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Heat capacity is the amount of heat required to increase the temperature of an object by 1 oC (or 1 K).

**Specific Heat Capacity
**

The amount of heat required to change the temperature of 1 kg of a substance by 1oC.

Formula of Specific Heat Capacity

Example 1

How much thermal energy is required to raise the temperature of a 2 kg aluminium block from 25 �C to 30 �C? [The specific heat capacity of aluminium is 900 Jkg-1 oC1

]

Answer: Mass, m = 2kg Specific heat capacity, c = 900 Jkg-1 oC-1 Temperature change, θ = 30 - 25 = 5 oC Thermal energy required, Q = mcθ = (2)(900)(5) = 9000J.

all the electrical energy supplied = heat energy absorbed by the water Pt = mcθ (5000) t = (500)(4200)(75) t = 31500s = 525 minutes = 8 hours 45 minutes (Practically the time can be much longer than this because a lot of heat may be losses to the surrounding.25 = 75oC t=? We assume. How long will it take to heat 500 kg of water in the tank from 25 to 100 �C? [Specific heat capacity of water = 4200 J kg-1 oC-1] Answer: P = 5000W m = 500kg c = 4200 J kg-1 oC-1 θ = 100 .) .Conversion Of Electrical Energy Into Thermal Energy An electric heater supplies 5 kW of power to a tank of water. Assume all the energy supplied is converted into heat energy and the energy losses to the surrounding is negligible.

By how much will the temperature of the shot increase if this process is repeated 100 times? [The specific heat capacity of lead is 130Jkg-1K-1] Answer: m = 5g h = 1m × 100 = 100m g = 10 ms-2 c = 130Jkg-1K-1 θ=? In this case. The cylinder is inverted so that the shot falls 1 m. Therefore mgh = mcθ gh = cθ (10)(100) = (130) θ θ = 7. We assume that all potential energy is converted into heat energy.Conversion of Gravitational Energy into Thermal Energy Example 3 A lead shot of mass 5g is placed at the bottom of a vertical cylinder that is 1m long and closed at both ends. the energy conversion is from potential energy to heat energy.69 oC .

Conversion Of Kinetic Energy Into Thermal Energy Mixing 2 Liquid .

Water is used as the cooling agent due to its high specific heat capacity.5) c ( θ ) = (0.2) c ( 90 .2 θ 0. Let the final temperature = θ m1 = 500g = 0.θ m1c1θ1 = m2c2θ2 (0.0.7 θ = 18 θ = 25.5 θ + 0. . which means the mass of 1 cm3 of water is equal to 1g.Example 4 What will be the final temperature if 500 cm3 of water at 0 �C is added to 200cm3 of water at 90 �C? [Density of water = 1gcm-3] Answer: The density of water is 1g/cm3. The hot water flows to the radiator and is cooled by the air flows through the fins of the radiator.0 = θ m2 = 200g = 0.2kg c2 = c θ2 = 90 . The cool water flows back to the engine again to capture more heat and this cycle is repeated continuously.5kg c1 = c θ1 = θ .71 oC Application of Specific Heat Capacity Car radiator Water is pumped through the channels in the engine block to absorb heat.2 θ = 18 0.θ ) 0.5 θ = 18 .

Hot water is made to flow through a radiator. Phenomena of specific heat capacity –sea breeze Sea Breeze Land has lower heat capacity than sea water. in day time. Handles of cooking utensils are made of substances with high specific heat capacities so that its temperature won’t become too high even if it absorbs large amount of heat. the temperature of the land increases faster than the sea. The heat given out from the radiator is then warm the air of the house. Water is used in the radiator because it has high specific heat capacity. The cold water is then flows back to the water tank. Therefore.Cooking utensils Cooking utensils are made of metal which has low specific heat capacity so that it need less heat to raise up the temperature. Thermal Radiator Thermal radiators are always used in cold country to warm the house. Hot air (lower density) above the land rises. . This process is repeated continuously. Cooler air from the sea flows towards land and hence produces sea breeze.

