IC PRACT TO

THE

UIDE G

AL

INTRO COMPUTER PRACTICE
Microsoft Windows 7 Microsoft Office 2010 Word & Excel

Copyright © 2012 Christine du Toit and Suzie van der Merwe All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form, or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without the prior written permission from the publisher or the authors. First Edition (Windows® 7, Microsoft® Office 2010) 2012 Published in the Republic of South Africa, Cape Town. ISBN 978-1-77581-047-6

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CONTENTS
PAGE MODULE 1 Introduction to computers
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Define the concept computer How a computer functions Different kinds of computer Some fields of application for computers Components of a computer system The concept computer system and the input, processing and output cycle Reasons for using computers

1-7
2 2 2 3 4 5 6

MODULE 2 Keyboard skills
Standard Windows QWERTY keyboard layout Keyboard skills: touch typing Typing exercises

8-19
9 11 13

MODULE 3 Micro computer: hardware and software
Hardware 1. The Central Processing Unit 2. Peripherals Software Copyright and software piracy Computer viruses

20-28
21 21 22 26 27 27

MODULE 4 Storage media and files
Magnetic storage media Different kinds of magnetic storage media Storage capacity measurements: binary numbering system Files and file names General rules for the naming of files Types of files

29-35
30 30 31 32 32 33

MODULE 5 Computer terminology MODULE 6 System software: Windows 7
What is an operating system? The electronic mouse Starting the computer (Cold boot/Hot boot) The desktop The Start menu Working with windows i

35-37

38-52
39 39 40 41 41 42 Contents

Viewing the computer's basic information To check or change the system's date and time Check disks by using disk properties Managing your files using Computer Viewing files Selecting and copying files To change an active drive Deleting files and using the Recycle Bin

45 46 46 48 48 49 50 51

MODULE 7 Text manipulation/Word processing: Microsoft Word 2010
List of manuscript signs

53-100
54

Chapter 1: Using the application
The concepts word processing and text manipulation Open Microsoft Word Moving temporarily to the desktop; return to the Word program Close (exit) Microsoft Word; Switching off the computer Word 2010 window and screen elements Navigating the ribbon user interface

55
55 55 56 56 57 58

Chapter 2: Working with documents
Create a new document based on the default template Enter text into a document Mouse shapes in Word Clearing the screen without saving the document Saving documents Close a document Open/retrieve an existing document Insert symbols or special characters Non-breaking spaces Quick movement keys Use available Help functions Hyphens

62
62 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 71 72 73

Chapter 3: Check and print
Spell check Quick method to print a document Preview a document before printing To print the document

75
75 76 77 78

Chapter 4: Editing functions
Select/highlight text Edit text; UNDO and REDO command; To create (split) or merge paragraphs Formatting text (character formatting): Bold and underline Centring headings or text Apply case changes to text

79
79 80 81 81 82

Chapter 5: Page layout
Page breaks; Page combine Changing the left and right margins Page numbering: Quick method to number all pages at the top or the bottom To cancel page numbers Contents

89
89 89 90 91 ii

Chapter 6: Paragraph formatting
Line spacing Alignment of paragraphs Tab key using default tab stops Indent paragraphs: To increase or decrease indent within a paragraph that is aligned to the left To indent the first line of a paragraph Quick method to number paragraphs

93
93 93 94 96 96 96 97

Copying formatting

98

MODULE 8 Spreadsheet manipulation: Microsoft Excel 2010
Chapter 1: Working with spreadsheets
What is Excel and what is a spreadsheet? When is a spreadsheet used? Open Microsoft Excel Close Microsoft Excel; switching off the computer Excel window and screen elements Using the ribbons and menus Mouse shapes in Excel Managing workbooks and worksheets Moving around between worksheets Inserting a new worksheet Deleting, renaming a worksheet Moving around in a spreadsheet Selecting cells Entering data Data types Placing data in a cell (alignment/orientation) Correcting mistakes: edit cell content, modify existing cell content Use the undo and redo command Clearing the screen without saving the workbook; to open a new workbook The Help function

