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of a poorly maintained storage tank released 50-100 tonnes of high-level radioactive waste, contaminating a huge territory in the eastern Urals and causing numerous deaths and injuries from poisoning. Working conditions at Mayak, and a lack of environmental responsibility in the past, led to additional contamination of the surrounding lake district and severe health hazards and accidents. Some areas are still under restricted access because of radiation. In the past 45 years, about 400,000 people in the region have been irradiated in one or more of the incidents.
Contamination Mayak was a target of Gary Powers' U-2 surveillance flight in May 1960. In the early years of its operation, the Mayak plant released quantities of radioactively contaminated water into several small lakes near the plant, and into the Techa river, whose waters ultimately flow into the Ob River. The downstream consequences of this radiation pollution have yet to be determined.
Effect Working conditions at Mayak resulted in severe health hazards and many accidents. The most notable accident occurred on 29 September 1957, when the failure of the cooling system for a tank storing tens of thousands of tons of dissolved nuclear waste resulted in a chemical (nonnuclear) explosion having an energy estimated at about 75 tons of TNT (310 gigajoules). This released 740 PBq (20 MCi) of fission products, of which 74 PBq (2 MCi) drifted off the site, creating a contaminated region of 15,000-20,000 km2 called the East Urals Radioactive trace. Subsequently, an estimated 49 to 55 people died of radiation-induced cancer, 66 were diagnosed with chronic radiation syndrome, 10,000 people were evacuated from their homes, and 470,000 people were exposed to radiation. This nuclear accident, the Soviet Union's worst before the Chernobyl disaster, is categorized as a level 6 "serious accident" on the 0-7 International Nuclear Events Scale.
Solution The solution of Mayak accident is improve the waste management ,decommissioning the area and isolated the area from people and use the method solution same like Chernobyl disaster.
UCC states that "after the incident.Location The Bhopal disaster. The government of Madhya Pradesh confirmed a total of 3. drums and tanks were sold. Eveready Industries. Contamination Chemicals abandoned at the plant continue to leak and pollute the groundwater. It occurred on the night of 2–3 December 1984 at the Union Carbide India Limited (UCIL) pesticide plant in Bhopal. UCIL began clean-up work at the site under the direction of Indian central and state government authorities". ended its 99-year lease in 1998 and turned over control of the site to the state government of Madhya Pradesh. Over 500. until 1998. tarry residue. Isolation material is falling down and spreading. When the factory was closed in 1986. lead. was a gas leak incident in India. pipes. copper. hexachlorobutadiene. copper. mercury. The official immediate death toll was 2. alpha naphthol.787 deaths related to the gas release.chromium. nickel. well water and vegetables from the residential areas around UCIL and from the UCIL factory area show contamination with a range of toxic heavy metals and chemical compounds. Reported polluting compounds include 1naphthol. are naphthol. as are storages of different residues. Substances found. Sevin. hexachlorobutadiene. volatile organic compounds and halo-organic. hexachloroethane. when it was placed under the authority of the Madhya Pradesh Government.259. mercury. organochlorines. which was continued after 1994 by the successor to UCIL. toxic organ chlorines. The MIC and the Sevin plants are still there. lead. and the pesticide HCH. Eveready Industries India. The toxic substance made its way in and around the shantytowns located near the plant. The area around the plant was used as a dumping area for hazardous chemicals. Sevin. Solution The area around the plant was used as a dumping ground for hazardous chemicals and by 1982 water wells in the vicinity of the UCC factory had to be abandoned. Estimates vary on the death toll. groundwater. naphthalene. considered one of the world's worst industrial disasters.000 people were exposed to methyl isocyanate gas and other chemicals. naphthalene. Whether the chemicals pose a health hazard is disputed. volatile organ chlorine compounds. pesticide HCH (BHC). hexachlorethane. Limited (EIIL). Many of these contaminants were also found in breast milk of women living near the area. Contamination at the site and surrounding area was not caused by the gas leakage. Effect Studies made by Greenpeace and others from soil. tarry residues. according to the reports. nickel. also referred to as the Bhopal gas tragedy. Madhya Pradesh. . The successor. chromium.
