the host polymer matrix. The enhanced stretchability with a small amount of AA is attributed to the increased bonding between the matrix and AgNWs via the carboxylic acid group. Even at 70% peak strain. peak resistance recovery (how much the resistance decreases upon relaxation relative to the peak value) was 98% and the peak-to-baseline resistance change (Rp/Rb) is only 1. All samples containing 1–5% AA maintain an Rs below 350 Ω/sq. This bonding could prevent sliding between the AgNWs and the matrix during expansion and relaxation. The resistance can be completely restored after the samples are kept in the relaxed state for 1 hour. the temperature then stabilizes to 95 °C after an additional 10 seconds without any significant degradation of current on the composite electrode despite an increase in deformation of the softened host polymer. 40. The AgNW network thus stretches and relaxes with the elastic matrix. single walled carbon nanotube and graphene. The sample with 5% AA shows much higher compliancy of electrical conduction. After 5000 cycles. In the case of 1% AA. 50. ranging from 26 to 416 mW. Figure 3c shows Rs profiles of the composite electrode during continuous repetitive cyclic loading with five different levels of peak strain corresponding to 30. Figure 3b shows the resistance change with respect to initial resistance (R/R0) for conductive composites (AgNW density: 588 mg/m2) being cyclically stretched to various strain values and released to 0% at 80 oC. an indication that the increased baseline resistance is caused by viscoelasticity of the matrix rather than a loss of electrical conduction in the AgNW network. The Rs at 50% strain increases slightly from 26 Ω/sq in the first cycle to 30 Ω/sq in the tenth cycle. The sample containing 3% AA shows similar trends. the peak Rs gradually increases with the number of strain-relaxation cycles. This value is still low enough so that this composite has the potential to be used as a compliant Joule heating electrode embedded in BSEP materials. 3. Density of AgNW is 588 mg/m2. Rs change of AgNW composite during 10 cyclic loadings of strain (continuative triangular strain-relaxation cycles between 0 and 50% peak strain at constant strain rate of 0. the Rs profile is a function of AA content. 2012. Under an electric power of 416 mW. maintaining an Rs below 10 kΩ/sq. the Rs of the composite is still below 2 kΩ/sq.MaterialsViews. After 10 loading cycles at 30% peak strain. as shown in Figure 3a. as large as 160%. The density of AgNW coatings transferred into poly(TBA-coAA) is another important factor to realize better stretchability of the conductive composite. or 5% as specified. Increasing the amplitude of the peak strain further to 90% decreases the peak resistance recovery to 90% and Rp/Rb to around 25.de Sheet Resistance (Ω/sq) 1x10 8x10 6x10 4x10 2x10 a AA: 0% 3 AA: 1% 3 AA: 3% 3 3 AA: 5% 0 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 Strain (%) 350 Sheet Resistance (Ω/sq) 300 250 200 150 100 50 0 0 b AA: 1% AA: 3% AA: 5% 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 Time (s) Figure 2. Higher AgNW density leads to a lower rate of increase of the Rs and higher allowable strain.com 1323 COMMUNICATION .37] However. but at a slower pace. Mater.005/s) (b). Concentration of AA is 0.
The composite exhibits acceptably small increases in baseline resistance under repetitive large strains as high as 90% and maintains a high level of conductivity even after 5000 continuous loading cycles with strains ranging from 30% to 90%. Peak Rs profiles of AgNW composite (AgNW density: 588 mg/m2) monitored during 5000 continuous cycles with peak strains as listed (c). Figure 4d shows schematic illustration of the BSEP actuator. Diaphragm actuators were fabricated by using poly(TBA-coAA) with 5% AA with a thin AgNW coating embedded in both surfaces. Supporting Information). Circular electrodes with a diameter of 5 mm were patterned with a single rectangular leads to connect to high voltage on the top and two rectangular leads on the bottom to 1324 connect to low voltage and ground. The actuated shape of the active area can be locked-in by removing the Joule heating current and cooling the actuator to room temperature. included in the Supporting Information. KGaA. the current profile of the Joule heating electrode was monitored during 5 repetitive actuations using a two-terminal Keithley multimeter. A video file. The results are shown in Figure 4f. and therefore increased Joule heating in the central region of the electrode which can easily be damaged due to undesired overheating (Figure S2. To overcome this issue. When the composite is employed as compliant electrodes. Supporting Information). However. At each constant Joule heating temperature. The design contributes to reducing the undesired excess heating on the circular active area (Figure S3.advmat.com Sheet Resistance (Ω/sq) 1x10 8x10 6x10 4x10 4 a 147 mg/m 2 3 295 mg/m2 3 3 440 mg/m2 2x10 3 0 0 25 20 15 588 mg/m2 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 Strain (%) b 90% Strain 10 5 0 0 70% Strain 50 60 30% Strain 10 20 30 50% Strain 40 Time (min) Sheet Resistance (Ω /sq) c 1000 90% strain 70% strain 50% strain 40% strain 100 30% strain 10 1 10 100 1000 Number of Cycles Figure 3. the BSEP actuator produces repeatable out-of-plane actuation with up to 68% area strain under Joule heating. During Joule heating. Figure 4c shows photographs of the actuator deformed in response to different electric fields. the Joule heating current exhibits a decreasing trend as the number of actuations increases and reduces to as low as 70% of the initial current. In conclusion. there is no significant degradation of the Joule heating current. 