Nama : Monalisa S. Onibala NIM : 1009 12 101 Semester : IV


The main principles on which the Grammar Translation Method is based are the following: 1. The structures of the foreign languages are best learned when compared and contrast with those of first language. The method emphasizes the study of grammar through deduction that is through the study of the rules of grammar. 2. It maintains the first language of the learner as the reference particularly in the process of learning the second/foreign languages. In this method. students are required to translate sentences from their first language into the target language. A contrastive study of the target language with the first language gives an insight into the structure not only of the foreign language but also of the first language. yet this method is still in use in many parts of India. 3. The phraseology and the idiom of the target language can best be assimilated in the process of interpretation. Translation interprets the words and phrases of the foreign languages in the best possible manner. while teaching the text book the teacher translates every word and phrase from English into the learners' first language. a) English words that look like Spanish words are called ‘cognates ’. Further.The Grammar . These exercises in translation are based on various items covering the grammar of the target language. For example : The English ‘-ty’ often corresponds to the Spanish endings .Translation Method A number of methods and techniques have evolved for the teaching of English and also other foreign languages in the recent past.

then there is no separation of the verb and particle by the object. but not John put away it. The word possibility is the same as the Spanish posibilidad. (because ‘put away’ is a separable two-word verb). For example : John put away his book. or John put his book away / John put it away. Principle => It is possible to find native language equivalents for all target language words. . However. If the verb is inseparable. the direct object may come between the verb and its particle. English into Spanish. The teacher went over the homework. (because ‘go over’ is an inseparable two-word verb). separation is necessary when the direct object is pronoun. but not The teacher went the homework over.–dad and –tad. b) The rule for use of a direct object with two-words ( phrasal verbs ) : If the two-words verb is separable.

Before that.REVIEWING THE PRINCIPLES 1) The goals of teachers who use the Grammar-Translation Method are : . They also learn grammatical paradigms such as verb conjugations. The students do as she says so they can learn what she knows. are told to memorize them. they are given the grammar rules and examples. The teacher is the authority in the classroom. 3) Some characteristics of the teaching / learning process are: Students are taught to translate from one language to another. .It is believed that studying a foreign language provides students with good mental exercise which helps developed their minds. 2) The roles are very traditional. students need to learn about the grammar rules and vocabulary of the target language. 4) Most of the interaction in the classroom is from the teacher to the students. and then are asked to apply the rules to other examples. Often what they translate are readings in the target language about some aspect of the culture of the target language community. There is little student initiation and little student-student interaction. Students study grammar deductively.A fundamental purpose of learning a foreign language is to be able to read literature written in the target language. . They memorize native-language equivalents for target-language vocabulary words.

5) The feelings of the students dealt with by There are no principles of the method which relate to this area. There is much less attention given to speaking and listening. 8) The role of the students’ native language is : The meaning of the target language is made clear by translating it into the students’ native language. 7) Vocabulary and grammar are emphasized. Pronunciation receives little. Reading and writing are the primary skills that the students work on. . if any. attention. If students make errors or do not know an answer. Questions about the target culture or questions that ask students to apply grammar rules are also common. The language that is used in class is mostly the students’ native language. 9) Evaluation accomplished by : Written tests in which students are asked to translate from their native language to the target language or vice versa are often used. 6) Literary language is considered superior to spoken language and is therefore the language that students study. Culture is viewed as consisting of literature and the fine arts. the teacher supplies them with the correct answer. 10) The teacher respond to student errors by : Having the students get the correct answer is considered very important.

It may be excerpted from some work from the target language literature.Reading comprehension questions Students answer questions in the target language based on their understanding of the reading passage. . Or students might be asked to define a set of words based on their understanding of them as they occur in the .Antonym / synonyms Students are given one set of words and are asked to find antonyms in the reading passage. The translation may be written or spoken or both. Students should not translate idioms and the like literally. A similar exercise could be done by asking students to find synonyms for a particular set of words. This means they will have to answer questions about the passage even though the answers are not contained in the passage itself. or teacher may write a passage carefully designed to include particular grammar rules and vocabulary. . In order to answer the second group of questions.REVIEWING THE TECHNIQUES . Often the questions are sequenced so that the first group of questions asks for information contained within the reading passage. but rather in a way that shows that they understand their meaning.Translation of a literary passage Students translate a reading passage from the target language into their native language that provides the focus for several classes : vocabulary and grammatical structures in the passages are studied in subsequent lessons. students will have to make inferences based on their understanding of the passage. The third group of questions requires students to relate the passage to their own experience.

