Comprehensive passage | Agriculture | Speculation

Class - XII Section (a) Reading Unseen Comprehension Passages (1

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1. Read the following passage and answer the questions that follow:
The doctors clamouring against reservations for OBCs have demanded that merit be the sole criteria for admission to medical and engineering colleges. Then, how is it that they haven’t objected either to the NRI quota or candidates who procure admission on the basis of capitation fee? Does this not affect quality ? Reservation was introduced in the Kolhapur State as early as in 1902 and in the State of Mysore in 1921 . In Tamil Nadu, where the human health index is much better than in other states, there is as much as 69 per cent reservation. Let us take for a moment that upper caste doctors are meritorious. But is this of any help to thenation when many of them use elite institutes as springboard to go abroad for higher wages. Nearly 70 per centof doctors from AIIMS doctors go abroad. How are these elite institutes, under such circumstances, serving the interests of the common people ? On the other hand , it has been in Tamil Nadu that a good number of SC/ST/OBC doctors, who procured admission into colleges due to the reservation policy, stick to their stste or hometown, resulting in better healthcare services. 2. Reservation is not a phenomenon exclusive to our country. The American MNC,IBM, voluntarily in traduced reservations for Blacks in 1930 . In Malaysia there are reservations not just in jobs but also in contracts , licences and company shares for Malays. Reservation for the depressed and weaker sections exist in many countries like Brazil, South Africa, Japan, Netherland and Ireland. There is 50 per cent reservation for Blacks and women in the medical faculity of Harvard University. And the Whites have never made an issue of being eligible only for 50 per cent of the seats. In fact, it is the handful of anti- reservationist doctors, who taik of disintegration of society on account of reservation, who are really responsible for creating dissension and obstacles in the ways of social justice of the OBCs.The media have, of course, played a negative role. But it is a reality that Indian society is constituted on caste lines .If the anti reservations are so concerned about the disintegrationof society on caste lines, they should first lead the struggle against social discrimination. 3. Reservation get a job or admission even if they get less percentage of marks, In one of the cases a person was in Indian Revenue Service. He saw that candidates getting high marks in a competition were not necessarily successful in the field. Merit, as it is being presently understood, does not include honesty, hardwork and patriotism. In the American school system, besides the syllabus, students have to undergo practical training in social

Ans. and marks are added in the certificate based on performance in thus area. 5. In Tamil Nadu. There is a vast difference in quality between the teachers of public and government schools. (c) What ideas do you know about reservations in Malaysia and Harvard University? . The only people tailing of merit today are those who have studied in public schools or whose children study in such schools. parents who send their children to corporation/ government schools are mostly uneducated . As and when equal and compulsory education is introduced in the country. For this purpose .4. Reservation will bring unity and integrated in society. Parents who can afford to send their children to public schools are mostly educated. there is as much as 69 percent reservation. so that they may integrate with the mainstream. Reservation is not a pancea for the economic backwardness of the country. services. etc. Value Point: merit be the sole criteria for admission to medical and engineering colleges. We have no objection if the poor among the upper caste people. in the state of Mysore in 1921. what is wrong if such students ask for concession of a few marks? 6. It is true that reservation is not a permanent solution to the vexed problem of our society. (b) Write down the procedure on the basis of capitation fee. Value point:Reservation was introduced in the Kolhapur State as early as in 1902. where the human health index is much better than in other states. On the basis of your reading the passage. Under such circumstances. answer the following questions: (a) Why were the Indian doctors clamouring against reservation? Ans. Reservation is only a concession given to socially and educationally backward people. On the other hand . They not only teach the children themselves at home but also provide coaching for them . 7. These children have to lend a helping hand to their parents after schools hours . The expenditure incurred on education in public schools in 50 to 100 times more than those of corporation/ government schools.. too. But the problem here is that the among them start taking advantage of the policy.the government has already launched many schemes. are the benefit of reservations. Reservation in elite institutes will enable people from different social strata to come together and established bonhomie among them . Dalits and OBCs will not stake their claims to reservation.

