Tampere University of Technology Materials Science MOL-5516 Composites

Essay - Effect of composites development on products
Tennis racket
Tennis rackets have changed their shape at long of the time because of each material that was used in their construction. The first tennis rackets were made out of wood and that one had dimensions of 68.6 x 22.9 cm. These dimensions were limited by the properties of wood, like stress limits. [1] Metal was as good as wood but some troubles could appear at the bond points of the strings with the metal holes. Only in 1953, Lacoste registered a patented that could fix this issue; the strings could pass through a metal wire looped. New aluminum-alloy and steel rackets were made. Wooden rackets had just one single tube while metal rackets had two twins arms, which required a welding connection between of it or a plastic mold fixed with screws. Due to simple processing of aluminum, the aluminum rackets were more consumed than steel rackets. The stiffness and strength of metals allowed the construction of a bigger head size rackets. Since seventies until nowadays rackets have been made out of composites, e.g. fiberglass. This rackets have achieved a great success because their properties (stiffness and strength) are better than even the metals. One of the particularities of composites rackets is that is possible chose the exactly place where the racket should be stronger, and this is possible by controlling the amount of fibers each place of the racket. [2] Comparing wooden and composites rackets, a wooden racket can be 69 cm length, has 380 g, 439 cm2 head size and 100 Hz stiffness, whereas, a composite racket can be 70 cm length, has 295 g, 680 cm2 head size and 150 Hz stiffness. [1] In resume, composites allowed a bigger rackets head size, bigger stiffness, lighter rackets and bigger contact area. Those of these properties brought an evolution to the game and to the players. [2]

Water skies
Waterskiing started in 1922 when Ralph Samuelson thought that as people could skiing on snow, as well people could skiing on water and, at this time, skis were made out of wood with some leather to fix the feet. [3] 1 September 2012

Titanic The most known cruise in the world. composites started to being used and replaced steel to be possible make large surface ships with less weight. Dyneema fiber. metal or composite skis. These layers can stop a bullet because they can spread the bullet’s force. Titanic. The biggest cruise in the world at this time. etc. Kevlar and Spectra fiber. which is called sidecut radius. [12] 2 September 2012 . Aluminum structures are 50% lighter than steel structures and fiberglass structures are circa 50% lighter than aluminum structure. fatigue resistance. changes had to be made. impact resistance. bulletproof vest are made by successively layers of materials in the next list: Twaron fiber. [10]. and mostly. stiffness to achieve higher speeds. [11] Spectra was developed by Allied Signal Company and it is made out of polyethylene fibers made through a patented gel. [11] Kevlar was patented by Stephanie Kwolek and is a liquid polymer that is spun into aramid fiber and then it is possible to obtain a cloth. In truth. great fire resistance. [9] Metal hulls still to being made as in the beginning of naval industry. now skis have an edge. and a metal strip can compose the ski edge. a ski is made out of a mixture of these materials. and consequently. today we can find wood. was made in the 1910’s and its hull was made out of steel with circa 250 meters length. Bulletproof vest Nowadays. damping capacity. water – a ski should be wider on powder than in snow or water). snow. [7] Cruises hull can be made out of steel. composite structures have a good corrosion resistance. its hull is made out of steel with 360 meters long. aluminum and composite. as on the players as even on the equipment. sharpness and smooth edges. [8] Saving weight is one of the advantages of using composite. [6] [4] Actually. [5]. as big is the length better control at high speed but difficult to turn increase. good processability. width is different according as the type of surface contact (powder. wood is usually used in the core. Allure of the Seas. a wax was incorporated on the base. a composite cover the core Modern cruises vs. tip and tail of the ski are wider than the middle.Tampere University of Technology Materials Science MOL-5516 Composites An evolution has occurred in waterskiing. but composite hulls are the future and these one can aid achieving the best performance required. high stiffness. In addition to saving weight. etc. [6] To take advantage of skis.

Later in 400 B.Tampere University of Technology Materials Science MOL-5516 Composites Armor body and particularly bulletproof vest were not always so sophisticated. steel or brass were linked.C. titanium. puncture resistance and among others properties. ceramic.C. mail armor started to being used. in which wires of iron. [10] These technological materials have the best properties to be possible to make a bulletproof vest which are required to obtain comfortable vest. At this time vests were made out of ballistic nylon and fiberglass. waterproof resistance fibers. there were body armor and those were made out of linen or animal skins.. big chemical resistance. steel. energy absorption capacity. Only with American Civil War. flame resistance. high cut resistance. In 1971 Kevlar bulletproof vest started to being used and in 1989 Kevlar found a rival. Even 500 B. and 600 B. WWI and WWII and the plastics revolution in 40’s bulletproof vest began being used to military propose or even the police. and ceramic and fiberglass composites reinforcements. The improvement of bulletproof vest happened when the firearms appeared.C. [11] Kevlar has high strength. Spectra. At this time one or two layers of steel were added to the usual vest. low weight. 3 September 2012 . Doron.

gov/pmc/articles/PMC2577483/ http://www.edu/bitstream/handle/1721.com/sm/afc/products-details/fiber.nih.com/titanic-facts.html#b http://skibuilders.about.com/Volume-1/Bulletproof-Vest.com/library/inventors/blforensic3.com/skiing/equipment/skis.madehow.dnv.ncbi.titanic-nautical.honeywell.asp http://inventors.html http://www.itftennis.html [10] [11] [12] Helena Lopes Rocha 4 September 2012 .htm http://www.com/technical/equipment/rackets/history.1/28255/51741146.faqs.mechanicsofsport.com/articles/EffectsofCore.nlm.html [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] jhttp://exchange.htm http://www.html#b http://www51.about.com/od/wstartinventions/a/waterskiing.mit.Tampere University of Technology Materials Science MOL-5516 Composites References [1] http://www.com/exchange/main.pdf http://inventors.aspx?extool=vessel&subview=overview&vesselid= 28329 [9] http://dspace.pdf http://www.org/sports-science/Us-Z-and-bibliography/Water-Skiing.

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