101-147
102
102 102 102 102 103 105 106 107 107 107 108 108 108 109 110 111 112 112 113 114

Chapter 2: Basic workbook and worksheet skills
Create a new workbook based on the default template Saving and closing of workbooks To close a workbook and create a new workbook Opening/loading an existing workbook or workbooks Resize rows and columns Making row heights wider or narrower Inserting and deleting columns and rows Copy cell contents Add horizontal lines to a cell or cell range Formatting text

116
116 116 118 118 119 119 119 120 121 121

Chapter 3: Formulas and functions
Arithmetic formulas Methods of entering arithmetic formulas Cell ranges and cell references in formulas Using AutoSum to add numbers

123
123 124 124 125

iii

Contents

Functions: SUM Methods of entering functions in formulas Trouble shooting Displaying formulas on the screen instead of the result Formatting numbers

125 125 126 128 128

Chapter 4: Printing a worksheet
Quick method to print a small worksheet Changing the Page Setup

130
130 130

Chapter 6: Practical tasks
Tasks

133
133

Contents

iv

MODULE 1

Introduction to Computers

MODULE 1: Introduction to Computers

Introduction to computers
1.
   

Define the concept computer
Receives data from an input device. Carries out arithmetic and logical processing according to a previously compiled set of instructions (computer program) Stores the processed data. Sends the processed data to an output device:  For further processing; OR  To print the processed data, for example business documents, schedules and management control reports.

A computer can be defined as an electronic machine that:

Schematically, a computer can be represented as follows:

2.

How a computer functions

The steps in data processing on a microcomputer can be represented as follows:

The main advantage of computers is the high speed at which these steps are carried out. Three types of data, namely numeric, graphic and character, can be processed. Scientific and technical applications deal with the processing of numeric and graphic data; business applications can use all three; in word processing both text (character type) and graphics are used. The computer can process only the data that is entered; if incorrect data is entered, incorrect information will be output. The well-known GIGO rule applies here: "Garbage in, garbage out".

3.

Different kinds of computer

Mainframe computers
These are the larger commercial computers. They are able to process an enormous amount of data at a very high speed. Mainframe computers are used by Governments, insurance companies, banks, building societies and hotel management. 2
Copyright © Du Toit & Van der Merwe

MODULE 1: Introduction to Computers
Personal computers (desktop)
The microcomputer's popularity is still increasing because of its compactness, flexibility and power. The desktop computer fits on a desk. Desktop computers are used by businesses, by educational institutions for the purposes of computer-based learning and by individuals for personal use.

Laptop (notebook) computers
Laptop and notebook computers are portable, lightweight microcomputers. These computers can run on batteries as well as mains power. They are small enough to fit into an average sized briefcase. These types of computers are popular with professionals and people who need to work both at home and the office or who travel extensively.

Tablet (PC)
It is a mobile computer, equipped with a touchscreen or graphics tablet which allows the user to input data by touching the screen with a stylus or using the stylus to write directly onto the screen. The main feature of a tablet PC is portability and it is used for out-ofoffice work. The Apple iPad3 and Microsoft Surface are examples of tablets.

Common handheld portable digital devices
A handheld portable digital device is a pocket-sized computing device, typically having a display screen with touch input or a miniature keyboard. Personal digital assistants (PDAs) are special-purpose palmtops that keep phone directories, electronic diaries, calendars and provide calculator abilities. Most handhelds can be used to send and receive faxes by e-mail using an Internet fax service. They have wireless capability to connect to the Internet, send e-mail, connect to office/home computer systems and use application software, such as word processing. PDAs can be divided into those that accept handwriting as input and those with small keyboards. The input and output are combined into a touch-screen interface.

Mobile phone
A mobile phone is a communication device, commonly referred to as a cellular phone or cellphone. Mobile phones connect to a wireless communications network through radio wave or satellite transmissions. Mobile phones use batteries and chargers for their power needs.