5) (c) a fine remedy(para. (f) What way out has been suggested in the passage about reservation? Ans. (a) the best possible(para-2) (b) academically able(para. Ans. In a flurry of activity surrounding the prime minister. value points: The expenditure incurred on education in public schools in 50 to 100 times more than those of corporation/ government schools. We have no objection if the poor among the upper caste people. value point: In Malaysia there are reservations not just in jobs but also in contracts. The government appears to have woken up to the problem of acute agrarian distress.Ans.solution (a)eligible d. Ans. students have to undergo practical training in social service. (e) Point out the difference in Public as well as Government University. 8.5) (d) money spent (para -4) Ans. There is 50 percent reservation for Blacks and women in the medical faculty of Harvard University (d) What view is taken by the Indians and Americans about merit? Ans. . Value Points : Reservation is only a concession given to socially and educationally backward people so that they may integrate with the mainstream. trace words that are similar in meaning to the following:.value points: In india reservation on caste lines and reservationists get a job or admission even if they get less percentage of marks. educated Ans-expenditure c. In American school system. etc. and marks are added in the certificate based on performance in this area. are given the benefit of reservations. (b)Ans.There is a vast difference in quality between the teachers of public and government schools. too. PASSAGE-------------2. On the basis of reading the passage. besides the syllabus.s visit to Vidarbha. licences and company shares for Malays.

These are significant steps forward. rising input cost and anadequate increases in productivity have combined to make interest and debt repayment commitments too onerous to bear. The package being put together now recognizes that the immediate problem is not one of eccess to credit or the level of the interest rate (though these are indeed medium. and a hike in expenditure to restructure the provision of a host of extention and a support services to improve agricultural productivity. Reports and studies from various sources. on farmers’suisides and their proximate causes have analysed the issue to the bone. The explains the government’s decision to writeoff debt ay least in the case of marginal and small farmers. Even so. fuel and sugar and as much as 35 percent in the case of pulses. 2006. including irrigation. In most cases lower demand resulting from limited purchasing power among some sections of the population has ensure that poor agricultural performance has yet to result in a short fall in supply related to demand. Rather the emphasis. symbolized by the spate of farmers’ suicides over thelast few years . including government commissions. speculative hoarding has indeed resulted in an artificial short fall. thse measures are being virtually ignored. The evidence on inflation is clear. The first of these is a fiscal policy stance that precludes the adoption of measures that are crucial to revitalize agriculture. as reflected in this year’s budget for example. without recognizing why even the current limited flow has taken the farming community into a debt trap. drainage and flood control. the rate of inflation in the case of indivisual essential commodities was much higher: Between 9 and 10 percent in the wheat. though the response should have come sooner. A factor underlying these trends is long term deterioration in agricultural performances. to insure them against crop failure so to prevent the legacy of debt from becoming an unbearable burden for many more. This is indeed welcome. is on increasing the flow of credit to rural areas. Speculation has been added by a number of decisions of the government such as removal of control on the movements of agricultural. What was missing was concerted action on the part of the Centre.24 percent over the week ending June 10. The second is the decision to use free imports as a means to dampen inflation. and. if the Finance Ministry agrees. commodities and liberalization of rules relating to the operation of the private traders and agri- . : Massive public investment in rural infrastructure. However the government also adopt policies that militates against long term redressal of the agrarian crisis that underlies farmer’s distress.term issues0 but of a legacy of debt that cannot be borne. With the government focused on fiscal deficit reduction rather on raising India’abysmal tax-GDP ratio and expanding much needed expenditures. Low farm gate prices. While aggregate inflation on an annual point to point basis(as measured by the official Wholesale price index) stood at just 5. lowering of input cost through subsidies where necessary.the government had declared its intent to seek remedies for the crisis affecting the peasantry.

