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# JJ: 101 ENGINEERING DRAWING

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## GEOMETRIC DIMENSIONING AND TOLERANCING (GDT)

The dimensioning and tolerance, is the standard dimensioning for engineering drawings, the details of dimensioning, dimensioning techniques and the standard tolerance for engineering drawings.

ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTION
The view in orthographic projection is the types of orthographic projection, dimension orthographic projection drawing according to standard and the relationship between dimensional drawing and working drawing.

ISOMETRIC
The relationship between an orthographic projection and object in3-D form, the differences and similarities between orthographic projection and isometric view, draw isometric view according to the reference point and arrow direction on an orthographic drawing and dimension isometric view according to standard.

## PARALLEL AND RADIAL LINES DEVELOPMENTS

Apply the various methods of developments, the concept of determining the true length and construct the development using the methods given.

AUXILIARY PROJECTION
The relationship between orthographic and auxiliary projection, the various types of view in auxiliary projection, auxiliary projection drawing according to standard and differentiate between dimensions and drawing.

THEORY
GEOMETRIC DIMENSION AND TOLERANCE
Geometric tolerance as shown in a design drawing is a means of communication between the manufacturer and designer. When judging product quality, whether or not the geometric tolerance conforms with the specication on the design drawing is an important indicator. Prediction refers to the assessment and anticipation of the geometric tolerance which will be achieved. Prediction has become important in modern management science. Because of the need for an objective environment, prediction is emerging as a science for exploring and searching for the specication conformance of the product. Among the existing prediction methods, the time series method is widely adopted. The time series method assumes the past historical data of the analyses subject (time series) to be stationary and requires a statistical distribution. In prediction analysis using a random statistical method, a large quantity of historical data is required. The data must possess a standard statistical distribution in order to make an accurate assessment and prediction of the required parameters. Other methods such as articial intelligence, expert systems and neural networks may not need too many assumptions. However, in applications, these methods require the system operators to provide an empirical algorithm for the actual prediction values. A large quantity of historical data is also needed to obtain better prediction values. In this paper, the grey

prediction GM (1,1) model was used to inspect circularity geometric tolerance to determine whether products conform to the circularity geometric tolerance on the design drawing. For the purpose of quality control, geometric tolerance is often measured after the products are nished. However, this approach usually wastes at least one product. If the characteristics of speedy calculation and the small amount of historical data required in the grey theory can be applied.

ORTHOGRAPIC PROJECTION
Orthographic projection is a system that is used in engineering to describe the shape and dimensions of the multifaceted engineering equipment. It is a system where many view the entire shape of the object can be clearly shown without affecting the actual dimensions of the object. In many industrial complex shaped objects, which require more than one view to show the shape of the object. Pictorial painting or drawing pictures (three dimensional) often used by people - people who do not understand the technical, but for those who are directly involved in the technical, the most suitable painting is painting a variety of forms (multitier projection), also known as orthographic drawings (orthographic projection).

ISOMETRIC
Isometric drawings are a type of pictorial drawings that show the three principal dimensions of an object in one view. The principal dimensions are the limits of size for the object along the three principal directions. Pictorial drawings consist of visible object faces and the features lying on the faces with the internal features of the object largely hidden from view. They tend to present images of objects in a form that mimics what the human eye would see naturally. Pictorial drawings are easy to understand since the images shown bear resemblance to the real or imagined object. Non-technical personnel can interpret them because they are generally easy to understand. Pictorial drawings are excellent starting point in visualization and design and are often used to supplement multiview drawings. Hidden lines are usually omitted in pictorial drawings, except where they aid clarity. An isometric drawing is one of three types of axonometric drawings they are created based on parallel projection technique. The other two types of axonometric drawings are diametric and trimetric drawings. In isometric drawings, the three principal axes make equal angles with the image plane. In diametric drawing, two of the three principal axes make equal angles with the image plane while in trimetric drawing; the three principal axes make different angles with the image plane. Isometric drawings are the most popular.

## PARALLEL AND RADIAL LINES DEVELOPMENTS

PARALLEL LINE DEVELOPMENT
Parallel line development is based upon the fact that a line that is parallel to another line is an equal distance horn that line at all points. Objects that have opposite lines parallel to each other or that have the same cross sectional shape throughout their length are developed by this method To gain a clear understanding of the parallel line method, we will develop, step by step, a layout of a truncated cylinder such as one half of a two-piece 0 degree elbow.

The radial line method of pattern development is used to develop patterns of objects that have a tapering form with lines converging at a common center. The radial line method is similar in some respects to the parallel line method. Evenly spaced reference lines are necessary in both of these methods. But, in parallel line development, the reference lines are parallellike a picket fence. In radial line development, the reference lines radiate from the APEX of a conelike the spokes of a wheel. The reference lines in parallel line development project horizontally. In radial line development, the reference lines are transferred from the front view to the development with the dividers. Developing a pattern for the frustum of a right cone is a typical practice project that will help you get the feel of the radial line method. You are familiar with the shape of a cone. A right cone is one that, if set big-side-down on a flat surface, would stand straight up. In other words, a centerline drawn from the point, or vertex, to the base

line would form right angles with that line. The frustum of a cone is that part that remains after the point, or top, has been removed.