An early estimate for fuel material released to the environment was 3 ± 1. An explosion and fire released large quantities of radioactive contamination into the atmosphere. 137Cs and 90Sr) in drinking water caused concern during the weeks and months after the accident. Total atmospheric release is estimated at 5200 PBq. one of the largest surface water systems in Europe. However.4 million residents. significant transfers of radionuclides to groundwater have occurred from waste disposal sites in the 30 km (19 mi) exclusion zone around Chernobyl .5 ± 0. which spread over much of Western USSR and Europe. as a mixture of vapor. contained within the reactor were released immediately into the atmosphere by the first steam explosion. this was later revised to 3. though officially it was stated that all contaminants had settled to the bottom "in an insoluble phase" and would not dissolve for 800– 1. This corresponds to the atmospheric emission of 6 t of fragmented fuel. Effect The Chernobyl nuclear power plant is located next to the Pripyat River. and longerlived radionuclides such as radiocaesium and radiostrontium were adsorbed to surface soils before they could transfer to groundwater. 55% of the radioactive iodine in the reactor. levels of radioactivity (particularly from radionuclides 131I. was released.000 years. and was still in spring flood when the accident occurred. Contamination The release of radioisotopes from the nuclear fuel was largely controlled by their boiling points. and the majority of the radioactivity present in the core was retained in the reactor. Groundwater was not badly affected by the Chernobyl accident since radionuclides with short half-lives decayed away long before they could affect groundwater supplies. The radioactive contamination of aquatic systems therefore became a major problem in the immediate aftermath of the accident. In the most affected areas of Ukraine.5%.5%. and organic iodine compounds. which was under the direct jurisdiction of the central authorities of the Soviet Union. containing about 1760 PBq or 400 kg of I-131. Caesium (85 PBq Cs-137) and tellurium were released in aerosol form. which at the time supplied water to Kiev's 2. which feeds into the Dnipro River reservoir system. All of the noble gases. solid particles.Location The Chernobyl disaster was a catastrophic nuclear accident that occurred on 26 April 1986 at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant in Ukraine (then officially Ukrainian SSR). including krypton and xenon.
The canisters were to be transported to dry storage vaults. shutting down the entire site. . As of 2006. when construction finally began.). The contract included a processing facility able to cut the RBMK fuel assemblies and to put the material in canisters. which was built quickly to allow continuing operation of the other reactors at the plant. to cover both unit 4 and the hastily built 1986 structure . as well as some material in a small spent fuel interim storage facility pond (ISF-1). The structure is being built adjacent to the existing shelter and will be slid into place on rails. as well as material from decommissioning units 1–3 (which will be the first RBMK units decommissioned anywhere). Radioactive waste management The Chernobyl reactor is now enclosed in a large concrete sarcophagus. which were to be filled with inert gas and welded shut. a fire broke out in the turbine building of reactor 2.In 1999 a contract was signed for construction of a radioactive waste management facility to store 25. On 15 December 2000. However. would be the first of its kind for RBMK fuel. A New Safe Confinement was to have been built by the end of 2005. the authorities subsequently declared the reactor damaged beyond repair and had it taken offline. technical deficiencies in the concept emerged.) high and spanning 257 metres (843 ft. Reactor 1 was decommissioned in November 1996 as part of a deal between the Ukrainian government and international organizations such as the IAEA to end operations at the plant. treating 2500 fuel assemblies per year. however it has suffered ongoing delays and as of 2010.000 used fuel assemblies from units 1–3 and other operational wastes. then-President Leonid Kuchma personally turned off Reactor 3 in an official ceremony. where the fuel containers would be enclosed for up to 100 years. most of it in each unit's cooling pond. is expected to be completed in 2013. some fuel remained in the reactors at units 1 through 3. It is to be a metal arch 105 metres (344 ft. This facility. after a significant part of the storage structures had been built. and the contract was terminated in 2007. The interim spent fuel storage facility (ISF-2) will now be completed by others by mid-2013.Solution Decommissioning In 1991.
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