business firms.g. Reliance on PL-480 imports in the 1950s and early 1960s. to militate against long term red ressal of the agrarian crisis that underlies farmers distress.Precludes adoption of measures that are crucial to revitalizes agricultural including irrigation. simbolised the spate of farmers suicides over the last few years. On the basis of reading passage answer the following questions. . First. It has also allow custom duty free import of sugar till the bignning of the next crushing season which start in October. Beside deciding February to import wheat to replenish dwindling government stocks. b) How the government can help for their redressal? Write atleast two major steps. provision of a host of extension supports services to improve agricultural productivity. Reliance on imports to dampen price increases can. the crisis effecting the peasantry. which in turn have resulted in the failure to procure adequate government stocks at the minimum support price where applicable. The government have sort to augment supply with imports. Ans : VALUE POINTS : Intent to see remedies for the crisis. while dampening price in inflation during Second Plan Years. drainage and flood control.led agricultural strategy. reverse policies with regard to freer agricultural trade that have brought in large private players driven by opportunities for profit and combine this with an investment. But it could also adversely affect revenues garnered by the already. And it has put a ban on exports of pulses this efforts to enhance domestic supply with import may be successful in dempening in inflationary expectations and holding the price level in the short run. Therefore.. What is needed is to directly curb speculative activities. the small relief being offered the prime minister of farmers in the worst affected areas would amount to little other than temporary relief and a declaration of concern. was partly responsible for the inadequate yield growth that preceded the aggrarion crisis of the mid-1960s. E. worsen the agrarian crisis and the distressed condition of farmers in the medium term. a) What is the actual problem of agrarians in Vidarbha? Ans : VALUE POINTS : Acute agrarian distress. it has now decided to permit private actual users of wheat like flour millers biscuit manufacturers and bread makers to import wheat duty free till the next rabi harvest. If not.distressed peasantry with attended implications for private expenditure needed to sustain and improve agricultural production.

free. .which in turn have resulted in the failure to procure adequate government stock s at the minimum support price where applicable.the small relief offer by prime minister of farmers in the the worst affected areas would amount to little other than temporary relief . reverse policies with regard to freer agricultural trade that have brought in large private players driven by opportunities for profit and combine this with an investment.Second. c) In what does the hoarding create a problem for all? Write down the solution. Ans : VALUE POINTS : Speculation has been aided by a number of decisions of the government such as removal of controls on the movements of agricultural commodities and liberalization of rules relating to the operation of private traders and agribussinessfirm.Find words from the above passage that are similar in meaning to the following: (a) havoc(para -1) farming( para-1) (b) To shut off( para -3) (c) Collection (para-6 (d) Ans : (a) flurry (c) garner (b) militate (d) agrarian . e) What solution has been put forth by the writer in the concluding para? Ans : VALUE POINTS : to directly curb speculative activity. d) Mention the steps initiated by the government to tackle the situation? Ans : VALUE POINTS : to permit private actual users of wheat like flour millers.to use free imports as a means to dampen inflation. The government has sought to respond to the situation by seeking to augment supply with imports. 3.led agricultural strategy. a ban on exports of pulses. allowed customs duty. biscuit manufacturers and bread makers to import wheat duty free till the next rabi harvest.

as at present. Read the following passage and answer the questions that follow: It is reported that the government is close to finalizing a system of dual pricing for the public procurement of food grains. which can help to step up much needed public investment in agriculture. according to a working group of the Planning Commission. the surpluses procured. dual pricing system can be sustained only through non-price interventions such as infrastructural support for regional dispersal of growth in foodgrains output. Even though this may take exports competitive and raise domestic consumption of food grains in the short run. depending on market For example. and variable procurement prices. Since the impetus for crop diversification would be greater in the infrastructurally. There would be two basic elements to this system: Afixed Minimum Support Price (MSP) covering the cost of cultivation. technology. this can slow down the growth of foodgrains output in the country and. over the five year period ending 2001-02 when there was a steep rise in procurement price resulting in accumulation of embarrassing large stock of food grains of over 60 million tones with the government. The experience of green revolution underlines the importance of assured MSP including the farmers to step up their own investment and effirt and derive full benefit from available infrastructure. The proposed dual pricing ststem is a better alternative than total marketisation of foodgrains trade by disbanding altogether public procurement at MSP. as farmers have to often sell their produce immediately after the harvest at prices that are lower than MSP. on this account. extension and credit in thr rest of the company. Therefore. it may undermine food security by sapping producer incentives.PASSAGE-3 2. The new system by assigning a greater role for private trade can improve the efficiency in the distribution of foodgrains and susdtantially cut down subsidies. it needs to be backed by several other policy measures. For the dual pricing system to yield desired results. This also calls for more effective public procurement of food grains at MSP in these regions. especially in the central and eastern regions where there is a large potentialas the growth of food grains output has barely kept pace with population growth since the mid-90s. at the discretion of the department of food . unless immediate measures are taken to strengthen public support for irrigation. by at least five million tones per annum. Such a dismantling could lead to a crash in market prices of foodgrains in years of food harvest. in particular. consumption of foodgrauns in the country was reduced. .developed regions like the north-west .recommended by the Commission on Agricultural Costs and Prices (CACP).