Hot air (lower density) above the sea rises.html . the temperature of the land drops faster than the sea.oneschool. http://www. During night time.Land Breeze Land has lower heat capacity than sea water. Cooler air from the land blows towards sea and hence produces land breeze.net/Malaysia/UniversityandCollege/SPM/revisioncard/physics/heat/heatcap acityapplication.

of an object. Thus. the specific heat of a gallon of milk is equal to the specific heat of a quart of milk. then S is given by In this definition mass is usually in either grams or kilograms and temperatture is either in kelvin or degres Celcius. With the observation above understood we con now ask the following question: by how much will the temperature of an object increase or decrease by the gain or loss of heat energy? The answer is given by the specific heat (S) of the object.Specific Heat and Heat Capacity Specific heat is another physical property of matter. Heat loss or gain by matter is equivalent energy loss or gain. A table of some common specific heats and heat capacities is given below: Some common specific heats and heat capacities: . Typicall this energy is supplied by heat. The specific heat of an object is defined in the following way: Take an object of mass m. All matter has a temperature associated with it. Note that the specific heat is "per unit mass". The relation between S and C is C = (mass of obect) x (specific heat of object). put in x amount of heat and carefully note the temperature rise. The temperature of matter is a direct measure of the motion of the molecules: The greater the motion the higher the temperature: Motion requires energy: The more energy matter has the higher temperature it will also have. A related quantity is called the heat capacity (C).

385 Joules of heat to raise 1 gram of copper 1 degree celcius. we will find that the temperature of the copper will have risen to 26 0C.0 0.01 C (J/0C) for 100 g 101 Aluminum 0. What this means is that it takes 0.770 J. if we take 1 gram of copper at 25 0C and add 1 Joule of heat to it.Substance Air Copper Gold Iron Mercury NaCl Ice Water S (J/g 0C) 1. 0.129 12. Thus. Note that C depends upon the size of the object as opposed to S that does not.385 38.4 2.9 0.03 203 4..450 45.385 J for each gram or 2x0.385 J/g 0C.79 Consider the specific heat of copper .2 0.179 41. We can then ask: How much heat wil it take to raise by 1 0C 2g of copper?.864 86.140 14. by how much will its temperature increase? .385 J = 0.902 90. What about a pound of copper? A simple way of dealing with different masses of matter is to dtermine the heat capacity C as defined above. Clearly the answer is 0.5 0. We are not in position to do some calculations with S and C. Example 1: How much energy does it take to raise the temperature of 50 g of copper by 10 0C? Example 2: If we add 30 J of heat to 10 g of aluminum.0 0.

. The molar heat capacity of lead is 26. m. Molar Heat Capacity The amount of heat needed to increase the temperature of one mole of a substance by one degree is the molar heat capacity. http://www.Thus. is equal to the mass of substance.iun. if the initial temperture of the aluminum was 20 0C then after the heat is added the temperature will be 28. In order to measure the heat capacity of a reaction. To aid in the analysis of systems having certain specific dimensions.65 joules to raise 1 mole of lead by °K. . kilocalories. .128 Quantity of Heat The quantity of heat is a measurement of the amount of heat is present.3 0C. Because the specific heat of lead is .128 Joules to raise one gram of lead by one °C. q= specific heat m . The formula of quantity of heat. It is expressed in joules per gram per degrees Celsius. It is expressed in joules per moles per degrees Celsius. it takes . Specific Heat Capacity The amount of heat needed to increase the temperature of one gram of a substance by one degree is the specific heat capacity. It is expressed in units of thermal energy per degree temperature. q. which means that it takes 26.edu/~cpanhd/C101webnotes/matter-and-energy/specificheat.65 . molar heat capacity and specific heat capacity can be used. . Bomb calorimeters are most efficient. although a coffee-cup calorimeter is sufficient.html The heat capacity of a defined system is the amount of heat (usually expressed in calories. a calorimeter must be used. multiplied with the specific heat and the change in temperature. or joules) needed to raise the system's temperature by one degree (usually expressed in Celsius or Kelvin). One degree of Kelvin is almost equal to one degree of Celsius.