such as prepositions or verbs with different tenses. . .Use words in sentences In order to show that students understand the meaning and use of a new vocabulary item. Once students understand a rule.Deductive application of rule Grammar rules are presented with examples.Fill-in-the-blanks Students are given a series of sentences with words missing. Students are also required to memorize grammatical rules and grammatical paradigms such as verb conjugations. This technique would only be useful in languages that share cognates. .reading passage. They fill in the blanks with new vocabulary items or with items of a particular grammar type. Students are also asked to memorize words that look like cognates but have meanings in the target language that are different from those in the native language. . they make up sentences in . Other exercises that ask students to work with the vocabulary of the passage are also possible. Exceptions to each rule are also noted. they are asked to apply it to some different examples. .Cognates Students are taught to recognize cognates by learning the spelling or sound patterns that correspond between the languages.Memorization Students are given lists of target language vocabulary words and their native language equivalents and are asked to memorize them.

 Advantages The grammar translation method has two main advantages. the teacher may ask comprehension questions on the text taught in the first language. That is . So. Communication between the teacher and the learner does not cause linguistic problems. Since the textbooks are taught through the medium of the first language.which they use the new words. instead of creating a composition. 2. Pupils will not have much difficulty in responding to questions in the first language. The phraseology of the target language is quickly explained. Teacher’s labor is saved. . the teacher can easily assess whether the students have learned what he has taught them. Any other method of explaining vocabulary items in the second language is found time consuming. learners acquire some sort of accuracy in understanding synonyms in the source language and the target language.Composition The teacher gives the students a topic to write about in the target language. Even teachers who are not fluent in the target language can teach it using this method. students are asked to prepare a precis of the reading passage. Sometimes. Translation is the easiest way of explaining meanings or words and phrases from one language into another. Further. The topic is based upon some aspect of the reading passage of the lesson. A lot of time is wasted if the meanings of lexical items are explained through definitions and illustrations in the second language. 1.

Translation is. learners listen to the first language more than that to the second/foreign language. Exact translation is not possible. but. the students who are taught through this method fail to express themselves adequately in spoken English[5]. speaking. reading and writing [[3]]. traditions. A language is the result of various customs. they have to pay a heavy price for being taught through this method. 2. 1. There are several lexical . This poses problems [4]. Since language learning involves habit formation such students fail to acquire a habit of speaking English. Therefore. It neglects speech. It is an unnatural method[2]. The Grammar Translation Method places emphasis on reading and writing. a difficult task and exact translation from one language to another is not always possible. Thus. the grammar translation method comes with many disadvantages.perhaps the reason why this method has been practiced so widely and has survived so long. The natural order of learning a language is listening. It has been observed that in a class[6].  Disadvantages Along with its advantages. and modes of behavior of a speech community and these traditions differ from community to community. in the Grammar Translation Method the teaching of the second language starts with the teaching of reading. Even at the undergraduate stage they feel shy of communicating using English. the learning process is reversed. Thus. 3. which is taught English through this method. indeed. Speech is neglected. That is the way a child learns his first language in natural surroundings.

‘of’. etc. and ‘through’ can be translated into the Hindi preposition ‘se’ and vice versa. ‘He died of cholera’. ‘time table’ and ‘table the resolution’. Each language has its own structure. Thus. ‘table of figures’. Researchers in linguistics have proved that to speak any language. idiom and usage. In these sentences ‘with’. Consider sentences such as ‘We see with our eyes’. suffers from certain weaknesses for which there is no remedy. fail to get proficiency in the second language approximating that in the first language. translation should be considered an index of one’s proficiency in a language. therefore. But the Grammar Translation Method does not provide any such practice to the learner of a language. entirely by rule is quite impossible. The persons who have learned a foreign or second language through this method find it difficult to give up the habit of first thinking in their first language and then translating their ideas into the second language. 'He succeeded through hard work’. It does not give pattern practice. For example. ‘Bombay is far from Delhi’. English prepositions are also difficult to translate. . which do not have their exact counterparts in another language.items in one language. 4. therefore. It rather attempts to teach language through rules and not by use. The method. whether native or foreign. Language learning means acquiring certain skills. which have no synonyms/equivalents in another language. which can be learned through practice and not by just memorizing rules. the meaning of the English word ‘table’ does not fit in such expressions as 'table of contents’. They. ‘multiplication table’. ‘from’. A person can learn a language only when he internalizes its patterns to the extent that they form his habit.

but without much structure to follow. . The trusty grammar translation method set the pace for many classrooms for many decades. In the meantime. Conclusion The grammar translation method stayed in schools until the 1960s. when a complete foreign language pedagogy evaluation was taking place. teachers experimented with approaches like the direct method in postwar and Depression era classrooms.

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