2012.005/s) (b). The AgNW composite is highly conductive (Rs: as low as 10 Ω/sq) and remains conductive (Rs: 102–103 Ω/sq) at strains as high as 140%. For durability testing.com © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. the flat circular active area expands thanks to the electroactive nature of the polymer and takes on a convex dome shape. The composite can be Joule heated at rates as high as 17°C/s. the Joule heating electrode was redesigned with a dog-bone shape. The actuator produces a deformation with negligible curvature after the onset of Joule heating due to the presence of a small positive pneumatic pressure inside the chamber (very left of Figure 4c). in the case of 68% area strain. demonstrates the shape memory characteristics of the BSEP actuator with AgNW composite electrodes. 1321–1327 . Evolution of Rs profiles of AgNW composites (AgNW density: 147 to 588 mg/m2) with increasing strain (a). 24. Each actuation cycle was programmed with four steps as specified in the upper left of Figure 4f. the initial relaxed shape can be fully recovered by reheating the active area (upper left of Figure 4f).de www. a higher electric field leads to larger area strain. a higher Joule heating temperature contributes to higher area strain which can reach values as large as 68% at 45 MV/m as shown in Figure 4e. stretchability and mechanical robustness against external friction without loss of conductivity. Mater.www. we have developed a new compliant electrode based on a silver nanowire (AgNW) polymer composite that can be applied to smart materials. On the other hand. Weinheim Adv. Embedding a fused AgNW network within the surface layer of a polymer matrix imparts excellent compliance. the BSEP actuator can produce deformation in response to electric fields (10–45 MV/m) applied between the top and bottom electrodes. At a constant electric field. with larger flared leads leading toward the active electrode area. During the repetitive actuations with area strains as large as 52%.MaterialsViews. Rs change of AgNW composite (AgNW density: 588 mg/m2) during 10 strain cycles (continuous triangular strain-relaxation cycles with peak strain specified at a constant strain rate of 0. using this setup the deformation is uneven across the electrode and non-repeatable because the narrow leads result in an increased current density. The combination COMMUNICATION R/R0 wileyonlinelibrary. When actuated in the heated state.
2012. Joule heating performance of AgNW composite electrode. 24. BSEP is PTBA-co-AA(5%). 1321–1327 © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co.advmat.026 W b 2.com 100 90 www.234 W 0. Mater.de 240 220 200 180 COMMUNICATION a 0. step c: cooling down to room temperature and removing electric field.com 1325 .) Area strain dependent Joule heating current change during 5 repetitive actuation tests programmed with the 4 steps (f). Density of AgNW is 588 mg/m2. Photographs of deformed circular active area of BSEP actuator in response to electric fields with different amplitude (c).150 W 0. and step d: Joule heating again. KGaA.8 V: 83 ~ 85 C 1. A schematic illustration of the BSEP actuator (d).0 V: 92 ~ 95 C 1.0 V: 38 ~ 43 C 0.416 W 0. Joule heating temperature dependent area strains with electric field (e).337 W 0.5 V: 28 ~ 31 C 80 100 O 70 80 Time (s) Time (s) 90 80 70 e 90oC 80oC 70oC 60oC Area strain (%) 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 Electric field (MV/m) 300 250 200 150 100 50 0 0 Current (mA) a b c d Area strain: 52% 100 200 300 400 a b c d Area strain: 35% Current (mA) 300 250 200 150 100 50 0 0 100 200 300 400 300 250 200 150 100 50 0 0 Current (mA) a b c d Area strain: 68% Time (s) 100 200 300 400 Time (s) Figure 4.5 V: 67 ~ 72 C O O O O Temperature ( oC) 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 Current (mA) 160 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 20 40 60 1. step b: applying electric field for actuation.www.104 W 0.MaterialsViews. Weinheim wileyonlinelibrary. Adv. electrical power dependent temperature (a) and electrical voltage dependent sheet current (b) profiles with time. Photographs demonstrating the bistable characteristics of the actuator (step a: Joule heating of AgNW composite on bottom of BSEP.