milk. at the discretion of the department of food. meat. edible oils .The new system requires better market intelligence forecasts as well as concurrent analyses on prices and sales in markets in India and abroad Questions. (c) Mention atleast four non food grain item used by the consumer ANS: VALUE POINTS : Non food grain items such as sugar . vegetables and fruits are used by the consumer (d) What is the result of ecological degradation in the north-western region of India ? ANS: VALUE POINTS : The depletion of soil nutrients and water table driven down to unsustainably Low levels (e) In order to boost the dual system what urgent measures are needed to be taken? ANS: VALUE POINTS : . in the post – liberalization era . depending on market conditions in different seasons and regions of the country. (b) How will the above proposed system benefit the nation? ANS: VALUE POINTS: It would enable to the country to more effectively cope with emerging challenges in agriculture . recommended by the Commission on Agriculture Costs and Prices(cacp) and variable procurement prices. (a) What are the two elements of dual pricing system for procuring foodgrains? Ans : VALUE POINTS : A fixed Minimum Support Price (MSP) covering the cost of cultivation.the proposal also recognizes the greater ability of our economy . as at present. fish. eggs.to meet temporary shortages of food grains through imports.

The coming of automation is bound to have important social consequences .4 Read the following passage and answer the questions that follow: One of the greatest advances in modern technology has been the invention of computers. impetus d. Computers are capable of doing extremely complicated work in all branches of learning . Because they work accurately and at high speed . depletion c. Trace words from the passage that are the synonyms of the following (a) Extra (para-3) roles(para-5) (b) extract(para3) (c) a driving force (para-5) (d) Two Ans. . Now there is hardly any sphere of human life where computers have not been pressed in to service of man. This whole process by which machines can be used to work for us had been called ‘automation’. or they can count the number of times the word “and” has been used in the Bible. they can provide information on the best way to prevent traffic. We are heading fast on the close of this present century towards a situation when a computer will be as much part of man’s daily life as a telephone or a calculator.they save the research workers hard work. a surplus b. In the future ‘automation’ may enable human beings for more leisure than they do today. For instance. dual PASSAGE.Improving the efficiency in the distribution of food grains and substantially cut down subsidies. These machines can be put to varied uses. They can solve the most complex mathematical problems or put thousands of unrelated facts in order. They are widely used in Industries and in Universities . which can help to step up much needed public investment in agriculture. (f) How we can sustain the dual pricing system? ANS: VALUE POINTS: Only through non price interventions such as infrastructural support for regional dispersal of growth in food grains output .

Sir Leon said that in future. Computers could be plugged into a national network and be used like radios. computers would be developed which would be small enough to carry in the pocket.Some years ago an expert on automation . Similarly machines could be used to keep a check on a patient’s health record and bring it up to date. with the help of his blood picture. Computers will also be able to tell the exact the age a man is going to live. Thougth computers are capable of learning from their mistakes and improving on their performance. This will enable people who do not share a common language to talk to each other without any difficulty or to read foreign publication. Sir Leon Bagrit . This whole process by which machines can be used to work for us had been called”automation” Q.1 what is the greatest advancement in modern technology? Ans. people going on holiday could be informed about weather conditions. for the tedious task of compiling and checking lists of figures could be done entirely by machines. Computers will also be used in ordinary public hospital.3 What was the prediction of Sir Leon about the computers in future? . Q. for many international misunderstandings are caused simple through our failure to understand each other. Doctors will there for have immediate access to a great many facts which will help in their work. They can never .2 Explain Automation? Ans. Q. For instance. Value Points. There no possibility that human beings will be “ controlled by machines”. It will also be possible to make tiny translating machines. they need detailed instructions from human beings to operate. Bookkeepers and accountants too could be relieved of dull clerical work. Value Points: Computers are capable of doing extremely complicated work in all branches of learning.as it were. It is impossible to assess that importance of a machine of this short. Car drivers can be given alternative routes when there are traffic jams. by providing a machine with a patient’s systems. Ordinary people would than be able to use them to obtain valuable information. They can solve the most complex mathematical problems or put thousands of unrelated facts in order. a doctor will be able to diagnosis the nature of illness. pointed out that it was a mistake to believe that these machines could ‘think’ . Computers are the most efficient servants man has ever had and there is no limit to the way they can be used to improve our life style and life. the invention of computers. lead independent lives or” rule the world” by making decision of their own. These machines can be put to varied uses.