q= C Heat capacity. Thus. then quantity of heat must be negative. m is the mass of the substance present. This means that the total heat in a closed system must remain constant. if the quantity of heat is positive then the system gains heat. which is used in the first calculation question of lab. if the change in temperature is negative. This is represented by the equation This means that it is possible to set the quantity of heat of the system equal to the quantity of heat of the surroundings multiplied by negative one. When the quantity of heat heat is negative heat the system is depleted of its heat. The first question in the calculation section of the lab asks for the specific heat capacity of the metal using the law of conservation of energy. This specific latent heat quantifies the transfer of energy when a substance's state changes from a solid to a liquid or from a liquid to a solid. can never be negative for a mass or a substance and the specific heat of a substance can never be negative. On the other hand. Specific Latent Heat There are two types of specific latent heat: vaporization and fusion. two formulas has be derived from this property: Q=m x L and L=Q/m Example 1) The specific heat capacity of water is 4. for a negative number multiplied by a positive number equals a negative number. Because heat is the transfer of energy from one source to another.When the mass of substance is multiplied with the specific heat the product is equal to heat capacity. this specific latent heat quantifies the transfer of energy when a substance's state changes from liquid to gas or from gas to liquid. the specific heat of fusion is the quantity of heat that is necessary to raise one unit of weight without any change in temperature. If one were to like to understand this aspect of heat capacity.18 joules per gram per degree Celsius. How many joules of heat must be added to one gram of water to increase its temperature by 10 degrees Celsius? amount of heat=mass of substance specific heat capacity change of temperature amount of heat=(1gram)(4 18 joules)/(grams °C)(10°C) . which is donated as C. however. Like the name implies. C. The specific latent heat of vaporization is defined as the quantity of heat energy that is necessary to raise one unit of weight (pounds or grams) with no change of temperature in the surroundings. If Q is the amount of heat increase or decrease as the state changes. it is highly recommended that they attempt this lab from an outside source. and L is the specific latent heat for that substance. the initial temperature is more than the final temperature. heat is also conserved.

903 J/(g*°C) and the mass of the aluminum is 105 grams.186 J/(g °C)= -99.162 J qcopper= (46. and the temperature decreases to 1. The specific heat of water is 4. If the two grams of copper are heated up to 46. Now it's possible to solve for the quantity of heat. the heat capacity of the calorimeter is the only unknown constant needed to solve for the quantity of heat of the calorimeter.amount of heat=41 8 joules 2) In a calorimeter there is only water at room temperature (25°C). What is the quantity of heat of calorimeter and the reaction? Because the change in temperature is given. of the calorimeter is equal to the specific heat of water.186 J/(g °C)= 89. which is 4.3°C . what is the quantity of heat of the calorimeter and the copper? 1.186 J/(g °C).706 kJ/(kg*°C) .3°C. L=Q/m L= (. The formula for the quantity of heat of the calorimeter is: qcopper= -qcalorimeter 89.627 J= -qreaction qreaction= 99.815 J/g= 94.627 J qcalorimeter= (1.6 grams of ice are added to the system.2°C.25°C) 2.903 J/(g °C)) (105 g)= 94.2°C .627 J 4) If the quantity of heat of aluminum is .815 kJ/kg. The formula for the quantity of heat of the calorimeter is: qcalorimeter= -qreaction -99. 5) The specific latent heat of sulfur is 4. About 1.162 J= -qcalorimeter qcalorimeter= -99. what is the specific latent heat of the aluminum as it's state goes from solid to liquid. However. qcalorimeter= C 4. qcopper= C 4. the specific heat. 1. The temperature (°C) is neglected because there is no change in temperature. C.25°C) 2.186 J/(g °C).84 kJ/kg and the quantity of heat is .627 J 3) There is a coffee-cup calorimeter is filled with water at room temperature (25°C) as well as 2 grams of copper.

856 kg The temperature (°C) is neglected because there is no change in temperature.Q=m m=L/Q L m= (4.84 kJ/kg)/(.edu/Physical_Chemistry/Thermodynamics/Calorimetry/H eat_Capacity . http://chemwiki.ucdavis.706 kJ/(kg*°C)= 6.

Specific heat capacity of water Heat capacity .Definition Heat capacity is mathematically defined as the ratio of a small amount of heat δQ added to the body to the corresponding small increase in its temperature dT: .

Of particular relevance are the values of heat capacity for constant volume. For a one-dimensional system the only thermodynamic variable is temperature and the short path is implicitly defined. It should be remarked that the above definition requires a constraint on the system when the measurement is made. . or of a multiple dimensional system in which the particular type of heat capacity is assumed to be known from the context of the discussion.For thermodynamic systems with more than one dimension. CP: In the following discussion. unique quantity unless a particular infinitesimal path through the system's phase space has been defined. since the value of heat capacity depends on which one is chosen. and constant pressure. but for higher dimensional systems it must be explicitly defined. CV. but the heat capacity corresponding to that constraint is a state function and does not require any constraints on the system in order to be defined for that system. the above definition does not give a single. C(T) will be used to specify the specific heat of a onedimensional system.

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