2009. Kim. 2010. Q. H. Jeong. SPIE 2008. P. Mater. T. H. Jang. Yuan. J. J. N. Jia. M. Science 2008. Mater. Jiang. 2963. 2012      1326 wileyonlinelibrary. J. S. Kim. 287. Proc. M. Shimizu. W. 289. Kim. 2010. Kim. Pei. 102. Yoo.com © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. Iba. H. Kim. 320. X. J. T. R. H. X. Lett. B. Someya. Du. Macromol. Leng. H. 2007. 074102. Kim. 201. Liu. Nat. Terrasi. 105. Dubois. Pei. Compos. 192904. A. 1. G. Du. 12321. E. P. Yu. Kim. H. N. Sekitani. Phys. Brochu. G. K. R. Zhao. Brochu. Actuators A 2009. Zou. B. B. W. Li. Stoykovich. Delille. S. J. Leng. A linear strain signal was applied to test the change in Rs with uniaxial stretching after heating to 80 °C. L. S. F. Someya. Murase. A.5 parts of SR9035 crosslinker (Sartomer company sample). Transmittance spectra of the AgNW composites were collected by a Shimadzu UV-1700 spectrophotometer. The resistance was measured using a Keithley 2000 digital multimeter. Yuan.com              J. L. Chem. Zakri. 412. 18. 85. J.www. C. Zhai. 621. Zhu. 321. 2010. S. C. J. 2010. S. Sens. The sample was further annealed at 80 °C for 10 hours before peeling it from the glass substrates. C. J. A. Li. Hong. Kim. The Rs was calculated using the original dimension of the sample (10 mm wide. 67. 10. Y. Rogers. Proc. E. Ko. 22. Xia. Mater. U. Science 2008. A. Xiong. Rogers. V. T. Acad. M. H. Sci. Adv. Z. Mater. Science 2010. 1321–1327 . Y. Mater. P. A. R. Tran. J. Fukushima. 2009. Sahoo. Y. KGaA. 2011. Y. Nature 2008. Proc. H. Actuators A 2003. J. 2012. H. Liu. Nature 2009. 327. SPIE 2010. Lam. H. Jeong. J. P. Nano Res. Rapid Commun. G. A. P. Huang. Park. L. 470. M. T. Smela. Macromolecules 2009. K. Du. 4695. Instrum. Ahn. C. J. Y. dried and annealed on a hotplate for 30 min at 200°C. H. P. J. Q. For the Rs profile measurements. Sekitani.de www. 92. 20. J. P. Z. W. Macromol. J. 2008. Mater. C. F. Phys. Y. Sehitoglu. Yu. Park. Choi.[38. 2228. 2009. J. Kaner. Y. Zhang. Technol. 95. 706 Y. J. B. Phys. J. Cho. Whitesides. Ahn. Lee. T. Mater. Liu. Macromol. 3027. Mercader. Science 2010. Struct.5 parts of 2. Pei. J. Urdaneta. 2629. C. S. Viry. Maugey. Yuan. Adv. J. Z. Ishikawa. The deformation of the active area in response to electric field was monitored with a digital camera. Y. Kim. Sci. Rapid Commun. H. H. H. Siegel. J. H. J. A cover glass was placed on top of the monomer solution using spacers to control the film thickness. M. P. Lett. Niklaus. USA 2008. H. 18675. Pei. C. Y. Niklaus. A. Syst. Y. Joule heatable AgNW composite as the compliant electrode. T Sekitani. Huang. K. Y. Kuhn. 3. Madaria. 2587. T. Yuan. Dűring. Conductive copper tape was attached on the sputtered gold to act as the leads. C. Saif. Z. Xiao. Rogers. D. Ha. 0. C. G. SPIE 2002. Leng. SEM surface and cross-sectional microscopic images of the AgNW composite transferred into PTBAco-AA were taken by a JEOL JSM-6701F scanning electron microscope. 2006. Huang. 1603. G. M. M. Weinheim Adv. C. H. K. J. 2011 Revised: December 8.2-dimethoxy-2-phenylacetophenone photo initiator (Sigma-Aldrich). D. 2007. Adv. Yu. Choi. M. Biggs. Carpi. P. Q. Sheehan. W. Benslimane. Y. A. C. A circular top electrode and dog-bone shaped bottom electrode were both transferred using the method described above. 69270O. Poulin. J. J. C. Appl. the same protocol was used except that a repeated triangular strain signal was used instead of a linear one. the conductive composite was cut into strips 300 mm long and 10 mm wide. 507. A. 2005. R. Liu. Y. 457. Y. M. Z. Z. W. Mater. and the monomer was photo-crosslinked by UV irradiation (power: 100 W. Y. Rosset. Rogers. W. 150. Nanotechnol.      