Smartphone
A smartphone, such as Apple's new iPhone 3G, is a mobile phone offering advanced capabilities beyond a typical mobile phone. Any mobile phone that combines voice services with PDA functions, such as e-mail, fax and Internet access is called a smartphone. A smartphone can send and receive text messages and can handle email. Using 3G and Wi-Fi support, smartphones can access the Internet.

4.

Some fields of application for computers

Word processing Word processing includes the design, creation, editing, manipulation, storage and printing of text with the aid of a program that can be executed by a microcomputer. Examples of word processing programs: Microsoft Word 2010. Spreadsheet Eletronic spreadsheets can be used to create tables in which calculations can be done automatically by using formulas and functions. Examples of spreadsheet programs: Microsoft Excel 2010 and Lotus for Windows.
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MODULE 1: Introduction to Computers
Design and drawing Special programs are used by architects and engineers, for example for designing buildings. Example: CAD (Computer Aided Design). Desktop Publishing (DTP) Special programs are available to be used in the printing industry for professional printing. Examples of DTP programs: Ventura, Aldus Pagemaker, Corel Draw. Accountancy Accounting programs can be used to do the bookkeeping of a company. Financial statements can be printed when needed. Example of a bookkeeping program: Pastel Accounting. Electronic mail Electronic mail software allows users to send messages to and receive message from other computer users. Each e-mail user has a mailbox and an address to which the mail can be sent. Example of an electronic mail program: MS Outlook 2010.

5.

The components of a computer system

The following are the hardware components of a personal computer: Central Processing Unit The CPU is the "brain" of the computer:  data and instructions are stored here;  the functioning of the computer and sequence of processing are controlled here. Computer memory consists of ROM (Read-only Memory) and RAM (Random Access Memory). RAM memory is temporary and any unsaved information in this memory will be lost should you have a power failure or interruptions. Information should be saved to disk for permanent storage. Data entered via the keyboard, is displayed on-screen. The monitor looks like a television screen to provide you with visual information.

Memory

A monitor (output device)

A keyboard (input device)

The keyboard is the input peripheral through which one normally communicates with the computer. You use the keyboard to enter data into the computer. The computer reacts to this by displaying the data on-screen. The mouse is a device that fits into your hand; it is rolled on the surface next to the computer. It is a pointing device that can be used instead of the keyboard to move the cursor, activate icons and applications and to choose and select commands.
Copyright © Du Toit & Van der Merwe

A mouse (input device)

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MODULE 1: Introduction to Computers
Disk drives and disks (storage media) Enables you to store computer files in the same way that you store your office files in folders in filing cabinets. There are three types of drives:  Hard disk drives are generally not removed from the computer and can store large amounts of information.  USB flash drives/disks are inserted into the USB port; they are removable and rewriteable storage media.  CD- and DVD drives are used to save files to CD or DVD. 

 

Printers (output device)

The printer produces paper copies of the information (these are called hard copies).

6.

The concept computer system and the input, processing and output cycle

Normally, a computer consists of at least one processing unit (CPU) and some form of memory. RAM (Random Access Memory) is the main working memory used by the computer:   data and instructions are stored here; and the functioning of the computer and sequence of processing are controlled here.

The CPU is composed of the control unit and the arithmetic logic unit (ALU). The control unit The control unit controls  the input and output devices,  the loading and storage of data to and from the memory and  the flow of information between the main memory and the arithmetic logic unit. Arithmetic logic unit (ALU) Arithmetic calculations, i.e. addition, subtraction, multiplication and division are done here. Certain logical calculations, for example comparing two numbers to determine which is the greater, are also carried out here. A computer's hardware and software performs a cycle of four basic activities: To use a computer effectively we need to be able to communicate with it. First the computer has to be supplied with data and instructions to work on. Input consists of entering data into the computer system by means of the keyboard and the mouse or other input devices. The computer then processes the data (CPU, memory). When the computer has completed the processing it has to submit the results and this is done by means of output devices such as the printer or the monitor. The computer outputs the results, either on-screen or to the printer. 5

Input

Process

Output

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MODULE 1: Introduction to Computers
While information is being processed, it is held in the temporary memory (RAM) until it is stored onto a disk or disk drive. Any information stored on a disk or disk drive can be retrieved again.