Value Points: used like radio. tell the exact age of a man. be nice to people we don’t like.Mentally. I limited myself to two modest ambitions.5 i) complicated ii) compiling iii) alternative PASSAGE-5 The New year is the time for resolution . drive carefully. patient. and take the dog for a walk every day. used in ordinary public hospitals. Value Points: in the future .s systems. it is only because we have so often experienced the frustration that results from failure. We also make the fundamental error of announcing our resolution to everybody so that we look even more foolish when we slipback into our bad old ways. this year I attempted to keep my resolution to myself. computer s would be developed which would be small enough to carry in the pocket. Most of us fail in our efforts at self improvement because our schemes are too ambitious and we never have time to carry them out. Q. The same old favourites recur year in and year out with the children.4 Name the areas where computers can be effectively used? Ans. Aware of these pitfalls. Past experience has tahght us that certain accomplishments are beyond attainment. at least most of us could compile formidable lists of ‘do’s and ‘don’ts’. car drivers use for alternative routes. do a thousand and one job abut the house. to do physicat exericese every mornimg and to read .Ans. Q.5 Find word in above passage which convey the similar meaning for i) Difficult or complex ii) Collect or arrange iii) Another choice Ans. If we remain deep rooted liars. use for clerical work.

feeling cold and lonely. Find out the words in the above passage which convey the similar meaning to the following: (1) Overwhelming (2) Drawbacks (3) Decrease . After jumping about in the carpet and twisted the human frame into uncomfortable positions. The self discipline reqired to drag myself out of bed eleven minutes earlier than usual was considerable. Iapplied myself assiduously to the task. Value Points: because our schemes are too ambitious and we never have time to carry them out. Q.2. I argued that if I spent less time exhausting myself at exercises in the morning.more in the evening. Little by little the eleven minutes fell to zero.I sat down at the breakfast table in an exhausted condition. Q. I have just bought a book entitled ‘How to Read a Thousand Words a Minute’. Why is it a basic mistake to announce our resolution to everybody ? Ans. Why did the writer not carry out his resolution on New Year’s Day Ans. Isat in my room for a few evenings with my eyes glued to a book. It was this that betrayed me. but on the second. Resisting the hypnotizing effect of television. the time I spent at exercises gradually diminished. That was really unsettling but I fended off the taunts and jibes of the family good humouredly and soon everybody got used to the idea.3. An overnight party on New year’s eve provided me with a good excuse for not carrying out eiter of these new resolution on the first day of the year. Perhaps it will solve my problem. I managed to creep down into the living room for two days before anyone found me out. Q.4. Value Points: An overnight party on New Year’s Eve provided the writer with a good excuse for not carrying out either of these new resolutions on the first day of the year. In fact. I still haven’t given up my resolution to do more reading. Why most of us fail in our efforts for self-improvement? Ans. however. The next morning the whole family trooped into watch the performance. but Ijust have not had time to read it. The daily exercise lasted only eleven minutes and I proposed to do them early in the morning before anyone had got up. Nevertheless. By January10th I was back to where I had started from. I would keep my mind fresh for reading when I got home from work. for I soon got back to the old bad habit of dozing off in front of the screen. However. One night. Q.1. I went downstairs and sat in front of the television pretending to read. my enthusiasm waned . That proved to be my undoing. Value Points: look even more foolish when we slipback into our bad old ways.

(1) Formidable (2) Pitfalls (3) Wane ..Ans.

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