AUXILIARY PROJECTION
Auxiliary views are a type of orthographic projection used to determine the true size and shape of inclined and oblique surfaces of objects. Normally, auxiliary views are projected from existing principal views. However, auxiliary views can also be drawn first and then used to create a principal view. This is done when a true measurement can only be obtained by an auxiliary view and that measurement is needed in order to create a principal view. This technique is called reverse construction. Any number of auxiliary views of an object can be created. Successive auxiliary views can be created by projecting from an existing auxiliary view.

DISCUSSION
THE APPLICATION OF DRAWING IN THE PRODUCTION INDUSTRY One seldom-discussed but important aspect of inventing success is having good technical drawings. A technical drawing varies from a simple sketch or laymans drawing in a notebook. While these are helpful in the early stages of conceptualizing, a technical drawing is a much more detailed visual representation intended to concisely and clearly communicate all needed specifications to transform an idea into physical form, according to Wikipedia.

This becomes important when it comes time to develop a working prototype of your invention, and especially when it comes time to mass-produce it. The crude notebook drawings you sketched up yourself wont be accepted or usable by a manufacturer. Without detailed technical drawings that a manufacturer can take into his hands and understand, you most likely will experience serious delays and costly errors. So lets explore in more detail what technical drawings are, how they will benefit you, and how you can attain them.

As noted, the main people who will be creating and using technical drawings of your invention are engineers. The main difference between technical drawings and other drawings is the degree of standardization. Rather than simply sketching your invention, an engineer drafting a technical drawing will meticulously draw it out in accordance with industry-wide standards for everything from layout, line thickness, symbols, descriptive geometry, text size, notation, dimensioning and view projections. This means that any similarly qualified engineer can look at your technical drawing and understand exactly what it represents with minimal explanation from you.

## THE IMPORTANT OF GEOMETRIC DIMENSION AND TOLERANCE IN ENGINEERING DRAWING

Practice interpreting GD&T on industrial drawings can help you interpret GD&T on the job. ETI's Geometric Dimensioning and

Tolerance Workbook, by Alex Krulikowski provides hours of practice applying GD&T skills to engineering drawings. The 204-page workbook can be used in the classroom as reinforcement to a Fundamentals of GD&T course. It can also be used after the class is complete, because interpreting actual drawings will give students extra practice applying concepts taught in the classroom. The GD&T enhances student skills by providing practice on each concept from our fundamentals of GD&T course. Questions refer to content in the Fundamentals of GD&T textbook, and are designed to let you gain practice using GD&T in the same manner you would on the job. Drawings include adaptors, retainers, shafts, plates, pulleys, housings, and more.

REFERENCE
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Isometric_projection http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Engineering_drawing#Auxiliary_projec tion

## http://schools.spsd.sk.ca/waltermurray/library/Subjects/Drafting/D r%2010%20new/Development%20Notes.pdf http://highered.mcgrawhill.com/sites/dl/free/0072864583/132262/FGC_4e_Out_ch6.pdf http://www.amazon.com/Geometric-Dimensioning-TolerancingWorkbook-Engineering/dp/0924520388 http://www.ideabuyer.com/news/the-importance-of-technicaldrawings/

Drawing in mathematic
Orthographic and plan and elevation view enlargement and narrowing of the Incarnation addition, Lines and Planes Scale Three Dimensions Isometric and Orthographic locus, Length, Area

and Volume, Plane Trigonometry and Circle Geometry Fractions, Ratio, Average, Scale and Scale and Dividing Lines commonality. New curriculum goal for Secondary Schools (KBSM) for mathematics is to develop logical thinking, analytical, systematic and critical thinking, problem solving skills and the ability to use mathematical knowledge so that an individual can function effectively in everyday life. In line with the above statement then the teachers.

APPLICATIONS ENGINEERING DRAWING CONCEPTS AND METHODS IN MATHEMATICS Is must use the concepts and methods in teaching mathematics LK related, because of the direct relationship between the two subjects. For example, in the construction using orthographic projection point. According to Klausmeier (1974), the concept is a mental construction of the individual to excel at a higher level. Based on the statements Klausmeier, the concept is seen as experience and have a very important relationship between the external input and real behavior. It is clear that the integrated teaching is so important and necessary for a good concept penanggapan (Abu Bakar, 1991). By the teaching and learning of mathematics and LK must be integrated in terms of concepts and methods, especially in the technical school has adequate facilities. For example, the solution for the plan and elevation of topics in mathematics will be more effective if teachers continue to embrace the concept of angle projection as practiced in LK.

Both linear and radial dimensions were described in detail. A discussion of their use, however, was very limited. This section will briefly address situations where each type of dimension would be used on an electronics drawing. If a concept or command is unfamiliar, you should consults the main text for more information so that each of these examples is understood.

LINEAR DIMENSIONS
Linear dimensions are used to measure distance along the horizontal or vertical axis. The majority of all mechanical dimensions will be linear. Look though the drawings presented in this workbook. Notice that almost all dimensions are horizontal and vertical.

ALIGNED DIMENSIONS
Aligned dimensions are any dimensions that are not vertical or horizontal. Aligned dimensions are very useful when auxiliary views need to be dimensions.