Acknowledgements The work reported here was supported by US Department of Education Grant Award H133G100072 and National Science Foundation (ECCS1028412). Grűner. Rosset. D. T. 18. Hur. Phee.advmat. Z. M. 91. Lam. Acad. Science 2000. Y. C. H. S. J. Someya. Y. Received: October 26. Microelectromech. Adv. W. T. Kovacs. Kawaguchi. COMMUNICATION of the AgNW composite electrodes and BSEP materials allows for the demonstration of repeated bistable electrically-induced actuation and relaxation in a thin film architecture. G. Luo. S. 748. Lan. Brochu. M. S. Kato. 299. K. Zhou. Rev. Goo. Kim. Hu. Hata. T. Adv. 3487. Kornbluh. Huang. K. R. H. Lv. 2642. Sakurai. Appl. Proc. S. N. Rogers. J. 2011 Published online: February 3. Q. Liu. Mater.MaterialsViews. Joseph. Pelrine. X. Kim. 2010. Huang. Y. H. 014104. Geddes III. Q. 564. 727. Smart Mater. 1920. and various amounts of acrylic acid (Sigma-aldrich) was drop cast onto the glass substrate coated with AgNW.               Supporting Information Supporting Information is available from the Wiley Online Library or from the author. Kumar. 074003. Noguchi. 2009. 6927. Senesky. Shimizu. S. Y. W. T. 7642. Y. D. Y. 2007. 1603. Liu. Xia. Noguchi. Yu. T. Michel. Y. T. Cho. Chen. Niu. Ha. wavelength: 365 nm) for 20 min with a distance of 3 inches from the lamp. 836. Mazzoldi. 19. D. H. 107. M. Mater. For actuation testing. Pei. Appl. W. Bruzewicz. Rogers. Hyun. C. Q. B. Y. Proc. J. W.43. Funct. 10 mm wide). Experimental Section AgNWs were synthesized by following the process reported in references. Kim. Malyarchuk. Hwang. Aida. 20. 2007. Park. 454. Sci.44] AgNW dispersed in methanol (2 mg/mL) were drop cast onto a glass substrate. D. Appl. Sci. the AgNW-poly(TBA-co-AA) composite was made into circular diaphragm actuators. 100 nm gold electrodes were sputtered on both ends of the surface of the AgNW composite. Zhang. G. Alaca. 19. A. 2011. 42. Weibel. Song. 144105. M. J. Chio. B. 32. Zhao. Choi. S. B. 22. C. Y. J. S. M. Kim. 155. Kim. W. Jung. Wang. leaving only a 1 mm uncovered span in the middle. A. Miaudet. Rapid Commun. Li. Y. U. J. Liu. Song. J. A. Z. Lett. USA 2005. Park. Someya. L. A. H. 0. Yuan. Zhangm. To test the Rs profile under cyclic stretching/releasing. Derré. M. To make the conductive composites. J. 2008. Shea. Shea. Sun. 19. 1468. A. De Rossi. Y. Sens. S. H. 76420C. Huang. Y. Someya. T. 2010. J. W. Selby. Phys. Hyun. H. Lan. The Supporting Information includes a video file showing large strain bistable actuation of BSEP using a stretchable. The sample was loaded into a TA RSA III dynamic mechanical analyzer (DMA) with sample holders on both ends. Pei. Choi. 23. Adv. 22. Leng. Dubois. M. 73. Yu. Natl. M. Q. J. M. D. Active area strain was calculated from geometric relations. Jung. R. A small positive pneumatic pressure (0. X. 31. Moon. Xi. 26. 24. 98. T. R. leaving only the central nonsputtered area (1 mm long. N. 2002. B. Chen. T. Adv. P. Natl. D. S. D. Y. G. J. J. Lett. 2011. S. S. a monomer solution containing 100 parts of tert-butyl acrylate (Sigma-aldrich). Y. R. P. Yu. Song. 2946. Liu. 1300.1 psi) was applied to the diaphragm to prevent the active area from wrinkling during the actuation test. 327. 1 mm long). Gravesen. Chiarelli. Electrically insulating Kapton tape was used to insulate the sample from the equipment. Lu. C. Q. S. Adv. Chen. B. J. Huang.
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