Storage:

Software
Software is the set of instructions (also called a program) that guides the hardware to function. Application software turns the computer into a tool for a specific use, for example to do word processing or spreadsheets. Programs are normally stored on the computer's hard disk. A program is activated and loaded into the computer's RAM (Random Access Memory) and can then be used for a specific task. Software is a set of instructions (also called a program) that enable your personal computer to perform specific tasks. There are two types of software: Operating system software, such as Windows 7, is essential to run your computer. Consider this type of software as the "engine" of your computer. Briefly, one can say that the hardware cannot be used without an operating system. Application software (or programs) turns the computer into a tool for a specific use, for example to do word processing or spreadsheets. These are programs designed to meet specific needs. Examples: Microsoft Word 2010 is a word processing program. Microsoft Excel 2010 is a spreadsheet program.

7.

Reasons for using computers

Computers have affected every aspect of our day-to-day life, in terms of education, office work, accounting, business, communication, shopping, and data storage amongst others.

The advantages of computers
Professional documents: productivity and editing
A computer allows the user to create documents, edit, print, and store them to be retrieved later. Typing is much faster than writing on a paper. Documents can be enhanced by adding graphics, using various fonts and font sizes, adding lines, etc. Thus, professional printouts are obtained. Sentences or paragraphs can be reorganised by copying and moving them to the new location in the document.

Spelling and grammar check
Software programs include built-in spelling and grammar checker, thesaurus and dictionary tools. Therefore, it takes less time to proofread a written document and there is no need to open a dictionary book to look for meanings of words.

Communication: electronic mail (e-mail)
Electronic mail, e-mail is a method of communication used globally, between friends, colleagues and business partners. The electronic mail is provided with a system of creating, storing, and forwarding mails.

Electronic banking
Electronic banking can be accomplished by sitting within the comfort zone of your home. With this, one no longer needs to stand in the line to do payments or other transactions. 6
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MODULE 1: Introduction to Computers
Governments
Governments use computers to keep census record of the citizens, to process vehicle registration, income tax returns and for electronic voting. In South Africa you can use e-filing to submit your tax return; you have to register on the SARS Web site using a username and password.

E-learning
Computers have proved to be excellent teachers. E-learning is a type of education where online computer technology is used as the medium of instruction; blogs and virtual classrooms can, for example, be used. Elearning can mean distance learning and flexible learning, but can also be face-to-face teaching.

Practical everyday uses
In addition, one can read current news, check weather conditions, plan vacations, and make hotel and travel reservations, find out about diseases and treatment methods, learn about specific countries and their cultures, seek jobs and many more, over the Internet.

Disadvantages of computers
Staff training
Software changes continuously and staff must be trained to use the latest versions of programs. Training is expensive.

Expensive equipment
Computer equipment is expensive and must be upgraded regularly.

Fallibility
The computer is fallible and data can be lost, for example:  when a hard disk become unusable (damaged), and  when power failures occur.

Outdated
Computer hardware and programs become outdated very quickly and must be updated regularly to keep up with the latest technology.

MODULE 1: TASK 1 Computer concepts
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Define the concept computer system. Name six main components of a computer system. Name the main difference between a personal computer (desktop) and a laptop (notebook). Name the four steps on how a computer functions. Name one input and two output devices. Name three fields of application for computers. Give four situations where you might encounter computer-based systems in your everyday life. What is meant by the term 'hardware'? Give some examples of items of hardware. The computer can process only data that is entered, if incorrect data is entered, incorrect information will be output. What rule applies here: ROM, RAM, ALU or GIGO. Name and discuss four advantages of computers.

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